BackTrack Volume 25 (2011)

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Published by Pendragon, Easingwold, YO61 3YS

Number 1 (January)

Former GWR 'Castle' 4-6-0 No. 5097 Sarum Castle speeds the Paddington-Cardiff  Capitals United Express through Tilehurst in September 1962. (Derek Penney). front cover

To travel hopefully is about all you can do. Michael Blakemore. 3.
Editorial

Last calls on the Great Central. David Idle. 4-5.
Colour photo-feature: rebuilt Scot class No. 46143 minus nameplates on Nottingham to Marylebone parcels train passing Woodford Halse on avoiding line on 12 October 1963; Class 5 No. 44872 on up 08.15 from Nottingham arriving Woodford Halse on 3 September 1966; Jubilee class No. 45626 Seychelles passing Neasden with a Loughborough Central to Wembley Hill football excursion for Cup Final (Leicester City versus Manchester United) on 25 May 1963; Merchant Navy No. 35030 Elder Dempster Lines leaving Loughborough Central with enthusiast special; No. 44984 taking water at Rugby Central on 17.15 Nottingham Victoria to Marylebone on 3 September 1966.

Hennessey, R.A.S. The railway power stations: their rise and fall. 6-13.
Early electric railways had to generate their own electricity. For a time railway companies were quite significant generators of electricity. At Immingham the Great Central Railway had a power station to produce hydraulic and electric power to serve its docks, the Grimsby & Immingham Light Railway (electric tramway) shown in photo-montage. It had other generating stations elsewhere at Marylebone and Leicester (Lancashire boilers thereat illustrated). On Merseyside there were three separate railway generating stations: for the Liverpool Overhead Railway, the Mersey Railway and on the Lancashire & Yorkshire electric line to Southport. Large accumulators were employed on all these systems to achieve Peak lopping and increase reliability. The Metropolitan generated its supply at Neasden and the Underground Group had a huge power station at Lots Road which was both detested and admired, but could not be missed (painting by Robin Barnes). The LSWR generated its supply at Durnsford Road near Wimbledon and the LNWR began generating at Stonebridge Park (illustrated) in 1916, but it was the last to be opened. Before then the North Eastern Railway and the LBSCR were purchasing external supplies. See also additional information from Michael J. Smith on page 253 on power supplies to East London line and on plans to convert Neasden to burn oil fuel during national coal shortage in 1947-49...

Wells, Jeffrey. In search of light. Part One. 14-20.
Illumination of stations, tunnels and rolling stock by oil and gas in addition to maximizing natural light. Reference to lighting Edge Hill and Wapping tunnels on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway, and the "failure" to light Box Tunnel on the Great Western. T.J. Thompson IMechE paper On the lighting of trains by gas: Flat-flame burner encased in a ground glass globe positioned about 9 inches from ceiling. Fed by central gasholder on tender and rubber flexible hose between vehicles.Futher advances in gas lighting were made on the Metropolitan Railway using collapsible rubberized fabric air bags. A similar system was devised by James Newall for the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. The Pintsch system invented in Prussia stored oil gas under pressure. Part 2 see page 182...

Shildon Works. 21
Colour photo-feature: No. 37 100 shunting wagons and arriving with wagons for repair and Class 08 No. 08 063 shunting at works with Mason Arms level crossing visible in one view. 

Joyce, Paul. A Southern Railway fireman as narrated  by Bill Beresford. 22-6.
Started as a cleaner at Nine Elms in 1938 and progressed to firing duties during WW2: fired on Drummond Paddleboxes when cab was shrouded with tarpaulins for blackout when they were unaware of sound of bombs. Q1 0-6-0 admired for haulage capacity but were extremely rough at speed. Wartime conditions on shed were extremely grim when workers were liable to fall into ashpits or be killed whilst on duty. Bill Beresford inherited the locker of someone whom he had to pick up the remains of when the shed received a direct hit. Several nicknames for locomotive classes are introduced including Black Motor (Drummond 0-6-0), Double Breaster or Paddlebox (T14 4-6-0)..

Gray, Adrian. Snow and disaster. 27-9.
Abbots Ripton (or Abbot's Ripton or Abbotts Ripton) accident on 21 January 1876 was a collision caused by snow interfering with the signalling apparatus which led to an up express running into thw rear of an up freight being reversed into a siding. See page 126: date should have been given as 21 January (corrected above, not as "1" January)

In the bleak midwinter. 30-1.
Colour photo-feature: Caprotti Class 5 No. 44753 climbing to Shap Summit near Orton Bridge on northbound freight with banking engine at rear in February 1963 (M. Chapman); 14XX No. 1432 propelling auto coach near Park Hall Halt near Oswestry in Decemeber 1962; A2 No. 60539 Bronzino at Darlington station on up express in February 1958; Class 5 No. 44878 with miniature snowplough on up express parcels at Gleneagles in February 1964 (K.M. Falconer).

Steaming through the Thames Valley. Derek Penney. 32-5.
Colour photo-feature: No. 5097 Sarum Castle with double chimney on up Red Dragon (formed of stock painted in chocolate and cream) in Sonning Cutting; No. 4955 Plaspower Hall (painted green) on express formed of former LMS stock in maroon livery passing Tilehurst in September 1962; No. 5036 Lyonshall Castle in Sonning Curring on down express in September 1961; unrebuilt West Country No. 34041 Wilton on through train for South Coast at Tilehurst on 1 September 1962; No. 7027 Thornbury Castle on down express leaving Sonning Cutting in September 1961; No. 5970 Hengrave Hall (lined green) on up freight entering Sonning Cutting; No. 4948 Northwick Hall (lined green) on up freight picking up water from Goring troughs; No. 1021 County of Montgomery on up express from Weston-super-Mare passing Tilehurst on 1 September 1962.  

Helm, John W.E. 1948 – the birth of British Railways. – Part 2. 36-9.
Tables of coaching stock, electric motor cars, wagons, track (mileage) and staions and freight depots acquired in 1948. In the case of track includes track transferred to ownership of London Transport Executive. Illus.: 2P 4-4-0 No. 40550 on Leicester to Kettering ordinary passenger train at Wigston Magna in March 1951; p. 37: Class 3F 0-6-0 No. 43585 on up freight in location identified by Michael Dunn as south end of Dillicar troughs; North London 0-6-0T No. 58860; V2 2-6-2 No. 60887 near Catesby Tunnel on Woodford Halse Class C express freight. See also letter from Kevin Tattersley on p. 190 which comments on Footnote 21 which refered to 3ft 6in gauge Nantlle Railwsy which was worked by a contractor using horses, later by tractor. See also Volume 26 p. 584 and links therefrom

Tester, Adrian. An introduction to steam locomotive testing: traditional locomotive testing techniques. Part 2. 41-7.
Dynamometer car, or dynamometer carriage as used by Tester, testing to assess locomotive haulage capacity as measured via drawbar horsepower. Tests analysed by Tester include those conducted by George Hughes between freight 0-8-0s running as simple expansion and as four-cylinder compounds. The tests considered were performed between Aintree and Accrington: a second series of tests between Goole and Smithy Brisge were not considered. The tests conducted by Bowen Cooke on the Claughton class between Euston and Crewe on 2 November 1913 and between Crewe and Carlisle on 4 November are also examined. Tests conducted on the Somerset & Dorset Joint between Bath and Bournemouth and return compared compound No. 1065 with simple No. 67 (equivalent to MR 483 class 4-4-0 simple) in which the compound did not appear to out-perform the 2P due to its inability to develop sufficient tractive effort at lows speeds..

Over the hills and far away. Alan Tyson. 48-9.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 No. 44669 on down stopping train approaching Dent station on 29 June 1964; BR Class 4 2-6-0 with southbound engineer's train crossing Arten Gill Viaduct on 29 June 1964; Class 5 on northbound freight approaching Kirkby Stephen on 2 May 1967; former Crosti 9F on loaded anydrite train from Long Meg approaching Kirkby Stephen on 30 June 1964; 9F approaching Blea Moor signal box with empties for Long Meg on 1 June 1966. 

Ludlam, A.J. The Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway and the Beyer Peacock connection. 50-4.
The connection began with the Beyer Peacock 4-4-0s built for the Lynn & Fakenham Railway in 1881. These were similar to the 135 class supplied to the LSWR and designed by William Adams, but lighter and less powerful. These received Nos. 21-24 and were painted green. In 1883 Nos. 25-28 were supplied to the Eastern & Midlands Railway and were painted in chocolate brown lined black and chrome yellow. Further batches were supplied in 1886 and 1888. Illus: 4-4-2T No. 9 on Cromer Beach in 1910; page 50 lower 0-6-0T No. 8488 at South Lynn on 15 April 1947 (H.C. Casserley) see also letter from Peter Clark on page 253 about this type and other corrections); page 51 upper: A class 4-4-0 No. 26 at Great Yarmouth; C class 4-4-0 No. 1 at Melton Constable on 1 July 1936 (HCC); A Class No. 28 at Spalding on 27 May 1937 (HCC); A class No. 22 leaving Spalding on a freight on 7 May 1927 (HCC); A tank 4-4-0T No. 20 with tablet catcher (HCC); and C class No. 47 at Melton Constable on 26 June 1929 (HCC: although black & white captures golden nature of livery). See also letter from Ruary Mackenzie Dodds on page 190 which refers to A class 4-4-2Ts built at Melton Constable. Sydney Diggles (page 317) considers that Author had muddled the two "Adams" (William) and (William Bridges) and former did not work for LNWR, but for North London Railway: was noted for bogie and for Vortex blastpipe. Cites Newcomen Society paper. .

Railway life in the Highlands. Geoffrey Skelsey. 55-7.
Colour photo-feature: pictures taken between 1973 and 1980: contents of Travelling Post Office being transferred.into Royal Mail vans at Inverness in September 1974; Clacnaharry signal box viewed from the train as in crosses swing bridge over Caledonian Canal in 1974; Brora station with trains crossing on 18 September 1974; Achnasheen station with Highland Omnibuses postbus loading mail on 14 September 1973 (see also article in previous Volume page 582 et seq); Lairg station with Sutherland Transport & Trading Co.postbus awaiting pssengers and mail for remote Lochinver see also letter from George Huxley on page 253 who notes that metal column in foreground was part of a tablet catcher; Kyle of Lochalsh quayside with Type 2 diesel and fishing boats dwarfed by the mountains of Skye beyond on 18 September 1973 see also letter from Adrian Vicary on page 253 who states that vessels stated to be fishing boats were Royal Navy axiliaries; Strathcarron station with mountains towering in background on 29 August 1980 with parcels being offloaded from train on 29 August 1980; Loch Carron viewed from 17.50 ex Kyle in September 1973.  

Smith, George. The Brontës and the railways. 58-60.
Patrick Branwell Bronte, brother of the novelist sisters (Charlotte. Emily and Anne) had a brief and unsatisfactory railway career on the Manchester & Leeds Railway starting at Sowerby Bridge. He was later in charge of Luddenfoot station and wrote poetry on his employer's headed paper and in the station's account books. Fortunately these are preserved at Haworth in the Bronte Museum.

Book Reviews. 61
Petroleum rail tank wagons of Britain. R. Tourret. Tourret Publishing. 2009. 304pp. PT ****
Includes 688 photographs and 125 diagrams, but reviewer is critical of the textual approach and would have preferred tabular presentation,
Pullman Profile No. 2: the standard 'K' type cars. Anthony Ford. Noodle Books. 200pp. AJB *****
Type introduced in 1923 and had match-boarded sides on steel underframes. 74 cars were built and the life of each is documented. "profusely illustrated"
Bentley Colliery: a concise railway-orientated history and a first-hand account. Gordon E. Gough and John G. Teasdale. published second author. 80pp. GBS ***
Review refers to "Graham Gough", presumably in error as Gordon Gough contributed to an Archive article on the underground railways at Bentley Colliery. The colliery opened in 1916 and closed in 1993. Reviewer pleads for a greater catholicity in reading taste by those who love railways..
The Chiltern Railways story. Hugh Jones. History Press. 192pp. GBS ****
"this is an important book for those wishing to understand the present state of the [train operating] industry." Includes personal accounts by those involved in establishing and continuing to run what appears to be a successful privatized railway.

Readers' Forum. 62
Two Lancashire labourers. Editor.
See page 735 of previous Issue: "labourers" disappeared in electronic printer's pie.
Management of the Midland Railway. Editor
See page 653 of previous Issue: was No. 993 at Carlisle Durran Hill or at Derby?
Towards an agenda for the History of Early Main Line Railways. Grahame Boyes.
Workshop on 2 March 2011 at NRM: papers downloadable from: www.york.ac.uk/inst/irs/
1948 – the birth of British Railways. A.J. Mullay,
See previous volume page 654 et seq: comment on the relative sizes of the Regions: writer believed that Scottish was larger than North Eastern and arguments within Commission on NER being too small and LMR too big (but NER enjoyed best economic performance): . 
1948 – the birth of British Railways. Frederick M. Littlewood
See previous volume page 654 et seq: comment on the renumbering of the former LNER War Department purchases of Austerity 2-8-0s into separate sequences for those supplied by North British Locomotive Co. and Vulcan Foundry.
Tyneside electrics. William A.M. Barter
See page 594 et seq in previous Volume: complex decision making on Isle of Wight which led to installation of third rail rather than modification of electric stock to incorporate diesel generators, or use Class 17 in push & pull mode
Tyneside electrics. Bob Bemand
See page 594 et seq in previous Volume:2-EPB unit used on South Tyneside services is preserved at Coventry Electric Railway Museum
Steam, bogies and passion. Darryl Grant
See Volume 24 page 541 et seq: suspects that locomotive in main picture may match one illustrated and described by A.R. Bennett in Chronicles of Boulton's Siding, and to that described in Abbott's The Fairlie locomotive. Also gives possible explanations for the print: one that an actual Fairlie ran on the Neath & Brecon, and the other that an artist depicted a Fairlie type (as depicted elsewhere) on a railway known to him.

Wintertime in Worcestershire. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
10.00 Paddington to Hereford passing Stoulton station behind No. 7031 Cromwell's Castle on 17 February 1963.

Number 2 (February)

LSWR T9 4-4-0 No.30289 shunts a Bevois Park-Lymington local goods at Brockenhurst on 28th June 1957. (R.C. . Riley). front cover

A picture of the future. Paul Chancellor. 67.
Guest Editorial by the owner of Colour-Rail on the preservation of coloured photographic images on film. See also letter on page 253 from Dr Christopher Hilton, Senior Archivist at the Wellcome Library who comments on the questionable archival durability of digital records and further letters from Ivor Lewis of the HMRS and E.M. Johnson on page 381. Further letter on the "dangers" of storing digitized images from Norman Dowd on page 573..

'Greyhound' racing [T9 class]. 68-70.
Colour photo-feature: No. 30717 on turntable at Okehampton shed on 14 July 1959 (R.C. Riley); No. 30719 about to leave Okehampton with local freight on 15 July 1959 (R.C. Riley); No. 30709 at Wadebridge waiting for 2-4-0WT coming off single track before leaving on 13.45 to Padstow on 28 April 1959; No. 30300 (with six-wheel tender) on Eastleigh shed in July 1959; No. 30732 at North Camp on Guildford to Reading service in April 1959 (G.H. Hunt); No. 30719 approaching bridge over Little Petherick Creek viewed from locomotive of 09.56 Padstow to Okehampton on 15 July 1960; preserved No. 120 at Haywards Heath on 21 October 1962 after hauling Bluebell Railway excursion from Victoria.

Stirling, David. Exchange Platform Only. 71-5.
Title came from timetable note as "platform" was intended as location for passengers to change trains and usually lacked any form of public access by road or path. There were exchange platforms at Cairnie Junction, Killin Junction, Holehouse Junction, Methven Junction and debateably at Orton Junction in Scotland

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Kirriemuir branch. 76-80.
Opened by Scottish Midland Junction Railway on 18 December 1854 following two inspections by Tyler for the Board of Trade on 24 October and 20 November 1854. Trains normally ran to Forfar, but in 1922 the Caledonian Eailway sometimes expected passengers to change at Kirriemuir Junction which had an anomalous state. The line closed for passenger traffic on 4 August 1952, and for freight in June 1965. . Illus. CR 0-6-0 No. 57441 on daily goods at Kirriemuir (2 views); Kirriemuir Junction on 16 June 1960 with Scottish Rambler railtour waiting for signal to cleat; CR 4-4-0 No. 54489 on branch goods waiting to leave Kirriemuir (Pooley & Sons weighing van in bay platform)

'Blue Deltics' at York. Chris Fox. 81
Colour photo-feature: No. 55 014 The Duke of Wellington's Regiment on southbound express non-stopping on 24 June 1977; No. 55012 Crepello waiting departure on down express on 24 June 1977 and No. 55 018 Ballymoss at north end of York station with down express in September 1980 with Class 101 DMU in reversed livery.

Kell, Roger J. Consett and Tyne Dock — a brief history. 82-5.
Derwent Iron Co. in the Derwent Valley, County Durham was based on iron deposits found in 1837. Once these deposits were exhausted Cleveland ore was used, but this was gradually replaced by imported ore. The Consett Iron Company owned most of the collieries suppling it with coal and coal was also shipped out over the South Durham & Lancashire Union Railway to Barrow-in-Furness and Workington or vai staiths on the Tyne at Derwent Haugh and Tyne Dock. In 1937 the LNER sold Tyne Dock to the Tyne Improvement Commission. In 1953 Tyne Dock was modernised for the import of foreigh ore and British Railways introduced 53 ton bogie wagons which had air-operated doors and required specially equipped locomotives: initially thse were Q7 0-8-0s and O1 2-8-0s, later replaced by 9F 2-10-0s. Trains needed to be banked on a stretch of 1 in 35 near Stanley. Illus.: 9F Nos. 92061 and 92097 on Tyne Dock shed; 92097 about to leave loading bunkers at Tyne Dock; WD 90434 dropping back having banked train up steep part of climb; 92097 on iron ore drops at Consett in 1965; 92063 on climb in 1964 (only colour view); 92098 descending with empty hoppers; 92063 on climb between Beamish and Stanley in 1963. See also letter from Charles Long on page 317 on estimated journey time for empties to travel back to Tyne Dock without motive power..

Pearson, David. 'Most Noble Ladies': the 'Duchesses' of the 'Princess Coronation' class.  86-95.
The names bestowed on the Duchess of series: article begins by refering to the earlier Princess Royal Pacifics (and article by same author about their names see Volume 23 page 148) and having dismissed the Duchess of Windsor as an ignoble candidate lists dukes whose wives might have been considered but were not and geography seems to have influenced the decision. No. 46226 Duchess of Norfolk who was a central figure at the Coronation of King George VI (the class name which reflected both the earlier Princess Royal class and the lead locomomotive of the new class No. 6220 Coronation). This was followed by 46227 Duchess of Devonshire, 46228 Duchess of Rutland, 46229 Duchess of Hamilton, 46230 Duchess of Buccleugh, 46231 Duchess of Atholl, 46232 Duchess of Montrose, 46233 Duchess of Sutherland and 46234 Duchess of Abercorn. Pearson discusses duchess names which were rejected, such as Somerset and Roxburghe, and suggests geography, although KPJ considers that dukes and duchesses were above such things and the railways seemed to disregard geography when it suited them. In any event for later members of the class the LMS turned to city names. See also letters from Allan C. Baker (on Dukedom of Newcastle-under-Lyme and on the nature and reason for Duchess class on Crewe to Shrewsbury workings) and John Birkhead on page 253.who notes that Grafton Estate is visible from West Coast main line amd one of the titles held was that of Euston: perhaps the Duchess did not wish her name to be bestowed on a locomotive.

Lands of the East, Awake! 96-8.
Colour (Colour-Rail) photo-feature: B2 61671 Royal Sovereign at King's Cross not Liverpool Street on express train of carmine & cream stock (locomotive in Royal Train condition see Editorial note on page 253); J15 No. 65475 at Long Melford in July 1959 (G.W. Potter); D16/3 No. 62606 at King's Lynn with train for Hunstanton in 1958; B17/6 No. 61656 Leeds United on Ipswich turntable; B17 No. 61654 Sunderland at Melton Constable in 1956 (J.M. Cramp); N7 No. 69633 at Buntingford shunting goods yard in 1958 (Michael Covey-Crump), E4 No. 62785 at Long Melford  with up local (G.W. Potter).

Banbury 9Fs. Mike Kinder. 99.
Colour photo-feature No. 92132 on down train formed of vans passing Greaves sidings and Harbury cement works in summer of 1966; No. 92247 passing Griff Colliery between Bedworth and Nuneaton possibly with iron ore empties in October 1965; No. 92128 approaching Harbury in October 1965.

Smith, Michael J. "A Properly Co-ordinated System of Transport". PartTwo. 100-3.
Integration of the Metropolitan Railway's rolling stock into the LPTB system. Metropolitan stock was finished in varnished teak and on the 1932 steel panelled vehicles an ersatz version was produced. The LPTB tried all over red, red with black lining and all-over olive green, but latterly brown or light chocolate was used. The Circle Line was modernised with inter-connecting doors and were painted in standard LPTB red and cream. Interiors were painted cirulean blue. Some of the Ashbury stock was stored at the incomplete Ruislip Central Line depot during WW2 and two three car sets were converted into steam worked push & pull units for the Chesham branch..

