Backtrack 1997 Volume 11
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Number 1 (January)

Rebuilt 'West Country' 4-6-2 No 34013 Okehampton ready to leave Southampton Central. J. Corkill. front cover.

In reflective mood. Michael Rutherford. 3
Reproduced

Industrial steam in and around Coventry. P. Ravenscroft. 4-5.
Colour photo-feature.: Arley Colliery Avonside Engine No AE2048 Joan; Foleshill Light Railway with 0-4-0 Rocket; Coventry Colliery ex BR 15xx loco No 1502; Foleshill Gasworks P2032 No 20; Newdigate Colliery 1787 No 4. See also letter from Mike Young page 163 on the then current use of former colliery sites..

The quest for alternative fuels. Part 1. Jeffrey Wells. 8-12.
History of oil-burning, mainly in Britain going back to McConnell in 1853; on the Great Eastern under Holden (to get rid of waste products from gas lighting) where it enabled the long non-stop run from Liverpool Street to North Walsham, and its subsequent application of the Holden system to LYR pugs working in Liverpool Docks (to avoid fires), on the LBSCR, SER/LCDR/SECR. Tests with Petroleum Solid Fuel between 1910 and 1912 on the GWR; the development of the Scarab system in Egypt and its use on several systems during coal shortages in the 1920s on the LSWR, HR, LNWR, NER and GNR; also a similar system developed by Fowler for the Midland. Mentions Aspinall paper: Petroleum as steam engine fuel (Instn Civ. Engrs) Part 2 page 66. See letter on page 228 by Howard Geddes concerning use of Scarab system on HR and location of illus on 12 of Clan Stewart. See letters from D.C. Piddington and from Philip A. Millard on page 163: both relate to appication of oil firing on LNWR: former on location of the Scarab burner within the firebox, and latter on George the Fifth and its location and probable train working. illus.: GER T19 equipped for oil burning No 760 Petrolea; LSWR L12 No 424 fitted with an oil burner; LNWR No 2663 George V; LSWR class N15 No 737; LNWR Precursor No 2585 Watt; LNWR well tank No 3017; No 53 Clan Stewart;

Blood on the tracks. Adrian Gray. 13-15.
Numbers of railway workers killed on tracks of SECR (statistics: 1899-1915). illus.: Platelayers at Upminster; Goods yard at Grangemouth; SECR No 729; SECR No 773 leaving Martello Tunnel;

The grouping years (1923 - 1938) Railways in crisis - Part 1. The general background. John W.E. Helm. 16-19.
The abolition of inter-railway competition had been one of the aims of the Grouping, but the measures failed to tackle penetrating lines, although author is inclined to the view that inter-company competition post-1923 was relatively gentlemanly and not very significant. The rise in road transport is demonstrated through a table of vehicle registrations: also shows the ways in which railways were shackled in their response to this form of competition. Part 2: Page 74. illus.: A streamlined Duchess ascending Beattock Bank with Coronation Scot; Ex - LNWR George the Fifth leaving Manchester London Road and Cock o' the North at King's Cross. 

Last trip to Little Weighton. Peter Rose. 20-4.
Remnant of the Hull & Barnsley Railway closed in 1964. illus.: Railway lines in South Yorkshire; Little Weighton tunnel, the far end can just be seen; View over a coal train;No 61306 in Little Weighton station; View from the fireman's side of No. 61306 in Little Weighton cutting; No. 61306 with one wagon in tow; Stanier 8F No 48710 at Wrangbrook Junction; No 77002 on the high level route round Hull;

Second city scenes. John Edgington. 25-7.
Colour photo-feature of lines around Birmingham: Class 116 DMU arriving at the LNWR platform at Dudley; The north end of Snow Hill station with a King leaving platforms 5/6; Birmingham New street with a train headed by class 86 no E3132; Birmingham New street with a train of two 2-car DMU sets; Class 4P No 41195 passing Halesowen Junction; four car DMU at Acock's Green and South Yardley; multi lingual sign erected for visitors to the [British Industries] Fair; Class 5 No 44919 and B1 No 61318 at Castle Bromwich.

Scotland's lost termini. Bruce R. Oliver. 28-9.
Colour photo-feature.: Edinburgh Princes Street with LMS class 5 45011 shortly before closure in 1965; Glasgow Buchanan Street with A4 60034 Lord Faringdon in April 1965; Fort William terminus before transfer away from centre on 13 June 1968 with NBL DE; Glasgow St Enoch with Class 5 44939 and Inter-City (not Cross Country as stated) DMU in July 1965.

East Coast route diesels. 30-2.
Colour photo-feature. Baby Deltic No D5906 at Belle Isle on 18 March 1961 (R.C. Riley); Deltic 55 011 The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers near Penmanshiel in early 1970s (Eric Treacy); D265 passing Beal on express on 31 May 1962 (Michael Mensing); Brush Sultzer class 47 No D1515 near Potters Bar in July 1962 (Cliff Woodhead); English Electric type 3 on Sheffield to King's Cross Pullman near Potters Bar (Cliff Woodhead); Deltic No 55 021 Argyll and Sutherland Highlander at York with Mk II stock; Peak No 45 011 passing Gransthouse in early 1970s (both Eric Treacy).

Steam on shed. Jim Carter (phot.). 33-5.
Photofeature (b&w): A Patriot no 45510 facing an 8F outside Crewe South shed; Nos. 46245 City of London, 46233 Duchess of Sutherland, 45552 Silver Jubilee at Edge Hill in summer, 1961; Britannia No 70047 the unnamed member of the class at Crewe North in 1961; No 46144 Honourable Artillery Company with 46163 Civil Service Rifleman. in Patricroft shed on 17 May 1962; Princess Royal no 46203 Princess Margaret Rose at Edge Hill in 1959; Stanier class 4 no 42465 and Royal Scot no 46104 Scottish Borderer at Patricroft in June 1962.

The GWR and Collett (Railway Reflections [No. 25]). Michael Rutherford. 36-44.
An overall assessment of Collett's contribution which notes the significance of the AEC railcars introduced during the 1930s and the possible use of Beardsmore electro-diesel power units for suburban trains in London. A report from Kitsons proposed light high speed steam engines (some using a V6 engine) for light work. Smith questions the ownership of Hammersmith & City rolling stock (page 163) and Summers mildly questions the assertion that Collett lacked any real interest in locomotive design (and also adds biographical information) on page 163. illus.: No 4922 Enville Hall near Wormwood Scrubs; No 6000 King George V, 5010 Restormel Castle and 4004 Morning Star; Sentinel works no 6514 newly arrived at Old Oak Common to become GWR no 13; 48xx class no 1437; Diagrams of schemes for auto-engines; Diagrams of high acceleration tank locomotives; first AEC railcar; Ex GWR luxury saloon No 9111 King George; Diagram for tank engine featuring a new sized cylinder 17" x 27 stroke; Diagram for tender engine featuring a new sized cylinder 17" x 27 stroke; No 6027 King Richard I; first Dukedog being No 3265's boiler on No 3365's frame;

Down in the dumps: a prelude to the scrapping of British steam. Alan Earnshaw. 45-8.
See letters by Stubbs and White (page 285). and Author's response page 341. Illus.: Castle No 5081 Lockheed Hudson; BR Nos. 41990/2 ex LTSR waiting the end; Class Q1 No. 33009 waiting disposal; Fowler 7F No. 49617 at Horwich; ex LNER B1 No 61255; PrincessNno 46205 Princess Victoria; Steam for Scrap The missing appendices (tabulated material not included with Steam for Scrap. Last line of text see page 107.. See also letter from David Ward on page 163/6 which disputes some of caption statements.

Rolling stock focus - Pullman in the Highlands. Philip J. Kelley (phot.) and David Jenkinson. 49
illus.: The Exterior of Coach Sc217M ex Pullman Meg Dodds at Helmsdale and the Interior of same car on 24 May 1960.

Readers' Forum. 50-1.
Walkden Yard and the Bridgewater Collieries Railway. Alan Buxton.
Notes errors on map Volume 10 page 540.
Walkden Yards and the Bridgewater Collieries Railway. Michael Thomas.
Extensive extra material about the system described in Volume 10 page 540: this led to a letter from the original author on page 229.
Premier Line — 150 years. Keith Horne.
See Volume 10 page 622 for Rutherford feature: suggests that Dickens' Dombey and Son could have refered to several lines to the north of the Euston Road, and not merely the L&BR. Cites one family (Warren) in the way that the middle classes were forced to shift to ecape the undesirable effects of railways and suggests that the brothels in Maiden Lane may have led to the name change to York Way: feature page vvv inspired this contribution.
LNER kitchen cars. John Macnab.
See page 600: RK 9199 was the sole Scottish Region of this type: had no details of workings, but scrapped at Ardmore.
The tragedy of DP2. S.G. Allsopp.
See Volume 10 page 526: Errata: concerning engine type fitted to class 47; the five exceptions and the reconstruction of 47046
The tragedy of DP2. Keith Dredge.
See Volume 10 page 526: quotes Railway Observer for engine workings on LMR.
Jewel in the Crown. Keith Horne.
See Volume 10 page 500: and letter by late J. Graeme Bruce on page 634 (10): it appears that C.H. Wild, the inventor of the under-cut railway switch (Horne also mentions Wild's activities in connexion with Indian Mutiny: letter page 509 (Volume 9)), had been in contact with John Macneill, engineer for the Dublin & Drogheda Railway, concerning the Irish gauge of 5' 3", and that he influenced George Turnbull, Engineer to the EIR and James Meadows Rendel,  (Consultant in London) to produce a compromise of 5' 6": thus we might have a Wild gauge?

Colour files - a second MSLR signal box safari. Philip A. Millard. 52-3.
illus.: Denaby Crossing box; Kirton Lime sidings box; Kiverton Park Colliery box; Appleby Lincs. box; Lewden Crossing box.

Book reviews. 54.
Allied Military locomotives of the Second World War. R. Tourret. Author. MR *****
"It is often said that if you want something done properly then do it yourself and Mr Tourret has certainly done this... Unconditionally recommended."
Private owner wagons. Bill Hudson. Oakwood. AT ****
Reviewer quibbles at format and relative lack of Scottish material.

Through the snow to Stanmore: LT 1938 stock at Queensbury. Paul Joyce rear cover.
February 1979: train in later red livery with white roundel

Number 2 (1997 February)

LMS 'Coronation' 4-6-2 No 46240 City of Coventry at Willesden depot. Rodney Lissenden front cover
illus.:

The unique W1 4-6-4 No 10000 rebuild at York. Clifford McFall (phot.). 59
B&w illus. taken in about 1938.:

Philadelphia steam. 60
illus.: 0-6-0ST no 8 and 0-6-0ST no 63; 0-6-2T no 30; 0-4-0ST no 11; 0-6-0ST no 58;

By tube to Rickmansworth. Michael J. Smith. 62-5.
As part of the LNWR Watford electrification jointly owned rolling stock (LNWR/LUL) was acquired for the through services from Watford/Croxley Green to Elephant & Castle. This stock did not last for long as it was slow in operation and could not be converted to power doors. Most was withdrawn by 1931, but some was used on the Croxley Green branch and the Rickmansworth branch which had been electrified in 1927. On this latter the staff complained about loading water cross through the narrow doors! Author's corriegendum and addenda on page 228. . Also feature on bricks for picture of Bushey viaducts (below). illus.: LNWR owned Watford joint stock; Railways in the Rickmansworth and Watford area; A train of LMS retained stock; Interior of a Watford joint stock car; Croxley Green station; Rickmansworth Church St station; Exterior of Watford West station; The line and platform at Watford West station;

The quest for alternative fuels - part 2. Jeffrey Wells. 66-71.
Part 1 begins page 8. Part 3 on page 148.The GCR experimented with the Holden system and Robinson patetnted the Unolco system. The GCR also experimented with pulverized and colloidal fuel. Includes accounts of oil burning on the LMs, LNER and SR during the coal shortages experienced as a result of miners' industrial action during the 1920s.Final section covers the Southern Railway's experiments with pulverized fuel which took place at Eastbourne and included an explosion and fire in the storage facilities. R.C. Riley (page 229) gives details of SECR locomotives equipped for oil burning during 1920s. illus.: Great Central class 8M no 420; Great Central class 9Q no 72; Ex LNWR Prince of Wales class no 5671 Arethusa; Midland class 2 no 547; Ex LNWR Claughton class no 208; LMS class 2P no 559; GCR class 9N no 372; Southern class E1 no A179; LMS no 10444;

The 'Hemelite' branch. Brian E. Howard. 72-3.
The branch line from Harpenden to Hemel Hempstead survived as an industrial siding to the Hemelite works to the east of Hemel Hempstead which produced clinker blocks. Author was inolved with this works, including the acquistion of motive power for the line both types of which are illustrated: one of the two 0-6-0 204hp Drewry diesels and former D8568 in Redbourne station yard.

The grouping years (1923 - 1938) : a comparative study of railways in crisis. Part 2. Traffic results. John W.E. Helm. 74-80.
Part 1 began on page 16. Based on a large amout of statistical material: total railway freight 1923; traffic receipts 1923 cf 1938; merchandise traffic 1923 - 1938; total railway freight 1938; season ticket traffic graph of 1923 - 1938; Workmen's tickets graph 1923 - 1938; Coal traffic 1923 cf 1938; Mineral and Merchandise traffic 1923 cf 1938; Livestock traffic 1923 cf 1938; Ordinary Passenger traffic 1923 cf 1938; Season ticket traffic 1923 cf 1938; Workmen's traffic 1923 v 1938 (see page 340 for corrections).; Mail, Parcel and other merchandise by passenger train receipts 1923 cf 1938; Part 3 page 156. See page 228 for letter by David Stirling on pooling agrements in Scotland both prior to, and following, Grouping. illus.: Churchward Mogul no 4301; Coal awaiting shipment from Birkenhead docks; A busy scene at Guildford in August 1939. A 4-SUB, 4-COR and a 2-BIL all;

Freightliners. A.B. Jeffery. 81
Colour photo-feature: Class 37 no D6858 leaving Fishguard; D 1030 Western Musketeer at Brent on Par-Plymouth-Park Royal train on 21 July 1970; Sealink container ship being loaded at Fishguard;

The Middleton-in-Teesdale branch. J.S. Gilks (phot.). 82-3
Colour photo-feature: Mickleton station; Middleton in Teesdale station; Romaldkirk station and level crossing; Cotherstone station; indoor garden at Middleton;

The GWR Castles. Dick Riley (phot.). 84-5.
Colour photo-feature: No 5029 Nunney Castle passing Royal Oak with up Torbay Express on 27 August 1960 (chocolate & cream train, LT red H&C line train in background); No 5031 Totnes Castle at Bristol Bath Road on 5 July 1959; No 7017 G.J.Churchward at Old Oak Common mpd on 29 August 1959; No 7029 Clun Castle at Teignmouth on up express on 18 July 1958 (see letter by B.J. Harding on page 228 concerning this locomotive and other caption details).

LMS six-coupled passenger tanks. 86-7.
Colour photo-feature: LMS class 4 No 42317 together with a view of No 61324's cab at Carlisle Canal mpd (Tony Wakefield); 42422 at Willesden mpd on 2 April 1960 (R.C. Riley); No. 40083 at Llandudno Junction mpd (Tony Wakefield); No. 41291 at Exmouth (Tony Wakefield); No. 42644 at Manchester Central (Tony Wakefield);

The West Clare Railway. John Edgington. 88
Colour photo-feature: 0-6-2 on display at Ennis; Diesel locomotive No F503; Diesel railcar No 3387 at Ennis (latter pair on 7 June 1961)

Bricks and railways. Railway reflections [No. 26]. Michael Rutherford. 89-95.
The use of bricks in railway structures such as the superb stations at St Pancras and Longbenton, and in viaducts, the manufacture of bricks at Crewe, and the carriage of bricks. illus.: Steam shovels and excavators at Sudbrook and the brickyard at Sudbrook (see letter by Horne on geology of bricks page 229); Widening Lime street and Edge Hill cutting; Widening the Midland main line; A shot of the widened Midland main line; The elevated approach to the Great Northern goods depot at Deansgate; Bushey Viaduct (see feature by Michael J. Smith (above) and letter on page 228); Gresley's prototype bogie goods wagon; Test train of May 1922 behind 2-6-0 No 1000; remains of New Cross shed in 1863; King's Lynn station in 1938; Stroudley class A1 Terrier at Eastbourne; Longbenton Station; St Pancras in 1926;

Southern ramblings - Part 2. Peter Erwood. 96
Semi-autobiographical series which begins as a schoolboy viewing the SR from the slopes of Blackheath, as a soldier, but mainly of the pre-WW2 South Eastern Section, including observations on the Allhallows branch and the Rye & Camber Tramway.  See letter on shunting arrangements at Charing Cross for attaching/detaching trailer sets from eight-car trains on page 285. illus.: Cab of SR F1 class No. 1105; Ex-SECR class D no 1744; Schools no 911 Dover coaling; SE class R built 1888, rebuilt SECR as R1 became SR R1 no 1335 and; A typical Colonel Stephens corrugated iron station; London termini Southern Railway Eastern section; Rye Harbour ballast works with a DIY locomotive; SECR no 661 built as LCDR no 202; Bricklayers Arms depot; The K&ESR's steam railcar of 1905 derelict in Rolvenden yard in 1938; Allhallows-on-Sea station in 1932;

Newcastle in LNER days. Clifford McFall (phot.). 102-4
B&w photo-feature. of late 1930s: A3 No 2599 Book Law; A4 No. 4489 Dominion of Canada; NER J21 No. 1609, NER C7 No. 2204, A1 No. 2577 Night Hawk and NER C6 No. 696; NER B16 No. 848; A4 No. 4499 Pochard with the bonnet open for smokebox cleaning; NER B16/2 No. 2364 the first Gresley rebuild of this type; V2 No. 4818 St Peter's School, York. A.D. 627.;

Signalling focus - Signal boxes. 105
Colour photo-feature: Furness railway Millom signal box; L&Y Barnsley station signal box;

Readers' forum. 106-7.

Variations on a 57ft LMS theme. C.A. Davies
See Volume 10 page 637: LNWR 57ft camping coaches. These were photographed in Amott and Youngs Scrap Yard at Fighting Cocks and were subsequently torched by that company in August 1970. Only a small number of interior fittings were rescued! Incidentally, the GCR Barnum Brake was saved and can be seen in the left background. 'Black Arrow' Exhibition" Coach. What was 'Black Arrow'? The vehicle was photographed as part of a parcels train standing in Darlington Bank Top platform 1 ('Up' side) on a Saturday.

Variations on a 57ft LMS theme. Andrew McRae.
See Volume 10 page 637: Details of the origin of the two former LNWR vehicles presumably enroute for scrapping: David Jenkinson's own history of LNWR carriages confirms that all stock built to diagrams D264A and WCJS D49 was withdrawn from main line service between November 1956 and July 1960, whereas the London Midland Region had completed its camping coach conversion programme by April 1956. The coaches were built to Wolverton diagram D 131 which, together with coaches built to the traditional body style D265, were used for the majority of London Midland Region camping coach conversions. Also refers back to photograph of a green and cream LMR camping coach in Volume.8 No.4 page 172. where he claimed to have erroneously suggested that M02045M, one of the initial batch of 1952 Derby conversions, was of LNWR origin, but was not: see below.

Variations on a 57ft LMS theme. David Jenkinson.
See Volume 10 page 637: DJ agreed with letter above, but not with Andrew McRae's other assertion concerning vehicle shown in Volume.8 No.4 page 172 The end panelling and side doors were pure LNWR; it was 8ft 6in wide and heavilr conv'erted from a double-ended BCK to D211/212 or 242. The toplights were boarded ovel: end double doors removed and there had been much alteration but scrap dates were correct.

The Tragedy of DP2. Andrew Fox
See article on DP2 in Volume 10 page 526 et seq. On page 527 the text refers to ". . . the V 200 locomotives. . . on two four-wheeled bogies using mechanical transmission". The reference to mechanical transmission in the context of these diesel-hydraulics is strange. The next paragraph refers to the German V200 design having "an immediate appeal to the Western Region which had no facilities for electrical maintenance". It is generally accepted that the primary attraction of the V200s in comparison with many of the early diesel-electric classes was the very high power-toweight ratio. This is illustrated by the first three 'Warship' diesel-hydraulics of 2,000hp, which weighed only 78 tons, against the first ten 'Peaks' which developed 2.300hp with a weight of 138 tons. The lack of experience or facilities for electrical maintenance seems of questionable relevance in the choice of diesel-hydraulic motive power, since the diesel-hydraulic classes contained a large amount of electrical control apparatus. despite the absence of traction motors and generators. The Western Region. in common with the rest of British Railways in the 1950s, had minimal experience of any of the technology relating to diesel traction. irrespective of transmission type. and had to put a completely new maintenance infrastructure in place and train staff to maintain the new diesel locomotives. On page 530 the reference to No.D0260 being called White Lion is very misleading: it may have acquired this as a nick-name, but the official name was simply Lion. In the final paragraph. it is incorrect to state that English Electric or Ruston engines have replaced the Sulzer units in the Class 47s. As illustrated.in.the article, No.47 046 was rebuilt first witli a 3.250hp sixteen-cylinder Ruston 16RKCT engine as a testbed for Class 56 (running as No.47 601), and later with a 3250hp twelve-cylinder 12RKCT Ruston engine as subsequently used in the Class 58 locomotives (numbered as 47 901). These were one-off modifications for testing purposes, No.47 046 being selected as it had suftered severe collision damage. None of the other Class 47s have been ie-engined and all of those which remain in service retain their Sulzer units. Similarly. it is not accurate to say that the Ruston RK engine replaced the original Mirrlees power units in the Brush Class 31 locomotives. These were re-engined in the 1960s with the English Electric 12SVT, which would not appear to owe any particular debt to DP2's 16CSVT any more than other existing English Electric power units, such as the 12CSVT successfully used in Class 37.

Focus on the Furness. Michael Andrews
See 'Focus on the Furness' Michael Rutherford. p. 618 (Volume 10) notes date error in the text. The FR directors intended to start the passenger service on 12 August and this intention was recorded by the Cumberland Paquet and the Kendall Mercury. However, a key part of this service was a steamer between Fleetwood and Piel Pier and the owner of the latter, a shareholder in the Preston & Wyre Railway John Abel Smith. was unable to provide the steamer on the 12th. Arrangements to charter a steamer were not completed until 24 August on which date the passenger service opened. This date was subsequently confirmed by the FR return of traffic to the Railway Commissioners for 1846. On the basis of this evidence. the highlight of the FR 150 celebrations was the public display of FR 0-4-0 No.3 Coppernob at Haverthwaite by the Cumbrian Railways Association and the Lakeside & Haverthwaite Railway on 24 August 1996.

York Station in 1906. P.J. Lynch.
See Volume 10 page 546 W. R. Burton's analytical discourse on the F. Moore painting of York station.: information provided added to precis thereat.

Railway War Memorials. J.C. Hughes.
See Keith Scholey's article on railway war memorials in Volume 10 page 689 contains a reference to Captain Fryatt that may have startled some of your older readers. Charles Fryatt was the master of the GER steamer Brussels. which was accosted by a U-boat (submarine) in 1916. He attempted to ram it, but was unsuccessful and in the end his own vessel was captured. The Germans subsequently put Fryatt before a firing squad as a tranctireur on the grounds that it was improper for a civilian to attempt to sink an enemy warship. At the time this caused as much uproar as the execution of Nurse Edith Cavell. The rights and wrongs of the matter are complicated by the fact that actions such as Captain Fryatt's. though quite understandable, were a factor in persuading U-boat captains to give no warning before sinking merchant ships that were unarmed. but still potentially dangerous.

The LMS, T.F. Coleman and locomotives. J.T. van Riemsdijk.
See Michael Rutherford's 'Provocations' in Volume 10 page 560 et seq, The series "are well researched, well written and invariably interesting. His piece on T. F. Coleman is no exception and gives a very fair outline of the chequered locomotive history of the LMS. However. his statements that Coleman was "arguably the greatest &c" and also that Stanier has to be "the best of the big four CMEs". though possibly true, should not be accepted without a stronger case being made out for both.
Readers' Forum is not the place for lengthy argument. but if that fashionable word 'arguably' is anything more than a pompous alternative to 'perhaps'. then it is an invitation to question or even disagree, and this invitation I propose to accept. though not at great length. I take the large Stanier Pacifics as a basis for discussion. Whether Stanier or Coleman designed them hardly matters (Riddles told me that Stanier thought he had designed them himself!).
It is generally accepted that these engines were the most powerful British locomotive class, at least on a transient effort basis. I think the only class which might have equalled or bettered them were the 'Merchant Navies' of the Southern, but they were well known to be heavy on coal and for this reason if for no other, their capacity for sustained effort in regular service was certainly equalled by other types. for lack of a mechanical stoker. A hand-fired locomotive is a sort of steam amplifier of the fireman's efforts and proportions its own eft'orts to his.
The late Dr. Tuplin devised a reasonable formula for assessing the merits of locomotive perf'ormance in normal service. This took account of the duration of the effort as well as speed, load and gradients, and although Tuplin was not without prejudices. in this case they were not apparent. Indeed the highest marks were gained by a Chapelon 4-8-0 of the first series. in spite of Tuplin's dislike of compounds. Thermal efficiency did not enter into his formula: the information was not available for ordinary service runs. The 4-8-0 scored 29. and the next highest figure was 26 achieved by a double chimney A4 which averaged 2.120 DBHP for 20 minutes. Tuplin did not include Continental locomotives except the 4-8-0. and the next level to appear was 23. which included, among several other types. a 'King' which averaged 1.230 DBHP for 175 minutes. a rebuilt 'Scot' with 1.350 for 65 minutes. a GN Atlantic with 1.200 for 75 minutes. The size of the locomotive was obviously taken into account.
The double chimney Duchess of Abercorn was marked no higher than 20, for 1,900 DBHP sustained for 33 minutes, an average which included the 3,300 indicated HP for which this engine is celebrated. In the 20 class also figure a Churchward 'County' 4-4-0, a GNR K3, and a 'Sandringham'. Whether one accepts these figures or not, one cannot wholly dismiss them, as an attempt to ascribe relative merit in the context of normal service.
I have recently become interested in finding what was wrong with the big Stanier Pacific, friends having sent me valve setting details and indicator diagrams.
A look at the reports of the 1948 locomotive exchanges reminded me that the coal consumption of City of Bradford was held down by ignoring the passing times laid down and running gently uphill while racing down — which predictably brought the greatest benefit on the switchback road between Salisbury and Exeter. In the tabulated information relating to the classes I found area of the double blast nozzle to be 30.96sq in, whereas the A4 had 39.27. This was made the more extraordinary by the fact that the four beats of the LMS locomotive each exhausted two cylinder ends, while the six of the A4 each exhausted rather less (one cylinder end of slightly greater capacity). No wonder that the boiler steamed, but this surely disposes of the often-repeated assertion that a 'Duchess' could have equalled Mallard's speed record if it had had Stoke bank to race upon.
I then noted that the valve events were really rather poor. In going back to the Hughes improved four cylinder layout, Coleman (if it was he) kept the straight conjugation levers for driving the inside valves, with the inevitable result that, owing to connecting rod angularity having opposite effects inside and outside, it was impossible to arrange for similar events in the two ends of the cylinders, at normal, shortish, running cut-offs (the gear settings at which the connecting rod has the greatest influence, via the combination lever). By setting the valves for equal openings (and therefore for unequal cut-offs) a neat distribution of power was possible, but the inherent defect was only really masked by the exceptionally large 12½% clearance volume and a considerable pressure drop during admission. The A4 has 7.9% clearance and actually, in theory, better valve events, though these might not be maintained at high mileages. It is to be noted that the rebuilt 'Scot', had 10% clearance and three independent sets of valve gear. Coleman (or Stanier) deserve more credit for this engine than for the Pacific.
As for Stanier being "the best", this needs to be proved. His difficulties were not all that great; he was given the money to scrap and build, as Maunsell and Gresley were not. One can praise or blame the boards of directors for the results and nobody could say that the LMS measured up better to the conditions of wartime than the Southern or the LNER. Personally, I regret that Stanier was not obliged to make more of the fairly new 'Claughtons' and Hughes 4-6-0s and use the money saved for more big Pacifies, which after all, were splendid engines and could have been more extended. But their appetite for coal needed curbing and in this, as in other things, they were like the semi-streamlined Belgian Type I (also with simple conjugation for the inside valves). Cross shafts with short levers, or separate inside combination levers, would have allowed better valve events. Even the GWR cranked levers gave some improvement, though not enough to justify the 5.5% clearance volume claimed for the 'Kings', which resulted in some looping of the indicator diagrams when well notched up at speed.

London stations/Tilbury tanks. Michael J. Smith. 107..
See letter about closed London stations from D.E. Hodgkinson  on page 698 (Volume 10) refers to services through Uxbridge Road station provided by "Hammersmith & City joint services between Edgware Road and Kensington Addison Road operated with LPTB-owned stock lettered 'Great Western & Metropolitan' on one side and 'Metropolitan & Great Western' on the other - a rather pleasant compromise". When these twenty six-car units first entered service in 1906, ten were owned by each of the two participating companies, the owner's name appearing first of each side of each carriage - no 'compromise' in that! On 1st January 1923 the Great Western's share in this joint stock was purchased by the Metropolitan, from which time Mr. Hodgkinson's 'compromise' legends began to appear on opposite sides. Other purely Metropolitan stock also operated on this service. In 1913 four six-car units of 'Met' saloon stock were transferred to supplement the H&C stock and a further allocation was made in 1930. It is possible that some of this stock were transferred to supplement the H&C stock and a further allocation was made in 1930. It is possible that some of this stock operated through Uxbridge Road station. Also, between 1910 and 1925 two double-ended shuttle cars of Metropolitan compartment stock ran on this service.
In feature 'Focus on the Tilbury Tanks' (Volume 10 page 662) it was stated that steam-hauled District Railway trains ran over the London, Tilbury & Southend "as far as East Ham from 1902 and these were electrified in 1905". During the three years of steam operation, however, a few trains ran as far as Upminster - an interesting forerunner of a regular District service of 30 years later. The electric service was extended from East Ham to Barking on I st April 1908 and, following further quadrupling of the tracks, to Upminster on 12th September 1932.

Gremlinia. Editor
Regrettably the production gremlins have been out again: See Volume 10 page 648 apologies are due to B.R.Oliver for the poor reproduction of his photograph of 0-6-0PT No.7439 at Llandilo in his article' 1962 Welsh Rail Rover' on p650. Mr Oliver also advises us that the somersault signal shown on p651 was at Bedwas.
See page 45: last line of Alan Earnshaw article 'Down in the Dumps' went missing on p47. The sentence should read: "Little wonder that passengers, like locomotives, were down in the dumps".

Colour files - Pre grouping survivals around London. Chris Fautley (phot.). 108-9.
Colour photo-feature: Great Eastern badge at Liverpool Street station (possibly replica) at what would have been the Broad Street side,; Great Northern Hotel King's Cross; Metropolitan station Paddington; Stations served by the London, Chatham and Dover railway; Memorial to Field Marshall Sir Henry Wilson killed by IRA two hours after unveiling The Great Eastern War Memorial at Liverpool Street on 22 June 1922 (both Memorials are illustrated).

The Welwyn Viaduct with A3 4-6-2 No 60066 Merry Hampton in 1961. Cliff Woodhead. rear cover
Photograph taken in summer: locomotive fitted with "German" smoke deflector plates.

Number 3 (1997 March)

A 'Blue Pullman' diesel unit at Paddington. T.J. Edgington. front cover
1965

The Great Snow of 1947. W. Hubert Foster. 114
illus.: Dent station with one track passable; Shovelling snow at Arten Gill;

The great snow [of 1947]. David Joy. 115.
Effect upon the Settle & Carlisle line and its recording by Houghton and Foster.

Around Tayside. Alistair F. Nisbet (phot.). 116-17.
illus.: A class 25 leaving its train; Class 40 No 40 012 passing Newburgh signal box; The Tay bridge; two car DMU at Newport on Tay East; Class 27 No 27 020; Newport on Tay station after closure with the replacement bus;

The last 'Toplights'. Michael H.C. Baker. 118-23.
See letter from Keith Smith (page 341) of vehicles then still extatnt on West Somerset Railway. illus.: Concertina slip coach no 7692; No 7019 Fowey Castle; 0-6-0PT No. 5409; Third class saloon in departmental use in the late 1950's; An ex-camping coach at Minehead; Camping coach at Gloucester; Restored City non corridor brake no 3755; GW no 6024 King Edward I at Reading; BR No 70020 Mercury at Paddington with 70ft toplight restaurant car on 6 November 1952; Repanneled with toplights removed W139W has become DW139 at Weymouth; Whitewash Coach W139W in an earlier guise at Cheltenham;

Festival of Britain trains. D.W. Winkworth. 124-7.
Although illustrated in black & white, the prose is more colourful as it includes details of several Festival of Britain events which did not take place. Consideration had been given to naming an A2 Pacific Festival of Britain and sending it on a tour of North America, but this was abandoned due to cost. It lists potential names which were rejected: these included the Lancashire Lass (London-Liverpool), the North Star or the Thistle (Heart of Midlothian), The Regency or the Bristol Cutter (Merchant Venturer). The Cotswold (to/from Cheltenham), The William Shakespeare, The Piers Plowman (to/from Malvern), The Canterbury Pilgrim.  The Ulster Transport Authority named a service bewteen Londonderry and Belfast the Festival. See letter by D.K. Horne on page 404. illus.: Britannia No 70001 Lord Hurcomb climbing Brentwood bank with The Norfolkman (Roy Vincent?); The Red Rose brochure cover; King No. 6028 King George VI on The Merchant Venturer in Sonning cutting; The Red Rose brochure inside; A4 No. 60019 Bittern on The Heart of Midlothian;

The rise of the Streamliner (Railway Reflections No. 27). Michael Rutherford. 128-36.
Mainly development in the USA with both early i/c engines and steam. illus.: A Bugatti high speed railcar (see Erratum concerning horsepower error in caption and letter by Edmonds on page 340 for note on engines); Two GWR locos emerged from Swindon works a sort of streamlining. No5005; A4 No 2509 Silver Link; GWR railcar No 6; Diagram of the Burlington 'Flying Zephyr'; Diagram of the McKeen railcars; Diagram of General Electric petrol-electric railcar; No 6229 Duchess of Hamilton renamed and numbered as No 6220 Coronation; Diagram of Class A Atlantics of the Milwaukee; The 'Crusader' of the Reading railroad; Class J3 of the New York Central streamlined for the 'Twentieth Century; Coronation [alias Duchess of Hamilton] on the Thomas viaduct outside; Coronation [alias Duchess of Hamilton] at Chicago alongside Loco No 55; Graphs showing passenger traffic trends in the USA and general increase;

A North British trio. 137.
Colour photo-feature: Former NBR locomotives: D30 No. 62418 The Pirate at Thornton Junction (Tony Wakefield); D34 No. 62479 Glen Sheil at Keith shed on 25 May 1960 (Philip J. Kelley); J36 No. 65313 at Fort William depot on 30 May 1960 (Cliff Woodhead).

Maunsell's 2-6-0s. 138-9.
Colour photo-feature: An unidentified N1 (probably U1 class 30901) class leaving Chislehurst tunnel on Kent coast train (J.G. Click) see corriegendum on page 404 by 30922; N class no 31858 at Basingstoke on slow train for Waterloo (Tony Wakefield); N class no 31842 at Basingstoke on 8 August 1964 (Alan Tyson); U1 class no 31904 shunting at Norwood Junction (Tony Wakefield).

On Mona's island. Paul Strong (phot.). 140-1.
Colour photo-feature: Isle of Man Railway in early 1960s: No 12 Hutchinson arriving at Castletown; No 8 Fenella waiting for its train to be loaded; Trains crossing at Colby; No 8 Fenella nearing Sulby Bridge; Trains crossing at Colby. David Lloyd-Jones (page 285) identifies the locomotives not recognized in the captions.

On shed. 142-4.
Colour photo-feature: CR 294 class No 52764 at Stirling on 28 May 1960 (Cliff Woodhead); C class Nos. 31689 and 31033 each in front of a Bulleid Q1 and King Arthur 30806 Sir Galleron at Hither Green on 27 March 1959 (R.C. Riley); Coronation No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS gets an oil top up (close up) at St Margarets Edinburgh (Gavin Wilson); former Crosti 9F devoid of smokebox numberplate and with its cabside number covered in deep grime at Holbeck in July 1967 (Joe Richardson); Left to right. Crosti 9F no 92026, conventional 9F no 92108, LMS class 5 and more at Birkenhead shed (J.R. Carter); Britannias nos. 70038 and 70041 with a 9F and others at Carlisle Kingmoor (Gavin Wilson); NBR J36 No 65345 at Thornton Junction on 31 July 1966 (Keith R. Chester); Standard class 4 no 75075 in front of Battle of Britain no 34066 Spitfire at Eastleigh on 23 May 1965 (P. Poulter).

Parcels traffic: based upon LMS practice c1938 - Part 1. (Railway Topics No. 11). Bob Essery. 145-7.
Definitions of parcels and their modes of collection and/or delivery. illus.: LMS 5XP no 5605 on a parcels train; Moving parcels at Euston; A delivery to Halfway Bridge Post Office; Plan of Sheffield parcels office; Plan of Euston forwarded parcels office; Plan of Luton parcels office;

The quest for alternative fuels - Part 3. Jeffrey Wells. 148-55.
Part 1 on page 8; Part 2 on page 66. The post WW2 oil-burning programme as applied mainly to locomotives on the GWR and Southern Railway, and with less eagerness on the LMS, and one solitary LNER locomotive, although the later application of oil-fuel to the U1 for working on the Lickey Incline is described. Classes to be modified are listed (on both the LMS and LNER locomotives associated with coal haulage appeared to predominate). Depot facilities are listed. Author supplements his articles in letter on page 285. illus.: 28xx class no 4855 renumbered from 3813; Class T9 No 314; Class 4F No. 4598; probable ad-hoc refuelling as class D1 No. 2244 pumps fuel into T9 No. 121; Hall class No 5955 Garth Hall renumbered from 3950; U class No 1625; Class 7F No 9670; Diagram of refuelling standpipes; only LNER loco to be converted to use oil class O7 No 3152; Class 5 No 4844 at Crewe on 11 October 1947.

The grouping years (1923-1938): a comparative study of railways in crisis - Part 3. Financial results. John W.E. Helm. 156-8.
Part 1 page 16; part 2 page 74. In spite of Sir Felix Pole stating in 1927 that "Railways cannot go on indefinitely paying their way out of reserves" the Great Western attempted to keep its shareholders happy by very extensive dipping into its reserves. The LNER, and to a lesser extent the LMS, did not have this option available and few dividends were paid. Helm argues that two of the pre-grouping companies (GCR and LCDR) were in a very poor financial state. In the case of the LNER it had been hoped that the NER would be capable of supporting the group, but this was not the case. In 1921 there were over 800,000 railway shareholders, over 60% of whom held £500 or less. Until the grouping railway shares had been a secure investment. Some railways, notably the minerals line in South Wales, had paid very high dividends, but most paid more modest amounts. Part 4 page 216. illus.: A4 no 2511 Silver King; Operating ratios for the years 1923 to 1938; A two car steam railcar; Revenues for 1923 to 1938; Dividends on ordinary stock 1923 to 1938;

The Gatehead Viaduct. Graham Kirkpatrick. 159-61.
See also Volume 6 page 41 for fuller account of Kilmarnock & Troon Railway: this refers to the restoration of the Gatehead Viaduct. See letter page 404 by Seymour concerning restored track: plate rails wrong way round. illus.: The overgrown Gatehead viaduct in 1991; Replica L shaped track; The restored viaduct in 1996;

Rolling stock focus - South Eastern and Chatham survivors. 162
illus.: Ex SECR Lavatory composite brake no DS 136; Ex SECR Mess Van no DS70120. See letter by R.C. Riley on page 229.

Readers' forum. 163.
The Montrose-Brechin pick-up goods. J.S. Gilks.
Amendment to dates in colour photo-feature on page 610 Volume 10.
The GWR and Collett. Michael J. Smith.
Hammersmith & City stock: Alan Jackson claimed that this stock was sold to the Metropolitan Railway in 1923 and thus is at variance to the GWR's continuing ownership: stems from Rutherford Reflections on page 36.
The GWR and Collett. L.A. Summers.
Mainly biographical material about Collett and in particular his interest in spiritualism; also queries (mildly) Rutherford's assertion (page  36) that Collett took no interest in locomotive design.
The quest for alternative fuels. D.C. Piddington.
See feature beginning page 8: application of oil firing on LNWR; former on location of the Scarab burner within the firebox
The quest for alternative fuels. Philip A. Milllard.
See feature beginning page 8: application of oil firing on LNWR: George the Fifth was not a Precursor! and location and probable train illustrated: the 16.55 Euston to Tring which ran on the fast line non-stop to Boxmoor.
Industrial steam in and around Coventry. Mike Young.
See colour photo-feature on pp. 4-5: writer disputes statements about "current" use of former colliery sites.
Down in the dumps. David Ward.
See feature page 45.