Rogers, James. Life on the Pateley Bridge Branch. 104-8.
Opened by the North Eastern Railway on 1 May 1862. Passenger services (never frequent) were withdrawn on 1 March 1951. Freight closed on 31 October  1964.

By Class 37 to North Wales. Hugh Ballantyne. 109-11.
Colour photo-feature: Class 37 Nos. 37 414 Cathay C&W Works 1846-1993 in Regional Railways livery with matching (in part) coaches forming 13.22 Bangor to Crewe entering Bangor station on 18 July 1996; 37 418 East Lancashire Railway in English, Welsh & Scottish red livery with rolling stock mainly as previous on 15.14 Crewe to Holyhead crossing Malltreath viaduct on Anglesey on 29 May 1997; 37 421 The Kingsman passing Conwy Castle on 13.18 Crewe to Bangor on 18 July 1996 (this locomotive and all subsequent locomotives were in Regional Railways livery with matching stock except in every case for a single chocolate & cream vehicle); 37 414 passing Penmaenmawr on 13.22 Bangor to Crewe (same train & day as first); 37 421 on 10.23 Bangor to Crewe passing Llanfairfechan on 18 july 1996; 37 429 Eisteddfod Genedlaethol nearing Penmaenmawr on 12.18 Crewe  to Bangor.

Tatlow, Peter. Recollections of a railway civil engineer. Part 1. A start on the railways. 112-17.
Left school in 1954 and opted to enlist for a three year period in the Army, and was trained as a surveyor at the School of Military Survey at Hermitage, which was a useful step in his training to be an engineer.Trained in surveying from aerial photographs at the Joint Air Photographic Intelligence Centre at Fontainebleau in France where he acquired camera skills. Became interested in narrow gauge railways: in 1955 visited Dorking Greystone & Lime Works. Subsequently he became a volunteer on the Festiniog Railway and discovered that manual ballast packing with a beater is hard work. Illus.: p. 112 upper No. 3440 City of Truro at Paddington with overnight return Festiniog Railway Society AGM special on 27 April 1958; p. 112 lower Festiniog Railway 0-4-0ST Prince on town bridge en route to Welsh Highland line on 2 September 1958; p. 115 West Country No. 34101 Hartland with incorrect caption (see letter from Nigel Whitwell page 317). Part 2 see page 218. .

Joyce, Paul. The early years of a single-sided station 1840-1863. 118-23.
Reading station was built upon an embankment formed from spoil from Sonning Cutting and work started in 1837, but the station was not opened until 30 March 1840. It had a complicated arrangement of separate up and down platforms, both of which were on the southern side adjacent to the town. The one advantage of clear through lines was negated by the requirement for up trains to have to cross the down "fast lines" twice.

Stations great and small. John Spencer Gilks. 124-5.
Colour photo-feature: Aberdeen concourse with parcels in disarray on 31 August 1965; Fort William station on 9 October 1964 with mechanical horse emerging; Wadebridge with DMU on 29 August 1966; H class with push & pull unit for Allhallows-on-Sea at High Halstow Halt on 7 January 1961; Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82035 at Axbridge on 11 May 1963. 

Readers' Forum. 126
Snow and disaster. Editor
See page 27: date of Abbotts Ripton disaster was 21 January 1876, not 1 January
The Great Central's Southern Division. Robert Emblin.
See previous Volume article beginning p. 748: captions on pp. 748 and 749 transposed.
Level crossings. Richard Pratt.
See previous Volume page 764 for letter from W.T. Scott (page 739): a crossing near Bristol built to take taxiway across railway for the Bristol Aircraft factory at Filton.
Brighton beautiful. Paul Heinink
See previous Volume page 736 et seq (page 739): No. 32670 had been built in 1872 as No. 70 Poplar and was withdrawn by LBSCR in 1901 and was sold to the Kent & East Sussex Railway for £650, becoming No. 3 Bodiam. Between 1933 and 1935 it was rebuilt with parts from No. 5 Rolvenden (former No. 71 Wapping). Absorbed into British Railways stock; worked on Hayling Island branch and was preserved to run as No.3 Bodiam.
Not opened every day. Peter J. Thirlwell
See previous Volume page 716 et seq: Dilton Marsh Halt near Westbury opened in 1937; during WW2 heavy trains found it difficult to restart on climb.
Not opened every day. Rob Pearce
See previous Volume page 716 et seq: picture of Pans Lane Halt printed back-to-front
Not opened every day. W, Tollan.
See previous Volume page 716 et seq: Garrowhill Halt opened by LNER to serve a housing estate in Eastern Glasgow. Estate also seved by trams to Airdrie. Garrowhill was between Barrachnie and Barlanark.

Diesel transition at York. Chris Fox. rear cover
InterCity 125 high speed train No. 254 009 and a Deltic await departure for King's Cross at York on 20 October 1979.

No. 3 (March) (No. 239)

NER B16 4-6-0 No.61443 runs light past York carriage sheds c1959. Derek Penney. front cover

The word on the street. Michael Blakemore. 131.
Miss Marple is met at the "train station" in the 1950s: would the television production company have used the nearest available Toyota or a vintage Austin?

Exploring the Valleys. 132-3
Colour photo-feature on the South Wales Valleys:8750 class 0-6-0PT No. 4462 at head (or is it rear?) of train having its brakes pinned down at Penygraig before descending to Clydach Vale in July 1960 (C.J. Gammell); 56XX No. 6605 on Neath to Pontypool train near Mountain Ash in July 1962 (A.A. Jarvis); 56XX No. 5695 shunting at Aberthaw (somersault signal in background); 57XX No. 3738 and 42XX No. 4214 arrriving at Tondu in October 1963 (load includes probable pit props) (P.A. Fry); 64XX No. 6435 at Blaengwynfi on approach to Rhondda Tunnel (Michael Covey-Crump)

Morse, Greg. All wired on the Western front? Part One. 134-9.
Great Western Railway and Western Region have remained pn the edge of electrification for a long time (but see latter from Michael J. Smith on page 317) where inner suburban routes were electrified). Refers to Sir Felix Pole's response to House of Commons interest in railway electrification in the 1920s: he favoured the routes from Paddington to Birmingham and Bristol. Sir Philip Dawson considered that neither route would be favourable as there would be too much mixed traction and favoured total electrification west of Taunton using high voltage direct current. Favourable factors included the severe gradients, congestion and the high cost of steam motive power in this area. It was envisaged that 233 electric locomotives would replace 381 steam locomotives and very heavy trains could have been taken through to Penzance. Collett noted in his Annual Report for 1925 that electrification was receiving "very careful consideration". It was considered that a financial case could not be made and consideration turned towards suburban electrification. In 1938 the National Grid had been established and Sir James Milne instigated a further investigation was made by Merz and McLellan, but it was considered that engine changing at Taunton would cause a major logistical problem.. Also considers, briefly, oil firing of steam locomotives and disel and gas turbine haulage. The latter makes extensive use of Kevin Robertson's Gas turbines – a myth exposed. Part 2 see pager 213.

Nisbet, Alistair. The former Great Western route from London to Birmingham. 140-3.
Rationalisation of former main line which involved single tracking between Banbury and Princes Risborough was followed by population growth on route, especially at Bicester and off the route at Thame (a deliberately expanded settlement) and an inner-suburban quality service operated by Class 115 DMUs (which always reminded KPJ of Valour paraffin stoves from their stench) has gradually been restored by double track and better DMUs  (Class 165 Networkers and Class 168 Clubman units with air conditioning). A new Haddenham and Thame Parkway offers an alternative to driving all the way on the M40. Illus.: Class 115 in blue & grey livery passing GWR lower quadrant signals at High Wycombe on 3 January 1987; Class 115 DMU on single track between Bicester North and Aynho Junction on Marylebone service on 21 May 1988; Class 115 in Network SouthEast livery at Bicester North on 7 November 1991; Class 121 single car in Network SouthEast livery at Banbury on service from Oxford on 18 July 1987; No. 4472 Flying Scotsman at High Wycombe waiting to work return Sanat Special to Marylebone on 3 January 1987; Class 165 Networker crossing Souldern Viaduct on 21 February 1998; two Class 165 Networkers at Bicester North on 7 October 1992. Two letters on page 318: one by Gerald Goodall considers that Author failed to note that Britsih Rail operated some good intermediate services on the route after electrification between Euston and Birmingham, that following a lean period Network SouthEast introduced major improvements opening Haddenham and Thame Parkway, introduced the Turbos, and began services to Birminham: Chiltern Railways has built on this, and one from Mike Widger who considers that still not has been done to de-Castleate the former LSWR main line west of Salisbury..

Fell, Mike G. The King's Lynn Docks & Railway Company. 144-50.
Ancient port on River Great Ouse was enhanced by construction of enclosed docks: the Alexandra Dock in 1869 and Bentinck Dock in 1883. The Lynn & Ely Railway opened a harbour branch on 27 October 1846 at the same time as it opened to Downham Market on 27 October 1846. The King's Lynn Docks & Railway Company received the Royal Assent on 19 June 1865. The Docks branch closed in 1994 due to loss of traffic. The Alexandra Dock was formally opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales on 7 July 1869. The engineer for the docks was James Brunlees.  Coal handling machinery was constructed by Frederick Savage. Bentinck Dock received its Royal Assent on 23 July 1877; the contractor was Pearson & Son and the dock was formally opened by the Duke of Portland (family name Bentinck). Illus.: Alexandra Dock c1877 with dumb-buffered wagons including McOlvin of King's Lynn, Babbington Colliery, Nottingham; John G. Mitchell, the Darlington Coal & Coke Company and Nunnery Colliery, Sheffield; coal drop in use in Bentinck Dock on 25 July 1933; J67 0-6-0T No. 7331 on King's Lynn Dock branch in July 1942 with load of boilers for repair by Alfred Dodman & Co.; aerial view of Alexandra and Bentinck Docks in early 1950s; discharging cargo in Alexandra Dock c1958; Dow Chemical Company's Ruston diesel shunters including ex-BR No. 07 013; Br diesel shunter No. 08 539 hauling containers on 22 July 1981 (with Author in picture) and same locomotive hauling VTG wagons loaded with Hoogovens imported steel coil from Ijmuiden.. Footnotes and references missing from end of text reproduced on page 317 (May Issiue)  See also feature by same Author on his working experiences at Goole docks in previous volume on page 433 et seq.

Stratford Style. Adrian Vickery. 151
Royal Weddings: loyal colour photo-feature: cream Sinclair 2-2-2 No. 284 garlanded with roses and foliage for the wedding of HRH Albert Edward, Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra of Denmark on 10 March 1863 (presumably for Royal journey to Sandringham: F. Moore painting whose provenance is not given) and No. 47 583 County of Hertforshire in Norwich train station on 13 August 1981 (special livery for wedding of HRH Charles, Prince of Wales to Lady Diana: livery monastral blue with silver roof, yellow cab ends and large BR logo with red and blue lining).

Helm, John W.E. 1948 — the birth of British Railways — the first year. Part three. 152-8.
The other Executives: Road Haulage Executive (grew to a fleet of 40,000 vehicles), Road Passenger Executive (created in July 1949 and based on Tilling and SMT bus companies plus the former railway-owned share of BET, British Electric Traction, which held out against nationalisation) and when electricity supply was nationalised the buses operated by the Midland Counties Electric Supply group were absorbed, London Transport Executive took over the functions of the LPTB, and the Dock & Inland Waterways Executive. The dock industry was highly fragmented and the Executive was involved in the management of the former railway and canal owned ports with the exception of some ferry terminals which continued under railway operation and the canals: much of the early management tended towards abandonment. Illus.:p. 152 upper No. 4091 Dudley Castle in acid green livery with tender lettered "BRITISH RAILWAYS" at Chippenham in 1949 (colour: K.H. Leech), p. 152 lower No. 46231 Duchess of Atholl in blue livery (colour: W.H. Foster); p. 153 upper No. 45292 in LNWR livery at Marylebone station on 6 April 1948 with train in "plum & spilt milk livery" behind: but see letter on page 317 from L.W.T. Sharp who claims that these vehicles were painted in brown with grey upper panels as per Great Central livery.

Carnforth cameos. David Idle. 159.
Colour photo-feature based on photographs taken on 30 July 1965: Class 5 No. 44857 departs on 16.55 stopping train for Leeds; Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42616 arriving with portion off 17.47 ex-Leeds, and No. 46115 Scots Guardsman arriving with 14.00 ex-Glasgow for Manchester and Liverpool.

North Easterly at York. Derek Penney. 160-2.
Colour photo-feature: J27 No. 65844 next to the coaling tower at York MPD in October 1964; J72 No. 68677 shunting horsebox and vans in Queen Street sidings with West Yorkshire red bus crossing bridge in 1959; B16 No. 61452 at north end of York station; inside York roundhouse in April 1965 with J27 No. 65894 (now preserved), B1 No. 61021 Reitbok, and Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0s Nos. 43138 and 43071; B16/3 No. 61464 backing around avoiding lines in September 1963 and No. 65894 displaying its red coupling rods in August 1965..

Coombs, L.F.E. Iron words [railway terminology]. 163-5.
The intrusion of train station alongside train shed; car versus carriage and coach; truck versus wagon, sleepers, frogs, toes and heels are further points in this pleasant meander through railroad verbiage. The peculiarities of other languages, notably French, German and Russian are also considered. See also letter from Stephen G. Abbott on origin of up and down from original timetable format used on posters and handbills..

Clarke, Jeremy. Tonbridge to Hastings. 166-71.
Originated as an extension to the Tunbridge Wells branch which had been completed on 25 November 1846 it reached Battle on 1 January 1852 and Bo-Peep Junction on 1 February. There was conflict with the LBSCR which had reached Hastings from Lewes. The line was poorly built and the tunnels were substandard and had to be reinforced which narrowed them and forced the line to be worked by locomotives and rolling stock of restricted width. This caused British Railways a problem and sets of new non-standard carriages were in course of construction when it was decided to introduce diesel electric multipe units on the line. When these became life expired it was decided to electrify the line with single track through the tunnels and modern signalling. 4-CEP EMUs were used painted in Jaffa Cake livery, but these have been replaced by Electrostars. Journey times remain lengthy with an average speed of only 40 mile/h. Extensive correspondence ensued on page 317: from Richard Bull (anecdote concerning human banking engines for DEMU out of Battle station); from Ann Stocker refuting that Battle station buildings had ceased to be used for railway activity; from Peter Tatlow on the cause of the sub-standard tunnels; and from Stephen G. Abbott on the provenance of the Tadpole DEMUs (did not incorporate former Tyneside 2-EPB stock).: rebuttal from author on page 446.

Doing the Scottish sheds. 172-4.
Colour photo-feature: Nos. 46257 City of Salford and 46231 Duchess of Atholl on Polmadie shed in June 1962 (Geoff Rixon); Class 4 2-6-4Ts Nos. 80129 and 80130 on Polmadie shed in June 1962 (Geoff Rixon); J37 No. 64636 on Mallaig turntable on 1 June 1963 (this and another J37 were on a special working) (David Idle); Royal Scot No. 48117 Welsh Guardsman at Corkerhill MPD in September 1962 (Geoff Rixon); McIntish 812 Class 0-6-0 No. 57566 on Muirkirk shed on 30 June 1963; A1 No. 60147 North Eastern on vacuum powered turntable at Tweedmouth on 13 April 1963; view from top of Perth coaling plant on 29 August 1965 with A4 Nos. 60009 Union of South Africa; 60019 Bittern, 60026 Miles Beevor, 60031 Golden Plover, A2 No. 60512 Steady Aim. Britannia No. 70001 Lord Hurcombe and Class 5 Nos. 44718, 44722, 44997 and 45417 (David Idle)

Tester, Adrian. Traditional locomotive testing techniques. Part Three. 175-81.
Dynamometer car (Author uses dynamometer carriage) testing: refers to tests made by the LMS beteen Toton and Brent on coal trains hauled by former LNWR G2 0-8-0s, 4F 0-6-0s, Beyer-Garratt 2-6-6-2 and ex-MR 0-6-0s in various double-headed combinations. These were the subject of published comment by Cox in Chronicles of steam and by Carling: the Author accuses the former of sophistry in some of his analyses. Examines subsequent tests between G2 0-8-0 and Fowler 7F 0-8-0 (on same test route) and concludes that the latter's lower coal consumption was due entirely to higher boiler efficiency (in the caption accompanying illus. of No. 9628 notes that the large-lap Walschaerts valve gear led to rapid wear or even fracture of the eccentric straps). Also glances at the summary table (taken from Cox in Chronicles of steam) of coal consumption, average mileage and repair costs of various LMS freight locomotives including the two 0-8-0 types. Gresley's tests of Pacifics Nos. 4473 Solario and 2544 Lemberg are re-examined and clearly show the advantage of hotter steam at higher pressure (Spencer in his ILocoE Paper 465 gave a summary table). Concludes with McIntosh's contribution to the IMechE in 1904, but prior to that summarises the 1948 Interchange Trials as: "Sadly, the 1948 Locomotive Exchanges really were a waste of effort, with the exercise amounting to little more than a summer-long jolly for the engineers concerned."

Wells, Jeffrey. In search of light. Part Two. 182-8.
Part 1 see page 14 et seq: mainly improvements in gas lighting, both for stations and rolling stock and the gradual introduction of electricity, although the Pintsch and Pope systems gave gas lighting an extension of life. The North British Railway experimented in 1881/2 with electric lighting on trains using a Brotherhood engine and generator on the locomotive. In 1881 the LBSCR and the Pullman Car Co. started experiments with electric lighting in car Beatrice. This led to the illumination of a complete Pullman train. Stations using electric lighting included Paddington and Glasgow St Enoch. The Matropolitan District Railway experimented with a system devised by W.H. Massey in which a small steam engine and dynamo were installed in a special van. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway also experimented with electric lighting in the mid-1880s. The North British Railway used Thomas P. Carswell's system of electric lighting in which current was supplied from a third rail to illuminate trains on the Queen Street Low Level route: this system lasted from 1886 until 1902. Illus. p. 182 upper Paddington station with pendant gas lamps and evidence of gas lighting in rolling stock; page 182 lower Miller's Dale station with "gas lamps", but letter from Malcolm Parsons (page 317) argues that they were oil lamps; Morecambe station, Rochdale station (both showing gas lighting); 1902 LNWR Royal saloon of 1902 showing electric lighting; North London Railway four wheel coach of 1906 provided with minimal gas lighting; LYR gas receiver wagon; small gas works at Methley station (Midland Railway)  .

Rolling Stock Focus: Southern Railway departmental rolling stock. Roy Hobbs (photographs) and Mike King. 189
Colour photo-feature: two former LSWR 56ft brake thirds Nos. DS1905/6 painted in bright red serving as support vehicles for Redhill MPD's breakdown crane; DS70063 former LSWR coach reconstructed in 1935 from 48ft vehicle built in 1897 on a standard 58ft underframe with lavatory and extra compartment spliced in as used in Lancing Works staff train which ran with individually numbered compartments; DS291 former LBSCR directors' inspection saloon in crimson and cream livery (vehicle ran on six-wheel bogies and had a gangway connection) on special hauled by D1 No. 31749 on 25 July 1961.

Readers' Forum.  190
1948 – the birth of British Railways. Kevin Tattersley.
See page 36 et seq: Footnote 21 (page 39) which refered to 3ft 6in gauge Nantlle Railwsy which was worked by a contractor using horses, later by tractor.
Great Central Railway's Southern Division. Keith Fenwick
See Volume 24 page 748 et seq: notes that line which crossed GCR at Helmdon was not part of LNWR, but line which became part of SMJRY. Village near Woodford was Eydon, not Eyndon.. Also note on B4525 known as Welsh Lane
M&GNR an the Beyer connection. Ruary Mackenzie Dodds.
See page 50: refers to A class 4-4-2Ts built at Melton Constable.
M&GNR an the Beyer connection. Malcolm H. Banyer.
Note on the M&GN Circle
The 'Manchester Pullman'. Pete Williamson.
See photographs page 708 (Volume 24): notes the presence of non-Pullman vehicles in the formations: between 1967 and 1976. Also notes how in about 1970 down failed down train was propelled by down Executive from near Castlethorpe to Rugby..

Book Reviews. 190
Armstrong Whiworth: a pioneer of world diesel traction. Brian Webb. Lightmoor Press in conjunction with RCTS. MR *****
Very important book and illuminating review.

Speeding through Selby. Derek Penney. rear cover
A4 No. 60009 Union of South Africa hauls Jubilee Requiem RCTS/SLS special through Selby on 24 October 1964 [KPJ: speeding not encouraged over swing bridge!]