Colour files - Old Scottish stations - New uses. James Carron. 164-5.
illus.: Lochearnhead station used as an outdoor activity centre by Scouts from Hertfordshire; St Fillans station; Carron station; Aberlour station with a café and pitch and putt green; Ballater station houses tourist orientated shops and a local authority offices; Strathpeffer station houses tourist orientated shops;

West Country 4-6-2 No 34013 Oakhampton leaving Waterloo. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
21 October 1966: Tate Modern, then Bankside Power Station was generating and emitting smoke in background.

Number 4 (April 1997)

0-4-2T No 1466 on the Tiverton to Tiverton Junction auto-train. Les Elsey. front cover
9 September 1963

The 1948 show. Michael Blakemore. 171.
Editorial criticism of preservation movement for making excessive use of post-nationalization liveries, rather than those of the companies which built the locomotives. Support from reader page 577. Reader (Albin J. Reed) questions colour of MSJ&A on page 404.

Windermere and its railway steamers and their publicity. R.N. Forsythe. 172-8.
Bibliography. Table lists railway-owned steamers and motor-driven vessels. illus.: Lakeside pier with Tern alongside; Tern on the lake near Bowness; Swift at Ambleside; Teal arriving at Lakeside; 1993 brochure for the ex-railway steamers; Patriot No. 45543 Home Guard at Lakeside; Exterior of the 1960 brochure for the railway steamers; Interior of the 1960 brochure for the railway steamers; Regional railways brochure for the Cumbrian coast and lakes day ranger; Class 5 No. 44758 at Windermere station; Lakeside station;

The Electric trains of Merseyside 1890 - 1935. R.L. Vickers. 179-84.
Cites Aspinall paper (presented to Institution of Mechanical Engineers) on criteria for electrification and descibes developments on the Liverpool Overhead Railway, L&YR line to Southport, and the Mersey Railway. See letter by Brettle concerning LoR cars (page 340). Second article on Liverpool electric railways on page 84 of Vol. 12. illus.: A Mersey composite trailer of 1903; LoR Motor car no 7 at Seaford Sands station; Four coach set of L&Y stock; An L&Y lightweight two car set (location Marshall's Siding, not Seaforth (see page 517); LoR A lightweight three car set; The lower half of an L&Y locomotive; The Beetle in 1912; A Mersey five car train at Birkenhead Park;

Iron girders - Part 1. D.K. Horne. 185-8.
Historical development of the iron bridge (both cast iron and wrought iron structures are considered), and of ironworking techniques which enabled bridges to be constructed. Part 2 page 308. Additional article Volume 13 page 296.  Blakemore refers to this feature in his examination of the railways of Central Lancashire (Vol. 17 page 252). Illus.: Drawing of Helves or Tilt hammers; Drawing of Naysmiths steam hammer of 1840; York and North Midland Railway bridge at Water Fryston; Bridge over the Weser near Minden; Stockton and Darlington railway, Gaunless bridge at West Auckland; Page 188 Manchester and Leeds Railway Gauxholme viaduct across the Rochdale Canal: see letter by D.K. Horne in 14 page 370.

Two Vintages of the 'Lanky': photographs from the Paul Strong collection with captions by J.S. Gibson. 189.
Notes that Holme is frequently cited as being Hare due to an error made by Ahrons in a badly cited Railway Magazine article. illus.: 2-4-0 No. 286 Marshall; 2-4-0 No. 302 Holme of the same 286 class;

The GCR's joint lines: the rewards of a railway flirt. Robert Emblin and Bryan Longbone. 190-6.
Three maps assist with the complexities of the GCR's assocaions: one covers the whole system (without the enlargement promised by the structure of the map); one covers Lancashire and Cheshire, and another lines in South Yorkshire. The map covering Widnes Loop is criticised by Brettle (page 340). See letter Vol. 16 page 174 by Bloxsom. The financial contribution of such lines is assessed. illus.: Class 9N No. 128; Parker class 3 No. 592 at Manchester; A GC 0-6-0 passing through Tiviot Dale; Class 8B No. 393; GC at grouping; Joint lines in the North West; Jointly owned or subsidiary companies; South Yorkshire joint lines; Joint line networks relative profits; Profit contributors; GC class 11A No. 878; Profit from each subsidiary / joint line; Class 9Q No. 1165 Valor;

The Great Western 'Halls'. 197-9.
Col. illus.: No 5942 Doldowlod Hall has been side-tracked at Gerrards Cross; No 6942 Eshton Hall leaving Paddington; No 4955 Plaspower Hall on the sea wall at Teignmouth; No 5961 Toynbee Hall; No 4932 Hatherton Hall; No 5933 Kingsway Hall; No 7907 Heveningham Hall;

Sheffield steel. Cliff Woodhead (phot.). 200-1.
Col. illus. none of which relate to steel industry: Britannia No. 70053 Moray Firth; EE type 3 No. D6751 [Class 37]; Jubilee No. 45639 Raleigh on holiday express on Beighton avoiding line; Bo-Bo No. E26018 passing through Victoria with train of tank wagons; Sheffield Midland station (exterior);

'Lanky' longevity. 202-4.
Colour feature on former L&YR locomotives: 0-6-0T No. 51537 at Canada dock Liverpool (J.G. Dewing); 2-4-2T no 50777 at Sowerby Bridge (P. Glenn); 0-6-0 Aspinal goods loco No. 52351; A tender engine that became a saddle tank 0-6-0ST No 51381 at Sowerby Bridge (T.B. Owen); LMS-built Hughes 4-6-0 no 50455 at York on 1 July 1951 with special train from Blackpool (E. Oldham); A 0-4-0ST 'Pug' No. 51281; A four car L&Y EMU at Bury Bolton Road;

The Bury influence. (Railway Reflections No. 28). Michael Rutherford. 205-12.
Brief biography of Bury: Rutherford provides strong justification for Bury's use of small locomotives (in particular trains were light). The Bury haystack fireboxes saved having a dome which involved cutting a hole in the boiler plates. Notes the development of the long boiler type with the firebox behind the rear axles. Standardization at the Clarence Foundry was one of his achievements. Led to lengthy letters by Harry Jack concerning the improbable existence of "records" relating to the firm. on page 460 and 689. The former follows from a letters by Hughes (on the lost records) and Martin ( the Bury locomotive under the ocean) on page 340. Rather different view (possibly from the more "imaginative Robin Barnes) on page 576. Yet, another letter on this topic by Rowley (Vol. 12 page 116) on re-assembly of records from published sources. Illus.: Diagram of the first Bury locomotive; Map of the Clarence Foundry at Liverpool; A 2-2-0 in service on the Lytham branch of the former Preston and Wyre; A class 0-4-0ST; A Norris advert of 1844 showing the Bury influence; Diagram of a 4-2-0; Diagram of a new 0-4-0ST; Furness railway No 3 Copperknob; Great Southern and Western No. 36; A LNWR Bloomer No. 603; An early 4-6-0 locomotive diagram from USA.; long boiler 0-6-0 No 1824; Drawing from Robert Stephenson's long boiler patent of 1841; Fairbairn 2-2-2WT; Furness railway 0-4-0 No 27;

Eighty years on - the GWR in 1916. Tim Bryan. 213-15.
The year was a sombre one and was dominated by the Battle of the Somme and its vast loss of life. The text relies upon the report of the Annual General Meeting which was less detailed than usual for strategic reasons, although capital investment was restricted both in locomotive output (Swindon was manufacturing munitions) and in capital projects (restricted to enlarging Paddington). Illus.: Recruiting posters at a GWR station; Shell cases at Swindon; GWR ambulance train; Photographs of staff who died in battle were each month published in the GWR Magazine.

The Grouping years (1923-1938): a comparative study of the railways in crisis - Part 4. Financial results (concluded). John W.E. Helm. 216-19.
The Grouped railways found it difficult to make the savings which had been anticipated in the legislation. For instance, it was not until 1962 (which was far too late) for the multitude of small marshalling yards in Carlisle were combined into one fascility. The problem of small wagons was accepted by management, even by Stamp (who imagined he was "progressive"). Only the LNER invested in large wagons and introduced over 25,000 with a capacity greater than 20 tons – more than the remainder combined. Whiterlaw would not consider a reduction in freight services on branch lines or in passenger services as he considered that this would enable competitors to gain an advantage. One pearl of wisdom from Whitelaw might be emblazoned on the walls of contemporary franchise holders: "our passengers must be accommodated in an ever-increasing scale of comfort". There was a problem with the burden of bureaucracy imposed by the Ministry of Transport. Pole stated that "a railway does not know what each coach or each train on each direction carries." From 1929 the State provided financial assistance by abolishing passenger duty, through partial deraing, by capital grants to relieve unemployment, and through government loans to fund capital projects. The Souther Railway made the greatest use of these measures. The last-named included the Wirral electrification and the reconstruction of Euston on the LMS; the Manchester to Sheffield electrification, and the enhancement of the ECML on the LNER, the St Germans to Looe and Devon Coast deviation on the GWR, and the Sevenoaks to Hastings electrification on the Southern. The full list should inpire further thought from the Hennessey sect (Volume 17 page 678). Part 3 page 156.Part 1 was on page 16. illus.: A GWR railcar; LNER P1 a locomotive ahead of its time No. 2393; Baltic tank No. 333 Remembrance; Financial results of the Big Four for 1923-1938;

Parcels traffic: based on the LMS practice c1938 - part 2. Bob Essery. (Railway Topics No. 11). 220-3.
A full page diagram rerproduced from an LMS internal document shows how the 8.55pm parcels train from Euston fed into trains to locations as remote as Merthyr, Swansea and Batley. illus.: Class 5XP Jubilee No. 5638 Zanzibar; How the parcels get from various A's to various B's; A map of the routes from various A's to various B's; Train marshalling of various trains; Two class 5's on a passenger train led by No. 45081; No. 45666 Cornwallis on a parcels train; Train marshalling of various trains;

Book reviews. 224.
The North London Line — Broad Street to Primrose Hill — a photographic journey. J.F. Connor. Connor & Butler. TJE ****
Recommended, especially for anyone with an interest in the capital's railways.
The Hay and Kington Railways. Gordon Rattenbury and Ray Cook. The Railway & Canal Historical Society. TJE *****
Another very erudite work from the RCHS. This book chronicles the history of two very early contiguous tramroads in the Welsh borders connecting with the Brecknock & Abergavenny Canal at Brecon and opened throughout by 1820. They were unusual as the main traffic flow was the reverse of the norm, ie it conveyed coal from the canal to the towns in the companies' titles rather than from collieries to navigable water.
The Dingle train. David Rowlands, Walter McGrath and Tom Francis. Plateway Press,
SDW *****
"this is quite simply the finest book that your reviewer has come across."... the Tralee & Dingle was a marvellous, unconventional railway."
GWR to Devizes. Rod Priddle and David Hyde. Millstream Books. JSG ***
If you like railway history brought to life by those who worked the system day by day, who lived locally and were satisfied to devote much of their lives to its operation, then you will like this book.
The History of British Railway Carriages 1900-1953. David Jenkinson. Pendragon Partnership. ABM *****
Reprint of the author's two separate volumes published by Patrick Stephens Ltd. in the 1980s under the title British Railway Carriages of the 20th Century. "excellent value for the sheer wealth of material contained."
The Heyday of Swindon and its Locomotives. R.C. Riley. Ian Allan. MR ****
landscape format collection of full colour plates. thoroughly recommended.
Swindon: the legacy of a railway town. Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. HMSO. MR *****
"This is an excellently-produced work that includes many illustrations (220) most of which are archive photographs and drawings, some of the latter being in colour. ... The work has been carried out to a high intellectual standard, is fully referenced and contains a bibliography. It will be a good companion on the bookshelf besides Alan Peck's The Great Western and Swindon Works and the books by local historian J. Silto. Further, it will be a very useful source for social historians of the Victorian age. Thoroughly recommended."

Colour files - Worcester arches. S.C. Dent. 225
Col. illus.: Viaduct at Worcester and bridge over the Severn also detail from bridge over Foregate street with arms of GWR and City of Worcester.

Rolling Stock focus - Dry powder carrying wagons with air-assisted discharge. Paul W. Bartlett. 226-7.
illus.: A Presflos Tunnel Cement No. 6; at Bevois Park, Southampton on 16 August 1979 with discharge pipes coupled up; A Prestwin powder wagon at Warrington Bank Quay on 16 August 1980; Algeco wagon No. ALG 9087 at Stoke Wagon Repairs Ltd on 17 April 1981; Cemflo as APCM No. 8380 at Millerhill on 21 July 1984. Letter concerning nickname for Prestwin and intended traffic (Vim) on page 341.

Readers' Forum. 228-9.
The GWR 'Castles'. B.J. Harding.
See illustration page 85 of 7029 Clun Castle: 5098 series built new with 3-roow superheaters: 4-row type fitted firrst to 7029: chimneys had to be moved further forward to accommodate superheaters. Total in service never exceeded 170 as 100A1 Lloyds withdrawn before 7037 Swindon enetered service.
By Tube to Rickmansworth. Michael J. Smith.
See page 62 Corriegenda: location of electric depot in Watford - not as stated: photograph of brick-built viaduct on page 92 is not on WCML but on Bushey curve.
The Grouping years. David Stirling.
See page 74. Pooling agreements pre-dated Grouping by many years, The Octuple Agreement of 1851 related to Anglo-Scottish traffic, but many of these agreements were short-term. The NBR and CR entered into a major pooling agreement in 1908 and the LNER/LMS extended this concept: the LMS closed its station in Montrose in 1934 and transferred the traffic to the LNER station.
The quest for alternative fuels. John Verity.
See page 8 [KPJ: cannot trace reference to Heathfield quoted by writer]: at Heathfield the quest was for locomotive water but the drilling encountered a source of natural gas in 1896 and a separte company was formed to exploit it. The gas was used to light the station and surrounding area.
The quest for alternative fuels. Howard Geddes.
See page 8: The location of shot of Clan Stewart and note on the application of oil-firing on HR using Scarab system in 1920.
Pullman brake cars. Charles Long.
See Volume 10 page 699: Pullman guard's parlour cars provided rather cramped accommodation for the gaurd in place of a toilet. Notes that when Isle of Thanet transferred to Eastern Region for Master Cutler that the gaurd's objected such conditions.
Walkden Yard. Brian Syddall.
Refers back to letter by Michael Thomas (page 50) and to his own original feature in Volume 10 page 539.: 47669 was loaned to the lines during Princess's display at Stoke. It was fitted with the incorrect builder's plate. The Yorkshire Engine Co's Janus type DE 2660/1957 was too slow.
SECR matters. R.C. Riley
Refers back to Alternative fuels (Part 2 page 66): E1 165 was fitted with Mexican trough equipment between 18 June 1921 and 11 March 1922, and during the 1926 miners' strike A19, A103, A165 and A175 were equipped. Also refers to Rolling Stock Focus (page 162): DS 136 was a Mobile Laboratory Coach and was constructed by Cravens in 1913 as SECR 1247. DS 70120 was constructed by Metropolitan CW&F and was formerly 3557.
Isle of Man Railway. David Lloyd-Jones.
Request for pre-WW2 photographs, especially those prior to 1930.
Bricks and railways. Keith Horne.
See page 89. Geology of bricks: engineering bricks needed the Triassic, hence the handiness of such strata near Severn Tunnel
Erratum. Editor.
Page 128: Bugatti railcars had 200hp engines

Spring in the Eden valley - LMS Class 5 crossing Armathwaite Viaduct. Robert Leslie. rear cover
illus.:

Number 5 (May 1997)

B1 61018 shunting at Sleights in 1964.  J.M. Boyes. front cover. (phot.)

Putting pen to paper. Jeffrey Wells. 235.
Guest editorial on authorship: includes selection of topic, gathering information, verification, and selecting photographs..

The third battle of Newbury. M.S. Elton. 236-42.
Evolution of the Didcot Newbury & Southampton Railway from the proposed Oxford, Southampton, Gosport & Portsmouth Railway of 1845 surveyed by Joseph Locke; the Oxford, Newbury, Andover, Manchester & Southampton Railway of 1845 planned by T.L. Gooch which included a branch for East Ilsley, and the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton as proposed by William Tatham, surveyed by Edward Allen and authorised in 1873. In 1879 the powers were acquired by a new Board which included John Walter (proprietor of The Times), Sir Julius Vogel, Mr W.H. Kingsmill and Lord Francis Baring, Lt Col Robert Loyd-Lindsa VC MP was elected Chairman. The distinguished John Fowler and Benjamin Baker were the engineers. James Staats Forbes was appointed Chairman in 1884. Also includes brief details of closures between 1960 and 1967, and more extensive details of the engineering difficulties encountered at Tothill. illus.: BR class 5 No. 75055 at Winchester Chesil; GW '2251' class No. 2214; LSW T9 about to join the GW main line; GW 43xx No. 6343; Evolution of the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton railway; Burghclere station; GW '2251' class No. 2246 at Compton; GW 4-4-0 No. 3440 City of Truro; A diesel railcar at Upton and Blewbury; No. 3206 at Chesil station; LSW T9 No. 30117 at Highclere;

Trouble on the Trans-Pennine line. Alan Earnshaw. 243-8.
Accidents at Springwood Junction, Huddersfield in 1858, a collision at Heaton Lodge Goods Station in 1865, a fatality to a porter at Greenfield in 1865, a runaway in Lockwood Yard in 1865, collisions at Huddersfield and Diggle in 1866, and at the latter in 1871 (the accidents at Diggle stemmed from single-line working through Standedge Tunnel), a runaway in 1869 between Golcar and Slaithwaite, collisions near Marsden and at Huddersfield in 1870, further collisions in Huddersfield in 1905 and 1908, a derailment at Friezland (0-6-2T on express) in 1909, collisions at Huddesfield in 1910 and 1920, another collision at Diggle in 1923, and a collision at Huddersfield in 1989. See letter from relative involved in 1923 Diggle accident on page 404. and letter from David Carter rightly indicating that most of events took place in Yorkshire before it became Greater (?) Manchester (page 404). illus.: The scene of the accident at Huddersfield Viaduct 21 April 1905; Map of lines round the Standedge tunnel; The scene of the accident at Friezland 10 August 1909; The scene of the accident at Paddock 16 February 1957; The scene of the accident at the western end of Standedge tunnel 5 July; The scene of the accident at Huddersfield station 14 March 1966; The scene of the accident at Huddersfield on 6th November 1989;

Steam through Bletchley. Ian J. Hodson (phot.). 249
illus.: Britannia No. 70021 Morning Star; LMS No. 46244 King George VI; Std class 5 No. 73040 replacing a failed Type 4 diesel-electric;

LNER Restaurant cars. C.S. Carter. 250-6.
Pre-grouping cars; LNER standard cars; and workings within each of the LNER areas. illus.: A first class NE restaurant car No. E2212E; A GN restaurant car No. 41697; A GE restaurant car No. E669E; A NB restaurant car No. 32432; A GC composite restaurant car No. 5116; An LNER restaurant car built for the GE section No. G80; Table 1 Restaurant cars list; Restaurant car workings; Composite restaurant car diagram; First class restaurant car diagram; First class restaurant car E 1657;

'Coronation' calvacade. 257-9.
Colour  photo-feature: No. 46245 City of London (red) at Lichfield TV; No. 46252 City of Leicester (green) on Perth shed; 46247 City of Liverpool (red BR-lined) at Carlisle; 46239 City of Chester (green) at Stafford; 46248 City of Leeds (red) at Camden; No. 46227 Duchess of Devonshire (green) at Lancaster; No. 46249 City of Sheffield (green) near Lamington; No. 46256 Sir William A. Stanier FRS (red) at Carlisle.

The 14xx tanks of the GW. 260-1.
Colour  photo-feature 1466 at Tiverton J in 1963; 1451 at Culmstock; 5815 at Swindon; 1421 at Marlow in 1962 and 1476 at Standish Junction in 1962.

Early modern traction prototypes. Michael Rutherford. 262-3.
Colour  photo-feature: 10000 on Camden Bank in 1956 (J.G. Dewing);  10203 (black) at Waterloo in April 1954 (S.C. Townroe); 18000 gas turbine near Chippenham in 1956 (P.M. Alexander); 10100 (black) in 1954; (J.B. McCann) 10800 in 1958 and remains of 10100 (R. Rowyer): all Colour Rail.

Cornish industrial steam. 264
Colour  photo-feature: Bagnall 0-4-0ST Judy at Par Harbour (Alan Tyson) and Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST No. 3 at Falmouth Harbour (in 1978) (David C. Piddington)

Safety, detonators and ATC. Railway Reflections [No. 29]. Michael Rutherford. 265-72.
Skeletal history of railway safety in Britain: signalling; negative response of management; the significance of the Board of Trade's Railway Inspectorate; fog signalling (including dentonator placement machines); Vincent Raven's cab signalling systems; the GWR ATC system; the Reliostop system on the GCR; the Hudd system on the LMSR; LNER and British Railways. Fatal accident statistics for the four main lines are compared. illus.: Automatic signalling installed between Basingstoke and Woking; Diagram of an electro-mechanical fog signal; Great Central class 9N no 128; Raven's mechanical train stop equipment; Diagram of the treadle operated bell in the GWR Snow Hill tunnel (diagram printed upside down see page 341) [N.B.; The Reliostop system diagram; Castle class no 4037 South Wales Borderers with an experimental ATC; Hall class No. 4986 nearing a GWR ATC ramp; The contact shoe for the GW ATC shown on No. 4700; No. 2510 fitted with Hudd equipment for testing on the LTS line; No. 2510 fitted with Hudd equipment; the cab installation; An A4 with a prototype of the BR AWS system;

The old London and South Western. Ron Woollard. 273.
Extracts from an 1857 guidebook: illus.: Pictures from the official illustrated guide; Basingstoke station; Pictures from the official illustrated guide; Freemason's School Battersea; Pictures from the official illustrated guide; Osborne;

The 'Irish Mail'. J. Graeme Bruce. 274-8.
History of the London-Holyhead-Dublin service from 1848, which included the LNWR and the Chester & Holyhead Railway, together with the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company. The development of water troughs and mail handling systems for this service are also mentioned. See Corriegenda by Millard (page 405). illus.: Holyhead station c 1905; LNWR Precursor No. 1137 Vesuvius; A down LNWR mail train picking up mail from lineside apparatus; The PS Violet; Royal Scot No. 6118 Royal Welch Fusilier leaving the Britannia Tubular; Thought to be the PS Anglia; Royal Scot No. 46150 The Life Guardsman; Irish Mail literature;

An introduction to the 0-6-0 locomotive. R.M. Tufnell. 279-80.
Part 1: argues that 0-6-0 tender engines were designed for  one of four tasks: fast goods, pick-up goods, general purpose shunting, or on special heavy grades (such as those in Yorkshire). The Locomotive Superintendents of major pre-grouping companies are listed. Further part on page 328 . See letter in Volume 12 on page 117 by Nicholls. illus.: Express 0-6-0 No. 1253; Caly 812 class No. 57594; NER J21 class No 65047;

Signalling focus - lower quadrants. Richard D. Foster. 281.
Colour feature: LNWR lower quadrants at Buxton. GCR lower quadrants at New Holland.

Colour files - light and shade at Blackfriars. Chris Gammell. 282-3.
illus.: Photographs taken in 1973 of both interior and exterior.

Readers Forum. 284-5.
Stanier, Tuplin and Collett. M. Rutherford.
Response by author to letter writers who reacted to several of his Reflections series notably the article on Coleman's contribution to Stanier's success (10, page 560). He defends his assertion that Stanier was the greatest of the post-grouping CMEs and argues that based on recent working (i.e. preservation era working) on the Settle & Carlisle line the work of the Duchess Pacifics was capable of surpassing that of the A4 class and Bulleid Pacifics. He also takes a sidelong swipe at Tuplin and his data, as introduced by Riemsdijk on page 106 and their controversial style, and responds to Summers' letter (page 163) responding to his own assertion (page 36) that Collett fossilized locomotive design.
The LMS T.F. Coleman and locomotives. E.W. Lewcock.
Response to van Riemsdijk's comments concerning Duchess class (page 106), especially that relating to valve events. Also argues that the Claughtons and Hughes 4-6-0s suffered from high fuel consumption
The LMS T.F. Coleman and locomotives. D.H. Landau
Comment on draughting arrangements for Duchess class, and on valve events: see van Riemsdijk page 106.
Southern ramblings. D.A. Tebbs
Operation of Charing Cross prior to Medway electrification: in particular the shunting of intermediate trailer sets to and from eight-car rush hour trains. See feature by Erwood on page 96.
Down in the dumps - Bo'ness. W.T. Stubbs
Specific class 5 locomotives moved to and from this dump (feature page 45) and Earnshaw's response page 341.
Down in the dumps - Bo'ness. Pete White.
Minute details on movements of condemned withdrawn locomotives (feature page 45).and Earnshaw's response page 341.
On Mona's Isle. David Lloyd-Jones.
Unidentified locoomotives identified photo-feature on pages 140-1.
The quest for alternative fuels. J. Wells.
Corriegenda and addenda: last part of original feature page 148
The quest for alternative fuels. Robert Barker
Metropolitan Railway experiments: Beyer-Peacock 4-4-0T fitted with Holden apparatus in 1898 and H class 4-4-4T No. 108 fitted with Scarab appartus in 1921 - as were two boilers at Neasden power station. Original page 148.

Victorian gothic on the Euston Road. Chris Fautley (phot.). rear cover.
St Pancras Staion exterior (Midland Grand Hotel)

Number 6 (June, 1997)

LSWR '415' Class 4-4-2T No 30582 at Exmouth Junction shed. R.C. Riley. front cover.
15 July 1960

Swindon works 'Trip week' 1934. 291
Illustration of special train, also request for information from Swindon Museum & Art Gallery.

BR Standard tanks on the Southern Region. John Crossee. 292-7.
Workings by standard classes: includes proposal that 84xxx locomotives should have been modified for service on Isle of Wight Col. illus: 2-6-4T No 80011 coming off Lymington branch on 2 July 1966 (A.B. Jeffery); Class 4 No 80143 on down fitted freight at Esher on 11 March 1965 (Geoff Rixon*); Class 2 No 84029 at Ramsgate on 14 May 1960 (R.C. Riley); Class 3 No 82023 passing Esher on freight on 29 March 1965 (*); B&w: 2-6-4T No 80014 approaching Fareham on local train in 1957 (P. Ransome-Wallis); 2-6-4T No. 80065 at Tonbridge in 1961 (J. Sutton); Col.: 2-6-2T No. 82019 at Waterloo on station pilot duty on 21 April 1967 (Alistair F. Nisbet); Class 3 No 82016 with an articulated steam motor set (locomotive has heraldic device facing in wrong direction) at Eastleigh in 1958 (Tony Wakefield, notes by David Jenkinson) Further information and picture page 577; B&w: 2-6-4T No. 80149 at Brighton with Tonbridge train in 1961 (P. Ransome-Wallis); Class 2 No. 84028 leaving Dover for Ashford in 1955 (as prev.);

Country house railway stations. Tim Warner. 298-302.
The architecture and overall style of staions constructed mainly for the use of owners of major country estates. Examples include Shugborough, Trentham, Rowsley and Matlock for Chatsworth, and at Stamford. Map shows location of major houses in Midland counties. Corriegenda by T.J. Edgington on page 517. illus.: Shugborough tunnel, a cut and cover version; Trentham station; Woburn Sands station; Burley House and railway station; Rowsley station in 1903; Cromford station; Fig 1 Railways in the Midlands; Fig 2 The Trent Valley line at Shugborough Park Staffordshire; Fig 3 The Marquis of Exeter's railways;

The Royal Station Hotel, York. 303
Blach & white phot-feature: Royal Station Hotel; York, menu 16 February 1940; Royal Station Hotel; York, menu 7 November 1938; Two views of the Royal Station Hotel in Aug 1939;

Remembering Liverpool Street. Harry Wratten. 304-7.
Memories from 1920s and 1930s of visits to Liverpool Street station by train from Cambridge Heath or Hackney Downs; author took a Sunday day excursion to Yarmouth in winter. illus.: GE designed N7 No 7993; Liverpool Street west end 1920; B12 No 8565; N7/1 No 9671; Rebuilt B12/3 No 1516; F4 No 7072.

Iron girders - part 2. D.K. Horne. 308-12.
Part 3 page 441. Part 1 begins page 185 Collapse of Bridge No. 9 on the Chester & Holyhead Railway on 24 May 1847 was a highly significant event and was potentially highly damning to Sir Robert Stephenson as it was the subject of a Royal Commission. This article includes a brief mention, and portrait of George Willoughby Hemans who was involvd in bridge construction in Ireland (see also much later letter by Keith Horne in Volume 18 page 125) and on John Macneill, William Fairbairn, Robert Daglish and Eaton Hodgkinson. Illus.: Bridge 9 of the Chester and Holyhead railway; Elevation of girder from Bridge 9 of the Chester and Holyhead railway; Sir John MacNeill LL.D. FRS; Liverpool Canal bridge; Royal Canal Bridge Dublin; Darcy Lever Viaduct Bolton; Gainsborough Bridge across the Trent; The bridge across the Witham; two views;

Branch lines to Whitby. 313
Colour photo-feature: LNER A8 No 69861 a rebuild of a NER loco passing Beckhole in 1956 (J.M. Jarvis); NER G5 No 67343 near Sleights in 1954 (JMJ); B1 No. 61049 in Newtondale (A.G. Forsythe); East Row viaduct Sandsend with L1 67754 on local train in 1954; Whitby West Cliff station with L1 No 67764 in May 1958 (J.C.W. Halliday); A pair of DMU's crossing at Robin Hood's Bay in summer of 1964 (David Sutcliffe); 80118 passing under Larpool viaduct in May 1958 (C. Hogg); Whitby Town station with B1 No 61035 on 24 July 1958 (J.S. Gilks);

'Kings' of the Western. 316-17.
Colour photo-feature: 6000 King George V at Swindon shed on 9 September 1962 (David C. Piddington); 6009 King Charles II at Old Oak Common on 27 October 1957 (R.C. Riley - remainder); 6001 King Edward VII arriving Paddington from Wolverhampton on 10 September 1960; 6018 King Henry VI at Old Oak Common on 27 October 1957. 

Shunting the Southern. 318-19.
Colour photo-feature.: Southern E1/R 0-6-2Ts Nos. 32135 and 32696 on banking duty at Exeter St Davids on 20 March 1956 (R.C. Riley); Southern Z class No 30952 at Exeter Central on 5 July 1963 (RCR); Southern class W No 31911 at Exeter St Davids c1963; USA tank No 30064 at Southampton Central on pilot duty (both Tony Wakefield).

Aberbeeg revisited. 320
Colour photo-feature: .: Aberbeeg in 1959 a very different view; Aberbeeg revisited in 1987 two views to compare with Vol. 9 page 541;

A brief survey of railways and locomotives in South Wales. Part 1. (Railway Reflections [No. 30] ). Michael Rutherford. 321-7.
Development of waggonways, plateways and railways within the overall industrial development in South Wales. Includes the involvement of canals and ironmasters. The development of locomotives is also considered. illus.: Drawing of an early locomotive built by the Neath Abbey Iron Company in; Drawing of Trevithick's Penydarren locomotive of 1804; Drawing of Britannia of 1829; Drawing of St David's; A later view of Neyland c 1905; The South Wales railway's terminus at New Milford in early GW days; The Marquis of Bute's West Dock in Cardiff in 1884; The view from the same spot in 1924; Loco 53 of the Rhymney railway in east dock; No 15 of the Monmouthshire railway in GW days as No. 1306; Taff Vale Treherbert a general view of the railway lay out; Alexandra Docks and railways No. 7 Pontypridd; Burry Port and Gwendraeth Valley Fairlie No. 8;

The 0-6-0 locomotive. Part 1. R.M. Tufnell. 328-31.
Part 2 on page 652.  Previous part on page 279. Hackworth's Royal George in 1827; Derwent as preserved at Darlington, developments on the Leicester and Swannington and Great Western, onwards. Includes the seminal DX fast goods class introduced by Ramsbottom on the LNWR and the rapid development of the 0-6-0 type on the Midland Railway.  See letter on page 117 (Volume 12) by Nicholls.
illus.: Drawing of Hackworth's Royal George; Stockton and Darlington No 25; Drawing of goods loco Sphynx built for the MSLR in 1849; Drawing of No 101; Drawing of Premier class Bellerophon of 1846; DX class No 114; GWR Caesar class Dido;

On the Great North of Scotland. 332-5.
Black & white photo-feature. See latter 11-460. illus.: Class K No 43 at Aberdeen; GNoS Class O as LNER No 6809 at Kittybrewster c1928; Locomotive No 15 as originally built; GNoS Class D as LNER No 6816 at Kittybrewster; GNoS class Q as LNER No 6877 leaving Aberdeen for Banchory on train of six-wheel stock plus horseboxes; Class R No 90 in original condition; GNoS classes S and T became LNER class D41. No 6905 is here at Craigellachie in May 1946; GNoS class V became LNER class D40 here as BR No 62279 Glen Grant at Maud Junction with Peterhead train in September 1954; GNoS class X as LNER No 6830 on quayside, Aberdeen c1946.

Rolling stock focus - ex-GWR Camping coaches. David Jenkinson (captions) and Les Elsey (phot.). 337
See letters 11-460 (especially MacRae) and further contribution from MacRae (Vol. 12 page 60). illus.: Churchward Toplight corridor third No 9929; Dean Clerestory Lavatory Composite No W9966;

Colour files - Main line through the mountains [the Settle to Carlisle line]. Alan Tyson (phot.) and David Joy (notes). 338-9.
Colour photo-feature: : Enterprise at Settle station in 1965; The Ribblehead viaduct; Blea Moor in 1967; Garsdale station; South portal of Blea Moor tunnel;

Readers' forum. 340-1.
The Bury influence. J.C. Hughes.
See page 205: Activities of Thomas Vernon & Co, Liverpool shipbuilders, who also built locomotives and the Bury records.
The Bury influence. A. Martin.
See page 205: two Bury locomotives (Erebus and Terror) were sent on Franklin expedition to find the North West Passage which set out in May 1845.
The Grouping years. John W.E. Helm.
Corrections to diagram of workmen's traffic on page 76.
The electric trains of Merseyside and GCR's Joint lines. Roger Brettle.
Company which built the cars for the Liverpool Overhead Railway was Brown, Marshalls & Co. (details were published in The Engineer, 1892, 73, 43 and 1893, 75, 119) - see feature page 179.. Map (see page 190) accompanying feature on GCR joint lines implies that Widnes Loop was owned by CLC, it was solely within ownership of GCR and MR (GNR was not involved).
The rise of the streamliner. Tim Edmonds.
See page 128: Bugatti Royale engines used for railcars and motor-cars
The LMS, locomotives and T.F. Coleman. J.T. van Riemsdijk.
Refers back to author's own letter on page 106; the feature by Rutherford (10-560); a letter by Rutherford (page 163) and another by Doug Landau (Vol. 10 page 517) Letter mainly refers to front-end designs, both cylinder arrangements and draughting, of Duchess Pacifics, Swindon locomotives and to some extent the A4s and the Prussian S10 4-6-0s.
Dry powder-carrying wagons. Roger Carvell.
Prestwins known to railwaymen as spin dryers: used for carrying powdered limestone to make scouring powder at Port Sunlight: see page 226.
Step
hen Dent.
Obituary notice
The last 'Toplights'. Keith Smith.
See article on page 118: this letter gives extensive details of vehicles extant at that time on West Somerset Railway.
Down in the dumps. Alan Earnshaw.
See original feature page 45 and letters by Pete White and W.T. Stubbs on page 285.
Gremlin. Editorial
page 267: treadle-operated bell printed upside-down

A two-car lightweight DMU at Sandy. Michael Mensing. rear cover
Cambridge to Bletchley train on 7 August 1961

Number 7 (July 1997)

Caledonian Class '72' 4-4-0 No. 54485 at Perth. Alan Tyson. front cover
15 June 1960: RCTS Scottish railtour with preserved CR stock.

Three of James Stirling's 2-4-0s at Glasgow St. Enoch in 1879. 347
Caption refers to electric lighting: queried by Pearson page 577)

Traffic at Wadebridge. A. Henderson (phot.). 348-57.
Originally intended for Modellers' Backtrack: gives details of workings on lines in Wadebridge area in summer of 1960. The premier working was the Atlantic Coast Express. illus.: LSW 0298 class No 30586; LSW T9 class No 30729; GWR 1366 class No 1369;LSW 0298 class No 30586 shunting, O2 No. 30203 ready to go and N No 31848; Southern lines in Cornwall 1960; 45xx No 4569 passing Boscarne Junction; LSW 0298 class No 30586; NBL Type 2 No D6326; O2 No 30203; West Country No 34014 Budleigh Salterton arriving with the Atlantic Coast Express; T9 No 30313 leaving for Exeter; 45xx No 4552; three LSW 2-4-0T's on parade outside the shed; Carriage and Locomotive duties;

The Stirling era on the Glasgow and South Western. Stuart Rankin and Ian Middleditch. 358-61.
G&SWR Association: illus.: Stirling 0-4-2 No 204 at Glasgow St Enoch; Greenock Albert Harbour in the early 1870's; Stirling 2-2-2 no 40; 0-4-2 No 211; 0-4-2 No 270; 2-4-0 No 110A; 0-4-2 no 266; 2-4-0 no 104A; 0-4-4T No 731 at Ayr.

LNER Locomotive building programmes - part 1. Geoffrey Hughes. 362-7.
This part deals with period 1923 to 1929. Based on material maintained in PRO (Locomotive and Locomotive and Traffic Committees) supplemented by the relevant Parts of the RCTS History. Clearly shows that shortage of funds could lead to major cancellations, and notes the problems in the B17 design. Part 2 page 672. illus.: Class U1 No 2395; Gresley's A1 No 2546 Donovan; LNER no 1771; LNER no 6314; Class D49 No. 318 Cambridgeshire; The 'Hush-hush' no 10000; A3 No 2744 Grand Parade; 2-6-2T No 2916; Class K3 No 1300; J39 No 2973;

'Hawkshaw Singles' of the LYR. J.S. Gibson. 368-9.
Hawkshaw was the engineer of the Manchester & Leeds Railway and was responsible for some 2-2-2 locomotives, the man responsible for the detailed design is not known, but William Hurst (shown to be improbable), William Jenkins and John Hunt are contenders. Some were built at Miles Platting but others were built by contractors. In 1867 the decision was taken to rebuild them as 2-4-0s. Brian Orrell questions some of the techniques employed (page 688), although Allsopp describes (page 517) how this might have been done and returns to this again later on page 173 (Volume 12). Response from author page 60 (Volume 12). illus.: 2-2-2 Diomed;

Main line through the mountains - The Settle to Carlisle - Part 2. Horton to Appleby. Alan Tyson (phot.) and David Jenkinson (captions). 370
Colour photo-feature: close up of the Ribblehead viaduct; home grown signs at Horton in Ribblesdale station; The Blea Moor complex; A panorama of the line from above Blea Moor tunnel; top of a Blea Moor tunnel shaft used as air vents; Appleby station with Stanier 8F class No 48542 drawing up to the home; approach to Garsdale;

Metropolitan Electric. 373
Colour photo-feature: No 12 John Hampden and No 5 Sarah Siddons on open day at Neasden on 16 July 1972 (both Chris Gammell); No 5 Sarah Siddons taking over from an LMS steam locomotive at Rickmansworth on 9 September 1961 (T. Linfoot);

Twilight of Southern Steam. Alistair F. Nisbet. 374-5.
Colour photo-feature: Ivatt class 2 No. 41319 shunting at Waterloo on 8 July 1967;  82024 at Kensington Olympia with Clapham Junction train on 18 August 1965; Merchant Navy No. 35029 Ellerman Lines departing Waterloo on 25 August 1964; Rebuilt West Country No. 34004 Yeovil at Waterloo on 30 March 1966; West Country No. 34023 Blackmore Vale passing Vauxhall on 19 April 1967.