No. 4 (April) (No. 240)

LMS 'Jubilee' 4-6-0 No.45653 Barham at Euston after bringing in a train from Blackpool in August 1962. (Geoff Rixon). front cover
See also letter Brian Garvin on pp. 381-2: train probably from Llandudno

The nation speaks. Michael Blakemore. 195.
Results of the questionnaire (Readers' Survey) sent out with the December issue. States what readers' like, but without mention of whom won the bag of sweeties for the return which most reflected Editorial ambitions.

North British workers. Roy Hobbs. 196-7.
Colour photo-feature: NBR 0-6-0s: J36 No. 65282 at Riddochhill Colliery on 30 March 1964 (see also letter from Charles Davidson on page 381: states the Wood end Colliery branch at Armadale - the top of the washery, chimney and the lower slopes of the bing can be seen to th eleft of the engine's smokebox, ); J37 No. 64623 shunting at Inverkeithing North Junction on 6 July 1965; J37 No. 64565 shunting in Bathgate yard in March 1964; J36 No. 65288 on Dunfermline shed on 7 May 1966; J37 No. 64577 on Brechin branch freight on 6 May 1966.

Binks, Michael B. The unforgettable Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway. 198-207.
Engineered by Thomas Bouch and dismembered by Beeching in favour of dual carriageway road and is an obvious candidate for restoration a l'Ecosse. Keswick must be the greatest gap in the English railway notwork. John Wood was Resident Engineer and George Bolton & Sons were the contractors. It was constructed under an 1861 Act to serve the pig iron industry of Workington with supplies of coke from County Durham. Keswick was the headquarters of the line and it was envisaged it would become a tourist centre. The main civil engineering works involved consolidation of the shores of Bassenthwaite Lake and cutting a shelf in the gorge of the River Greta to form a route to the summit of the line towards Troutbeck. A gradient profile and maps. Bowstring bridges limited the motive power, but were later strengthened between Keswick and Penrith. The NER 1001 class powered the freight trains. In later years the line was associated with Cauliflower 0-6-0s and Ivatt 2-6-0s. Illus.: No. 46452 running tender-first with the Workington portion of the Lakes Express in May 1965 (colour); Cauliflower No. 28492 at Threkeld with 10.23 Whitehaven to Penrith on 6 September 1948; Class 5 No. 45339 leaving Penrith with mineral wagon empties for Flusco Quarry in May 1956 (Ray Oakley: colour); No. 46458 on down Lakes Express leaving Penrith on 3 July 1965 (A.R. Thompson); No. 46432 on Lakes Express approaching bowstring bridge in Greta Gorge on 7 August 1965; No. 45738 Samson and 45286 at Keswick on return excursion to Newcastle on 17 July 1960; No. 46488 at Bassenthwaite Lake on pick-up freight on 14 August 1963; light weight DMU at Cockermouth on 1 June 1960. See also letter (p. 381) from James Henderson on how mis-management deliberately ensured that the services failed to connect at Workington thus ensuring that they would be eliminated.;

Euston: we had a problem.  208-12.
Illus.: Jubilee 4-6-0 No.45653 Barham at Euston with special from Blackpool in August 1962 (colour: Geoff Rixon); original station in 1838 (drawing); Fowlr Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42367 bringing in empty stock for Manchester train on 27 July 1962 (colour: Geoff Rixon); Euston Arch in 1904; the Great Hall; Platforms 12 and 13 on departure side at 13.57 in 1939; Type 4 D300 and No. 46252 City of Leicester at Platforms 1 and 2 on arrivals side (colour: Geoff Rixon); Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42581 drawing empty stock of 07.30 from Birmingham New Street out of Platform 1 on 1 February 1964; one of still extatnt lodges, War Memorial and Euston Hotel; business season ticket holders passing through booking hall; passengers joining taxis; and arrivals indicator on 21 January 1948 with 09.07 arrival from Inverness 246 minutes late at Tring. Most of the black & white illustrations are from Edward Talbot Collection. Text was presumably written by the Editor.

Morse, Greg. All wired on the Western front? Part two. 213-17
Part 1 began page 134. Paper used to be used as an insulator for electricity: apart from the rather strange electrification required for Heathrow Airport the Great Western remains insulated from electricity other than from various papers which have mildly advocated it. Part 1 examineded some considered by the GWR; the meagre collection of further electrifying reports under Nationalisation and subsequent ConDemnation are now dusted off. Merz & McLellan in 1959 concluded that the "distances between London, Cardiff and Bristol and the traffic patterns over these routes [were] not well suited to making the best use of electrification". The diesel hydraulic programme is also considered. See also letters from Author (on subsequent "decision" to electrify to Cardiff, but not yet Swansea) on page 317 and from Michael J. Smith who notes how the Metropolitan Railway, the Central London Railway and the London Passenger Transport Board forced electrification upon the GWR.

Tatlow, Peter. Recollections of a railway civil engineer. Part two – The student civil engineer scheme (I). 218-23.
Part 1 began page 112. Working life as a trainee in the District Engineer's Office at Woking from 1959 which involved routine maintenance and renewal of the permanent way, bridges, stations and earthworks. Later he was moved to the Regional Permanent Way Drawing Office at Waterloo.

Red Rose ramblings. 224-7.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 4-6-0 Nos. 44871 and 44894 exit Sough Tunnel on 'end of steam' special on 4 August 1968 (David Idle); Britannia No. 70045 leaving Lancaster with a Liverpool to Glasgow express in July 1966 (Brian Magilton); No. 40 186 enters Guide Bridge with train of oil tank wagons in August 1981 with two dead Class 76 electric locomotives, and Class 47 and Class 40 in background (Brian Magilton); Caprotti Class 5 No. 73132 entering Earlestown with Manchester Exchange to North Wales train on 2 Jone 1966 (Alan Tyson); Britannia No. 70012 passes Hest Bank with 08.35 Barrow to Euston on 3 August 1967 (Brian Magilton); No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell near Hoghton on 28 July 1968; Class 5 No. 45109 forming freight train in Eccles Sidings on 27 April 1966 (Alan Tyson); 8F 2-8-0 No. 48470 and Standard Class 5 NO. 73069 entering Werneth Tunnel on climb to Oldham Mumps on 4 August 1968 (Brian Magilton); and Royal Scot passing  Class 40/Type 4 diesel No. D267 at Wigan North Western (Brian Magilton);.

Wells, Jeffrey. Two of a kind [landslips in Folkestone Warren and in Great Central Railway Wembley cutting]. 228-31
Both of the slips described took place during WW1. The major chalk slip in the Warren took place on 19 December 1915 and a train was involved as it left Martello Tunnel. The line did not reopen until 11 August 1919. The slip at Wembley involved blue clay behind a retaining wall which failed to hold. It happened on 18 February 1918. Mentions subsequent slip in the Warren during WW2 on 27 November 1939. See also letter on p. 381 from Bob Hines concerning Wembley land slip.

Skelsey, Geoffrey. 'Flirting with the Enemy?' Railway-operated electric tramways in the United Kingdom. 232-9.
Five lines described: Cruden Bay Hotel (Great North of Scotland Railway); Waterloo & Great Crosby (Liverpool Overhead Railway); Hill of Howth (Great Northern Railway of Ireland); Burton & Ashby (Midland Railway) and Grimsby & Immingham (Great Central Railway). The Cruden Bay tramway linked the Boddam branch with a golf course and luxury hotel and was built on 3ft 6½ gauge opening in 1899. The hotel was unsuccessful and the LNER discontinued the use of the tramway for passengers in 1932, although contnued to use it for laundry. The Liverpool Overhead Railway had extended to Seaforth Sands in 1894 and in 1900 opened a typical urban tramway to Crosby using electricity from its own generating station. (see Hennessey: railway power stations). The lease expired at the end of 1925 and the service was replaced by the competing buses. The Hill of Howth line was built on the Irish standard gauge and formed an adjunct to the steam hauled suburban service operated by the GNR(I). It opened in 1901 and did not close until 31 May 1959. It clearly affinities with other scenic tamways in Wales and the Isle of Man. It originally generated its own electricity, but replaced this with public supplies in 1934. The Burton & Ashby was an interurban line built on the 3ft 6in which connected the urban tramway in Burton-on-Trent with Ashby-de-la-Zouch. It opened in 1906 and closed on 19 February 1927. Electricity was generated at Swadlincote by diesel generators manufactured in Belgium. The Grimsby & Immingham operation formed a small part of the vast Great Central Railway development of docks and associated activities at Immingham on the Humber. The tramway was intended to connect with the municipal street tramways in Grimsby and the route did incorporate a stretch of street tramway, but most of the route was alongside a traditional railway. It opened in 1912 and did not close until 1961. The original cars lasted throughout the life of the line and were distinctive. Under British Railways they were augmented by redundant more typical single deck urban tramcars from Tyneside. Ends by noting similar railway tramway extensions in Germany and in Melbourne, Australia: both of which succumbed to bus economics. The article raises many attractive hares.

Shifting the South Wales coal. David Idle, photographs; John Scholes, captions. 240-1
Colour photo-feature: 0-6-0T No. 1 (Andrew Barclay WN 2340/1954) at Merthyr Vale Colliery on 20 June 1970; 0-6-0ST Ton Phillip (Avonside WN 1848/1920) at Wern Tarw Colliery on 23 February 1970; Avonside 0-6-0STs Lord Camrose (WN 2008/1927) and Sir John (WN 1680/1914 originally supplied to Tidworth Camp) at Deep Duffryn at Mountain Ash and Hunslet 0-6-0ST Maureen (WN 3882/1962 rebuilt from WN 2890/1943 originally supplied to Richborough Transportation Stores) at Maesteg on 23 February 1970. See also rear cover.

Dumbleton, Frank. The Didcot story. 242-50.
The story of both the junction station for Oxford (the branch to Oxford opening in 1844), including its initial broad gauge, convertion to mixed gauge from 1863 and the Didcot heritage centre Illus.: broad gauge singles Great Western and Swallow on 17.00 Paddington to Plymouth in 1890; Didcot station staff c1887; last down broad gauge train headed by Bulkley on 17.00 from Paddington to Plymouth on 20 May 1892, aftermath of fire on 11 March 1886; Duke class No. 3266 Amyas in front of engine shed in 1932; GWR bus YK 2838 with Burford chassis and GWR bodywork on Wantage service; Saint class on westbound train c1912; platforms and engine shed in 1932; No. 4703 on up semi-fitted freight passing provender store on 22 September 1961 (Michael Mensing); No. 1502 shunting on 26 September 1959 (John Coiley); 43XX No. 5397 and 4918 Dartington Hall on up trains c1958;  preserved No. 6106 at Olympia on 4 November 1967; No. 6998 Burton Agnes Hall and No. 1466 at Totnes about to leave for Didcot on 2 December 1967.  See also letter (page 381) from A. Martin concerning broad gauge journey to Wolverhampton on 13 April 1854 .

Topping, Brian. Passenger work. 251-2.
From Bury shed: the first trip was a disaster when assisting on Horwich (Crab) 2-6-0 No. 42700 a Caprotti Standard Class 5 on the steeply graded Helmshore bank from Ramsbottom to Accrington failure to use the damper controls properly and incorrect use of injector and over-firing led to extreme shortage of steam, but a subesquent run with No. 42719 on a Christmas shoppers' special from Rochdale to Bury and back was accomplished successfully including the ascent of Broadfield Bank.

Readers' Forum. 253
The Railway power stations. Michael J. Smith
See feature on page 6: the East London Railway was electrified through the joint action of the GER, SECR, LBSCR, Metropolitan and Metropolitan District: power was supplied from Lots Road for the first five years. During the 1947-49 coal shortage it was stated that Neasden would be converted to burn oil, but writer saw no evidence, but the Author noted that Hansard reported on 12 December 1946 Emmanuel Shinwell had stated "had been converted". A.J. Robertson (p. 381) cites LT Annual Reports as evidence that Neasden burned oil.
Railway life in the Highlands. Adrian Vicary.
See page 57 upper where caption states fishing boats, but vessels were Royal Navy axiliaries including Torpedo Recovery Vessel Thomas Grant, Cartmel class Diving Tender Fintry and a member of Aberdovey class of Fleet Tenders.
Railway life in the Highlands. George Huxley.
See page 56 lower: notes that metal column in foreground was part of a tablet catcher
Lands of the East, Awake! Editor
The photograph of Royal Sovereign on page 96 was at King's Cross, not Liverpool Street. A correspondent suggests the train was the 17.25 to Cambridge and Peterborough, detaching carriages for the latter at Hitchin, and that the date was probably in 1957.
1948 – the birth of British Railways. Michael Dunn.
See page 37 location identified: south end of Dillicar water troughs.
February Editorial. Christopher Hilton.
Dr Hilton, Senior Archivist at the Wellcome Library, comments on the questionable archival durability of digital records in relation to the long term preservation of the Colour Rail collection. See also further letters from Ivor Lewis of the HMRS and E.M. Johnson on page 381..
The MGNR and the Beyer Peacock connection. Peter Clark.
See photograph page 50 lower: 0-6-0T (former MGNJR No. 94 LNER No. 8488) class was built at Melton Constable between 1897 and 1905 – not as stated in caption; also corrects and augments the information about the A class 4-4-0 which feature in three illustrations
Most noble ladies. Allan C. Baker.
See page 86 et seq on Dukedom of Newcastle-under-Lyme and on the nature and reason for Duchess class on Crewe to Shrewsbury workings many of which were not ex-Works, but rather as filling in turns (and means of turning locomotive on triangle at Shrewsbury) between work on overnight sleeper services
Most noble ladies. John Birkhead.
See page 86 et seq: Grafton Estate is visible from West Coast main line amd one of the titles held was that of Euston: perhaps the Duchess did not wish her name to be bestowed on a locomotive. Response from David Pearson on page 446.

Book Reviews. 254
Talyllyn revisited – the story of the world's first preservation society. Alan Holmes. Talyllyn Railway. 256pp. DHS *****
"The book is a wonderful personal record and tribute to all involved in the railway's revival... Highly recommended".
Locomotives of the LMS NCC and its predecessors. William Scott. Colourpoint. 192pp. KPJ *****
The book is excellently produced  with many clear tables and a large number of illustrations. The picture of the Royal Train on the end papers is a useful reminder of the Queen's visit to Ireland in her Coronation Year.
George & Robert Stephenson a passion for success. David Ross. History Press. 317pp. DTG *****
Reviewer argues that Ross adds to the generally understood views on the work of the famous father and son by getting at the 'music behind the words'. The "eminently readable" text enables "a portrait of genius, foresight, determination, fallability and 'myopia' to emerge.
Railways of Skye and Raasay. Wilfrid W. Simms. Electric Railway Society. DJ. *****
Originally published in 1999: "modest booklet is in many ways a model account of a specialist subject."

Merthyr Vale coal. David Idle. rear cover
Merthyr Vale Colliery No. 1 (Andrew Barclay 0-6-0ST 1954) on 20 February 1970. See also pp. 240-1.

No. 5 (May) (No. 241) Silver Jubilee Issue

Isle of Man Railwway 2-4-0T No. 10 G.H. Wood in Indian red livery in 1956. (T.J. Edgington). front cover
See also page 299 and letter from Clive Lovelock on page 446.

As it was in the beginning and is now. Michael Blakemore. 259.
Editorial celebration of Silver Jubilee in terms of years from Volume 1 Number 1.

Early rides on the Western Region diesels. Trevor Owen. 260-1
Colour photo-feature of DMUs: Class 116 from Brynmawr leaving Aberbeeg for Newport with train from Ebbw Vale at branch platform on 19 April 1962; Class 116 at Ebbw Vale station on same day; Pair of Class 116 units passing over Goring water troughs on 4 November 1961; Class 122 No. W55000 brand-new at Swindon on 4 May 1958; Class 122 substituting for centre trailer in Class 116 near Twyford on 2 May 1959. See also letter from Chris Foren on p. 382.

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Leslie Railway. 262-9.
Act passed on 7 July 1857; Colonel Yolland inspected the line on 1 January 1861 and vthe line opened from Markinch after some further work had been completed in late January 1861. The Engineer was Thomas Bouch and the works included two viaducts over the River Leven: one at Leslie and one at Balbirnie. The NBR took the line over on 1 August 1872 and provided a modest passenger service, reduced during WW1. Passenger services were withdrawn on 4 January 1932, but freight traffic remained until 1967 and to Auchmuty Mills until the late 1980s. Freight was associateed with paper manufacture, although earlier linen manufacture and whiskey distilling provided traffic.

Bennett, Alan. The Green Isle: the Great Western Railway's presentation of Southern Ireland. 270-3.
The allure of Ireland as presented in Holiday Haunts, The Great Western Railway Magazine, Around the Coast with Rod and Line, looking beyond Wales in South Wales: the country of castles and in Maxwell Fraser's Southern Ireland. where romance was shovelled on with a spade.

Leaving Newcastle. 274-5.
Colour photo-feature: A3 No. 60080 Dick Turpin waiting to leave with 16.30 for Berwick on 27 August 1964 (David Idle); Jubilee No. 45562 Alberta on return railltour from Ashington to York and Huddersfield on 10 June 1967 (David Idle); A4 No. 60008 Dwight D. Eisenhower crossing King Edward Bridge in June 1963 with southbound express; Deltic No. D9005 The Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire crossing King Edward Bridge with southbound Talisman on 31 August 1964 (David Idle) (see letter from Andrew Kleissner on p. 382 who noted that rolling stock was XP64 set and confirmation from David Percival on page 510); J72 No. 68736 in North Eastern Railway livery and A4 No. 60008 Dwight D. Eisenhower with Class 46 diesel on. King Edward Bridge in June 1963

Bentley, Michael and Talbot, Edward. Harold Froggatt – 'the Little Hercules': the story of a Crewe fireman. 276-82.
Professional boxer, later wrestler, who did his training as a fireman: "strongest fireman at Crewe". Comments on firing the unrebuilt Royal Scots on a Chester to Euston turn where they lodged and return on the 10.00 Royal Scot as far as Crewe. On the former the Jubilee class (5XP) could keep time, but some were poor steamers. The hostels (the term "barracks" is not used) were very poor, especially at Willesden. Very wide variety of freight workings: to Mold Junction, to Holyhead for inbound cattle traffic; and heavy salt trains hauled by Super D 0-8-0s. Long distance stopping passenger trains involved frequent replenishing the tanks. Spent a year at Kirby-in-Ashfield nad had to get used to single line working and handling the staff. Comment on the streamlined Pacifics: difficult to prepare (involved use of ladders) and problems with drifting smoke (see letter from L.A. Summers and further one from L.F.E. Coombs); the enhanced performance of No. 6256 fitted with roller bearings and the very long Crewe to Perth firing turns on which considerable skill was required to keep the large firebox correctly filled. In the severe 1946/7 winter on one return journey from Perth the Pacific had run out of fuel by Preston and a class 5 was substituted which Harold had to fire on to Crewe. Illus.: press  clipping of Harold Froggart boxing in Stoke-on-Trent; Ramsbottom 0-4-0ST No. 3009 coupled to a 'Crewe Cab' with Crewe Steel Works in backgroud; Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42425 passing Willaston with Crewe to Shrewsbury stopping train on 17 April 1954; Super D 0-8-0 No. 9110 on Whitmore troughs in August 1932 (H. Gordon Tidey); 4P compound No. 41166 at Monument Lane shed on 3 July 1948 (H.C. Casserley); No. 6100 Royal Scot on Crewe North shed in May 1938; Princess Royal No. 6207 Princess Arthur of Connaught leaving Kilsby Tunnel with up Liverpool express; No. 46256 Sir William A. Stanier F.R.S. on Brock troughs with up Mid-day Scot in 1950 (Gordon Coltas); preparing streamlined King George VI showing difficulties of lack of running plate; down Royal Scot in Lune Gorge on 5 February 1952 with snow on Howgills..

May, George. The timetable on the East Coast Main Line – 1923 to 1939. 283-7.
In spite of the streamlined trains introduced from 1935 and the non-stop Flying Scotsman concludes that the East Coast timetables were highly conservative and gave a low level of connectivity, although through portions were run to many destinations like Scarborough and Harrogate (but the Author argues that these were sometimes of excessive length in relation to passengers carried). The Author, like Mullay, considers that the Company failed to research its markets and respond to changes in business methods. It also failed to enter into dialogue with its main railway competitor, the LMS. See letters by Alan de Burton and by Geoff Mileham on page 509. The former notes the inferior infrastructure: bottlenecks at Welwyn and Stoke Summit (which are still extant) and at Potters Bar, level crossings, Peterborough track layout and lack of automatic warning system. Many were eliminated by British Railways, but before that the Eastern Region was attempting to improve the overall timetable. Cannot support contention that the LNER should have used diesel power for its high speed trains, but does question timing of up Coronation service. All fail to note the composition of the Board of Directors and its interest in freight haulage which in its eyes was far more important than passengers.