Ex-works at Swindon. 376-7.
Colour photo-feature: Newly out-shopped in 1963: 61xx No 6165 (unlined green); 81xx No 8109 (unlined black); 94xx No 8481 (unlined black); D1001 Western Pathfinder in red all B.R. Oliver, except last: T.B. Owen);

A Manchester medley. 378-80
Colour photo-feature: Jubilee No. 45705 Seahorse at Manchester Central station on Buxton train in March 1965 (B. Magilton); Black Five No. 45420 passing Irwell Bridge signal box; Manchester Exchange station; Manchester Victoria station; Class 76 electric locomotive Pluto at Manchester Piccadilly in June 1968 (T.J. Edgington), ex MSJ&A ellectric multiple units at Oxford Road station (Bill Chapman); Patriot No. 45519 Lady Godiva at Longsight with up express.in June 1`957 (W. Oliver)

The London and Paris Railway. M.W.G. Skinner. 381-4.
This proposal was made by William Collard in the form of a book (London: P.S. King 1928). The 7ft gauge was proposed and electrification would have been at 2,000v DC on the third rail with underneath pick-up. Rather like London & Continental Railway it was proposed to run commuter trains, in both England and France, to offset the cost. In Britain trains were to have been streamed to enable high speeds from a number of improbable starting points. A very long letter by Arthur Nicholls (page 576) showed that the 1928 proposal had its origins in a more conservative scheme of 1895 which used dedicated railways plus ferries. Illus.: Eurostar at Ashford [Kent] on 28 February 1996 (colour: R.C. Riley); Proposed London and Paris railway the English end; Proposed London and Paris railway the French end; Southern No. 850 Lord Nelson without smoke deflectors on up boat train passing Sevenoaks (P. Ransome-Wallis).

A brief survey of railways and locomotives in South Wales - Part 2. Railway Reflections [No. 31]. Michael Rutherford. 385
This part deals with competitors to the TVR, notably by the LNWR which tapped trafic via its Heads of the Valleys route, the Rhondda & Swansea Bay, the Barry Railway (which was engineered on a grand scale), the Cardiff Railway (which failed on an equally grand scale) and the MS&LR through Watkins' Chaiirmanship of the Neath & Breton which eventually fell into allegiance with the MR. The Barry Railway was the protegy of David Davies. During WW1 the railways had to adapt to a northward movement of coal to replace coastal shipping and serve the Royal Navy (on "Jellicoe Specials" to Grangemeouth). When the diverse stock was inherited by the GWR there was an immeedioate attempt at standardization which "Collett managed the job very well" according to Rutherford. Ultimately this policy was replaced by one of substitution by the 56xx, 57xx and 42xx classes. There is a brief note on the development of the 0-6-2T type in South Wales via the conversion of the long-boiler 0-6-0 by the addition of a Webb radial axlebox. The LYR may have been involved: Kitsons certainly were as they supplied the Class M to the TVR in 1885, and similar locomotives to the R&SWBR and Cardiff Railway in 1886. Other builders also became involved. Two unusual types are also discussed: GWR No. 795 an 0-4-0PT based on a Powlesland & Mason 0-4-0ST (this was sold for industrial use in 1929) and the designs developed by George Robson at Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds from 1901, namely a heavy (57.5 tons) 0-6-0T and a 40 ton 0-4-0T, :illus.: Brecon and Merthyr no 9 Usk; Neath and Brecon no 5; Taff Vale no 10; Taff Vale no 194; Cardiff East shed of the Marquis of Bute trustees; Two Port Talbots locomotives nos. 14 and 15; Aberdare no 2666; Barry railway no 139; A Port Talbot Yankee no 21; Rowlands no 10 on a Royal train; Rowlands No 6; Powlesland and Mason's No 5 becoming GWR No 795; Guest, Keen and Nettlefolds No 5 a giant 0-4-0!;

A look at the Drummond 'T9' Class. J. Crosse. 392-4.
Black & white photo-feature P. Chancellor Collection.: L&SWR T9 No 337 in late 1920s with original tall chimney with capuchon; Locomotives; Nos. 30708 and 30710 at Exmouth Junction on 15 May 1954 (J. Sutton); No 30288 at  Eastleigh (A.J.B. Dodd); No 30300 at Bournemouth c1950 (J. Sutton); No 30388 in early 1950s; No 30717 (J. Sutton); and No 722 equipped for oil-firing but in-store at Eastleigh (J. Sutton).

Catastrophe at Parkside. Edward Littleton. 395
Edward Littleton, MP, was a witness to the death of William Huskisson at Parkside: this is a copy of a letter from him to Sir Robert John Wilmot Horton (the original is held at the Derbyshire Record Office). illus.: A contemporary impression of the scene at the Moorish Arch. 15th Sept;

Atkins, Philip. An Inchicore threesome. 396-9.
Robert Coey, Richard Maunsell and Edward Watson, successively Locomotive Superintendents of the Great Southern & Western Railway at Inchicore: a rich source of biographical information, some which has been added to the relevant material in the biogragrphical sections. See letter from J. Cliffe (page 517) which adds some information about Hutchinson. illus.: portrait of Robert Coey; Robert Coey's letter of appointment; A caricature of R.E.L.Maunsell; R.E.L.Maunsell's letter of appointment; Maunsell class N fitted with Marshall's valve gear; Promotional material for Marshall's valve gear company; GS&WR no 401 as originally built; GS&WR no 401 as version 5!. Includes references to Joynt's Reminiscences of an Irish railway works.

Book reviews. 400.
Miles Platting to Diggle. Jeffrey Wells. Challenger. MB. ****
Criticises lack of maps. Includes freight branches.
Narrow gauge at War. Two. Keith Taylorson. Plateway. SDW. *****
"highly recommeneded". WW1 railways. Includes a reproduction of material from Railway Gazette (1920) War Transport Special number.
Railway Roundabout - a guide to the highlights of the classix TV series. Rex Christiansen. Ian Allan. SDW **
"This book is a fine opportunity missed". Inaccurate captions.
Official drawings of LMS wagons. R.J. Essery. Wild Swan. PWB **
Criticises Wild Swan standard paper size which causes drawings to be crowded onto page. Difficult to read, possibly because based on microfilm copies. Most photographs have been reproduced already.

Rolling stock focus - Midland railway signal boxes. Richard D. Foster (notes). 401.
illus.: Beeston station signal box and level crossing in March 1969 (J.F. Henton); Masboro sorting sidings south signal box in 1977 (S.C. Dent).

Colour files - Signs and Notices. 402-3.
illus.: Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Railway "beware of trains" at Haxey & Epworth in August 1961 (J.S. Gilks*) , Midland  Railway "trespass" at Settle on 16 May 1980 (*), Ministry of Transport "low bridge" under ECML at Barkston in November 1967 (J.F. Henton), GNoSR "trespass" at Longmorn on 22 August 1965 (*), Halberton Halt "train times" letter page 517 corrects captions for this and previous illustration (former is enamelled sign) this sign lacked a lower border by design (Les Elsey), road sign (finger type) to where Low Gill station once was on 112 June 1964 (Rodney Lissenden), Great Eastern  "weight restriction on overbridge" at Wickford on 12 October 1963 (*) and Great Western and Great Central Railways Joint Committee "Private Road'" at Beaconsfield (*).

Readers' Forum. 404.
Festival of Britain trains. D. Horne
The William Shakespeare suffered from poor patronage especially on down train. The return called at all stations to Leamington Spa. See feature page 124.
The Gatehead Viaduct. M. Seymour.
Plate rails wrong way round. See C.F. Dendy Marshall pp. 133-5. Furthermore the surface was too sharp for horse-drawn traffic. Relates to feature page 159.
The 1948 shows. Albin J. Reed.
Questions colour of MSJ&A units (KPJ: a light green, similar to experimental light green applied to rebuilt Patriot). See page 171.
Trouble on the Trans-Pennine line. H. Tyne.
Diggle accident of 5 July 1923: See page 243. Writer's great uncle, Harry Holdsworth, was the driver on 9.22 Leeds to Manchester. Following accident he continued to drive and did not die until 1949. He was based at Farnley Junction. Father Hilary, a Roman Catholic priest, aided the injured.
Trouble on the Trans-Pennine line. David N. Carter.
See feature page 243: author fails to recognize on map that Saddleworth Urban District Council used to be in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and remained so until local government reorganization. Writer claims Lees was in Yorkshire. Also gives further information about terminal fate of Class 141 after its encounter with class 153 in Huddersfield (rather later than most of events described).
Maunsell 2-6-0s. "30922"
Corriegendum (see page 138): NOT an N1 but a U1, possibly 30901 (published previously with same error)
The electric trains of Merseyside 1890-1935. J.H. Price
Claims photograph (page 181) was taken at Seaforth ( but see further letter page 517) by Dudley Bridgwater.
John Ramsbottom (1814-1897). Robin Pennie.
Request for information about the location of books and papers bequeathed to his son, George Holt Ramsbottom), and to the two testimonials presented to him by the LNWR Board (a piece of silver) and by the Crewe Mechanics Institute (a scroll)
The 'Irish Mail'. Philip A. Millard.
Corriegenda to article by Bruce (page 274).The rolling stock was dedicated to the service (the full brakes were unique to it). 65' 6" dining (not restaurant) and sleeping cars were used on Irish services from their introduction. Mail was sorted on the preceding Down Special Mail, dropped and picked up by Irish Mail, with neither train needing to stop.

North London from Broad Street. 405.
B&w illus.: 58859 (NLR 0-6-0T) on rail tour on 5 May 1956.

Crossing Arten Gill. Alan Tyson. rear cover
76083 on permanent way train including former LNWR carriage serving as staff van (29 June 1964).

Number 8 (August 1997)

BR Class 5 4-6-0 No 73029 on the turntable at Eastleigh. Les Elsey front cover
24 May 1965: painted green

The importance of being Alchymist. Michael Blakemore. 411.
Editorial: Mission - Impossible (Virgin Trains), Alchymist, Bat and Vandal (LNWR), Call Boy and Gay Crusader (LNER) and Jingling Geordie (NBR) all are/were locomotive names.

South Wales Industrial steam. Keith R. Chester. 412-13.
illus.: Brynlliw colliery being shunted by a 0-6-0 with no identification; Graig Merthyr colliery loco Norma; Merthyr Vale colliery loco No. 1; Ex GWR 57xx No. 7754 sold to the NCB in 1959; Hafodyrynys colliery with locomotive reputedly made from bits of three others; Impromptu coaling of Sir John at Mountain Ash;

Broad Street Station. Frank Goudie. 414-20
The North London Railway (City Branch) Act of 1861 authorized Broad Street Station and its approach lines. The LNWR provided part of the finance. The GER approached the NLR suggesting a joint terminus at Moorgate, but the NLR rejected this forcing the GER to construct Liverpool Street. The land cost for Broad Street was £400,000 and £1m capital was authorized. The contractors for the Kingsland to Broad Street stretch were Baring Brothers. The Chief Engineer was William Baker and the line was inspected by Captain Rich. The Station opened on 31 October 1865. It opened with 7 platforms, grew to 8 platforms in 1891 and 9 in 1913. A passageway and lifts gave access to the Central London Railway in 1912. The goods facilities were very important. The NLR served the GNR suburbs, not via running powers, but by a system of payments from the GNR (the NLR would not tolerate the GNR working into Broad Street. The NLR became very prosperous with LNWR services from Watford, Richmond, St Albans and Stanmore, and between February 1910 and 1914 a City-to-City train from Birmingham. A decline began early in the 20th century and the LNWR announced plans for electrification in 1911: services to Richmond began on 1 October 1916. In contrast, GNR commuters were treated to archaic 4-wheel stock hauled by museum piece 4-4-0Ts until 1933 when old LNWR and MR bogie stock was found and Jinty 0-6-0T and Stanier 2-6-2Ts displaced the NLR 4-4-0Ts. High-pressure gas lighting was installed at Broad Street on 28 July 1914. A War Memorial was installed at Broad Street. The electrification was completed in October 1922. There was serious over-crowding on the New Lines, Following WW2 the LNER was permitted to run into Broad Street. The Broad Street to Richmond line came to the attention of Beeching, but a powerful anti-closure movement saved the line until 1985 when Broad Street was closed for office development and train services were diverted to North Woolwich. The station buildings were demolished in 1986. Additional information on commuter service to Tring which lasted until 1966 page 633. illus.: A pair of class 501 EMUs; Broad street in 1983; Broad street in 1898; Interior of Broad Street in 1898; Interior of Broad Street; Oerlikon stock train at South Kenton; The link from Broad Street to other lines; The station from the top of the water softening plant; Adam's 4-4-0 No. 27 leaving Hackney; Adam's 4-4-0 No. 109; 4-4-0 No. 39;

'Those cursed Sunday trains'. Anthony Davis. 421-3.
Consideration of Sabbatarian attitudes, especially of the Lord's Day Observance Society. The L&MR made arrangements for the transfer of dividends from that proportion of profits accruing to Sunday travel to charities for those shareholders who considered that they could not accept earnings from Sunday work. Excursions were perceived as being especially evil and the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway was pilloried for its Sunday excursions. The Clayton Tunnel accident of 1861 which took place on a Sunday was perceived as being the wrath of God. The Lord's Day Observance Society distributed tracts at stations. There were several attempts to make Parliament to intervene and prevent Sunday travel, but these failed. Sabbatarianism was rife in Scotland, and the Scottish Central Railway refused to convey the Duchess of Sutherland to her dying father. The Tay Bridge disaster falling on a Sunday was a further act of the God of wrath. The "battle" of Strome Ferry when the Highland Railway attempted  to convey fish on the Sabbath led to disturbances and prison sentences for the Sabbatarians. On the other hand, the National Sunday League promoted railway travel as a means of providing breaks for the working classes. illus.: Sabbath breaking posters; Excursion poster by the Newcastle and Carlisle railway; A brochure for the selfish traveller; Sunday services as a percentage of weekday trains. See letter by Wells p.576.;

The four cylinder compound Atlantics of the North Eastern Railway. Philip Atkins. 424-9.
W.M. Smith took out at least 14 patents between 1873 and 1904, BP 14,721/1898 related to three-cylinder compounds, and BP 16,310/1900 and BP 5526/1901 to four-cylinder compounds. This very detailed account of two locomotives, suggests that there may have been a link via Smith's son John (who was a senior man at Derby with de Glehn and the Nord compound Atlantics). illus.: A W.H.Smith patent that accurately foresaw the NER class 4CC to a; NER No. 730 the official photograph; NER No. 730 in its prime; NER No. 730 superheated in 1915; NER No. 730 with a Midland pattern wheel and handle on the smokebox door; NER No. 730 but in LNER livery; A fretwork depicting NER class 4CC on display in the NRM; A french import onto the GWR brought for evaluation in 1903 No. 102 La France; Leading dimensions of GWR and NER four cylinder compound 4-4-2's;

The Queen's journey from Gosport to Renfrew and Ballater. W.E.C. Gibson. 430-2,
Concentrates on that part of the journey made on 21 and 22 August 1888 when the Queen travelled from Gosport to Renfrew and in particular the short journay from Renfrew to Glasgow St Enoch when many alterarions were made to the running of trains, the emission of smoke and steam and the excusion of people from platforms, etc. The Queen was the guest of Sir Archibald Campbell of Blythwood House who was Chairman of the committee organizing an exhibtion which the Queen was to attend. illus.: Make up of the train; The timetable Gosport to Renfrew via L&SW, GW, L&NW and G&SW railways; 2-2-2-0 City of Liverpool on the Royal Train c 1886; Local timetable for Royal trains between Renfrew and Glasgow; Make up of the train; the posh version;

The BR Standard Class 5 4-6-0s. 433-5.
illus.: Standard class 5 No 73031 at Rotherham; Standard class 5 No 73035 on Camden bank; Standard class 5 No 73113 at Eastleigh; Standard class 5 no 73142 at Daresbury; Standard class 5 No 73026 at Banbury; Standard class 5 No 73026 Camelot at Weybridge; Standard class 5 no 73115 in filthy condition at Byfleet;

A visit to the Isle of Wight. 436-7.
illus.: '02' tanks no 35 Freshwater at Newport on 2 March 1963 (Paul Strong); 28 Ashley smokebox being cleaned at Ventnor on 6 January 1966 (caption writer had clearly not been to Island) (B.R. Oliver*); Drewry petrol railcar No. 1 on Ryde Pier Tramway on 28 May 1966 (*); 'O2' tank no 27 Merstone arriving Newport with train from Cowes on 2 March 1963 (Paul Strong) and No 28 Ashley at Ventnor (as previous).

On demonstration. Michael Rutherford (captions). 438-40.
Col. illus.: Gas turbine GT3 climbing to Shap in October 1961 (Derek Cross); prototype Deltic apprroaching Hadley Wood with up express including Gresley stock in October 1960 (D. Trevor Rowe); Brush prototype no D0280 Falcon at King's Cross about to leave on Master Cutler in 1962 (T.J. Edgington); English Electric DP2 at Camden in June 1962 (J.G. Dewing); Birmingham Carriage and Wagon Lion passing Tysley on Paddington to Birmingham express in May 1962 (Michael Mensing); Brush Kestrel on display at Cricklewood in July 1969 (C.J. Gammell);

Iron girders - Part 3. D.K. Horne. 441-4.
Part 2 began page 308. Appreciative letter page 576. and informative letter in Vol 12 page 172 by Heath. See additional article in Volume 13 page 296. illus.: Patent drawings for various designs of girder bridge; Blackwall railway bridge at Commercial Road Limehouse; Bridge at Pallas Green on the Tipperary to Limerick line; Bridge across Newark Dyke; Taff Vale bridge / Crumlin viaduct featured in the film Arabesque;

O.V.S. Bulleid and his work - a bibliographic survey. (Railway Reflections No. 32). Michael Rutherford. 445-51.
This is an extremely useful guide to Bulleid's own publications (patents excepted of course), which includes some of Bulleid's contributions to discussions on other's work and an evaluative listing of the very considerable bibliographty relating to Bulleid and his work. See also Bulleid. Geoffrey Hughes adds an interesting point concerning Swift (page 688). The distinguished librarian of the British Library was sharply critical of Rutherford's failure to cite patents and many other key sources of information (12 page 60). illus.: Channel Packet no 21C1 when new; Cock o' the North' no 2001; The 'Hush-hush' being built at Darlington; No 35017 Belgian Marine with LMS tender at King's Cross; Maunsell class N no A816 fitted with Anderson's patent condensing system; No 35018 British India line; No 34059 Sir Archibald Sinclair; No 35022 Holland America line on test at Rugby; No 35008 Orient Line; No 35010 at Eastleigh; No 35026 Lamport and Holt line; Drawings of an electric loco, a diesel-electric and a 'Leader'.;

Scottish trader's wagons - the background to demurrage and siding rent. Arnold Tortorella. 452-5.
The writer produced an earlier article (8-44) on a specific demurrage case involving the GSWR versus one of its users and this produced a long response from Mallon (9-386). Scottish traders' wagons was the Scottish term for private owners' wagons, and in addition, in Scotland, there were thirled wagons, whereby the railway companies loaned to particular traders for their traffic - almost entirely coal: this technique was favoured by the CR and NBR. Tabulated data list the numbers of private wagons working on the Caledonian railway; traders v company wagons by railway (GSWR/CR/NBR); thirled wagons and their users; major wagon owners. The article suggests further sources of information for Scottish traders' wagons, notably the HMRS collections relating to R.Y. Pickering & Co. and the Hurst Nelson Collection. The illustrations are from these collections (and for the second time in my KPJ life the items below are identified in some depth).: four plank ten ton open wagon with wooden wooden solebars and headstocks and cupboard sidedoors and spring buffers for Adam Gardner of Edinburgh (Pickering); four plank ten ton open wagon as prev. for St Cuthberts Co-operative Association, Edinburgh (Pickering); four plank ten ton open wagon with steel solebars and headstocks, cupboard side doors and single end door for Clyde Shipping Co (Pickering); five plank ten ton wagon with steel solebars and headstocks, cupboard side doors and single end door for Wm Black & Sons Ltd, Trabboch Colliery, Ayr (Pickering); six-plank open coke wagon  with two fixed coke rails and drop down side doors with timber underframe and sprung buffers for Mackenzie Brothers, Gorgie (Hurst Nelson); covered goods van with timber underframe, cupboard doors and ventilating slits for J. & W. Stuart of Musselburgh (net & twine manufacturers) (HN), and four plank eight ton open wagon with timber underframe and dumb buffers for John Smith & Sons of Aberfeldy (HN): Note the bulk of the Hurst Nelson collection was dated when received at Motherwell & Wishaw Public Library.

The tale of a railway season ticket. W.F.C. Gibson. 456
Mr Mathew Smith held an annual season ticket holder for the journey between Kilmarnock and Ayr. Following an incident at Gatehead, when tickets were examined and in which Mr Smith failed to show his ticket to an un-uniformed member of staff, the GSWR refused to renew the ticket and Mr Smith took the Company to Court. On 20 June 1888 the Sheriff Hall found in favour of Smith and awarded him the cost of the Court action. illus.: GSWR 208 class 0-4-2 no 212 at Stranraer

Rolling stock focus - Southern bogie ballast wagons. Paul W. Bartlett. 457
Col. illus.: The LSWR introduced bogie ballast wagons to convey the output from Meldon Quarry: both of the wagons illustrated stem from this design: DS62050 was built by the SR in 1937 and had diamond bogies and DB992521 built by Metropolitan Cammel for BR in 1954.

Colour files - North Eastern Railway signal boxes. Stephen Dent (phot.) and Richard D. Foster (captions). 458-9.
illus.: Nunthorpe signal box; Staddlethorpe signal box (long letter on this signal box by Mick Nicholson page 633); Hexham signal box; Norwood signal box; Penshaw signal box;

Readers' Forum. 460.
On the Great North of Scotland. R. Jackson,
See 11-332: article on GNSR engines correctly states that the company never owned any 0-6-0 tender engines, but goods engines ordered for opening in 1854 should have been 0-6-0s as Board considered six-coupled engines better for goods work. When they failed to be delivered on time, Messrs. Fairbaim's excuse was that the design had been altered. It tumed out that D.K. Clark, the company's Locomotive Superintendent, had changed them to 2-4-0s without telling anybody. As it was then too late to change them, the directors were not best pleased!
The Bury Influence. Harry Jack
See 11-205: Writer would like to believe that the locomotive building records of Edward Bury & Co. still exist somewhere, but the recurring story that they went to the United States in the 1890s is probably just another myth put about by that irrepressible railway writer, Clement Edwin Stretton (1850-1915). who published hundreds (perhaps thousands) of articles and letters and several books about railways and locomotives, but most of his work is misleading - or quite worthless - because so much of it is fiction. What he did not know, he simply made up. He was involved in the preparation of railway exhibits for the 1893 Columbian Exposition at Chicago and claimed that Bury's books and working drawings were sent there. As "there was a very great probability of these interesting records being lost to this country" he said he had made copies of them. But, from drawings and details of Bury engines which Stretton subsequently published, it is obvious that his information was not authentic and that, as usual, much of it came from his fertile imagination.
He also claimed that the originals were then deposited in the Field Museum at Chicago. Enquiries to the Museum and to other likely sources in America have produced no information at all. It is diffi cult to believe that the Bury archives, which must have contained original material about several of America's first locomotives, could have simply disappeared in a land where there are so many knowledgeable researchers into railway history if they ever were in Chicago.
Another recurring story (mentioned in Mr. Martin's letter) that one of Bury's engines from the London & Birmingham Railway went with the Franklin Expedition in 1845 and now lies beneath the icy waters of northem Canada, is also unlikely. At that time the L&BR was not selling off its main line stock (which remained intact until 1847) but was trying to get rid of some old ballast engines. Almost certainly the locomotive used to power HMS Terror was one of these - an outside wooden-framed Stephenson-type 0-4-0. If ever found, it and the London & Greenwich engine in Erebus would make interesting comparisons with the replica Planet at Manchester's Museum of Science & Industry. Further letter on this topic page 689..
Western Region Camping Coaches. Andrew McRae
The two photographs featured (11-337) represent two different generations of camping coaches. W9966 was one of the 65 pre-war GWR examples, in this instance an example of a 42 ft long Dean clerestory centre-van composite of diagram E18, No.6850, converted at Swindon in 1935. Its career as a 'Camp Coach' (the GWR description; strictly speaking there never was such a thing as a GWR Camping Coach'!) was relatively brief as, following war service, it was retained by the engineers rather than re-employed as holiday accommodation. All surviving pre-war camping coaches, other than those belonging to the Southem Railway, were similarly retained for departmental use, whilst a second generation of newly-converted camping coaches was made available for public use with effect from 1952. Yet further comment from McRae on page 60 or Volume 12.
The Western Region eventually commissioned a further 60 coaches (not including later Pullman 'Holiday Coaches') converted largely from elliptical roof Churchward corridor thirds similar in appearance to the diagram C31 example, the former No.3634, pictured at Churston. Having been amongst the initial batch of 30 coaches (W9900W to W9929W) introduced in 1952, this vehicle would also have at first been identified as a 'Camp Coach' but from 1954 the Westem Region finally fell into line and began to describe its holiday homes as 'Camping Coaches'.
The engineers continued to use the appellation 'Camp Coach' to describe their own mobile accommodation: there were one or two examples of such coaches, being repainted into the reddish- brown or black service vehicle liveries, receiving the legend 'Camp Coach', a practice which may have confused the travelling public. Furthermore, in the 1950s the London Midland Region similarly adopted the term 'Camp Coach' (as opposed to Camping Coach'), to identify vehicles used as sleeping accommodation by the Chief Civil Engineer's department.
Notwithstanding its fine external appearance, the stated location of W9929W suggests that by the time it was photographed this coach may also have been retired from public use, as neither Churston, nor any other station on the Kingswear branch, was identified in contemporary publicity material as a camping coach site. Throughout the 1960s Westem Region camping coaches would continue to appear in a variety of unlikely locations, still bedecked with their traditional colours and retaining their identity as camping coaches, even though their role had clearly changed.

On a related matter, and further to Keith Smith's letter in the June issue describing the history of surviving GWR toplights, it is perhaps worth noting that The Railway Observer of June 1959 confirms that the five-character names applied to the Dawlish Warren camping coaches were, in fact, first used in 1959 and not, as suggested, at some point in the late 1960s. The RO records that the names were "painted in white Gill Sans letters on small polished wooden boards, screwed to the footboard besides the entrance ladder". The subsequent renumbering of these coaches, involving the simple deletion of the first two numerals, occurred some time after they had been taken over by the Westem Region Staff Association for use by railway employees and their families, following the withdrawal of the facilities to the general public on the Westem Region at the close of the 1964 season.
Western Region Camping Coaches. John H.P Lloyd
Caption to photographs of ex GWR Camping Coaches (11-337) requested further information. Michael Harris' Great Western Coaches from 1890 provides details in Chapter 10 of the origins of all the GWR Campers, but many of the older vehicles do not appear in either Harris' or J. H. Russell's heavier work in four volumes, which means historical data is somewhat more elusive.
1. According to Harris Nos.9966-9 were converted January 1935 from non-corridor Lavatory Composites Nos.6850/3/6/8 which were around 46ft in length. These originated in Lot 411, which dates from the early 1880s, but whereas the latter three were to Diagram El7, No.9966 was from Diagram E18.
2. No.9929: no date is given for conversion, but it would have been about 1952. 57ft in length, it was converted from Diagram C31 Corridor Third No.3634 which emerged from Swindon in May 1921 as part of Lot 1286. This group was actually based on rebuilds of older vehicles originating around the outbreak of WW1, amongst those under construction as Diagram C28 Corridor Thirds. These were sold en masse to the War Department and completed as part of the Great Western's contribution to the fleet of Ambulance Trains, were then repurchased after the end of hostilities and only at last entered their originally-intended role.
Liverpool Overhead Railway. J.W. Gahan
In book review of Portrait of the Liverpool Overhead Railway it is stated that the system was a pioneer in the use of multiple-unit trains. The LOR never had multiple-units, each three-car train (motor-trailer-motor) was a 'unit' in itself, and could not be coupled in multiple with another train. The only time six-car trains ran was after closure when one train hauled another from Dingle to Seaforth Sands for scrap.
SECR Coaches. Neil Knowlden
David Jenkinson is correct in stating (p.296 lower) that two pairs of former SECR coaches were articulated and two not. He then states incorrectly that these two were used for push-pull working - for some, equally obscure reason, the other pairs were, but not the articulated pairs which always had to be run round at each end of the line! This has always puzzled me and an explanation from anyone "in the know" would be extremely welcome. Further letter & illus page 577..
Windermere. R. Forsythe
Gremlin in the printed text: opening date of the Windermere line was 1847 and not 1897.
Editorial Gremlin
In the colour feature Shunting the Southem' in the June issue, the E1/R 0-6-2T in the top left-hand picture is clearly No.32695 (not, as stated, No.32696). No.32695 had been built as El No.103 Normandy. I have recently bought some new glasses! Ed.

Book reviews. 461.
The railways of Keynsham: featuring Fry's Chocolate passenger and freight operations. Russell Leitch, Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. CD ***
well-rounded study of Keynsham... The author doesn't always give his sources, which makes it difficult to know just how reliable some of the data are... it's sometimes difficult to see the wider significance of events through this mass of information
The heyday of the Welsh narrow gauge. Peter Johnson, Ian Allan, SDW. *****
This is a superb pictorial volume. The pictures are uniformly splendid.
Off the beaten track - Irish railway walks. Kevin Cronin, Belfast: Appletree Press, Belfast. SDW ***
This is a book of a TV series and is a walkers' guide to the derelict railways of Ireland with the railway history element being secondary
The Festiniog Railway - a view from the past. Peter Johnson, Ian Allen. SDW *****
fascinating pictorial record of the pre-preservation Festiniog. The selection and standard of the photographs is eloquent testimony to the quality of the work and the interest of the subject. The book concludes with an extensive bibliography.
Portrait of the 'Atlantic Coast Express. Stephen Austin. Ian Allan. MB ****
One of the most interesting chapters describes the intricate operational arrangements of the 'ACE' and we can only admire the skill of the railwaymen who made it work so smoothly. The 'ACE' was a train the like of which we shall not see again and this is a worthy tribute to it.
Great Western, Swindon (The Archive Photographs Series). compiled Tim Bryan, Chelford Publishing  MR *
General collection of official photographs possibly taken from albums or loose prints held by the GWR Museum, rather than being made from the negatives. Quality is not as good as it might be, the printing is rather grey and flat and no negative numbers are quoted which is very annoying when publicly-held collections are used in this day and age. The captions are very brief and not very helpful.
Widnes & St. Helens Railways and Warrington Railways. The Archive Photographs Service. Compiled Bob Pixton. Chalford Publishing. TJE ***
wide-ranging selection of pictures, approximately 200 in each volume, covering not only trains but also most stations, bridges and signal boxes. The photographs range from pre-grouping days through to the end of steam but unfortunately the quality of reproduction does not do justice to the originals, being flat and muddy.

Jubilee' 4-6-0 No 45557 New Brunswick about to enter Rainbow Hill.  rear cover
illus.:

Number 9 (1997 September)

GWR steam at Leamington shed in 1961. Celyn Leigh-Jones. front cover.
8 October 1961: 5101. 5904 Kelham Hall, 7816 Frilsham Manor

The grand day out. Michael Blakemore. 467
Editorial: former ability of railways to run special trains (cites the 100 extra trains run by Eastern Region for Pope's visit to York in 1982) in contrast to impotence of Railtrack to run anything at anytime. Also notes origin of railway excursions.

Football supporters' trains in the post war period. Andrew Wilson. 468-74.
Not really a complete account, but illustrates some of the activity which used to take place through an exceptionally fortunate run by Norwich City in the FA Cup in 1959 when they played Tottenham at White Hart Lane and this produced seventeen trains from a variety of starting points, including Sheringham and Yarmouth South Town. Many reserve locomotives were available at strategic points, such as Ely, in case of failures. Having won the replay at Carrow Road, the team was away to Sheffield United and this produced more specials. Details of Cup Final specials to/or for Wembley in the late period of steam conclude the article. Led to letters from Travers concerning the nature of this traffic and from the late Jack Burrell on the rapid response by the LMS to a draw in a pre-WW2 in a cup tie between Bristol City and Derby County and Macnab states the dangers of urinating from Mk 1 non-corridor stock (page 688).. T.J. Edgington indicates an error on page 474 implying routing via M&GNJ - it was via Peterborough East, Luffenham, Saxby & Nottingham. (page 633). Yet another letter on page 60 of Volume 12. illus.: Britannia No. 70038 Robin Hood at Willesden; Jubilee No. 45598 Basutoland passing over Charwelton water troughs; Jubilee No. 45590 Travancore; B1 No. 61204; V2 No. 60890 at Woodford Halse; Rebuilt Jubilee No. 45735 Comet; Class 5 No. 44907 at Hawthorn's Halt; LMS nos. 45530 Sir Frank Ree, 45523 Bangor, 46235 City of Birmingham and; 8F No. 48430 pilots No. 34046 Braughton up Old Hill Bank; The driver of Ivatt No. 46446 stopped in Aston station gives some football; West Country No. 34098 Templecombe heads up Hatton Bank; Table 1 Great Eastern specials 14.2.59 to London; Table 2 Great Eastern 28.2.59? specials to Sheffield; Table 3 Bulleid Pacific workings 27.4.63 to Birmingham;

The building of a railway - extracts from the journal of Henry Steel Thirlway; edited Jean Denton. 475-9.
The keeper of the journal was a Ripon bookseller who observed the construction of the railway between Leeds and Thirsk (mainly in the vicinity of Ripon) during the period 1845 to 1851. Errors were noted in the maps by Bickersteth and Liddell. Further information on bridge across Ure (Horne page 633) and on Government Inspector (Captain Laffan) on page 633. illus.: Ex NER D20 No. 2384; A3 pacific No. 2508 Brown Jack; A3 pacific No. 2578 Bayardo; Early railways used by Thirlways; Leeds and Thirsk railway [Ripon section]; Ex NER class Z LNER class C7 No. 2167;

Back on shed. Jim Carter (phot.). 480-1.
illus.: BR class 5 No. 73040 moving off shed viewed from coaling tower at Patricroft in 1964; Crewe shed with six locomotives simmering taken from roof of 70033; Edgehill shed with Coronation No. 46240 City of Coventry and Britannia No. 70045 Lord Rowallan in 1961; Black Five No. 45338 and Coronation No. 46239 City of Chester on 28 August 1964 at Crewe North; LMS Pacifics Nos.. 46233 Duchess of Sutherland and 46245 City of London at Edge Hill in 1961.

Strangers on the shore -the foreign steam locomotive in Britain & Ireland. Robin Barnes. 482-6.
This part includes theBorsig-built L class for the SECR (Borsig had to wait until 1920 for payment due to WW1). WW1 interfered with the supply of six 0-6-2Ts for the TVR which should have come from Hanomag, but were constructed by NBL instead. In 1866 the GER had taken delivery of ten 2-4-0s from Schneider of Le Creusol in France to a Sinclair design; a batch of six 2-2-2s was also supplied. The Barry Railway ordered five 0-6-2Ts from Franco-Belge. Mentions the large number of American manufactured diesel locomotives which passed through Britain during WW2 for service in Mainland Europe. Also mentions the large number of small electrical locomotives which were supplied from the USA for industrial use. The American influence upon British design, notably that of Churchward and Gresley is briefly described and, in greater detail, the imports of American steam locomotives for service in Britain. This begins with the Norris locomotives for the Birmingham & Gloucester, covers the Lovett Eames used to promote the air brake, the standrad 2-6-0s aquired by several railways, including the MR and GCR during the locomotive famine of the 1890s. One of the most interesting acquisitions was a Shay supplied to Sir Alfred Hickman at the Springvale Furnace in Bilston: this ran betwen 1900 and about 1912 (it is illustrated in the Locomotive (1930 15 September page 305). Barnes quotes his souirces when they relate to the unexpected. illus.: SECR No.773 made in Berlin; The first locomotive imported for the Liverpool and Manchester, the Norris; Baldwin 5000 imported to demonstrate the Eames duplex vacuum brake; Baldwin 2-4-2 Lyn; Schenectady locomotive, Midland railway No.2512; Baldwin 2-6-0 GCR No.960; Barry railway No. 119 by Cooke of New Jersey; Port Talbot railway with another Cooke locomotive PTR No. 21; Baldwin 0-6-2 used on the Cork, Brandon and South Coast Railway;

The LNER V1 tanks. 489
Colour feature: LNER V1 tank No.67664 at Prkhead Depot on 6 June 1960 (with slip coupling gear fitted for working Cowlairs Incline (John H. Hills); LNER V1 tank No.67680 at Eastfield MPD in September 1962 (Geoff Rixon).

The 'Nelson' touch. 490-1.
Colour feature: Lord Nelson class Nos. 30850 Lord Nelson at Sindon Works on 24 June 1962 (R.C. Riley); 30851 Sir Francis Drake at Southampton in 1956; 30861 Lord Anson at Nine Elms in 1957 (A. Sainty); 30857 Lord Howe at Sothampton Ocean Terminal in 1956 (P.B. Whitehouse); 30859 Lord Hood passing Farnborough in November 1959 (G.H. Hunt).

Shap surmounted. Derek Cross (phot.). 492-3.
Colour feature:  Britannia No.70006 Robert Burns on Blackpool to Glasgow special on 28 September 1964; Class 5 No.45114 on a freight train being banked by a 2-6-4T on 17 July 1965; Black Five No.45385 on Blackpool to Glasgow extra on 28 September 1964 (KPJ: was 28 September: Glasgow September Weekend holiday?).

'Cromptons' on camera. 494-5.
Colour feature: D6573 in original green livery on cement train on Weybridge West curve on 22 April 1967; D6538 (blue livery) on Waterloo to Bournemouth express passing Wandsworth Common on 7 July 1967 (both Chris Gammell); 33.029 on Cardiff to Portsmouth train near Claverton on 14 November 1987; 33.102 propels Weymouth to Bournemouth local away from Moreton on 12 April 1980; 33.114 also propelling train at Poole in May 1987 (all Paul Joyce).

The changing face of the Rheidol. 496
Colour feature: Vale of Rheidol No. 7 in 1953; Vale of Rheidol No. 7 in 1955 (both T.B. Owen); Vale of Rheidol no8 Llywelyn in the mid 1960s (Tony Wakefield).

Should our railways be nationalised?. Roger Backhouse. 497-500.
Consideration of William Cunningham's literary campaign (lengthy books published in about 1900 - author gives full citation for 4th edition of book which shares the article's title) for the nationalization of railways. See letter by John Watling (page 688). illus.: Stirling O class; NER railway map at Scarborough; Midland coach built in 1897; A locomotive of the last main line to London;

The era of Sir Henry Fowler. (Railway Refections [No. 33]). Michael Rutherford. 501-9.
Fowler is examined in the usual Rutherford style. Several sources are listed which fall outside the period covered by Jones, notably an appreciation by Baldwin, and an important paper by James Clayton. On the other hand it was written prior to Chacksfield's biography. "Direction in new design, if it came, was more by accident and lack of interference than by purpose. It certainly didn't come from Fowler. The Garratts (Anderson's variant) were an example of where the CME should have put his foot down..." illus.: A pair of Fowler class 4 goods engines at Elstree; Sir Henry Fowler with Dr H.H.Bemrose Scout commissioner for Derbyshire at the naming of The Boy Scout; Fowler 483 class / class 2 rebuild No. 557; Proposal for a 2-6-0 goods engine; Big Bertha, the Lickey banker; The Somerset and Dorset class 7F No. 13802; Fowler 483 class / class 2 No. 353; LMS standard 4-4-0; Royal Scot No. 6102 Black Watch; Preliminary design for No. 6399 Fury; Design for a 2-4-0 auto train locomotive; Class 3 No. 40033 at Farringdon; 7F No. 9531 at Toton.

Whitehaven memories. Brian Syddall. 510-13.
Colliery railways at Haigh and Ladysmith collieries which included late-working inclins. Michael J. Smith sent a list (page 689) of the locomotives which he saw at Whitehaven in 1946 (and Philip J. Ashworth contributed a long letter in Vol. 12 page 232 on many aspects of the collieries of Whitehaven and their locomotives). illus.: Haigh colliery with 0-6-0ST Stanley in the middle of its train; Whitehaven harbour with 0-4-0ST Askham Hall in one piece and 0-4-0ST; 0-4-0ST King at Ladysmith colliery; Howgill Incline with a runaway wagon in the sand drag; Askham Hall dumping on the waste tip; Map of the railways of Whitehaven; 0-6-0ST Respite shunting wagons at the Ladysmith washer; The landslip between Howgill Incline and the Haig colliery: Rebuilding the;

Colour files - Taff Vale railway architecture - part 1. Bob Sankey. 514-15.
illus.: Aberaman station; Dinas railway station; Penarth goods shed; Penrhiwceiber station; Sully station;

Rolling stock focus - ex-works liveries. David Jenkinson. 516.
illus.: BR Mk 1 non corridor brake second No. 43137 (John Macnab notes how the livery faded rapidly); Southern Railway TPO No. S4922S;

Readers' Forum. 517.
The Hawkshaw singles of the LYR. S.G. Allsopp.
See page 368: detailed analysis of how the 2-2-2 would have been rebuilt as a 2-4-0. Allsopp returns to subject in Volume 12 (page 173), by which time the original author had made a response on page 60: He also argues that cabs were not fitted to early locomotives as the carbon monoxide produced during coke burning would have endangered the enginemen. 
The Liverpool electrics. Dudley Bridgwater.
See letter by Price page 404: Location of illustration (page 181) Marshall's siding, not Seaforth as stated by Price.
Signs & notices. Michael V.E. Dunn.
See page 402: corriegenda to captions
Irish locomotive engineers. J. Cliffe.
George Hutchinson (see feature by Atkins page 396) was known to letter writer. Hutchinson confirmed Maunsell's popularity at Inchicore. The 3-cylinder 0-8-2T design had to be abandoned as it was impossible to fit an inside or derived valve gear due to the small driving wheels. Notes his involvement in design of 341 Sir William Goulding and 257-64 superheater 0-6-0. He was patentee of "Maunsell" superheater which was fitted to the above designs. Watson displaced the superheater with the Schmidt type: this was a source of his unpopularity together with his anti-Irish feelings. See also Hutchinson.
The LMS. T.F. Coleman and locomotives. D.H. Landau.
Refers back to letter by J van Riemsdijk (page 106), which in turned related to a Railway Reflections in Volume 10 (page 560). Queries relative performance of Peppercorn A1 class with Duchess class, but writer notes that Duchess Pacifics were a major advance upon Princess Royal class in trems of boiler performance and front end.
Country house stations. T.J. Edgington.
Trentham Station was on NSR mainline, not on Churnet Valley Line (see page 298).