Birmingham suburban. Michael Mensing. 288-90.
Colour photo-feature: 51XX No. 4155 in plain black approaching Olton with 08.04 ex-Lapworth on 6 July 1961; No. 5939 Tangley Hall on 12.50 Saturday Birmingham Snow Hill to Leamington service approaching Acocks Green & Yardley; 51XX No. 4118 (green) at Acocks Green on 17.35 from Snow Hill to Lapworth; 43XX No. 6364 leaving Solihull on 07.43 ex-Leamington Spa on 26 August 1964; 51XX No. 4105 (greeen and clean) near Bentley Heath crossing with 08.04 ex-Lapworth on 30 June 1961; No. 6105 passing Widney Manor with 18.25 ex-Knowle & Dorridge to Moor Street on 18 August 1959; No. 4176 leaving Lapworth with 07.15 ex-Leamington Spa on 2 July 1964.

Joy, David. Rails to Grassington. 291-8.
Considers early proposal for a Liverpool, Manchester & Newcastle-upon-Tyne Junction Railway which would have been routed via a two mile tunnel between Upper Wharfedale and Bishopdale. This failed during the collapse of the Railway Mania. The inhabitants of Upper Wharfedale in which Grassington is situated mixed lead mining with farming, but cheaper imports led to the end of the former activity and tourism took its place. The Yorkshire Dales Railway was incorporated on 6 August 1897 and initially driven by a young baronet, Sir Mathew Wilson, but when progress failed to be made his place as chairman was taken over by Walter Morrison who had made a fortune out of black crepe manufacture and investing in Argentinian railways. The line started from a junction with the Midland Railway's Ilkley to Skipton which had opened in 1888 and was opened to Grassington on 29 July 1902. Initially there was some high value commuter traffic, but the LMS withdrew regular passenger traffic on 22 September 1930. Edgar Ferguson was the engineer for the line and there was an intermediate station at Rylstone. The line was constructed to afford further extension up Wharfedale, but this did not happen but quarrying at Swinden Quarry for high quality limestone has provided a continuing existence for part of the line between Rylstone and Skipton. The Author, who for a time published Backtrack, and was noted for the Dalesman imprint, is from an Upper Wharfedale family. See also letter from John Spencer Gilks on page 446 with anecdote about travel on the line.

Manx holidays. 299-303.
Colour photo-feature (see also front cover of this Issue): Isle of Man Railway No. 3 Pender in faded Indian red livery outside Douglas shed on 16 July 1956 (T.J. Edgington); panorama of Peel including station and gas works in August 1960 with 16.30 for Douglas in platform and train arriving (P.W. Gray); Douglas station on 16 July 1956 (T.J. Edgington); Port Erin with 15.20 ex-Douglas on 16 July 1956 (T.J. Edgington); exterior of Douglas station in 1960 (black & white: Roy Cole); No. 4 Loch in spring green 'Ailsa' livery at Port Soderick on 16.05 ex-Douglas on 29 August 1969 (David Idle); Douglas station throat (black & white: Roy Cole); No. 6 Peveril leaving Douglas in 1960 (black & white: Roy Cole); No. 13 Kissack at Peel (black & white: Roy Cole);  No. 4 Loch in spring green 'Ailsa' livery between Port Soderick and Santon on 16.05 ex-Douglas on 30 August 1969 (David Idle); No. 10 G.H. Wood near Union Mills in 1960; No. 16 Mannin departing Castletown for Port Erin (both black & white: Roy Cole); Manx Northern Railway No. 14 Thornhill in original livery shown on display in Douglas station on 27 August 1969 (David Idle). See also letter from Derrick Why on p. 382 about rolling stock visible in photograph at bottom of p. 300; and from Clive Lovelock on page 446 mainly on minor detail about trains and services, especially on handling freight which was usually for Castletown; the 'pairs coaches' used to transport schoolchildren; and Thornhill not withdrawn in "1953"..

Ludlam, A.J. Norman Clark – porter signalman. 304-5.
Began work as a lad porter at Five Mile House in 1925 and moved on to be porter-signalman at Firsby Junction in 1929. Illus: K3 No. 61896 passing Five Mile House station with excursion to Skegness on 16 July 1950 (P.H. Wells); B1 No. 61227 with 13.18 Skegness to Leicester Belgrave Road coming off Skegness branch at Firsby Junction showing sharp curvature on 14 July 1962 (G.H. Brown); interior of signal box 

Clarke, Jeremy. James Staats Forbes and the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. 306-13.
The excellent ODNB entry by Charles Welch, revised by Ralph Harrington is not cited nor is the recent biography of Watkin David Hodgkins The second railway king: the life and times of Sir Edward Watkin 1891-1901 nor even S.A. Griffin. Edward Watkin - an appreciation. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 659-61. The primary sources appear to be Dendy Marshall's History of the Southern Railway and Ellis's British railway history and some Nock. The lack of a map fails to illuminate the profligate competition between the South Eastern Railway and the London, Chatham and Dover Railway which the Joint Board under Cosmo Bonsor (subject of excellent ODNB entry by Gourvish, no less) and later the Southern Railway was forced to rationalise. Letter from Adrian Gray which disputes some of Jeremy Clare's assertions especially on the line from Maidstone to Ashford, the co-operation on the Dover to Deal line and the people involved in the fianl Working Agreement

Wells, Jeffrey. A last look at the Oldham Loop Line. 314-16.
Includes photographs by Jim Davenport (JD) who worked at Lees shed and by Eric Blakey (EB). The first railway to Oldham reached there on 31 March 1842 via the rope worked 1 in 27 Werneth Incline from Middleton Junction, but this became stam operated from 1854. An extension reached Mumps station via two tunnels on 1 November 1847 and Oldham Central was located on this stretch. An extension to Rochdale opened for freight on 12 August 1863, and passenger services sollowed on 2 November.  On 21 March 1864 a short branch opened to Royton. Finally the Loop was completed by a line from Thorpe's Bridge Junction via Hollinwood to Werneth which provided a more easily graded (albeit 1 in 50) to Werneth:this opened on 17 May 1880 and trains worked through from Manchester Victoria to Rochdale (or Royton). The line was at the time of publication being converted into part of the Manchester tramway system. Illus.: Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42461 leaving Milnrow for Rochdale in July 1957 (JD); Derby lightweight DMU pauses at Shaw & Crompton on 25 December 1965 (note date: EB); No. 80046 at Dean Lane with service for Royton on 12 April 1957 (H.C. Casserley); Fowler Class 3 2-6-2T leaving Royton Junction (JD); Oldham Mumps station; 316 upper LYR 0-6-0 No. 52410 on freight at Heyside with black & white striped distant signal (Jim Davenport) see letter from L.F.E. Coombs on page 446; Hollinwood station on 24  October 1961 and another letter from G.L. Huxley on page 572.

Readers' forum. 317-18.
King's Lynn Docks and Railway Company. Mike G. Fell.

The footnotes and references missing from the end of the article reproduced hereat.
Consett and Tyne Dock. Charles Long
.
Anecdote which mentions that Charles Long was Editor of Modern Railways in 1979. At a meeting of the International Railway Congress Association Geoffrey Myers of the British Railway Board's Policy Unit had been asked how long the return empty hoppers would take to travel from Consett to Tyne Dock, and the questioner when told at least 45 minutes to which the questioner responded why did it take so much longer with a locomotive at the front.
The birth of British Railways. L.W.T. Sharp.
See page 153 upper livery exhibition at Marylebone station on 6 April 1948 with train in "plum & spilt milk livery" states caption: but writer claims that these vehicles were painted in brown with grey upper panels as per Great Central livery.
Recollections of a railway civil engineer. Nigel Whitwell.
See page 115: West Country No. 34101 Hartland never carried a coat-of-arms (caption implies such was missing)
The MGNR and the Beyer Peacock connection. Sydney Diggles.
Considers that Author had muddled the two "Adams" (William) and (William Bridges) and former did not work for LNWR, but for North London Railway: was noted for bogie and for Vortex blastpipe. Cites Wilson Newcomen Society paper. .
Tonbridge to Hastings. Richard Bull
Anecdote concerning human banking engines for DEMU out of Battle station.
Tonbridge to Hastings. Ann Stocker.
Refuting that Battle station buildings had ceased to be used for railway activity;
Tonbridge to Hastings. Peter Tatlow.
The cause of the sub-standard clearaance tunnels
Tonbridge to Hastings. Stephen G. Abbott.
The Tadpole DEMUs (did not incorporate former Tyneside 2-EPB stock). Rebuttal from Author page 446. and again from Stephen Abbott on page 510.
In search of light. Malcolm Parsons.
See photograph page 182 lower Miller's Dale station with "gas lamps", but letter from Malcolm Parsons (page 317) argues that they were oil lamps .
All wired on the Western front? Michael J. Smith.
See page 213: Metropolitan Railway, the Central London Railway and the London Passenger Transport Board forced electrification upon the GWR.
All wired on the Western front? Greg Morse.
See page 213: subsequent "decision" to electrify to Cardiff, but not yet to Swansea
The former GWR route from London to Birmingham. Gerald Goodall. 318
considers that Author failed to note that Britsih Rail operated some good intermediate services on the route after electrification between Euston and Birmingham, that following a lean period Network SouthEast introduced major improvements opening Haddenham and Thame Parkway, introduced the Turbos, and began services to Birminham: Chiltern Railways has built on this..
The former GWR route from London to Birmingham. Mike Widger.
Considers that Nisbet and the quaintly named Stagecoach bus company (perhaps tavern cars would suit their corporate ethos) fails to grasp the need for double track throughout from Salisbury to Exeter
Iron words. Stephen G. Abbott.
See feature page 163 on origin of up and down from original timetable format used on posters and handbills..

Book reviews. 318.
The fair sex – women and the Great Western Railway. Rosa Matheson. History Press. HA ***
"... fascinating and well researched history..."
The railway Moon: some aspects of the life of Richard Moon 1814-1899, Chairman of the London & North Western Railway 1861-9. Peter Braine. pmb. RH. *****
"This is an exemplary biography of an eminent Victorian". "Its scholarship is rock solid, its clearly written text is supported by useful illustrations, a carefully categorised bibliography, excellent maps and a detailed index, with helpful sub-divisions."

Steaming through Surrey. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
Rebuilt West Country No. 34017 Ilfracombe passing under semaphore signal gantry at West Byfleet Junction on 1 January 1965.

No. 6 (Issue No. 242) June

BR Standard Class 2 2-6-2T No.84010 passes Weeton on 29th September 1962. (Peter Fitton). front cover
12 noon Fleetwood to Kirkham service along the original Preston & Wyre route: coaches would be added to a lunchtime Blackpool Central to Manchester train at Kirkham, where the locomotive then waited for a return splitting train. Such trains ceased in late 1964.

Railing against fiction. A.J. Mullay. 323.
Agatha Christie sent a character from Euston to Doncaster; William Boyd, noted for his accuracy, set a character in Restless in 1938 arriving in Edinburgh from London under the "Castle Rock" rather than Carlton Hill and then waiting in a bus station not built for twenty years. Perhaps that writer lacks that magic of an Ian Rankin or Sandy McCall Smith (or possibly Sandy Mullay) who enjoy a close association with Edinburgh. Peter Butler (letter page 573) commends Freeman Wills Croft who worked on the railway for his accurate descriptions.

Through Andover. Paul Strong (photographer). 324-6.
Colour photo-feature: Network South East liveried (with a few exceptions) MkII coaches with Class 47 motive power: No. 47 710 Sir Walter Scott arriving on 07.03 from Salisbury to Waterloo on 19 May 1992; No. 47 707 Holyrood and No. 47 708 Waverley on 07.50 Basingstoke to Exeter St. Davids on 12 June 1992 with No. 47 705 waiting to work to Ludgershall; No. 47 712 Lady Diana Spencer (in red Parcel Sector livery) on afternoon Waterloo to Exeter St. Davids on 12 June 1992; No. 47 706 in Scotrail livery with two InterCity liveried MkII coaches spoiling pattern on 05.30 Yeovil to Waterloo on 19 May 1992; No. 47 408 Templecombe on 11.15 Waterloo to Exeter St. Davids on 19 May 1992; No. 47 712 Lady Diana Spencer (in red Parcel Sector livery) on 08.18 Exeter St. Davids  to Waterloo on 19 May 1992.

Emblin, Robert. End of line: the GCR's entry into the Capital. Part One. Preston Road Junction to Rossmore Road Bridge. 327-33.
Includes text and S.W.A. Newton contemporary photographs of construction of cut-and-cover tunnels under Lord's Cricket Ground without disturbing play in cricket season and similar tunnl under Hilgrove Road. Included erection of girder bridge over LNWR Loudon Road station and erection of six tenement blocks in Wharncliffe Gardens. Also details of Regents Canal Wharf and freight handling arrangements which included a power house which provided electricity and hydraulic power to capstans and cranes (water was taken from the canal and metered). There was a coal yard. The construction of the Rossmore Road bridge dictated the layout of the goods warehouse. Sadly, the maps reproduced from Dow's Great Central Volume 2 and some of the pictures have suffered during digitization. Part 2 page 522..

Flann, John L. The Midland Railway from 1900 into amalgamation in 1923 and beyond. 334-9.
See also previous article in Volume 24 page 646. Midland Railway management was sheken up by the appointment of Guy Granet as the General Manager and by Cecil Paget, the General Superintendent who introduced discipline in operation through his centralised control systems which included the classification of locomotives by power. 67 milion tons of freight was being haandled. WW1 brought the railways under the control of the Railway Executive Committee. The Settle & Carlisle line was greatly used for the conveyance of coal towards Scapa Flow. Many ordnance factories were located on the system. 20,000 joined the armed services and 7000 died on active service. Granet became Director General of Movements and Railways at the War Office and Paget commanded the Railway Operating Division in France and Belgium. Lloyd George conemplated railway nationalisation, but enforced amalgamation followed instead in which Midland Railway management policy tended to dominate although Charles Napier Lawrence of the LNWR became Chairman of the LMS in 1923. with Sir Guy Granet and E.B. Fielden as deputies. The new Company was vast and included 27 hotels, about a 100 vessels on lakes and on short sea crossings and two major canals: Trent & Mersey and Shropshire Union. Sir Josiah Stamp became President of the company in 1926. J.H. Follows was responsible for railway operation, S.H. Hunt (ex-LYR) for commercial matters, J. Quirey for accounting and service and R.W. Reid for the workshops.Flann adds little to the Hughes/Fowler/Anderson troubled relationship See also letter from David W. Green who points out that the Midland Railway acquired the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway in 1903 and operated it through the Northern Counties Committee. The LMS continued this arrangement, but the Railway Executive sold it to the Ulster Transport Authority in April 1949 which created a potential legal problem as Derby Works were supplying four 2-6-4Ts. In 1906 the Midland Railway with the Great Northern Railway (Ireland) acquired the Donegal Railway Company and formed the County Donegal Joint Committee on which passenger services ceased in 1959, but the business was not wound up until 1971 "so ending the involvement of a British Railway in Ireland" See also letter from James Hargrave (page 638) who points out that the Midland Railway ("the awkward squad in almost every respect") split its ordinary stock and had consolidated its fixed dividend/fixed interest securities at 2.5% rather then the 3-4% common to almost every other railway. ..

Cook, Ted and Vent, Anthony P. Junior porter at Arundel. 340-3.
Ted Cook narrated how he statrted as a junior porter at Arundel station on 10 August 1965. Anecdotes about the Duke of Norfolk and how the senior porter regarded his half-crown tip as personal perogative; another about a car-borne commuter who expected his train to start late or to be held for him. Letter from James Hargrave (p. 638) notes that Duke of Norfolk was "certainly not the Queen's uncle".

Western Austerity. 344
Colour photo-feature: WD 2-8-0s based on the Western Region had distictive top feed covers and fire arm tunnels on the right-hand running board: Nos. 90207 at Cockett, west of Swansea in September 1961 (Hugh Daniel); No. 90261 with a train of mineral empties at Southall in September 1961 (M. Smith); No. 90312 enetering Sonning Cutting with up coal train (all Colour-Rail)

Wells, Jeffrey. Queen Victoria in the North East of England. 345-9.
On 27 September 1849 Queen Victoria arrived by train from Edinburgh at Berwick-upon-Tweed where she was greeted by Sir George Grey. After an eight minute stop her train travelled over the temporary timber viaduct over the Tweed and on a further 26 miles to Little Mill, the station for Howick Hall where she was to stay with Earl Grey. On the following day she travelled via Newcastle (where a triumphal arch was erected on the High Level Bridge for her train to pass through) on to York and to Derby (where the night was spent at the Midland Hotel in Derby). In the following year a northbound journey enabled the Queen to name the viaduct across the Tweed the Royal Border Bridge (on 30 August 1850).. G.B. Bruce presented an ICE paper about the bridge. Other sources were the Berwick Advertiser and the Newcastle Courant. Illustrations included ones from the Illustrated London News.

Peirson, Frank. The oldest railway arch in the world. 350-1.
The Causey Arch on the Tanfield Railway in County Durham. Built under design and supervision of Ralph Wood, stone mason and completed in 1827. Cites Skempton ..

The days we went to Blackpool. Peter Fitton (photographer). 352-4.
Colour photo-feature: Jubilee No. 45565 Victoria departing Blackpool Central (with Tower behind) on 15.15 to Bradford Exchange on 11 October 1964; 70013 Oliver Cromwell passing Lytham with Boxing Day special from Carlisle to Blackpool South on 26 December 1967; preserved 4P Compound No. 1000 (red livery) and No. 45548 Lytham St. Annes passing Bradkirk signal box with Stoke Golding (Leics.) to Blackpool North train on 30 September 1961; Clan No. 72008 (without nameplate) on Blackpool North shed on 27 September 1965; Patriot No. 45517 on Blackpool North shed on 29 October 1961; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42754 at Ansdell & Fairhaven on 12.45 Blackburn to Blackpool Central on 7 March 1964; B1 4-6-0 No. 61365 on Kirkham Flyover on 16.00 Blackpool Central to Lincoln on 8 September 1962.  

A day at the [British Industries] Fair. T.J. Edgington (photographer). 355.
Colour photo-feature: Jubilee No. 45592 Indore at Castle Bromwich with British Industries Fair Express W681 headboard and carmine & cream rolling stock (2 views one of which shows gas lamp post painted yellow aand multi-lingual signage).

Nisbet, Alistair F. A train for photographers. 356-61.
Special train arranged by the Scottish Region on 25 May 1957 departed Glasgow Queen Street (Low Level) at 09.16 and ran over the West Highland line to Crianlarich where it used the spur to reach the Oban line, but reversed and headed towards Killin Junction where it traversed the Killin branch. The special stopped at Kingshouse Platform and was scheduled to reach Buchanan Street at 18.30. The train contained a cafeteria car. There were prizes offered in association  with the West of Scotland branch of the Photogragraphic Dealers Association for the best photographs. The Kodak company was involved  Only one of the illustrations is of the actual special which seems strange as the purpose of the special was to encourage photography. Illus.: C15 at Craigendoran taking water on push & pull from Arrochar & Trabert on 10 August 1957 (H.D. Ramsay}; K2 No. 61775 Loch Treig at Crianlarich Upper on 1 August 1959; Class 5 No. 45214 alongside Loch Lubnaig on 12.45 Oban to Edinburgh on 12 August 1961; Ardlui station with train including cafeteria car; K2 No. 61276 leaving Shandon with 15.00 ex-Queen Street to Ardlui on 1 September 1956; Killin Junction with CR 0-4-4T on branch train and other train alongside in 1960; Cravens DMUs at Crianlarich Lower see letter on Six Lochs Land Cruise on 30 March 1959; Callander station on 30 March 1959 with Six Lochs Land Cruise in down platform and No. 45153 on 09.18 Oban to Glasgow and No. 45213 in goods loop; No. 5007 Rougemont Castle on Amateur Photographers Special passing Pebworth Halt on 18 May 1958. see also letter from Mick Brownhill correcting the location for one of the illustrations.

Waterloo and Nine Elms. 362-5.
Colour photo-feature mainly of Bulleid West Country and Maerchant Navy class Pacifics: unrebuilt No. 34066 Spitfire at Waterloo with 15.00 to Exeter on 18 March 1966 (David Idle); No. 35005 Canadian Pacific  at Nine Elms in April 1965 (Geoff Rixon); No. 35021 New Zealand Line at Waterloo buffer stops with arrival from Bournemouth in June 1963 (Geoff Rixon); No. 35026 Lamport & Holt Line leaving with 15.30 Waterloo to Weymouth on 18 March 1966 (David Idle); unrebuilt No. 34086 219 Squadron  at Nine Elms on 16 April 1965 (Geoff Rixon); BR Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82006 (green) arriving Clapham Junction with 17.06 ex-Olympia on 25 May 1965 (David Idle); BR Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76039 on transfer freight at Nine Elms on 16 April 1965 (Geoff Rixon): see letter from Peter Tatlow on p. 509 correcting caption: train was in carriage sidings at Clapham Junction; No. 35028 Clan Line backing onto special at Waterloo to work to Templecombe for farewell special over Somerset & Dorset line on 5 March 1966; No. 34088 (without name) on Union Castle Express on 18 March 1966 (both David Idle).

Smith, Michael J. Triangulation point: a historical description of five three-sided junctions in the West London suburbs. Part One. 366-71.
Greenford Loop (most of which is still extant)  has triangular junctions at both ends and the long removed triangular junction provided to serve Uxbridge High Street. Gerrard's Cross was the terminus for most services. Smith has written about this before in Backtrack, 13, 33. Illus: West Ealing station in 1971; No. 1446 with auto trailer at Drayton Green Halt in "about 1960" (letter from Chris Foren: dates given in captions are incorrect as DMUs were introduced on 25 August 1958. The condition of the auto trailers suggests early 1950s. The DMU at South Greenford Halt was a Gloucester RC&W product.); Hanwell & Elthorne station; Drayton Green Halt with auto trailer in March 1955; No. 5420 with auto trailer at Castlebar Halt in about 1960; DMU at South Greenford Halt; No. 1458 in bay platform at Green ford station in about 1958; Gerrard's Cross station c1912 and streamlined railcar at Uxbridge High Street. Letter from Viv Orchard notes that West Ealing saw the first application of four-aspect colour light signalling on the Western Region; the rails on the line to Greenford were imported from the USA during WW2 and were very hard and difficult to drill, and at Greenford East Junction there were interesting points which could act as runaway catch points capable of being locked for trains to proceed through them. See also letter from Michael Thomson (page 573) which notes that the Great Western had intended another triangular junction in the Ealing area: one with the Ealing & Shepherd's Bush Railway at a point just suth of West Acton station where a curve would have provided access to Acton Yard and towards Paddington.

Smith, George. The Wisdom of Solomon. 372-4.
Notes from Samuel Sidney's Rides on railways... (Ottley 6545) with comment on his observations: mainly on hunting and rural economy, except at Wolverton where he had some florid descriptions of locomotive and rolling stock manufacture; plus the present state of these places. At Wolverton retail trade has largely displaced railway activity; the roundhouse at Camden is now an arts centre. Smith describes Sidney's travels to Aylesbury and Oxford (via Bletchley): journeys which are no longer possible by rail on these routes. See also letter from Robert Barker on p. 510 which notes that Henry Cole employed Samuel Sidney to write in favour of the standard gauge and against the broad gauge during the Battle of the Gauges.

Foster, Richard and Dent, S.C. (photographer). North Eastern Railway signal boxes between Selby and Hull (Signalling Spotlight). 375.
Crabley Creek and Brough East where latter had a level crossing with wheeled barriers.

Tatlow, Peter. The first 'Jacobite' Train: the sad saga of a rail tour. 376-7.
Saturday 1 June 1963: excursion over West Highland line using steam power "for the last time" employing restored No. 256 Glen Douglas and J37 No. 64632. The author made the big mistake of booking a sleeper on the 21.25 from Euston which as usual was late into Glasgow and sufficiently so to miss the departure of the Jacobite at 07.53. A motor coach was laid on in an effort to catch up with the train which was achieved by Fort William due to the failure of the steam motive power and rescue by NBL diesel No. D6137. Hauled by J37 Nos. 64592 and 64636 the special encountered further locomotive problems at Arisaig which made the return start from Mallaig very late behind D5351 and a very late arrival in Glasgow, but the author had secured a room in the Queen Street Station Hotel. Return was by the Royal Scot. Pictures of Jacobite whilst still steaming north see Vol. 26 page 410 (411 lower and 413 upper)

Collins, Michael. Irish archive: photographs from the D. Forsyth/Paul Chancellor Collection.  378-80.
Black & white photographs taken on the ex-GNR main line when it had become part of the Ulster Transport Authority near Belfast between September 1962 and June 1963. U class 4-4-0 UTA No. 66 Meath on 17.35 Belfast to Newry arriving at Adelaide Halt on 29 May 1962; WT class 2-6-4T No. 53 at Lisburn leaving with train for Belfast; W 2-6-0 No. 91 The Bush on Adelaide shed on 8 September 1962; VS 4-4-0 No. 58 Lagan on Adelaide shed on 6 June 1963; and VS 4-4-0 No. 58 Lagan, U class 4-4-0 No. 66 Meath, W class 2-6-0 King George VI and WT 2-6-4T No. 53 on Adelaide shed on 6 June 1963. See also letter from Denis Grimshaw on pp. 509-10: neither V nor VS class visited York Road works with the exception of UTA No. 58 which was sent from Adelaide shed to York Road for a boiler wash-out: a journey of 92 miles via Lisburn, Knockmore Junction and Armagh. The caption error may stem from Ian Sinclair's Along UTA Lines which contained where ther is a caption relating to No. 58. Also VS class Boyne was numbered 207 not as stated there is a transposition in the caption to Nos. 99 and 53.

Readers' Forum. 381-2.
The Cockermouth,Keswick & Penrith Railway. James Henderson.
See article on page 198: from 1960 to 1962 writer's parents lived just south of Cockermouth: the station staff at Cockermouth were infuriated by the "cooking of the books" for the Beeching cuts. The train from Cockermouth toWorkington which originally connected with the London departure was 're-arranged' to arrive at Workington, but was made to wait outside the station until the London train had departed. This, of course,deprived Cockermouth of revenues to London (and return). Writer's father was General Manager of the Workington Iron & Steel Co. at that time and had to make frequent journeys to London.As a result he had to drive to Workington (or Carlisle) to catch the London trains.
The Derby Lightweight units used on the CKP were fitted with bars across the door windows, to prevent passengers putting their heads out and being struck by tight-fitting bridges and tunnels on the route.

February editorial. Ivor Lewis.
See letter from C.Hilton on page 253 and Paul Chancellor's February editorial (p. 67) about ensuring the survival of historic photographs by digitisation, struck a big chord. He raised several technical issues such as digital media deterioration, retrieval of files, obsolescent formats and access software, managing extensive digital archives and suggests some ways round it, all of which are pertinent. He agrees with all the defences Hilton and Chancellor suggest but Hilton also raises one of the non-technical issues, which are often ignored, about the invisible records held on the computer of the deceased and how easy it is for relatives to throw those away without realising it.
The scope needs to be extended to records other than photographs and to recent data. From about the mid-1980s when computers in government, commerce and industry became pervasive, most design specifications and documentation as well as communication became exclusively electronic via email,database, spreadsheet, CAD and document filestore etc. In this era the electronic file became the 'master' and any printed copy was often marked 'not maintained if printed' or something similar informing that the electronic one may have been updated. Frankly — from his experience — these electronic ones were not always managed well either as it was left to the designer or a person whose main job was not maintaining records. This problem applies to all industries but using railways as an example, will the archive trail for new rolling stock and locomotive design and railway infrastructure go cold around that time for future historians. The problem is made worse since so many suppliers are now private firms and treat their designs, understandably, as of a secret and sensitive nature. There is no legislation to my knowledge that demands that private firms producing tomorrow's archives digitally have any obligation to save it for the future. Gone are the days of private builders having an academic conscience or a future perspective. The writer contacted the previous Government about this issue, but received a reply which only showed it hadn't even got close to understanding the issue: including mumbo jumbo about legal documents and how in about 5-10 years it might have a formal process for saving them electronically.Depressing but typical. Fortunately many in the public sector and the library service are aware and are doing what they can to save electronic records, but there seems to be no coherent effort or understanding  — or am I wrong? I did read somewhere that the Rail Industry and the NRM were looking at this area but I would like to know more.
I write this as the person responsible for dealing with the digitisation of the archives of the Historic Model Railway Society and I would like any views from anyprofessional archivist or anyone in the railway history world who may have an approach to ensuring the future can research the past.

February editorial. E.M Johnson.
Christopher Hilton makes out a valid case regarding the permanence surrounding today's photographic technology. Wonderful as it is, I wonder, in say a hundred years, how much of today's imaging will still be accessible to researchers? We at the Gordon Coltas Photographic Trust only produce prints by conventional (darkroom) means using traditional materials. Our customers can, therefore, be assured that all our products will be viable over a very long period of time. And I know, too, that other small concerns use the same techniques as ourselves. All the more relevant, then, that none other than the National Railway Museum has long abandoned the use of traditional methods to produce its images and relies solely on digital technology. And readers may be surprised to know that the NRM's customers pay heavily for such services. The last time I ordered prints from the museum's archives(2003) I was charged no less than £14.50 for an A4-sized print. This is classed as 'high resolution'; lower resolution (A5 size) came out at around £7.00 per print. By any standards this is exorbitant and though Fuji (whose system the NRM used then) claim a life of 60 years for its images, one cannot but wonder. I have read that a system is available now where digital files can be transferred to film for conventional printing. Might such technology be worth exploring further in the light of Dr. Hilton's comments?
North British workers. Charles Davidson
The first photograph shows J36 No.65282 on the Wood end Colliery branch at Armadale - the top of the washery, chimney and the lower slopes of the bing can be seen to th eleft of the engine's smokebox,
The Didcot story. A. Martin.
Refutes statement that no broad gauge train ever ran north of Evesham on the Oxford, Worcester & Wolvwerhampton Railway (OWWR): there is evidence that at least one broad gauge train reached Wolverhampton. On 13th April 1854 the OWWR board members set out from Oxford in a two-coach special headed by locomotive Arrow, driven by William Barton Wright, later locomotive superintendant of the Lancashire & Yorkshire. North of Evesham frequent switches between up and down lines were needed as the broad gauge rail was far from continuous. After a lengthy stop at Worcester, to refresh the directors, Wolverhampton was reached at 18.30. As it was believed that there were no crossovers north of Evesham, Arrow propelled its train that far and Oxford was reached at 05.00 on  14 April. The event was reported in The Times on 17 April. The main source for this letter is Brunel's Broad Gauge in the Black Country by Michael Hale, published by the author, 1997.
The Railway Power Stations. A.J. Robertson
London PassengerTransport Board Annual Reports for years ended 31 December 1946 and 1947 confirm the conversion of six boilers at Neasden Power Station to oil-firing, while the remainder were coal-fired, and it would appear that this remained the position until the closure of Neasden in 1968. The first edition of How The Underground Works (1963) states that Neasden used "200-300 tons of coal and heavy oil" every weekday.The 1947 Annual Report states that the result of oil-firing was "a considerable increase in generating costs"
Two of a kind. Bob Hines
There was a further incident at Wembley Hill in the early 1960s by which time the area was the responsibility of BR London Midland Region. A friend was a civil engineer and involved in the work at Wembley Hill. He recalls that the first sign of trouble in 1960 was that the track kept lifting. This was caused by the timber beams referred to in the article being under severe compression and thus bowing upwards. This early warning of impending problems enabled the engineers to commence remedial work before a major slip occurred. The timbers were replaced by concrete. The upper photograph on p231 is looking west, not east.,
Euston. Brian Garvin
If the train was a special the reporting number on the front of the locomotive would have been a 1Z- or possibly a 1T -.Instead it is 1A36 denoting a regular service train. 1A36 always was the 12.20 Llandudno to Euston, a summer Saturday train. The fact that the locomotive is mentioned in the caption as being fresh off works probably means Crewe used it on this train whilst being run in.
Early rides on theWestern diesels. Chris Foren. 382
Photograph at top of p. 261 shows two Class 117 units, not 116s. The photograph of Class 122 paired with a 116 twin is of interest because of the date (2 May 1959). On previous day the up Pembroke Coast Express had been derailed at Slough, disrupting services for several days. The Railway Observer for June 1959 lists several DMU formations that were pressed into service to operate a notional local service: one was 116 cars Nos.51135+51148 coupled to 122 car No.55018. The number of the single unit pictured is 55018, often found on the Greenford branch at the time. If the Class 116 cars are indeed Nos.51135 and 51148, it seems that they had become surplus at Bristol less than a year after entering service there
Manx Holidays. Derrick Why.
The two Isle of Man Railway carriages shown in bottom photograph on p300 had very different fates. F42 built by MRCW, Saltey 1907, a brake third, was burnt in the St.John's shed fire in 1975. F72 had a very different career. It was formed in 1926 by placing two four-wheel carriage bodies on to a new steel underframe plus bogies from MRCW. These were A3, first class of 1873, and D2 first/second class of 1873/4,both again from MRCW. In 1967 the bodies were removed,being broken up in 1968, the vehicle now becoming R11 and used as part of an unsuccessful container service.In 1974 the underframe, but not the bogies, was one of ten sold to the Ffestiniog Railway. In 1980 the FR fitted it with a new steel saloon body complete with a toilet and mounted on new bogies. It has subsequently seen service also on the Welsh Highland Railway, being refurbished at Boston Lodge in 2010 without the toilet and became part of set 'B'. There is a possibility that at sometime in the future it may be recycled yet again, being fitted with a wooden 'Barn' style body along the lines of its ex-steel-bodied brother, No.121 (now No.124) ex-R7, ex-F59
Leaving Newcastle. Andrew Kleissner
Photograph of 'Deltic' on p275 of interest as carriages appear to be XP64 train; date being right and recessed doors surely give the game away? And he seemed to remember stock being used on the Talisman

Book Reviews. 382
What's on the 'Lizzie'?  John Aylard, Tommy Knox and David Percival. LinesideTwentyfive, MB ****
Records the daily working of the non-stop Elizabethan from 1953 until its demise at the end of the 1961 season and is a tribute to the meticulous notekeeping for which many railway enthusiasts became well known. A record of which ex-LNER A4 Pacifics were rostered to it everysingle day, plus when a failure occurred en route, the replacement locomotive provided. Photographs relevant to the year are well selected. What is surprising is how small a role in the 'Elizabethan' was played by some of the 'celebrity' A4s. Sir Nigel Gresley featured in only two years and worked the train on only seven days in total; the pioneer A4 Silver Link was only employed during one year; the record-breaker Mallard was a.n infrequent player though was used during the final week. Lesser-known A4s such as Merlin, Dominion of New Zealand, Seagull, Commonwealth of Australia and Golden Plover were much more were associated with this prestigious train. A well-researched record of a unique service.
Why do Shepherds need a Bush? David Hilliam. History Press. MB ***
Origin of Underground, including Docklands Light Railway, station names. A beguiling little browsing book. Useful maybe for advance players of the game called Mornington Crescent.
The Great Western Railway in the First World War. Sandra Gittins. History Press.
Thoroughly researched and densely packed book which covers in its widest context the part played in WW1 by the GWR.Thus we learn not. just about the building of ambulance trains, the manufacture of munitions at Swindon and the sale and loan of locomotives to the ROD but about the whole spectrum of total war. In the first fifteen days of the war 632 special trains were run not including 41 transporting coal for theAdmiralty and 149 carrying petrol. By the second week of September 10,227 officers, 366,500 men, 3,101 horses and 355 guns had been despatched from GWR stations. This is just a small detail from a kaleidoscope of facts in these pages about the complications arising from the call-up and volunteering of personnel, the demands of security against sabotage, the effect on norma lservices particularly the infamous 50% increase in fares introduced in 1918 and the pooling of freight stock, the requisitioning of ships, some of which ended up in the Mediterranean, provision of special rest centres for troops and so on. Here too we learn that the Austrian Ambassador and his entourage were given two special trains with which to journey to Plymouth for the sea passage to their own country. Someone on his staff subsequently wrote to The Times thanking the GWR for a: safe and courteous passage. A war fought by gentlemen obviously.A good deal of the book is given over to the battalions and units in which GWR men served, their names, exploits and citations for gallantry. The author has attempted to list every one and it is fitting that such a record should be made. This book should become a standard work of reference but it is not an easy read and it has several flaws. I am surprised at the absence of source references. Additionally and probably surprisingly it lacks the personal touch.Though we learn a lot about the exploits of GWR men and women we are told nothing directly, that is the men are not allowed to speak for themselves. I do not know whether any engine driver ever committed to paper his reactions to running a train into Paddington while a Zeppelin raid was in progress, but it is that kind of information which the book lacks. There is also no sense of the outrage that was pretty well general among the middle and working classes, junior officers and other ranks at the conduct of the war. On top of that I regret to note that the illustrations range from merely fair to grotty.

A Cumbrian country station. Tommy Tomalin. rear cover
Silecroft with 07.20 Barrow to Carlisle DMU on 26 July 1979.

No. 7 (Issue No. 243) July

This issue was badly printed; see No. 9 Editorial apology (KPJ did not comment he just thought he had received a bad copy)

GWR '14XX' 0-4-2T No.1445 eases round into Bourne End from the Marlow branch in March 1962. C.R. Gordon Stuart. front cover
Bracket signal in background emphasising the tightness of the curve

A jug of wine, a loaf of bread . . . and a train to catch. Michael Blakemore. 387.
Editorial: further invective about railway refreshment rooms and their replacement by a multitude of fast food outlets. Also comment on overloaded Virgin Voyageur on journey from York to Chesterfield to watch some football team based in Bury beat the local side and thus gain promotion (hopefully not to the giddy heights of Norwich City otherwise he will really suffer).

Class 31s in Lancashire. Tom Heavyside, photographer. 388-90.
No. 31 409 (blue) at Wigan Wallgate on 17.07 Manchester Victoria to Southport formed of three Mk I coaches on 7 August 1989; No. 31 421 (Regional Railways livery) at Leyland with a Preston to Liverpool Lime Street train on 22 July 1994; No. 31 107 (Railfreight grey) at Manchester Victoria with 08.26 ex-Southport on 5 September 1989; Nos. 31 302 and 31 319 (Railfreight grey) on train of nuclear fuel flasks between Preston and Farington Junction on 25 May 1992; Nos. 31 432 and 31 413 Severn Valley Railway (both blue) passing Lostock on 17.14 Manchester Victoria to Blackpool North on 14 July 1992; No. 31 162 (Railfreight grey and yellow livery) on engineers' train at Rylands Sidings on approach to Wigan North Western on 4 April 1996.

Andrews, David. Speed on the broad gauge. 391-5.
Based on documents accessed via Google Books relating to speed trials conducted on the Great Western Railway in May/June 1846 under Daniel Gooch. On 13 June 1846 Great Western performed the Paddington to Bristol run at an average speed of 54 mile/h to Didcot, at the same rate onward to Swindon, and 53 mile/h for the final stretch. The maximum speed attained was 69 mile/h. Lightning averaged 61.4 mile/h to Didcot from Paddington when driven by William Cowell: this was reported in the Morning Herald. Driver John Heppel accompanied by Driver J. Brown of the LNWR took Courier from Didcot to Paddington in 49 minutes 13 seconds and were in effect cruising at 70 mile/h. The Author observes that at this time the locomotives and trains were travelling faster than anybody else on earth and that these were the "boy's toys" of the age. Cites paper presented by Gooch to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1848 on train resistance.

Mullay, A.J. A diesel named 'Diesel': motive power transition under the BTC 1954-1962. 396-402.
Relevant prvious article see previous volume p. 664 et seq. Argues that the British Transport Commission placed substantial orders for untested diesel motive power which failed to be strong and reliable. The highly unreliable diesel electric and hydraulic products of the North British Locomotive Company receive the strongest criticism, but there is a failure to identfy the political pressures which must have been the cause of placing substantial orders with a failing company (perhaps examination of The Glasgow Herald Index might throw some light on this). He makes much play on the increasing consumption of fuel oil by the railways, but this was probably trivial in comparison with the increased uptake by other transport modes at that time. The rapid increase in capital cost of diesel locomotives is noted. The English Electric Type 4 locomotive is criticised for its poor power to weight ratio and failure to achieve 8P steam performance. Both published and manuscript BTC sources are cited and Gourvish's magisterial study (which should be available in every "city library" with a Premier League football team, but not Norwich). The author's arguments are weakened by references to locomotive names other than that the BTC had considered "Diesel" as a name. The fact that there were two locomotives named City of London is trivial as one only served Norwich which never saw the other more magnificent beast. P. Justin McCarthy, a professional railwayman, supports some of the observations, but rejects the overall thesis. Letter from R. Farmer (p. 572) noted that Rudolph Diesel did not invent eponymous engine, but comprression ignition engine was invented by Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (corrected KPJ) and Charles Binney in 1890. Letter from Doug Landau also on p. 572 disputes most of the data presented on locomotive mileages, notably that relating to A4 No. 60009 Union of South Africa and that relating to the Stanier Pacifics. See also long letter from Stephen Spark (pp. 637-8) on Colonial Office and Crown Agents involvement in motive power acquistion by Mauritius Government Railways: initally favoured steam, later direction towards NBL and hydraulic transmission...

Somerset & Dorset cameos. Alan Tyson, photographer. 403.
Class 4 2-6-0 No. 75072 at Radstock North on local passenger train to Bath; Class 5 No. 73054 arriving Evercreech Junction with southbound passenger train and No. 73166 passing over Evercreech level crossing with a freight: water cans above buffer beam, water tank alongside and road milk tanker waiting to cross: all on 3 May 1965.

Ludlam, A.J. Horncastle station records 1906. 404-5.
An excursion was run to Skegness on Easter Monday. On 28 July the Horncastle Volunteers  were conveyed to their annual camp at Conway and a brake van was provided to carry their Maxim gun. The Woodhall Fete on 19 September was the source of extra traffic. On 4 July over one thousand  were conveyed on the annual Jackson's Exvcursion to Skegness. The Newmarket Horse Sales were the source of both outward and inward traffic in horse boxes. The First Spring Market on 26 March led to many cattle and sheep, especially the latter, being carried. Illus: Horncastle station in the 1930s, Horncastle station in September 1964, handbill for Jackson & Sons half-day excursion to Skegness, Horncastle signal box.