The Pass of Killiecrankie with a pair of BRCW class 27s. Cliff Woodhead rear cover
May 1969: train far below on viaduct alongside River Garry which also dwarfs train.

Number 10 (October 1997)

A3 4-6-2 No 2582 Sir Hugo at Grantham. C.C.B. Herbert front cover
apple green with pre-renumbering number in August 1946.

LMS 2-6-2T taking on water at Caernarfon. David Sutcliffe (phot.). 522
col. illus. 22 Juky 1962: RCTS Festiniog Scenic Tour:

What kind of railway history do we want. David Joy. 523.
Editorial on standards of writing and publishing, including George Ottley's statement that "one's first impression upon entering a railway bookshop is that nobody reads books today"

Lines to the Citadel. Alan Earnshaw. 524-31.
Lacks a map which brings into question the status of this feature (was it merely a plug for certain Atlantic publications, such as the excellent book by M.C. Reed). The article covers the arrival in the City of the Newcatle & Carlisle and Maryport & Carlisle Railways followed by the Lancaster & Carlisle and Caledonian Railways, and then by the outsiders: GSWR, NBR and MR. Feature lacks the colour which earlier writers were able to bring, and fow which the writer should have sought for appropriate quotations. illus.: Britannia No. 70018 Flying Dutchman (col. Les Elsey*) 6 Aug 1966; LMS pacific No. 46238 City of Carlisle (col. Gavin Wilson) mid-1950s; Britannia No. 70045 Lord Rowallan (*); LMS pacific No. 46247 City of Liverpool (col. Gavin Wilson) (red on Royal Scot in 1957); G&SWR No. 70 one of the 153 class of 4-4-0; LNWR Experiment class No. 5452 Britannic; LNER A3 No. 60068 Sir Visto; LNER class D31 No. 9036; Jubilee No. 45588 Kashmir (col. David Sutcliffe); LNER A3 No. 60101 Cicero (col. John H. Hills); LNER class B16 No. 61423; Pilots on parade 2P No. 40564 for the Settle and Carlisle and 4P No. 4119 in front of under-powered black 5; unique No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester; page 530 Princess Royal No. 46209 Princess Beatrice (caption notes that Carlisle enginemen disliked the Brunswick green used at that time); page 531  Sentinel Rail Car Nettle on 16 Sept 1931 (caption notes that tail loads of three vans or two coaches sometimes hauled). (most of b&w taken by Frank Alcock). Essery LMS Journal (Number 10) page 18 (actually 19) queries statements on joint ownership of Citadel Station after 1923 stating that passenger station owned wholly by LMS, although Earnshaw may be correct in that some form of local joint management must have been involved as LNER being a successor to the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway (which pre-dated both the CR and LNWR) must have been involved in the management of the station, as presumably was the LNER as successor to the NBR. 

Strangers on the shore - Part 2. The foreign steam locomotive in Britain and Ireland. Robin Barnes. 532-8.
A major source of foreigners were the Baldwin locomotives which were those to the 60 cm gauge acquired during WW1. The 4-6-0Ts toppled over if left on a banked curve as the tanks were connected! These were acquired by British Standard Cement at Rainham, Snailbeach Dictrict Railway, the Welsh Highland Railway, the Glyn Valley Tramway and the Ashover Light Railway (wotrks numbers are listed). Bagnalls had repaired these locomotives following WW1. The 2-6-6T type was acquired by the Penrhyn Slate Quarry (from whence it was shipped to Australia in 1940). A Davenport 0-4-0ST was used by a contractor on the Kingston Bypass and Alco (Montreal) 3' gauge 0-4-0ST were used by Associated Portland Cement. The standard gauge 0-4-0STs acquired widely in Belgium operated at the Clee Hill Quarry, Granham's Moor Quarry, Llanelly Harbour Trust, Davy United (Darnall) Cleveland Bridge (Tilbury Dock contract) and at the Wire Rope Works in Wakefield. Some Baldwin 0-6-0Ts were used at the Shoeburyness Garrison and at various industrial sites. The USA class (30061-73) is only mentioned, but the same type was considered for acquisition by London Transport and some were used on opencast coal sites, at the Austin Motor Company at Longbridge and at Longmoor. The author also describes miniature locomotives supplied to a  Cagney design of 1898 from McGarigle one of which ran for a tim,e on the Blakesley Railway (Northants) and then on the Southend Miniature Railway and another which eventually fell into the hands of J.C. Sword (one time General Manager of Western SMT) who ran its as an attraction at Ettrick Bay where it worked until 1943 complete with Rothesay Tramways livery, it then saw use in Millport, Edinburgh for the Coronation celebrations before coming to Norfolk (Strumpshaw Hall last known address). All of this came from a History of the Rothesay Tramways by Cormack. The smallest French imports were the Decauville locomotives supplied to the South Metropolitan Gas Company (750mm gauge) (115/1890), the Gas Light & Coke Company (123/1891 and 390/1903) and the Nantes Cambrai locomotive preserved at Irchester.  Errata page 689: additional data not published herein. illus.: Ashover Light railway's Baldwin 4-6-0 Joan; Glyn Valley tramway with ex-WD 4-6-0T Baldwin no 45221; Baldwin 0-6-0T Courtybella; Baldwin works no 43201; Davenport no 2503 formerly USATC no 1938 at Austin's Longbridge works; WD700 Major-General Carl R. Gray Jnr.; Metre gauge 0-6-0T Nantes; GWR compound Atlantic no 102 La France; East and West junction railway no 5a La Savoie;

In the beginning. (Railway Reflections No. 34). Michael Rutherford. 539-45.
Concludes by stating that was "something of a first attempt" at describing the earliest rail ways and their gradual evolution into the S&DR. Includes an examination of definitions of what constituted a rail way or railway. Rutherford favoured the Dendy Marshall (History of railways down to the end of the year 1831) definition of three elements: wheel; prepared track, and means of lateral constraint of motion. Notes that the Murray/Blenkinsop rack engines were far more successful and influential than is usually stated. At least nine worked regulalry in England; an example was tried in Belgium and two were constructed in the Royal Iron Foundry in Berlin. Trials were made of a rack locomotive on the Kenton & Coxlodge Railway and three were in use at Orrell Colliery near Wigan. Argues that a Trevithick locomotive was assessed at Wylam Colliery in either 1811 or 1813. Cites contributions from E.A. Forward in The Engineer and from Richard Daglish in J. Rly Canal Hist Soc. (see Blenkinsop page)..illus.: Haytor tramway remains and inset dimensions as built; Peak Forest tramway with a preserved sample; A weighbridge on the Ticknall tramway; Little Eaton gangway; Pointwork on a plateway; A team on the Little Eaton gangway; Loading a canal boat; A cast iron edge rail tramway; Sketches of early ideas in high pressure steam engines; Sketch of a Murray / Blenkinsop rack engine; page 543:  Sketch of an early prototype idea for a locomotive?/portable winding engine supplied by Boulton & Watt to William Reynolds of Ketley: see also Robin Barnes Volume 17 page 622 and earlier Parts; Springwell locomotive No 2 as working c 1862; Springwell loco no 2 rebuilt became No 1 Billy; the Steam Elephant: a Tyneside colliery scene but a bit of a puzzle;

Edinburgh Princes Street. David Sutcliffe (phot.) 546-7.
Colour photo-feature: Princes Street with Class 5 No 44793 on the turntable; Four views inside the station of concourse with 44793 at bufferstops in two views and pleasant timber structures, similar to those at Glasgow Central: clock was especially attractive.

Farewell to the 'Heritage' Diesel units. 548-9.
Colour photo-feature: 2-car Metro-Cammell class 101 DMU; four-car DMU at Chathill in August 1976 (Ian P. Travers); two-car Park Royal DMU which has just parted company with a two-car as a party special to Evesham on 18 June 1960 (Michael Mensing);two-car Metro-Cammell class 101 DMU; two-car mismatch in colour schemes (Greater Manchester PTE livery & two-tone rail-blue at Chinley East Junction (T.J. Edgington); three-car class 117 in Network South East colours;

The N7 0-6-2Ts. Dick Riley. 550-1
Colour photo-feature: : No 69614 the West Side pilot at Liverpool St on 11 May 1957; No 69663 leaving Liverpool Street for Enfield on 4 Oct 1958 with articulated stock; No 69620 on pilot duties at Kings Lynn on 24 June 1958 and 69665 at Enfield on 27 April 1958; Locomotives;

Main line through the mountains - the Settle to Carlisle - part 3. North of Appleby. Alan Tyson (phot.) and David Jenkinson (captions). 552-4.
Colour photo-feature: : Two views of New Biggin station; Langwathby station; Two views of Lazonby station; Armathwaite station; Lazonby station; Low House crossing and signal box.

Railbus to Bodmin. A.B. Jeffrey (phot.). 555
Colour photo-feature: .: Railbus built by AC Cars used on the Bodmin line: W79977 at Bodmin North; at Boscarne Junction and at Nanstallon Halt on 21 (first) and 27 January 1967.

Edward Thompson - a view from the outside. David Jenkinson. 556-62.
This is an attempt at producing an "honest assessment" of Thompson's work: which concluded: "I hold no particular brief for Edward Thompson, nor do I wish this account to be seen as a denigration of either Gresley or Peppercorn. But I would ask those who are inclined to see him as the ogre who ruined all that Gresley had achieved, leaving it to Peppercorn to resume the 'true faith' after 1946, to have another look at the reality of the situation. On the whole, I rather think that the objective historical appraisal, setting aside prejudice and personality, will come down on Thompson's side". Unfortunately, Jenkinson could not produce an assessment of Thompson without alleging Gresley's lack of standardization (presumably Gresley would have been a greater engineer if he concentrated the limited resources available on building more J50 and J39 class locomotives, both "standard" in the LMS or GWR sense, rather than the V2 class (where one may ask was the diversity within that class, or within the Gresley Pacific boilers?). See letter from N. Hill in Volume 12 page 173.  Important letter from John van Riemsdijk in Vol 12 page 288. illus.: A2/3 No. 60500 Edward Thompson; Class A2/2 No. 60506 Wolf of Badenoch; K1 No. 62060; P2 No. 2001 Cock o' the North; V2 No. 60847 St Peter's School York, AD627; No. 60501 Cock o' the North; Rebuild of Gresley's A1 No. 4470 Great Northern; A2/3 No. 60519 Honeyway; Peppercorn A1 No. 60130; B2 class No. 61632 Belvoir Castle; Prototype B1 No. 1000 Springbok; B1 No. 61390; Class L1 No. 9000; Class O1 No. 63663; No. 61449 a class B16 rebuild;

Beneath King's Cross - Part 1. Michael J. Smith. 563-5.
The extremely complex series of tunnels began with connextions between the GNR and the Metropolitan Railway, but there was originally a western curve which was disconnected shortly after its opening. These were joined by connexions from the MR. For a time the extra tunnels under the frontage of St Pancras were used for electric services, but these were discontinued and thse tunnels were converetd into a new station for the Metropolitan and Circle lines opened in 1941.The MR tunnels continue in use for Thameslink services, but the GNR tunnels ceased to be used once the Moorgate services were diverted via the Great Northern & City Line at Drayton Park. Part 2 begins page 669. See letter by Norman Pattenden for tunnels under station (Volume 12 page 172). illus.: The original King's Cross underground station under construction 1n 1862; The rebuilding in 1941; Lithographs in the Illustrated London News of 1868; King's Cross track layout © Alan Jackson: see Vol. 12 page 232); Two views of King's Cross York Road;

Aspects of the Manchester & Leeds Railway - Part 1. Jeffrey Wells. 566-9,
This feature examines the origins and construction of the railway as reported in the contemporary publications, including Edwin Butterworth's Sketch of the Manchester and Leeds Railway, contemporary newspapers and specialist contemporary railway periodicals, such as The Railway Times. Part 2 on page 591. Blakemore refers to this feature in his feature on the railways of Central Lancashire beginning 17 page 252. illus.: Aspinal 2-4-2T No. 10732; Oldham Road station Manchester; GCR D11s nos. 62664 Princess Mary and 62664 Princess of Wales; View of two tunnels; View of the Rochdale Canal;

Locomotives of the 'Knotty'. Martin Bloxsom (captions). 570-2.
illus.: North Stafford KT class No. 38; North Stafford No. 93; North Stafford Class H1 No. 92; North Stafford E class No. 123 with the breakdown train (more information on the crane page 688 by Tatlow); North Stafford New C class No. 53; A double header with LNW Precursor No. 612 and ex-NSR class G No. 170 in LMS; North Stafford New M class no 17;

Signalling focus - NER Lower quadrants. Richard D. Foster. 573
illus.: Down home at Ravenscar; Down starter at Robin Hood's Bay (J.S. Gilks).

Colour files - The Queen goes to Preston. 574-5.
illus.: Class 25 No. 25 233 taking an inspection saloon to allow the Queen to see; Class 40 diesels nos. 40 027 and 40 118 arriving with the Royal Train at; Class 40 diesels nos. 40 027 and 40 118 topping up at Wigan; Class 40 diesels nos. 40 027 and 40 118 with the Royal train running empty; Class 87 No. 87 018 with the substitute Royal train; A twin carriage set; Rolling Stock. See letter by B. Fare who was involved on day. Vol. 12 page 60.;

Readers' Forum. 576.
'Those Cursed Sunday Trains'. Jeff Wells.
Refers to Anthony Davis' article, 'Those Cursed Sunday Trains' (11-421) and adds the following. In 1840, the annual subscription to the Lord's Day Observance Society amounted to l0s 6d , not a modest sum in those days, thus attracting a mainly middle class patronage and largely denying the lower classes.
One of the leading lights of the LDOS was Sir Andrew Agnew (Independent MP of his native Wigtownshire) and author of Parliamentary Bills against Sunday rail travel in 1833, 1834 and 1836, each of which was unsuccessful, although he was successful in banning the carrying of mail by stagecoaches in his home county.
The Manchester & Leeds Railway Board held a general meeting on 12th September 1839 in which a decision was made to hold a vote, the outcome of which elected to run Sunday trains on its newly-opened Manchester-Littleborough line. In consequence of this, three company directors resigned in protest. Similarly, Joseph Sturge, a director of the London & Binningham Railway resigned after repeated attempts to close the company's line on the Sabbath.
Many railway companies ran a Sunday service in what became known as the Church Interval, the time outside the church-going hours—an expedient which suited the companies but did nothing to assuage the vehemence of the Sabbatarians!
In 1845, Board of Trade officials showed their disdain for Sabbatarians by choosing Sunday as the last day on which plans and specifications could be received. It was reported that Whitehall, the home of the BoT, was jammed with cabs as railway engineers struggled to meet the deadline hour!
The Bury Influence. Robin Barnes
See Railway Reflections on page 205. Concerning Stretton and the lost historical documents: the information [Barnes] had is that documentation did cross the Atlantic in 1897, not for the Field Museum, but as an addition to the collection of made by J.G. Pangborn, for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The Scientific American listed the British acquisitions as follows:

  1. Edward Bury & Company original books and working drawings.

  2. Bury, Curtis & Kennedy: some books and large number of drawings.

  3. E. B. Wilson & Company: books and drawings.

  4. Great Western Railway: original list and some original drawings of earliest engines.

  5. Slaughter & Company: whole of books and drawings.

  6. Haigh Foundry: some books and locomotive drawings.

  7. Rothwell & Company: complete set of working drawings.

  8. Forrester & Company: original drawings, papers and documents.

  9. R. Stephenson: original drawings of Canterbury & Whitstable Invicta.

  10. North Midland Railway locomotive working drawings.

  11. J. E. McConnell: original drawings of some locomotives designed by him.

It seems a reasonable assumption that the American publication would only comment on material that had arrived in that country. Here, the Railway Engineer of August 1897 expressed its disapproval with the remark that soon there would be little remaining in Britain of railway relics. One suspects that not even the productively inventive Stretton could have manufactured all that, especially the books. It may well have been that the items listed were brought together by the determined—and acquisitive Pangborn, possibly with Stretton's assistance, when he made Britain the first stop on his artefact-gathering world tour of 1894-95.
J. Dredge, editor of Engineering, published in 1894 a massive volume recording the transport exhibits at the 1893 Colombia Exposition, in which he gave credit to Stretton for the fact that the collection of drawings was so complete, and also for "not a few examples of the permanent way". On the other hand, A History of the World's Columbian Exposition, published in four large volumes during 1898 by D. Appleton & Company of New York, makes no mention of Stretton, but lists Atkinson & Philipson of Newcastle upon-Tyne and Isaac W. Boulton of Ashton-under-Lyne as major providers of "sketches, models, pictures and relics". It is most unfortunate that the organisers of the Exposition never prepared a catalogue of these items. A number of full-size replicas of British locomotives which had been made for the 1893 Exposition were stored subsequently at the B&O Martinsburg shops, to be shown publicly from time to time, including the company's 1927 centenary exhibition held at Halethorpe, near Baltimore, where sadly they were gravely damaged in a hurricane, some never to be repaired. The historic documents did not survive even until then; I have a letter from the B&O Railroad Museum advising that they were lost in an office fire at Baltimore in 1904.
Iron Girders. K. J. Bowen
Congratulations for D.K. Horne's Part 3 of 'Iron Girders' (page 441) . Further letter Vol. 12 page 172.
The London & Paris Railway. Arthur R. Nicholls.
See page 381: for William Collard's proposed London & Paris Railway of 1928: writer shows that scheme originated in in 1895.
Vintage Sou'west at St. Enoch. J.A. Pearson
Queries early electric lighting (see illus. page 347)
The 1948 show. B. Jefferson.
Highly critical of NRM for painting V2 in BR green (see April Editorial page 171)
South Eastern & Chatham Railway rail motor conversions. G. Moon
Articulated former rail-motor vehicles: see pages 296 for illustration and letter by Knowlden. Further information page 60 (12).

Leaving Dundee Tay Bridge: Class 47 No 47 527 with TPO vehicles c1981. George Gall. rear cover

Number 11 (November 1997)

Unrebuilt Merchant Navy' 4-6-2 No 35028 Clan Line in 'Golden Arrow' regalia. P. Ransome-Wallis. front cover
illus.:

A 'Caley' 'Jumbo' in Galloway. 583
B&w illus.: 17740 with tender cab at Portpatrick with passenger train in summer of 1939. 