South Western 0-4-4Ts. R.C. Riley, photographer (unless otherwise indicated). 406-8.
Colour photo feature: M7 and O2 classes: O2 No. 30225 shunting at Plymouth Laira on 9 July 1961 (John Macnab page 572 comments on cafeteria car which was based on former LNER sleeping car which had originated as a World War II ambulance vehicle); M7 No. 30376 shunting at Southampton Terminus on 26 June 1953 (lesser Cunard liner in background); M7 No. 30670 on Crediton to Exeter milk train on 5 July 1961; M7 No. 30048 on Wareham to Swanage push & pull near Corfe Castle oj 25 August 1963 (Rodney Lissenden); M7 No. 30060 leaving Brockenhurst with Ringwood line push & pull (unit formed of LSWR stock painted crimson) on 28 June 1957; O2 No. 30200 on Wadebridge shed on 22 July 1960; M7 No. 30320 hauling milk tank wagons past Queens Road, Battersea on 26 July 1959.

Nisbet, Alistair F. Railway refreshment rooms. 409-15.
The unwholesome food served served during Victorian times (and later). Starts with Charles Dickens description of Mugby Junction, and observations in Punch on quality and price. The Glasgow Herald was especially damning about the food purveyed at Edinburgh Waverley. The Leeds Mercury was damning the coffee and far more recently the lady on the till could not distinguish between a cup of tea, coffee or Bovril. The consumption of alcohol by railway staff (servants) whilst on duty. Legal actions brought for libel by operators of refreshment rooms. Illus.: Punch cartoons, Birmingham Snow Hill (colour). Paddington (1930s), Sandown 1950s, Manchester Victoria exterior on 20 November 1990, Fleetwood station showing separate first and second class refreshment rooms, Llanymynach separate 1st and 3rd class refreshment rooms,Cannon Street exterior, Three Cocks Junction exterior, Edwinstowe exterior, and plaque at Dingwall station commemorating the feeding of troops thereat during WW1. See also page 573 for letters from Nick Daunt who confesses to having worked in the roll room in Birmingham New Street station between 1960 and 1962 where rolls were prepared. If work was slack they were diverted to wash cups which had been found along the permamemt way in the Birmingham area and from John Hilldred who points towards superior German and French food in comparable catering establishments..

Travels with a '14XX' tank. 416-18.
Colour photo feature: No. 1420 (lined green livery) on Leominster shed in 1959 (A. Sainty), No. 1445 (black) at Marlow in April 1962 (M. Smith), No. 5813 (still lettered GWR) at Bearley on Leamington Spa to Stratford-upon-Avon service in 1950s (T.J. Edgington), No. 1471 at Dulverton in November 1962 (C.R. Gordon Stuart), No. 1409 at Stonehouse Burdett Road working Gloucester to Chalford push & pull (R. Denison), No. 1419 at Lostwithiel with Fowey auto train in July 1957 (I. Davidson) and No. 1445 at Easton Court on Wooferton to Tenbury Wells auto train in 1961 (J. Phillips).

Wells, Jeffrey. Early years on the East Lancashire Line. Part One. 419-23.
The Manchester, Bury & Rossendale Railway was incorporated on 6 June 1844 and it became the East Lancashire Railway on 21 July 1845 incorporating the Blackburn, Burnley, Accrington & Colne Extension Railway. On 28 September 1846 the Manchester to Rawtenstall section opened through the Irwell Valley. Thomas Gooch and Charles E. Cawley were the engineers and John Brogden was the contractor. Stubbins to Accrington opened on 19 June 1868 and Rawtenstall came to be on a branch. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway (LYR) absorbed the ELR on 13 August 1859. The 1 in 40 Baxenden Bank was a feature of the line. The line was inspected by John Simmons on 15 August 1848. There were viaducts at Alderbottom, Lumb and at Ogden. There was a tubular wrought iron bridge, built on the Fairbairn principle, across the Grane turnpike near Haslinden. There was a major cutting and tunnel at Haslingden and further viaducts at Shoe or Chough and the Scaitcliffe or Accrington viaducts completed the tally as far as Accrington. The opening was described in the Manchester Guardian on 23 August 1848 and in the Manchester Times & Gazette on 19 August 1848. Technical tests were described in the Blackburn Standard. Zamiel, an 0-6-0 supplied by Wilson & Co. of Leeds climed Baxanden bank at 25 mile/h and even a Sharp single ascended with ease. The bank was the location for tests with the James Newall chain brake. At this time Richard Hacking was managing director. Part 2 page 536..

Grayer, Jeffery. By third rail to Midhurst? 424-7.
Towards the end of WW2 (31 August 1944) the General Manager of the Southern Railway, Sir Eustace Missenden, appointed a Committee to consider further electricification: the members were A. Raworth, the Chief Electrical Engineer (who chaired it), R.G. Davidson, the Chief Accountant, V.A.M. Robertson, the Chief Engineer, O.V.S. Bulleid, Chief Mechanical Engineer and R.M.T. Richards, Traffic Manager. This recommended electrification of all lines east of Bournemouth and Salisbury and included some later closed under British Railways, such as Christs Hospital to Shoreham. The branch lines to Midhurst might have been included, but were closed under British Railways. Illus. (all colour and all freight): E4 0-6-2T No. 32470 leaves Midhurst tunnel in March 1962; pick-up goods at Selham (Chris Gammell); E4 No. 32469 at Fittleworth on 14 April 1960; and at Petworth; and Midhurst station.

The 'Sandringham' class in LNER days. 428-9.
Black & white photo feature: No. 2814 Castle Hedingham climbing Brentwood Bank (prior to widening); No. 2838 Melton Hall heads up express near Ipswich; No. 2835 Milton on Banbury shed; No. 2824 Lumley Castle on down Flushing Continental (three Pullman cars in train); No. 2858 The Essex Regiment on stopping passenger train near Ipswich, and B2 No. 1671 Royal Sovereign at King's Cross in 1947.

Skelsey, Geoffrey. Two sidings in a forest: the Armisteces at Rethondes in 1918 and 1940. 430-3.
A Wagons-Lits dining car No. 2419D was the setting for the Armistice signing on 11 November 1918 at which Marshall Ferdinand Foch and Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss agreed to an Armistice with a German delegation. Neither Belgium nor the United States was represented. Subsequently, the vehicle was exhibited outside the Invalides in Paris until 1927 when it was restored and placed in Rethondes. On 20 June 1940 the German Army took Rethondes and a French delegtaion was forced to accept a humiliating armistice and Hitler, Goering and Hess were able to strut around (photograph). This car was subsequently destroyed, but was replaced by a similar car 2439D and placed on the original site in 1950. According to George Behrend Hitler had intended to use the Night Ferry Wagons-Lits vehicles to make a triumphal entry in London.

Tatlow, Peter. Recollections of a railway civil engineer. Part three – The student civil engineer scheme (II). 434-9.
Part II began on page 218. Working life at Regional Bridge Office at Deepdene: includes a description of Deepdene House, its associated out buildings and caves (which had been used by the Southern Railway during WW2). Work included the design for a road widening bridge near Birkbeck station: at that time the Regional Bridge Engineer was E.K. Bridge. Anecdotes include a cable fire at Battersea Power Station which led to temporary signal failures and loss of traction current; exploration of the Résaue Breton in August 1961, and performing load tests on existing bridges using Demec gauges. Illus.: Bridge No. 525 over Elmers End Road adjacent Birkbeck station before road widening; Terrier No. 32646 arrivinh Hayling Island on 13 October 1962; bridge work taking place at Bridge No. 516 Bolina Road, Bermondsey on 8 April 1962; Class 5 No. 45978 alongside Rose Street signal cabin, Inverness on 14 June 1962; No. 49 Gordon Highlander and HR Jones Goods No. 103 allegedly at Insch on 16 June 1962 (but according to Kevin Tattersley on p. 573 at Huntly); N class No. 31857 at Meldon Quarry with tain for Halwill on 1 September 1961; Pirbright flyover (3 pictures taken in April 1963 showing renewal and corrosion of steel girder..

Perth departures. David Idle, photographer. 440-1.
Colour photo feature (all pictures taken 31 August 1965): B1 4-6-0 No. 61180 with empty stock off 08.25 from Dundee; Standard Class 5 with Caprotti valve gear No. 73149 starts 08.25 Glasgow to Aberdeen; A4 No. 60026 Miles Beevor at platform on 07.10 ex-Aberdeen and restarting for Glasgow Buchanan Street.

Atkins, Philip. Cast in a unique mould. 442-5.
Casting cylinders for unique (and unusual) locomotives. George Burrows produced the cylinder drawings for Churchward for the initial 30 inch stroke cylinders fitted to 4-6-0 No. 100, subsequentlty Dean and William Dean. Unlike the later 4-6-0s the piston valves on this locomotive were only 6½in diameter. The North Eastern Railway built two locomotives with Stumpf Uniflow cylinders: the first was similar to the S2 class of 4-6-0s, but had steply inclined cylinders and outside Walschaerts valve gear. It was completed in March 1913 and numbered 825 and dynamometer car tests were performed against standard S2 Nos. 797 (superheated) and Nos. 786 and 788 (saturated) between Newcastle and York. The locomotive had a highly explosive exhaust which could be heard over a long distance. The other Uniflow (or "Unaflow") engine was a Z class three-cylinder Atlantic No. 2212: the monobloc cylinders, draughted by a man called Spencer, were cast at Kitson & Co.. It emerged in June 1918, but only received desultory tests, but lasted until late 1934 when it was rebuilt with rotary cam poppet valves. Experiment class 4-6-0 No. 1361 Prospero was fitted with Dendy Marshall valve gear in March 1915. In this form it achieved a significantly longer mileage bewteen repairs and lower fuel consumption than the unmodified members of the class. It lasted until June 1933..

Readers' Forum. 446.
Railway power stations. K.P. Hubbard.
See feature on page 6. Further information on the Poole Street electricity generating station which became a film studio in 1919 and home of Gainsborough Pictures from 1924.
Rails to Grassington. John Spencer Gilks.
See article by David Joy on p. 291: anecdote concerning travel on goods train whereon driver sought to know whether photographer was a member of a trade union: NALGO membership appeared to satisfy the Chairman of Skipton Urban District Council.
Tonbridge to Hastings. Jeremy Clarke.
Argues, contra Stephen Abbott that Tadpole units did incorporate trailers from ex-Tyneside stock.
The Oldham Loop. L.F.E. Coombs.
See 316  upper for photograph of black & white striped signal post: practice introduced by A.F. Bound to increase visibility: abandobed by successor, W. Wood, to reduce cost.
Most noble ladies. David Pearson.
The Duchess of Grafton owned no land near the LMS: their primary estate was near Thetford in Norfolk. Also gives zn explanation for the lack of a "Duchess of Westminster": reason the Duke was a divorcee.
Manx Holidays. Clive Lovelock.
See May Issue front cover and colour photo-feature on page 299: mainly on minor detail about trains and services, especially on handling freight which was usually for Castletown; the 'pairs coaches' used to transport schoolchildren; and Thornhill not withdrawn in "1953":
'The Little Hercules'. L.A. Summers
Comment on the streamlining employed by LMS: claims that derived from Wagner system used on Reichsbahn and problems with drifting smoke (absent on the Gresley A4): perhaps the strangest feature about this letter is that someone known for his devotion to all things Great Western should declare to liking streamlining: faggots being stacked at Didcot?. L.F.E. Coombs follows up this letter by noting that the lack of a running board was a further hindrance to engine preparation.

In a Dorset countryside. Rodney Lissenden. rear cover
M7 No. 30048 leaving Corfe Castle

No. 8 (Issue No. 244) August

SR N Class 2-6-0 No.31837 calls at Tresmeer on 2nd May 1961, heading towards Launceston on the North Cornwall Line. (R. C. Riley). front cover

Holiday haunts. Michael Blakemore. 451.
Blakemore family holidays involved travel in Ribble double-deck coaches to places in the Pendle country or up to Skipton in the Dales, but the train was used to North Wales

On the Ribble Valley Line. Gavin Morrison. 452-3.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 No. 45110 at Blackburn station on parcels train (with express headlamps?) on 1 August 1968; Class 47 No. 47 809 Finsbury Park hauling diverted WCML service across Whalley Viaduct on 24 April 1993; Class 5 No. 45156 on Farewell to Steam special on 4 August 1968 passing Wilpshire station; Class 47 No. 47 528 The Queen's Own Mercian Yeomanry hauling diverted up WCML service exiting Gisburn Tunnel on 24 April 1993;  Class 47 No. 47 492 takes Blackburn line at Hellifield  with diverted up express on 2 May 1976.

Broadbent, William Benedict as told via Edward Talbot. The road to Holyhead – reflections of an engineeering apprentice. Part One. 454-9.
Bill Broadbent was interviewed by Roland Bond and started his engineering apprenticeship at Crewe Works in early 1942. He came from Huddersfield and had been educated at public school and he and his brother Basil had steam garden model railways. Terry O'Neil assisted in Broadbent's model-making as he was a skilled modelmaker who was also in charge of apprentice trainig. He had been trained at the York Road works of the NCC. Roland Bond was very friendly when encountered as a fellow live steam modelmaker when encountered on the Greywood Central Railway, but E.S. Cox was considered to be extremely aloof. The description of his time as an apprentice is similar to other's of this ilk except for the modelmaking and the influence of WW2 (Crewe was building tanks). Illus.: Bassett-Lowke model K3 class locomotive in garden at Huddersfield; Bill Broadbent with gauge 1 model of rebuilt Claughton No. 5970 Patience; with valve setting gang at Crewe Works (gang included Robin Comyns-Carr, a fellow apprentice); with stripping gang alongside No. 6161 King's Own; locomotives outside Crewe Works in May 1939; George the Fifth No. 1294 F.S.P. Wolferstan on the 14.00 Corridor passing Kenton in 1914: caption notes that when Bill retired as a director of the Festiniog Railway he was presented with a painting based on this photograph by R.H.N. Hardy. See also letter from Paul Russenberger and Jeremy Clarke on page 637..

Getting the job done. 460-1
Black & white photo-feature: interior of Blackpool Central signal box on 8 May 1922; driver filling oil box to lubricate slide bars of Class 5 4-6-0; staff preparing chickens for dining cars at Euston station with sawdust on floor; St Mary's goods yard, Derby at night in 1950s; track relaying at Bolton Trinity Street station on 16 August 1914; LNER York District Control Office at 16.55 on 27 July 1945 with some female staff.

Clarke, Jeremy. The Brighton way to Portsmouth. 462-9.
Illustrated with images from the Lens of Sutton Collection. In the beginning the LSWR and LBSCR each had a roundabout route, but this changed when the Brassey speculative Portsmouth Direct Railway was completed, although the LSWR seemed unwilling to exploit the new line whilst Chaplin was Chairman: this changed once Archibald Scott took charge and this led to conflict at Havant and eventually attempts by the Brighton to shorten its route by forming the Mid-Sussex Line, parts of which were already in place. Eventually the whole became part of the Southern Electric, but the growth of Gatwick Airport has altered the route yet again. The route from Lomdon Bridge via Peckham Rye, Tulse Hill, Streatham, Mitcham Junction, Sutton, Leatherhead, Horsham. Pulborough, Arundel, Ford and Chichester to Havant is described and notes more recent developments, such as the Tramlink overbridge at Mitcham Junction and the branch lines from Christ's Hospital. An account is included of Queen Victoria's funeral journey from Fareham to Victoria behind Billinton B4 No. 54 Empress via this route at an average speed of 50 mile/h with very high speeds attained on the easier stretches..

More from the lands of the East. 470-1.
Colour photo-feature: B1 class No. 61363 diverging off main line at Marks Tey with train from Cambridge with return excursion rom Clacton in May 1961 (Malcolm Thompson); E4 2-4-0 No. 62797 in sparkling condition at Norwich Victoria with Norfolk Railway Society special on 9 September 1956; J15 No.65441 passes British Railways Modernisation noticeboard at Stratford in 1957; J15 No. 65475 at Lavenham with Long Melford to Bury St Edmunds passenger train in July 1959 (G.W. Potter); and J17 No. 65534 shunts at Sudbury (G.W. Potter). 

Nisbet, Alistair F. From Reston to Duns. 472-8.
The county town of Berwickshire was originally spelt Dunse and was the thus when the North British Railway branch from Reston opened on 7 August 1849, The line had received its Act in 1846; its engineer had been George Cunningham (doubtful if equates with entry in Chrimes), and the contractor was George Milne of Aberdeen. Line was inspected by Captain Wynne on 10 August 1849 and must have approved the odd terminal arrangements at Reston where gravity was used to propell the train into the platform. A later Board of Trade inspection by Lt. Col. Hutchinson on 26 February 1875? was more critical. Rope shunting, another depreccated practice continued at Edrom. A further article considers the Berwickshire Railway which linked Duns with St. Boswells. Bill Jamieson (p. 638) gives a detailed description of the later motive power used on the branch.

Kent seascapes. John Spencer Gilks. 479.
Colour photo-feature: two former GWR pannier tanks (caption states 57XX, but either 16XX or 64XX?) heading train leaving Folkestone Harbour for Folkestone Junction; view from above Martello Tunnel on 30 August 1990 with Class 47 hauling train through Folkestone Warren 

Southern Moguls 480-3.
Colour photo-feature: N class No. 31405 ex-works at Ashford on 15 October 1961 (Roy Hobbs); N class No. 31840 on freight near Meldon Quarry on 7 July 1961 (R.C. Riley); U class No. 31801 leaving Ash with 12.47 Reading to Guildford on 25 January 1964; U class No. 31618 at Westcott between Dorking and Gomshall with 12.35 Redhill to Reading on 1 January 1964 (David Idle (2)); N class No. 31831 at Eastleigh following an intermediate repair on 6 April 1963 (Rodney Lissenden); three-cylinder U1 class No. 31895 under overhaul in Ashford Works on 25 February 1962  (David Idle); N class No. 31403 on Norwood Junction shed on 13 April 1962 (also W class 2-6-4T No. 31915 on same road) (R.C. Riley); N class No. 31852 at Betchworth on 16.04 Redhill to Reading in May 1963 (Roy Hobbs). See also letter from Jeremy Clarke (page 573) which notes that contra to the captions the Southern three-cylinder moguls had narrower cylinders than the two-cylinder type and had sharply inclined valve chests to permit the Holcroft form of conjugated gear to be fitted.. 

Smith, Michael J. Triangulation point: a historical description of five three-sided junctions in the West London suburbs. Part Two. 484-91.
Part 1 see page 366 et seq: triangular junctions at Watford and at Rickmansworth. The LNWR built its Croxley Green and Rickmansworth branches to keep the Metropolitan Railway out. Originaly the Croxley Green line was envisaged as a loop making a junction with the main line north of Watford. The LNWR New Line from Harrow & Wealdston reached Watford on 10 February 1913 and formed a triangular junction with the Rickmansworth branch. Electric services reached Watford on 16 April 1917 when Bakerloo Line services were extended there, but North-Western Electrics did not start until 10 July 1922 and Rickmansworth not until 26 September 1927. The heyday of the New Line coincided with the Wembley British Empire Exhibition in 1924 and 1925. The Metropolitan Railway branch from Rickmansworth was sanctioned in 1912 as a joint line with the Great central Railway. It opened with electric traction on 2 November 1925. Until the General Strike the LNER provided a passenger service to Marylebone and saught freight. The still extant triangular junction at Rickmansworth has had limited passenger services. Illus.: LMS compartment EMU approaching Watford High Street on 13 May 1956; Oerlikon LNWR saloon EMU at Watford Junction on Rickmansworth service (final day: 2 March 1952), and similar unit arriving Rickmansworth (C.R.L. Coles); Metropolitan Railway H class 4-4-4T (not 4-4-2T as per caption also picked up by Jeremy Clarke on page 573) near Croxley Hall Farm bridge in 1924; London Transport electric locomotive No. 6 William Penn arriving Rickmansworth in 1959; London Transport electric locomotive No. 1 John Lyon on train for Baker Street at Rickmansworth with 2-6-4T No. 42134 alongside; South Harrow station c1930s; South Harrow station with 1920s tube stock in snow on 19 January 1963; F stock at Rayners Lane Junction; District Railway B class EMU at Hanger Lane Juction on 7 September 1930.

Kell, Roger J. Focus on Darlington. 492-5.
The text includes a highly condensed account of railway development including the Stockton & Darlington, Great North of England (York to Darlington opened in 1841), Newcastle & Darlington (opened to Gateshead in 1844) Railways and the subsequent development of the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway in 1848 and the formation of the North Eastern Railway in 1854. Locomotive manufacture included the North Eastern Railway's works which took over the activity from Gateshead and Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn which moved its manufacture from a restricted site in Newcastle. Wagon building by the NER was centred on Shildon and from 1922 Faverdale. Motive power activity is described, but Darlington was not a normal location for enginre changing. Illus. (all black & white): V2 with double chimney No. 60963 departing for south; J27 being overhauled at Darlington Works in 1964; A3 Pacifics No. 60036 Colombo which had replaced No. 60071 Tranquil which had failed on a southbound express in 1963; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42085 with parcels train for Middlesbrough; B16/3 No. 61463 ex-Works in December 1962; A3 No. 60052 Prince Palatine in works for overhaul; A1 No. 60121 Silurian on southbound express alongside DMU for Richmond; V2 No. 60876 awaiting departure, and BR Class 5 No. 73162 taking water on northbound express.

A Collection of Cornishware 496-8.
Colour photo-feature: Warship diesel hydraulic No. D848 Sultan (green livery) arrivin at Par with down express (Cliff Woodhead); 0298 class 2-4-0WT No. 30587 taking water in Pencarrow Woods whilst working a farewell railtour in brake vans organized by Locomotive Club of Great Britain on 8 September 1962 (David Idle); Gloucester RCW Co. single unit railcar No. W55017 at Fowey with 17.55 ex-Lostwithiel on 8 September 1962 (David Idle); Class 47 No. 47 602 Glorious Devon at Par with 08.50 Newquay to Manchester on 7 September 1985 (Tommy Tomalin) N class No. 31406 arriving Bude on 16 June 1962 (R.C. Riley); W.G. Bagnall 0-4-0ST Alfred owned English China Clays and noted for its squat stature at Par Harbour on 29 July 1970, and HST on 11.40 Paddington to Penzance near Par on 6 September 1985 (Tommy Tomalin).  

Gray, Adrian. The LIanelli [Llanelly] railway riot. 499-501.
The riot happened during a national railway strike which took place during the hot August of 1911. Strikers in Llanelli, then spelt Llanelly, decided to halt traffic on the railway (some of which the Government regarded as strategic military) by impeding the town's level crosssings. In this way a boat train for Cork was impounded and the following mail train which was carrying 120 soldiers of the Lancashire Regiment was also blocked. Major Brownslow Stuart with a detachment from the Worcestershire Regiment became involved and when his troops came under attack from the strikers and "other troublemakers" he ordered the Riot Act to be read and eventually allowed his troops to open fire which led to two deaths and several injuries. This led to rioting, damage to railway property and looting from railway wagons and a fire in one of them. Keir Hardy, the Independent Labour MP, seized upon the incident writing a pamphlet Killing no murder (Ottley 11072) as did Winston Churchill who was Home Secretary in the Lloyd Gorge administration. Jeremy Clarke questions the legality of Churchill's directions on p. 744.

Baker, Clive. A Maze of railway lines. 502-5.
Riddings Iron & Steel Works and Williamthorpe Colliery in North Derbyshire. Illus.: 0-4-0ST Stanton No. 36 and Stanton No. 24 0-4-0CT crane tank at Riddings and 3F Jinty 0-6-0Ts Nps 47289 and 47629 at the colliery in 1967. Diesel traction replacd steam in October 1967 and the colliery closed in 1970.

Signs and notices. 506
Colour photo-feature: Midland Railway bridge plate No. 135 adjacent to overbridge carrying Garsdale to Kirkby Stephen road with Wikld Boar Fell in February 1976 (David Jenkinson) see letter from Mike Pellatt on page 573 who states that was Bridge No. 134 (occupation bridge) with Plate No. 135 referring to a culvert (both at Cote Gill); LNER signs (trespassers and beware of trains near Thornton Abbey station on Barton-on-Humber branch in 1977 (J.S. Gilks); closure notice of South Acton station on Underground on 28 February 1959 (R.C. Riley); North British Railway enamel trespassers board at Galashiels on 18 April 1965 (David Idle); Riddings Junction running in board (change for Langholm...) in September 1963 (J.S. Gilks); "STOP LOOK LISTEN" sign (tangerine colour) at unmanned level crossing at Hayburn Wyke on Scraborough to Whitby line with DMU crossing in July 1964 (David Sutcliffe).

Book Reviews. 508
Southern Rails on the Isle of Wight. Volume Two: The Ventnor and Bembridge Lines. Ian Drummond with Alan Doe. Holne Publishing, AB *****
Volume Two incorporates all the high standards of content and presentation that defined Volume One, as reviewed in Backtrack, Vo1.24, No.l0.
Kent railways: the age of steam. David Staines. Countryside Books:.126pp. JC ****
"perceptive dip into the changed social history of the county" and the way that railways have adapted.
Engines of war: how wars were won and lost on the railways. Christian Wolmar. Atlantic Press. 310pp. AJM ***
The reviewer confesses that this is not the book he had wished to receive for review and then gives it a somewhat cold reception. The book appears to be about the way railways have been engineered to fight wars and subjugate peoples.
Voices from Doncaster Plant Works. Peter Tuffrey. History Press, 126pp. RH ****
This abundantly illustrated book by a notable historian of Doncaster bears out well Carlyle's dictum that "history is the essence of innumerable biographies". By persuading a wide range of former workers at the 'Plant' to relate their experiences to him, Peter Tuffrey puts flesh on the bones of more institutional histories, such as those he has already written, about its long record. Most of the text refers to the period 1930-87, when much of the Plant was sold off.
The 30 Doncastrians who aided him in his efforts held a wide range of posts: Works Manager, Canteen Manageress, Under-Foreman, Costing Clerk, Wages Clerk, Works Photographer, Progress Inspector, Comptometer Operator, almost a case of 'you name it'. The sheer variety of specialisms chronicled is valuable in itself, demonstrating not only of how large and complex a major railway factory might be, but also the massive bureaucracy required to operate it effectively. 'Bureaucracy' comes in for plenty of stick these days – this kind of book may throw some light into the dimmer recesses of the political mind that seems incapable of understanding this feature of modern life.
Another theme that emerges regularly in these reminiscences is well summarised by a phrase in one of them: "The camaraderie was brilliant." There was clearly a strong family or clan sentiment abroad in the Plant, from the courteous Gresley and the approachable Peppercorn, right across the spectrum. Many of the sources come from families which had worked at the Plant for generations. Although recent, this was of course a different era, more hierarchical than ours (or at least, more open and honest about it), with hard conditions and a trifle light on health and safety, by later and more fraught standards. Hardly surprising that one source requires a hearing aid after testing 'Deltic' engines at full throttle without ear protection.
More than once we learn of asbestos innocence, with a fog of lethal particles blown about. And, of course, rough humour at the expense of apprentices and the darker variety that marked many railwaymen: what might happen, speculated a fresh young fitter, if 100 tons of Pacific hovering above him broke loose? "Don't worry" his mentor told him "you won't feel anything, there'll just be a quick flash and you will have wings." The strengths of the book are many, not least the excellent quality of its illustrations and its even-handed treatment of the production and maintenance of steam, diesel and electric traction. It would, however, have benefited from a map or diagram of the Plant and its environs for readers unfamiliar with the area. That said, the tens of thousands of workers who came and went from the Plant from 1853 onwards have a worthy record of their endeavours through the sharp memories of two dozen and more of their latter-day successors.

Memories of a railway childhood. Andrew Dow. Fastline Books, DWM ***
Your reviewer was somewhat puzzled by this trim little volume. The story moves briskly along but a significant amount of the content refers not so much to the author but rather to his father. Now when 'Dad' is George Dow, senior railway officer on both the LNER and BR, renowned railway author and respected railway historian, this is no bad thing and filial respect is something to be applauded – but your reviewer would have liked more of what the author himself did and saw as his delight in the railways developed through in the '50s and '60s.
This book has no illustrations – other than the cover – and no index. It almost seems an opportunity missed although the author's trenchant views on the modern world in general and the privatised railway in particular are well worth reading.

Readers' Forum. 509
The East Coast Main Line timetables. Alan de Burton.
Notes factors which led to a cautious approach to timetabling by the LNER. Firstly, infrastructure: bottlenecks at Welwyn and Stoke Summit (which are still extant) and at Potters Bar, level crossings, Peterborough track layout and lack of automatic warning system. Many were eliminated by British Railways, but before that the Eastern Region was attempting to improve the overall timetable. Cannot support George May's contention that the LNER should have used diesel power for its high speed trains, but does question timing of up Coronation service. [KPJ: the new East Coast timetable is far from perfect if viewed from Stevenage or from North Norfolk and still theree are far too many level crossings of both sorts]. See also letters from A.J. Mullay and Peter Clark on page 637 which comment on the profitability of the Coronation streamlined train.
The East Coast Main Line timetables. Geoff Mileham.
Considers that LNER managed its meagre resources efficiently; only the LNER and Southern ran moderately fast services; political interference can limit timetable changes; diesel traction was not appropriate at that time; Gresley sorted out the initial problems with the Pacifics by modifying the valve gear.
Waterloo and Nine Elms. Peter Tatlow.
No. 76039 was not passing Nine Elms, but was train was in carriage sidings at Clapham Junction (correcting caption):
Triangulation point. Viv Orchard.
West Ealing saw the first application of four-aspect colour light signalling on the Western Region; the rails on the line to Greenford were imported from the USA during WW2 and were very hard and difficult to drill, and at Greenford East Junction there were interesting points which could act as runaway catch points capable of being locked for trains to proceed through them.
Triangulation point. Chris Foren.
Dates given on captions are incorrect as DMUs were introduced on 25 August 1958. The condition of the auto trailers suggests early 1950s. The DMU at South Greenford Halt was a Gloucester RC&W product.
Irish archive. Denis Grimshaw.
Neither V nor VS class visited York Road works with the exception of UTA No. 58 which was sent from Adelaide shed to York Road for a boiler wash-out: a journey of 92 miles via Lisburn, Knockmore Junction and Armagh. The caption error may stem from Ian Sinclair's Along UTA Lines which contained where ther is a caption relating to No. 58. Also VS class Boyne was numbered 207 not as stated there is a transposition in the caption to Nos. 99 and 53.
A train for photographers. Mick Brownhill. 510
Location of Land Cruise train not Killin Junction, but Criamlarich Lower
The Midland Railway from 1900. David W. Green.
Points out that the Midland Railway acquired the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway in 1903 and operated it through the Northern Counties Committee. The LMS continued this arrangement, but the Railway Executive sold it to the Ulster Transport Authority in April 1949 which created a potential legal problem as Derby Works were supplying four 2-6-4Ts. In 1906 the Midland Railway with the Great Northern Railway (Ireland) acquired the Donegal Railway Company and formed the County Donegal Joint Committee on which passenger services ceased in 1959, but the business was not wound up until 1971 "so ending the involvement of a British Railway in Ireland"..
Forbes and the LCDR. Adrian Gray.
Argues that some of Jeremy Clare's assertions especially on the line from Maidstone to Ashford are not justified, that co-operation on the Dover to Deal line was inevitable. Also details those involved in the fianl Working Agreement
A Diesel named 'Diesel'. P. Justin McCarthy
Former senior railwayman who directed the diesel traction programme on London Midland Region both agrees that a Stanier Pacific in good condition "could outrun the LMS twins and Class 40s", but notes the dilapidated steam traction depots and the smoke pollution problem in cities. He also notes that the diesel traction programme suffered from a lack of modified depots and adequate staff training. Response from A.J. Mullay p. 701.
The 'Tadpoles'. Stephen G. Abbott.
Tadpoes foormed from 2-EPB unit trailers Nos. 5701/4/8/9/10/11. The corresponding motor cars were used to form additional 4-EPB units. The Tyneside units became Nos. 5781-95.
The 'Little Hercules'. L.F.E. Coombs
See original article on page 276 and letter from L.A. Summers about difficulties of preparing Stanier streamlined Pacifics: noting that the lack of a running board was a further hindrance to engine preparation.
Leaving Newcastle. David Percival.
Details of services on which XP64 set worked whilst on Eastern Region in summer of 1964 including up and down Talisman trains.
The Wisdom of Solomon. Robert Barker.
Henry Cole employed Samuel Sidney to write in favour of the standard gauge and against the broad gauge during the Battle of the Gauges: see Transport History, 1977, 8, 110-20..

Bridge over troubled waters. (Trevor Owen). rear cover
Warship diesel hydraulic D804 Avenger passing Cowley Bridge Junction and Cowley Bridge Inn on 16 March 1963.

No. 9 (Issue No. 245) September

LNER A3 4-6-2 No. 60106 Flying Fox coaled up and ready for duty at Grantham shed. (Derek Penney). front cover
Without smoke deflectors, but see also page 544 (lower)

Memo from the Department of Administrative Affairs. Michael Blakemore. 515
Apologies from printer for over-inked July Issue. Also describes the redaction process for Backtrack

A visit to the King. Photographs Dick Riley; captions Jonathan Jarvis. 516-17.
Colour photo-feature based around visit by preserved No. 6000 King George V to Kensington Olympia on 6 October 1971: King in one of Motorail bays with Bulmer's Pullman set (photograph taken contrajour); Class 37 No. 6720 with train of bogie oil tanks probably for Salfords passing Type 2 No. 5215; electro-diesel Class 73 No. E6031 heading north with train of tank wagons passing Class 33 with wagonload freight for Norwood Junction; Warship No. 829 Magpie with milk tank wagons and Class 37 No. 6961 (green livery, other diesel traction in rail blue)

Nicholls, Arthur R. Southern in the saddle [tank engines]. 518-21.
The Southern Railway owned very few saddle tanks and several of those were borderline between the running department, tthe service department and contractor's locomotives. Four ex Southampton Dock Company's stock came into the Southern Railway via the LSWR. Two were supplied by Vulcan Foundry in 1878 (WN 836 and 837). They were 0-4-0STs named Vulcan and Bretwalda: the former received the numbers 118, then 111 in 1899 and 0111 in 1904. Vulcan (illustrated when shed pilot at Guildford) was taken out of service in 1924 and sold to E.E. Carnforth & Co. of Stoke-on-Trent fot Taylor, Tunnicliffe & Co. of Stone. Bretwalda was given the number 408 in 1900 and placed on the duplicate list as No. 0408 in 1906. It was used during the construction of Eastleigh Works and then as shed pilot at Nine Elms and Guildford before being withdrawn in 1924 and then sold to J. Wood & Co. of Dibles Wharf, Southampton in 1926 before being broken up by Pollock & Brown in 1935. Hawthorne Leslie suppled two 0-4-0STs in 1890 (WN 2174 and 2175): they were named Clausentum and Ironside. They were transferred to the running department in 1901 to work the Southampron Town Quay and Pier. Clausentum received the number 0457 in 1913, but then was numbered 734 in capital stock (illustrated in this form as SR No. 734 at Eastleigh) and lasted until 1945. Ironside became 458; then 0458 in 1923, 3458 in 1931 and 30458 in 1949 and was not withdrawn until 1954 (illustrated as No. 30458 at Guildford shed in 1951, driver is wearing a top hat). The locomotive was known as Little Jim. In 1875 W.G. Beattie ordered six standard Beyer Peacock inside-cylinder 0-6-0STs, and these were followed by a further order for fourteen. They were known as Beyer Tanks, Saddlebacks and Camelbacks and more officially as the 0330 class.. No. 0127 was sold to the East Kent Railway in 1925 becoming that railway's No. 7: it was cut up in 1946. In 1932  No. 0335 was exchanged with KESR 0-8-0T Hecate and became KESR No. 4 (illustrated in that form). The Freshwater, Yarmouth & Newport Railway acquired a secondhand Q class Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST (WN 1555/1902) in 1913 and gave it the number 1 (illustrated in this form). It had been built for Pauling & Elliott who gave it the name Northolt when building the GWR/GCR Joint Railway. The Southern Railway gave it No. W1 Medina and used it to shunt Medina Wharf until scrapped in 1933. The SER purchased a Q type: WN 1154/1890 for the Carriage & Wagon Works at Ashford (not illustrated); the SER purchased a Manning Wardle G type 0-4-0ST (WN 767/1881). This had been used on improvement works at Folkestone Harbour, but the Southern Railway numbered it 225S in 1925 and moved it to Meldon Quarry where it worked until scrapped in 1938 (not illustrated); the SECR obtained Manning Wardle K class 0-6-0ST WN 752: this had been supplied to Joseph Firbank who had named it Grinstead, but sold it to William Digby of Duffield who named it Middleton and used it at Folkestone Harbour and when the works were completed in 1904 sold it to the SECR who gave it the number 752. After the grouping it worked at Dover where it received the nickname Thumper. In 1925 it was sold to George Cohen & Sons who sold it to Thames Deep Water Wharf Co. who named it Dolphin. The firm was taken over by the Northfleet Deep Water Wharf Co. who scrapped it in 1945 (illustrated as No. 752); Maunsell rebuilt a C class 0-6-0 No. 685 (Neilson Reid WN 5691/1900) as an 0-6-0ST in 1916/1917 for service as a shunter at Richborough. It was renumbered 1695 in 1934 (illustrated in this form) and worked at Bricklayers Arms until scrapped in 1951; Andrew Barclay 0-4-0ST WN 1188/1910 was ordered by Vickers, Son & Maxim, but worked at Woolwich Arsenal until sold to Stanley Bros. Ltd in 1919 who sold it to the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board in 1921. It was purchased by the Southern Railway's Southampton Docks Dock Engineer's Department. It was withdrawn in 1946 and scrapped in 1949. It was named The Master General (illustrated). See also letter from V.B. Orchard (page 638) which notes that 0-4-0ST Ironside ran to Eastleigh for scrapping; also observes that locomotives housed in paint ahop at Eastleigh were not intended for preservation in a "Southern Railway Museum"

Emblin, Robert. End of Line: the Great Central Railway's entry into the Capital. Part Two. Marylebone Goods Warehouse and Passenger Station. 522-8.
Part 1 began on p. 327. Draws extensively on G A Hobson; E Wragge Institution of Civil Engineers' Paper 3249 of 1900, but notes that Fielden's Magazine did likewise shortly after the paper was presented. The freight terminal was advanced for its time, but was reliant upon hoists and turntables although former were hydraulic powered as were the internal cranes. The weight of the structure forced the steel frame structure to be mounted on bases to spread the load onto the clay. The passenger station has never been noted for its presence, but Gordon Biddle was least uncomplimentary in his Great railway stations of Britain ("sedate little terminus") . Was it the Revd Ronald Knox who suggested that it was a good place for silent meditation? S.W.A. Newton photographs from the Record Office for Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland. Also mentions the Hotel Great Central alias the Great Central Hotel which had to be built by John Blundell Maple due to the railway's shortage of capital. This was designed by R.W. Edis. Letter from Richard Pratt on p. 638 explains the function of a jigger..

Somewhere between Manchester and Liverpool. Alan Tyson and W.D. Cooper (photographers). 529-31
Black & white photo-feature: all by Tyson unless indicated by WDC in parentheses: Hughes 2-6-0 No. 42944 at Manchester Exchange on 17.05 to Wigan North Western on 4 August 1961; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42078 at Glazebrook on 12.00 Saturdays only Liverpool Central to Stockport Tiviot Dale on 21 March 1964; Fowler 0-8-0 No. 49655 near Kenyon Junction on coal train formed of timber-bodied wagons (WDC); Class 5 No. 44737 on Walkden water troughs with westbound express; Jubilee No. 45602 British Honduras at Dobbs Brow Junction with special express formed of non-corridor stock probably a Blackpool to Manchester train on 16 June 1962; LMS Patriot No. 5513 with express formed of Stanier corridor stock at Sanderson's Sidiongs, Worsley (WDC); Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42435 leaves Bolton Road tunnel west of Pendlebury with express headlamps in 1963 (WDC); Fowler 2-6-4T No. 42333 and 0-4-0ST No. 51246 at Bank Hall shed on 8 January 1961; and Patriot No. 45507 Royal Tank Corps on freight at Roe Green in 1959 (WDC). See also V. 26 p. 61 letter from Roderick Cannon, nephew of W.D. Cooper who notes that captions imply line from Eccles to Wigan via Roe Green carried mainly local traffic with some main line trains as weekend diversions from the West Coast route, but there were late afternoon Manchester-Windermere and Manchester-Glasgow trains, along with the evening 'Carlisle goods' from Liverpool Road, Manchester, which seems to be the subject of picture on p. 531..

Warrington, Gordon. Colwick fireman. 532-5.
Began as an engine cleaner on 1 November 1954. The K3 allocated to the King's Cross lodging turn received greater attention. Cleaning inside motion tended to be avoided. Many activities, such as sitting astride a K3 boiler without ladder access would now be condemned as unsafe. The art of firing was learnt on the job in locomotive preparation and on short workings.