0-6-0s of the 'Big Four'. 584-5.
Colour photo-feature.: LNER J38 No 65909 at Thornton on 16 Sept 1966 (M.H. Yardley); Southern C class No 31686 at Hither Green shed (R.C. Riley); GWR 2251 class No 3210 leaving West Pennard on passenger train (SDJR) on 31 March 1962 (Paul Strong); LMS class 4F No 44085 passing Stamford Town with freight on 31 May 1958 (R.C. Riley);

The Mersey railway - A financial disaster. John C. Hughes. 586-90.
The original tunnel proposal was for a pneumatic railway with very steep gradients, but this failed to attract finance. Proposals for a traditional railway from 1867 onwards found it difficult to attract finance: both the GWR and MSLR might have been interested, but lacked the resources. Electrification, from 15 January 1903, was very important as the line was extremely difficult to work with steam. Nevertheless, the company finances had to be restructured to enable electrification to take place. See letter in Volume 12 (page 172) by Roger Jermy. illus.: Illustration of an American pneumatic tube; The Mersey railway and its connections; Mersey; Punch comment on the opening; Mersey Green Lane station; Mersey An original Westinghouse electric car; Mersey railway no 3;

Aspects of the Manchester and Leeds Railway, 1830-1841- Part 2. Jeffrey Wells. 591-4.
Part 1 on page 566. Partial and complete opening, early incidents. Blakemore refers to this feature in his feature on the railways of Central Lancashire beginning 17 page 252. illus.: Aspinal no 1099; Ex Manchester and Leeds engine shed; Littleborough station frontage in 1985; Rochdale station frontage in 1956; The granite tablet at Littleborough station reminding travellers of the; A train leaving Summit tunnel;

From Music Hall joke to the heart of the nation: the transformation of LBSCR locomotives under William Stroudley. Geoffrey Williams. 595-600.
In spite of the title, and for this author's frequently inappropriate colourful style, this is a solid survey of Stroudley's contribution to locomotive development on the LBSCR, including an analysis of the designs introduced. See letter by Nick Holliday (12 233) noting errors and disputing annual mileages quoted for Gladstone, plus exceelent source of information about this class.. See letter on page 116 (Vol. 12) by Diggles on inspirators. illus.: Stroudley A class no 72 Fenchurch 125 years old in 1997; Stroudley C class no 419; Stroudley D class no 243 Ovingdean; Stroudley E class no 98 Marseilles; Stroudley D2 class no 313 Paris; Stroudley G class no 339 Newhaven; Stroudley B or Gladstone class no 177 Southsea; Stroudley B or Gladstone class no 217 Northcote; Technical data of the Stroudley classes;

The Llanelly accident. Alan Earnshaw. 601-4.
Derailment of an express passenger train on 3 October 1904 near Llanelly. The train engine was a Bulldog 4-4-0, but this was piloted by an 0-6-0ST (No. 1674). Lt. Col. H.A. Yorke was highly critical of the use of a tank engine to pilot express, but this criticism was refuted by Churchward. illus.: The captions should be read in association with corriegenda on page 116 of Volume 12. The result of the derailment at Llanelly; the remains of coach no 2927; The result of the derailment at Llanelly; the remains of coach no 3178; Another view of coach no 2927; Plan of the accident; A general scene from the north; A more detailed view of the third coach;

The GW Blaenau Ffestiniog branch. 605
Colour photo-feature.: 14xx No 5811 approaching Manod in August 1955 on passenger train; 57xx No 5774 at Blaenau Ffestiniog Central at about same time (both J.B. Snell); 74xx No 7428 at Trawsfynydd (still lettered GWR) in April 1959 on passenger train (G.W. Morrison);

Hymeks in the West. 606-7.
Colour photo-feature.: D7039 (in faded two-tone green) passing Tunnel Junction Salisbury on passenger train in September 1970 (Keith R. Chester*); D7054 (in faded two-tone green) approaching Curry Rivel Junction on express in September 1970 (Cliff Woodhead); Hymek on passenger train between Barnstaple and Ilfracombe in May 1964 (Cliff Woodhead); A Hymek (faded rail blue) nearing Salisbury in October 1970 on cross-country train (*); D7012 in smart blue at Cardiff General in April 1971 (Cliff Woodhead).  additional information page 60 (12)

Inside Darlington shops. David Sutcliffe (phot.). 608-9.
Colour photo-feature..: Four views taken in Darlington Works with a selection of J27s mainly 65815, and parts of other lcomotives, including V2 boiler.

Steam in the West Riding. Joe Richardson (phot.). 610-12.
illus.: Jubilee No. 45573 Newfoundland heading parcels train at Leeds City in March 1964; Jubilee No. 45647 Sturdee passing Keighley on class 8 freight in March 1967; BR 9F No. 92234 on mineral empties passing Whitehall Junction ; Britannia No. 70045 Lord Rowallan (lacking nameplates) on down Thames-Clyde Express passing Kirkstall; Jubilee No. 45590 Travancore pilots a Black Five climbing to Morley on Newcastle to Red Bank newspaper empties in August 1965; Jubilee No. 45593 Kolhapur heading north from Skipton in April 1966; LMS class 5 No. 45096 crossing viaduct at Slaithwaite on eastbound corridor train. Bottom picture page 610 should be No.45697 Achilles (erratum page 60 next volume)

Strangers on the shore -the foreign steam locomotive in Britain and Ireland. Part 3. Robin Barnes. 613-19.
Orenstein & koppel 0-4-0WT: many were supplied as contractor's lcomotives and worked in unexpected locations, such as the Orkney Islands. Similar locomotives were supplied by the Dutch firm, Ducroo & Brauns. Both types were used in the construction of large housing estates, such as that at Port Sunlight. Krauss supplied The Bug which still exists on the RH&DR. There were many of these locomotives in Ireland: Comlucht Suicre Eirann and the giant Shannon hydro-electric project used many: in the case of the latter most returned to Germany at the end of the project. The author cites J.W.P. Rouledge's The Irish steam loco. register (1993). Fireless locomotives were supplied by Orenstein & Koppel and by Hohenzollern of Düsseldorf-Grafenberg. The locomotives based upon the Hydrogen Company's steam launch engine which could raise steam very quickly and use waste liquid fuels are briefly mentioned but citations in the Ind. Rly Rec. are given. The German occupation of Jersey and Guernsey led to locomotives being "imported" from various parts of Europe to assist in construction defense works. The locomotives on the Snowdon Moutain Railway were imported from Switzerland. Cockerill of Belgium supplied industrial locomotives for several lines. The Lartigue system was demonstrated at Westminster using a Belgian locomotive supplied by Tubize.  The 1862 International Exhibition at South Kensington was used as a "showcase" for several products from abroard. . illus.: 3' 0-4-0 Orenstein & Koppel No. 12242; 5' 3" 0-4-0 Orenstein & Koppel No. 12477; Fireless Orenstein & Koppel No. 2499; Hohenzollern fireless locomotive British Enka No. 1; Corpet et Louvet 1091; Hohenzollern No. 3283; Orenstein & Koppel No. 3; SMR No. 6 Padarn; CSE Carlow factory No. 3; Etat Belge type 32S No. 3783 repaired by the GER at Stratford; A Lartigue demonstration at Westminster; Two Austrian locomotives sent over for the London Exhibition in 1862 nos.;

Diesels in Constable Country. John D. Mann. 620-1.
B&w illus.: A class 31 No. 31 262 approaching Wrabness on ecs on 20 April 1976; A class 37 on a Liverpool Street bound boat train; A class 47 crossing the River Stour on up express from Norwich on 2 March 1976; A class 37 rescuing a failed class 31 on 25 August 1976 at Manningtree; Class 40 No. 40 153 on freight north of Manningtree on 16 October 1979;

The 'Prairie' - a survey of the 2-6-2 type - Part 1. (Railway Reflections No. 35). Michael Rutherford. 622-8.
Survey of developments across the world, including in New Zealand, the United States and by Gölsldorf for Austria and other countries in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Includes notes on the development of the Wootten firebox and the Krauss-Helmholtz bogie. British development is confined to an Ivatt proposal and to a possible Churchward design (he participated in a discussion on a paper by Cowan on American locomotive design). Part 2 is on p. 677.  See also letter by Chester in Volume 12 page 116. illus.: A 3' 6" locomotive built for but rejected by the New Zealand railways as; Preserved V2 No. 4771 Green Arrow; A 3' 6" locomotive built by Hawthorne, Lesley & Co for the Midland railway; No 4670 of the J40 class of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad; No 687 of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad; A German design sketch; A Ivatt design sketch for a Prairie in 1907; Two Russian design sketches; A 680 class of the Italian State railway no 683.962; Not a pretty sight; No 683.981 after rebuilding;

Colour files - Two listed stations. Philip J. Kelley (phot.). 629
Colour photo-feature. Downham Market station; Newark Castle station;

Rolling stock focus - GWR small cranes. Paul W. Bartlett. 630
Colour photo-feature..: GWR 6 ton? ADW489 and match truck ADW150469 the jib end; GWR 6 ton? ADW489 and match truck ADW150469 the winch end; GWR 1.5 ton DW603 with its runner DW150473 the jib end; GWR 1.5 ton DW603 with its runner DW150473 the winch end; Shunt with care notice. See letter by Tatlow on page 60 of Volume 12.

Book reviews. 632.
North Wales branch line album. C.C. Green. Ian Allan. RHG ***
"delightful armchair read" and "essential material"
Lost lines - Southern. Nigel Welbourn. Ian Allan. TJE ****
Irish trams. James Kilroy. Colour Point. TJE ****
Excludes the Agrina branch, but includes the Clogher Valley Railway.
Industrial locomotives of West Glamorgan. Martin Potts and Gordon Green. IRRS. MB *****
"meticulously compiled as usual"
British Railways Pregrouping atlas and gazetteer. 5th edition. Ian Allan. MB *****
A Lancashire triangle - Part one. D.J. Sweeney. Triangle. MB **
LNWR lines within the South Lancashire coalfield: work faulted for its lack of editorial control.
Chesham shuttle - the story of a Metropolitan branch line. Clive Foxell. author. TJE ***
"fair amount of padding" and errors in spelling local names.

Readers' Forum. 633.
Football supporters' trains. T.J. Edgington.
Incorrect routing described on page 488.
The building of a railway - the journal of Henry Steel Thirlway. Keith Horne.
See page 475.
The building of a railway - the journal of Henry Steel Thirlway. Jean Denton.
Addenda. See page 475.
Staddlethorpe signal box. Mick Nicholson.
Original feature page 458.
Broad Street. Robert Barker.
Commuter service to/from Tring: original feature page 414.
Help wanted - Dundee Docks & Harbours. Alistair F. Nisbet.
Request for information.

Dartmouth terminus. Scott Cunningham. rear cover.
Panorama in July 1965 of Kingswear station.

Number 12 (December, 1997)

Highland Railway Jones goods at Strome Ferry in 1960. Derek Cross (phot.) front cover

Standing at the gate of the year. 639.
Editorial: privatization and railway capacity to carry crowds.

Locomotive sheds. S.G. Allsopp. 640-8.
Repair facilities, roundhouses, straight sheds, coaling and watering arrangements, fire cleaning, sand filling, turning, organization (bias towards Derby paractice). Illus cover: West Hartlepool, Patricroft, Merthyr, Willesden J, Carlisle Kingsmoor, King's Cross,Middle Top, Leeds Holbeck, Stockport Edgeley, Derby in 1909 and 1923,  Manchester Longsight and Gateshead
illus.: Bird's eye view of Patricroft shed; Jubilee No. 45562 at West Hartlepool; 57xx No. 9631 by the water column at Merthyr shed; Ex Caledonian shed at Carlisle Kingmoor; Jubilee No. 45676 Codrington and Royal Scot No. 46115 Scots Guardsman; From the sublime to the ridiculous Middleton Top with its sole occupant; King's Cross top shed; 8F No. 48443 and class 5 No. 44753 at Leeds Holbeck shed; Leeds Holbeck shed; Jubilee No. 45596 Bahamas at Stockport Edgeley shed; The locomotive arrangements board at Derby shed in 1923; Nos. 338 and 535 at the coaling stage; The mechanical coaling plant at Crewe North depot; The mechanical coaling plant at King's Cross; Filling the sandboxes; Smokebox cleaning of Royal Scot No. 46155 The Lancer; 5XP No. 45552 Silver Jubilee on the turntable; A3 No. 60092 Fairway on the ash pit;

The partial collapse of Clapham Junction 'A' signal box. Peter Tatlow. 649-51.
Collapse of gantry carrying signal box situated on Clapham J to Waterloo lines and the amazingly rapid (in Railtrack ridden days) restoration of services. See letter in Volume 12 on page 117 by Keith Horne citing Frank Turton - also noted Tatlow. illus.: Clapham Junction A box behind Drummond class M7 No. 30249; What caused the collapse; The signalman's way out; First phase of remedial work involving the Nine Elms 75 ton crane; Later phase of remedial work involving the Nine Elms 75 ton crane; Bridge 9C with the similar West London Junction box;

The 0-6-0 locomotive - Part 2. R.M. Tufnell. 652-7.
Part 1 on page 328. Part 2: Historical development during approx. Victorian period. . The Locomotive Superintendents of major pre-grouping companies not listed in Part 1 (mainly Scottish) are now listed. See letter on page 117 (Volume 12) by Nicholls.
illus.: Midland No. 2777; North Staffshire Railway No. 73; Furness Railway No. 55; NER 398 class No. 346; LNWR Coal engine No. 985; LNWR 18" goods Cauliflower No. 8441; GWR convertible No. 1206 which started as standard gauge went to broad; GWR No. 2538 at Rhayader; Locomotive superintendents of some of the minor pre grouping companies;

The West Clare railway. 658-60.
Brief history and description of a trip on the line whilst it was still steam worked on a one train per day basis.
See letter by Brian Syddall on page 173 of Volume 12. illus.: Locomotive No. 5 on the former Waterford, Limerick and Western railway; The approach to Kilkee; Ennistymon station; Taking on water; Kilkee station; Moyasta Junction station frontage; Workshops at Ennis;

The SECR 'H' tanks. 661
Colour feature: on Tunbridge Wells-East Grinstead trains in 1962. No. 31543; Two views of SECR No. 31551 at Grange Road station;

Multiple units on the Southern. 662-3.
Colour feature: 2-BIL on Portsmouth train at Portslade in 1967; Hastings DEMU leaving Cannon Street in 1959; East Sussex DEMU at Eridge in 1965 and double treck train arriving Cannon Street in 1959.
illus.: 2-BIL set No. 2013; Diesel electric set No. 1012; 2 x 4-DD sets 4001/2 being both sets of the famous double deckers; Diesel electric set No. 1306;

The Welshpool & Llanfair railway. 664-5.
Colour feature: views taken in 1954 and 1956 of both 822 and 823, including 822 working through centre of Welshpool.
illus.: Welshpool and Llanfair No. 822; Welshpool and Llanfair No. 822 doing some shunting; Welshpool and Llanfair No. 822; Welshpool and Llanfair No. 823 at Welshpool;

In the heart of the Highlands. Howard Geddes. 666-8.
Colour feature: 44782 arriving Inverness with Far North train in 1957 (see letter from T.J. Edgington on page 116 of Volume 12); 45470 leaving Carr Bridge on express freight; another class 5 approaching Carr Bridge from Inverness on carmine/cream passenger train; 26 037 leaving Inver Tunnel near Dunkeld in 1981; 44699 piloting another 5 leaving Carr Bridge on Edinburgh/Glasgow train; ferries at Kyle of Lochalsh in 1961 (see letter by Jack Kernahan on page 116 of Volume 12); Brora Station and Wick Station (showing class 2 diesel locomotive with tablet catcher.

Beneath King's Cross - part 2. Runaway train. Michael J. Smith. 669-71
Part 1: page 563. On 8 July 1932 a suburban train hauled by an N2 class 0-6-2T climbing the Hotel Curve slipped back into the path of an LMS freight train heading for Walworth Road and the rear of the passenger collided with the freight and became derailed. Lt Col E.P. Anderson considered that only electrification could cure the unsatisfactory conditions in which staff were unable to tell in which direction they were moving. See letter by Norman Pattenden for tunnels under station (Volume 12 page 172). Much later letter by author (17-114) relating to probable error in feature written by Farr to celebrate station's 150th "birthday" (Vol. 16 page 604). illus.: Hotel Curve tunnel; sad remains of King's Cross Metropolitan station; Farringdon station; Moorgate station; Class N2 No 69584 successfully hauling its train out of Hotel Curve. See also much later letter from Author in  Volume 29 p. 702 

LNER Locomotive building programmes - Part 2. Geoffrey Hughes. 672-6.
Part 1 began on page 362. Programmes for 1932-1948: includes notes on quotations from private builders, some of which were rejected. illus.: A B17 No 2857 Doncaster Rovers; A4 No 4488 Union of South Africa; Prototype class K4 No 3441; V2 No 4780 The Snapper; J50 No 605; Prototype Bo-Bo No. 6701 built for the Wath electrification; V4 No 3401 Bantam Cock; A converted P2 No 2005; Eland B1 No 8302; No 512 Steady Aim;

The 'Prairie' - a survey of the 2-6-2 type - Part 2. Railway Reflections No. 36). Michael Rutherford. 677-84.
Part 1 was on page 622. Includes the Paget locomotive, the Gresley V2 and V4 classes and several designs from Eastern Europe, including Jugoslavia, Serbia and Poland. Gölsdorf 329 mixed traffic class, built as compounds, but rebuilt as simples.After WW1 these 2-6-2s were distributed over many countries. Czech designs were developed from it. Bagnall developed a 2-6-2 for 2' 6" gauge Larkana Jacobabad Railway in NW India under its Chief Draughtsman W.S. Edwards and the consulting engineers Molesworth & Molesworth. This formed the basis for the standard ZB class of Rendel Palmer & Tritton in 1928. Mentions early Gresley 2-6-2 design subsequently replaced by A1 Pacific, and Maunsell and Coleman's abortive designs. In Japan 427 of the C58 class were built by Kawasaki between 1938 and 1947. The DB built 105 of class 23 using modern construction techniques. Half-scale versions of these work on the Bure Valley Railway. See also letter by Chester in next volume. illus.: A rare photograph of the Paget locomotive; Diagram of the Paget locomotive; Arrangement of firebox brickwork; Rotary valve details; V2 class no 4771 Green Arrow; Class S10 built for the Oldenburg State Railway; Class OL49 no OL49-109; V4 no 1700 Bantam Cock; V2 No. 60963;

Colour files - Tom Purvis - the man who revolutionised the railway poster. Beverley Cole. 685-7.
Colour photo-feature. Posters: East Coast by London & North Eastern Railway (1928); Robin Hood's Bay by LNER (1936); Dine well by LNER (c1935); The Coronation (1937); It's quicker by rail - two new publications "A Round of Golf" "Salmon & Trout Rivers" (c1935); Mablethorpe & Sutton-on-sea (c1927). The Coronation poster is the one with blazing headlights crossing the Royal Border Bridge against a surreal sunset. The Mablethorpe involves a child holding onto the tail of a donkey. They were commissioned by William Teasdale.

Readers' Forum. 688-9.
The journal of Henry Steel Thirlway. P. Bickersteth.
See page 475. Criticism of map which does not portray state of railways in 1851. The unstable ground north of Ripon is now known to be due to presence of gypsum. The viaduct across the Ure was originally timber, but later replaced by metal. There are few remains.
The journal of Henry Steel Thirlway. Harry M. Liddell.
See page 475..Junction at Wath with abortive Scargill Junction Railway.
Locomotives of the 'Knotty'. Peter Tatlow.
See page 570 et seq. Illustration of steam breakdown crane: the crane belonged to the LNWR and was a Ransome & Rapier 36 ton crane based at Crewe with a horizontal boiler (RS 1012/36).
Football supporters' trains. I.P. Travers.
See page 468. Notes special characteristics: cheap, walk-on, club allegiance, and decline
Football supporters' trains. Jack Burrell..
See page 468. In 1934 the Bristol City Derby County FA Cup match ended in a draw. There were posters at the exits advertising excursions to Derby "next Wednesday" for seven shillings.
Football specials and BR Mk 1 non-corridor stock. John Macnab.
Illustration on page 473 leads to an aecdote concerning fan about to urinate from open door onto member of BR staff, and to illustration on page 516 of BS43137 (noting that the red faded very quickly).
'Should our railways be Nationalized?' John Watling.
See feature page 497 et seq. W. Cunningham's book blatantly misused statististics.
Hawkshaw. Brian Orrell.
Argues that it would not have been possible to alter the length of coupling and connecting rods and that crankpins would be replaced during reconstruction. Original feature page 368. Responses from author on page 173 of Volume 12.
O.V.S. Bulleid and his work. Geoffrey Hughes.
See page 445. Observes that H.H. Swift who authorized the rebuilding of the Bulleid Pacifics was an ex-Gresley assistant, and that in spite of being an electrical engineer maintained an active interest in the reconstruction.
The Bury influence. Harry Jack.
Original letter by Jack on this topic page 460 and original feature page 205. Argues that Clement Stretton fabricated the Bury records story, and as early as the 1890s G.A. Sekon was questionning the whole episode.
Whitehaven memories. Michael J. Smith.
Compares what he saw (list given) on a visit in 1946 with what Brian Sydall observed (see page 510). None of the 1946 locomotives survived until the 1970s. This led to a long letter from Philip J Ashworth in the next volume on page 232.
Erratum: Strangers on the shore. Part 2.
Part of table had not been printed on page 532 et seq..

Steam through the New Forest - BR Class 5 No 73111 King Uther. Robert Leslie. rear cover
17 July 1965 near Beaulieu Road.

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