Wells, Jeffrey. Early years on the East Lancashire Line. Part Two. 536-40.
Accident at Helmshore on 4 September 1860 with report by Colonel W. Yolland dated 3 October 1860. Ten people were killed outright, one died later and there were at least 50 injured. A coupling broke on an excursion train and the rear portion of the train ran down the bank into the path of another train climbing the bank behind an 0-6-0 locomotive. Yolland stated that the train which divided was too heavy and lacked adequate brakes (the Newall brake was fitted to some of the stock). Also includes contemporary press reports on the accident, and on other lesser accidents (notably at Accrington) and reports on ticket fraud: for instance, Howarth vs the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway at Preston Assizes in 1863 (reported Preston Guardian). Illus.: East Lancashire Railway headquarters at Bury (since demolished); tombstone in Helmshore churchyard recording death of Samuel Duckworth in accident of 1860; Station Hotel, Helmshore; Haslingden Tunnel (northern portal); Haslingden station in 1964; LYR 2-4-2T No. 50647 propelling push & pull coach at Summerseat on 4 August 1953; two class 5 4-6-0s haul 11.55 SO Yarmouth to Manchester service extended to Colne past Haslingden station on 9 July 1966 (Eric Bentley colour)

Nisbet, Alistair F. There's a furniture van on the line! 541-3.
Accidents to trains caused by road vehicles coming off road (highway) or by breaking through level crossings. The article lacks focus and the incident of the title was one on 21 April 1958 when a furniture van careered off the road near Wormit and into the 09.14 Tayport to Dundee train. This incident has been expanded by considering other road accidents involving trains: one in January 1936 where a van was struck by a train on an occupation crossing on the approach to East Third Farm near Auchterarder; the Great Heck M62 accident which led to a very serious railway accident in 2002; a similar incident at Laurencekirk where a lorry came off the road and into the path of an HST; the grounding of a tractor on an occupation crossing which led to 41 passengers being injured in a Class 47 hauled train, and on 24 July 2001 a potato harvester damaged a bridge parapet blocking the railway beneath whilst road traffic contined to flow.

A3 Pacifies at Grantham. Derek Penney (photographer). 544-7.
Colour photo-feature: No. 60085 Manna with double chimney but without smoke deflectors on shed; p. 544 lower: 60106 Flying Fox ex-works with smoke deflectors on up express near Barrowby Road in June 1962 (see also front cover); No. 60056 Centenary (single chimney) with empty stock forming 16.45 all stations to Peterborough on 25 May 1959; No. 60048 Doncaster on turning triangle; No. 60059 Tracery approaching station on up express; No. 60110 Robert the Devil on down express in June 1962; No. 60066 Merry Hampton (with high cab ventilator) on down express; and No. 60085 Manna with double chimney but without smoke deflectors running into station with up express on 23 May 1959 (most trains still contained Gresley vehicles)

Pulling up Beattock. David Idle (photographer, unless otherwise specified). 548-51.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 Nos. 44973 and 44820 on southbound freight crossing River Clyde at Crawford on 22 April 1965; Caledonian Railway Class 439 0-4-4T No. 55234 and 0-6-0 No. 57568 on Beattock shed in May 1961 (Malcolm Thompson); No. 72008 Clan Macleod with four coaches and bogie van on 09.25 Crewe to Perth crossing River Clyde at Crawford on 22 April 1965; Class 5 No. 44701 on fitted freight pulling out of Beattock yard with banker at rear in July 1963 (M. Smith); Rebuilt Patriot No. 45522 Prestatyn at summit with northbound relief express in July 1962 (Allan Chandler); No. 73064 beyond summit with northbound freight including limestone for Ravenscraig on 26 March 1964; No. 70003 John Bunyan with 12.20 Perth to Euston on 26 March 1964; No. 73007 on freight in Beattock yard in September 1964 (Michael Covey-Crump); Class 5 No. 44923 on southbound freight (girders on bogie flat wagons) near summit on 25 March 1964; and V2 No. 60910 on Carlisle Kingmoor to Lothian Road freight with steam showing at safety valves near summit on 25 March 1964. Leonard Rogers (letter p. 701) noted that V2 and B1 class locomotives were used routinely on this working at that time.

Mullay, A.J. Mr. Wheatley's Railway. 552-7.
The operation of the Wigtownshire Railway which ran from Newton Stewart to Whithorn via Wigtown and Garliestown. To some extent the article is based on the archives of the company which feature William McClure, the Company Secretary as a major player and in part on David L. Smith's The little railways of South West Scotland.  The railway was managed by Thomas Wheatley who had been forced to resign from the position of Loocomotive Superintendent of the North British Railway due to financial irregularities. A table lists Wigtownshire Railway locomotives which presumably originated in a series in the Locomotive Mag., 1943, 49, (5 parts) by David L. Smith and cited by Bertram Baxter. The stock was partially former North British Railway locomotives: two 2-2-2 type of 1856; an 0-4-2 (ex Edinburgh & Northern of 1848); a Solway Junction Railway locomotive of 1866 and two Fleetwood, Preston & West Riding 0-4-2 type of 1860 and 1856. It seems that Wheatley modified these locomotives, or had them modified (see caption to first illustration). Illus.:  Wigtownshire Railway No. 5 (shown in table as 2-2-2: herein obviously an 0-6-0WT); map, CR 0-6-0 No. 57375 at Wigtown on Stephenson Locomotive Society special on 2 September 1961 (an interesting date for KPJ); Garlieston branch; Millisle junction;  No. 57375 at Whithorn. See also letter on page 638 from William Tollan concerning proposed additional junctions at Dunragit and Newton Stewart to enable Glasgow trains to reach Garlieston for the Isle of Man without reversing twice; also difficulties with Garlieston harbour being tidal and of limited depth. An experimental sailing by the paddle streamer Waverley from Garlieston to Ramsey could not cope with the rough seas of the Solway Firth..

Baker, Michael H.C. Inchicore carriages. 558-62
First travelled to the Republic of Ireland in 1959 where he found to his delight rolling stock quite unlike that in mainland Britain on the CIE (Coras Iompair Eireann). There were still six-wheeled coaches in service, many timber-bodied vehicles and a few clerestory-roofed coaches plus the Bulleid aluminium bodied four-wheel vehicles used as train heating vans (with boilers), brake vans and mail vans. Most of these assorted antiques were hauled by diesel locomotives, but the author travelled behind steam (J15/101 class) between Waterford and New Ross in a clerestory coach. There was also a surprising amount of steam in Cork, but it was diesel traction for a ride in a set of six-wheel coaches to Youghal. Many of the four-car diesel sets were formed of two modern motor coaches with older vehicles in between: some were like Stanier coaches built in the late 1930s with timber frames and steel sides. Bulleid had built some wide-bodied stock with thin sides lined with Bitumastic or Carbolastic.Some very old refreshment cars were still min use including a Birmingham-built Pullman car and a 12-wheel vehicle of 1902. Describes how the State Saloon No, 351, built in 1902, was preserved with the involvement of the Railway Preservation Society of Ireland.

Broadbent, Bill via Edward Talbot. Ptarmigan goes forth. 563.
Memories of how the up Royal Scot on which the Royal Scot locomotive had suffered a failure of its by-pass valve on the middle cylinder was assisted from Crewe to Euston by Ptarmigan, a superheated George the Fifth class which left Crewe 22 minutes late, but was only 15 down by Rugby, 9 by Watford and only 8 minutes late at Euston after hauling 550 tons.

Class 116 – the Derby suburban units. Michael Mensing (photpgrapher). 564-7.
Colour photo-feature: unit showing different shdes of green on 18.30 Leamington Spa to Wellington passing Lapworth splitting distant on Sunday 1 July 1962; uniform green unit with speed whiskers at Blaenavon Low Level with 10.40 ex-Newport on Easter Monday 23 April 1962; 07.36 Stratford-upon-Avon to Leamington Spa at Claverdon on 15 May 1964; two units (one with speed whiskers) at Lapworth station on 8 October 1961 when single line working was in place due to permanent way work on Lapworth water troughs; mongrel blue/green unit on 15.30 Birmingham Snow Hill to Wolverhampton Low Level between West Bromwich and Swan Village on 5 August 1967; unit in blue/grey livery at Chepstow on 12.07 Cheltenham Spa to Cardiff on 22 October 1983; all-blue livery unit coupled to Metro-Cammell two-car unit at Langley Green on 09.14 Lichfield City to Kidderminster service via Birmingham New Street on 21 May 1977; blue/grey livery set passing GWR lower quadrant signal gantry at Radyr with 15.03 Barry to Treherbert on 2 April 1982; and reversed white/blue livery at Sutton Coldfield with 18.05 Birmingham New Street to Lichfield on 8 June 1977. Leonard Rogers (letter p. 701) also noted the apparent change in Rail blue as gradually introduced, the brief period of yellow box warning panels and white cab roofs.

Digby, Nigel. Marriott reinforced concrete station nameboards. 568-71.
William Marriott, Resident Engineer and Locomotive Superintendent of the Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway, designed many ferro-concrete objects including a signal post and station nameboards. Illus.: nameboards at Wisbech St. Mary in June 1954; Woodhall Junction in 1954; Queensbury (with N1 0-6-2T on Bradford to Halifax train); West Runton (colour); diagram (cross section); Thornton as preserved in Bradford Industrial Muesum (colour) and Rauceby (colour: all colour illus. were taken by Author). See also letter from Alan Whitaker on page 701 with photograph taken by H.C. Casserley of nameboard at Clayton on Bradford to Queensbury line and story of the rescue of the Thornton nameboard in 1971 and that at Horton Park.

Readers' Forum. 572-3
Railway & Canal Historical Society
Pointing to new database of memorials and monuments to those associated with the transport industry at www.rchs.org.uk/trial/monuments-display.php
More on isolated distant signals. G.L. Huxley
Two-aspect colour light signals were also painted with black & white stripes. Some urban distants were also treated in yjis way.
A diesel named 'Diesel'. R. Farmer.
Noted that Rudolph Diesel did not invent eponymous engine, but comprression ignition engine was invented by Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (corrected KPJ) and Charles Richard Binney in 1890. .Response from A.J. Mullay p. 701.
A diesel named 'Diesel'. Doug Landau
Disputes most of the data presented on locomotive mileages, notably that relating to A4 No. 60009 Union of South Africa and that relating to the Stanier Pacifics. Also notes that Lord Hurcomb's Report of the Committee on Types of Motive Power (1951 Chairman J.L. Harrington) (available Railway Archive) wherein Table X claimed that steam was 2.4 times cheaper than diesel power at that time. Initial diesel mileages were poor: in 1964 the annual mileages for the Deltics was 158,000, but the D1500 could only manage 69,300, the D6700 only 50,750 whilst the Jubilee class averaged 51,100 throughout the 1950s (KPJ: one suspects that poor freight operating practice kept the type D6700 mileages down). Also comment on British Railways' profitability statistics.Response from A.J. Mullay p. 701.
South Western 0-4-4Ts. John Macnab.
Page 406: comments on cafeteria car being shunted at Plymouth: car was based on former LNER sleeping car which had originated as a World War II ambulance vehicle (Gresley profile and bogies)
Preserving photographic images. Norman Dowd. 573
Comments on the frequent changes in electronic storage media and the fear that digitized records may become unreadable if not maintained in the correct format.
Triangulation point. Michael Thomson.
Notes that Great Western had intended another triangular junction in the Ealing area: one with the Ealing & Shepherd's Bush Railway at a point just suth of West Acton station where a curve would have provided access to both Acton Yard and towards Paddington.
Recollections of a railway civil engineer. Kevin Tattersley.
No. 49 Gordon Highlander and HR Jones Goods No. 103 allegedly at Insch on 16 June 1962 but according to letter writer at Huntly
Southern moguls. Jeremy Clarke.
which notes that contra to the captions the Southern three-cylinder moguls had narrower cylinders than the two-cylinder type and had sharply inclined valve chests to permit the Holcroft form of conjugated gear to be fitted. Also notes an obvious error in the captions to the illustrations accompanying the next article (page 484)
Railway refreshment rooms. Nick Daunt.
who confesses to having worked in the roll room in Birmingham New Street station between 1960 and 1962 where rolls were prepared. If work was slack they were diverted to wash cups which had been found along the permamemt way in the Birmingham area
Railway refreshment rooms. John Hilldred.
Points towards superior German and French food in comparable catering establishments..
Signs and notices. Mike Pellatt
States that first illustration was Bridge No. 134 (occupation bridge) with Plate No. 135 referring to a culvert (both at Cote Gill)
June editorial. Peter Butler.
Commends Freeman Wills Crofts (1879-1957) (Croft in original text) for the accurate descriptions of railway activity notably in Death of a Train and Sir John Magill's Last Journey. Crofts had worked on the railway as a civil engineer on the BNCR then NCC..

Book reviews. 574
Lost railways of Durham & Teesside. Robin Jones. Countryside Books. JFA *
"it is not as accurate as it could be"; "photographs are not particularly inspiring"
Peter's Railway to the rescue. Christopher Vine. Author. DWM ****
Well received by the reviewer's grandchildren
Nottinghamshire railways – the age of steam. Steve Huson. Countryside Books. CPA ***
"succinct and well written account of a once complex railway network"
Pioneers of the Highland tracks: William & Murdoch Paterson. Anne-Marie Paterson. Highland Railway Socirety. PT *****
Written by great grand-niece with benefit of family papers
Caley 828, the story of a Victorian locomotive. Caledonian Railway Association. DWM ****
"highly recommended"

Lymington brach terminus. Paul Strong. rear cover.
M7 No. 30480 at Lymington Pier station on 2 March 1963

No. 10 (Issue No. 246) October

LMS 8F 2-8-0 No.48420 hauls a down coal train southwards past the site of the long-closed Droitwich Road station, on the former Midland Railway Worcester avoiding route, on 3rd May 1963. Michael Mensing. front cover
See also colour photo-feature on page 608-

Southern Railway travel in 1928. Jeffrey Wells.
Guest Editorial based on a letter to the Railway Gazette of 30 August 1938 concerning a journey from London to Folkestone by train complaining about lack of information, the lateness of the train and the lack of comfort on the train especially noise and lack of view.

Visits to Norwich. Hugh Ballantyne (photographer). 580-1
Colour photo-feature of Norwich at a time when it still retained semaphore signalling, diesel locomotives, and through trains to Birmingham: No. 47 585 County of Cambridgeshire on 14.20 to Liverpool Street on 11 July 1985; No. 47 279 (with white roof) on 08.00 to Liverpool Street on 30 August 1980; No. 31 418 on 14.55 through train from Yarmouth to Birmingham on 31 July 1981; No. 31 255 at Wensum Junction with 10.52 Liverpool Street to Yarmouth which used the Norwich Avoiding Line on 30 August 1980; No. 37 092 with 09.40 Yarmouth to Manchester Piccadilly at Trowse Lower Junction (before Yarmouth was shrunk to Great by privateers) 

Cullen, David. No.2395 – Britain's mightiest locomotive. 582-5.
The Gresley Garratt U1 2-8-0+0-8-2 must have been an awesome machine and the author dares to compare it with the Union Pacific Railroad Big Boys. It was exhibited at the Stockton & Darlington Centenary and then worked the Worsborough Incline as a banking engine and was based at Wath which had a reputation for extremely inferior water and led to tube and firebox replacements. Following electrification (planned long before 1949) British Railways attempted to employ it on the Lickey Incline (Big Emma the Midland 0-10-0 was hardly "aged" in comparison with No. 69999 as 2395 had become), but one suspects that Bromsgrove footplate crews prefered using a plethora of anemic 0-6-0Ts. No. 69999 was fitted with oil firing and worked the wrong way round to assist with buffering up. It was cut up in 1956. Illustrations: No. 2395 at Faverdale Works on 11 July 1925 ( Stockton & Darlington Centenary); No. 9999 at Wentworth Junction on 18 April 1947 (H.C. Casserley); No. 69999 banking an express pssenger train on Lickey Incline in April 1949; No. 69999 with No. 58100 on Lickey Incline; No. 6999 as oil-buner on test at Newton (between Guide Bridge and Godley junction in February 1955; and No. 69999 on test in Longendale on 11 October 1953 (colour: Eric Oldham). See also letter on p. 764 from Nick Daunt concerning number plate and sources of further information, See also article by Philip Atkins in Volume 26 p. 292.

Binks, Michael B. London East during War and Peace. 586-94.
Southern Railway London East Division of the Chief Civil Engineer's Department was managed by Arthur Dean during WW2 when the Division suffered heavy bombing and repairs were implemented quickly. Prior to the War the Division had seen much work and some rationalisation due to the policy of thir rail electrification. Rapid bridge repairs were required for the Thames crossings, notably at Charing Cross following a raid on 18 June 1944, Cannon Street, and at Southwark Street where military trestling of the Meccano type enabled rapid restoration of services. The brick viaducts were very vunerable. Following WW2 a backlog of tasks needed to be cleared including the complete overhaul of Polhill Tunnel which is 1.4 miles long. This was closed other than for the passage of ten up trains between 29 February and 21 March 1948 to enable the work to be tackled. Measures to cure flooding at Clock House station caused by the Poole River involved constructing a culvert. Illustrations: temporary repairs to bomb-damaged Southwark Street Bridge in 1944; Cow Lane Bridge on 13 June 1944 after flying bomb attack; Charing Cross Bridge No. 7 on 18 June 1944 after flying bomb damage; St Johns flyover which collapsed from impact from trains in collision below; Deptford Creek Lift Bridge; lattice girder bridge above Brixtoon station, itself above Coldharbour Lane; Slade Green junction and level crossing (Dave Walsh notes that caption stating spur from North Kent line to the Barnehurst and Bexleyheath line was 'laid as part of the carriage lengthening project of 1953 is incorrect asr eference to an Alan Godfrey reprint of the 1907 OS map for the area shows this spur already in place);  bridge No. 224 with junction with limited space on it; C class 0-6-0 No. 31061 at Charing Cross station with works train during platform lengthening in 1953; Cannon Street station on 5 April 1957 following fire in signal box with remedial work in progress; inspection of ventilation shafts for Sevenoaks Tunnel;  relaying gang at work at night.See also letters on pp. 764-5 from Alan Blackburn on the number and names of the divisions (the latter tended to be known by the location of the office) and the reorganization of the structure in 1932; letter from Adrian Dover corrects text concerning St Johns disaster which implies that semaphore signalling was contrbutory factor (presumably the text concerning restorative civil engineering is correct); similary letter from Dave Pulham corrects details about Hither Green disaster caused by a broken rail which is mentioned in the original text. Peter Barker (V. 26 p. 61) notes that V2 rockets were not launched from Denmark, but from Peenemünde in Germany. Further comment on differences between V1 and V2 weapons from William Tollan in V. 26 p. 126.   

More Blackpool outings. Peter Fitton (photographer). 595-7.
Colour photo-feature: Jubilee No. 45695 Minotaur ex-Works leaving Blackpool Central with 19.17 return excursion to Leeds City on 22 July 1963; Britannia No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell on Blackpool North shed on 26 December 1967; Jubilee No. 45713 Swiftsure passing Bradkirk signal box with 13.50 Blackpool North to Manchester Victoria on 6 October 1962; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42153 running bunker-first with 15.10 Manchester Victoria to Blackpool Central  on 8 September 1962 (lots of dark smoke); 8F No. 48033 at Wrea Green with demolition freight from Marston New Line, including tank wagon from Marston gas works and sleepers from track on 3 May 1968 (photographed with collaboration of footplate crew); 70023 Venus leaving Blackpool Central with 13.58 to Balloch on 28 September 1964 and No. 46115 Scots Guardsman on Blackpool North mpd on 27 September 1965 (during latter part of period photographs taken photographer was involved in voluntary cleaning and presumably number and name chalking on)

Broadbent, William Benedict as told via Edward Talbot. The road to Holyhead. Part Two. 598-603.
Part 1 see page 454. Colonel Rudgard took an interest in the young engineer's introduction to the motive power department. Rudgard is described as a "ball of fire" and was noted for his fiery temperament. Following his time at Holbeck as an improver he was sent to Plaistow to assist David Scott, District Motive Power Superintendent. Here he encountered the "superb Stanier three-cylinder 2-6-4 tank engines" on which the "acceleration was electric". One anecdote concerned Ross Campbell, DPMS at Crewe: Broadbent had the unhappy task of interviewing a senior driver who had allowed his Duchess Pacific to slip so badly at Lichfield that the rails had to be replaced and conveying his assessment (of the driver) to Campbell. Broadbent considered that priming was the cause. After a brief time at Rugby he was sent to Barrow as one of the running shed foremen. Here he was able to rebuild his Morris Minor car and enjor climbing in the Lake District. From thence he was sent to Holyhead where he achieved a high cleanliness on the rebuilt Royal Scots based there for the long journey to London on the Irish Mail. He left British Railways at the end of 1950, but was closely involved with the Festiniog and Severn Valley Railways. Geoff Dentith had been his predecessor. He developed a life long friendship with Robert Carmichael Stuart Low, known as Mike or Michael, who was eleven years older. Low was No. 3 in the management structure of Crewe Works. No. 3 in the management structure in Crewe Works in the 1950s. He was a personal friend of Broadbent and with H.M.P. Beames' sons Geoffrey (Bobs) and Peter (who had served in the Royal Tank Corps until killed in North Africa). In 1926 the Beames brothers formed the Mountain Rangers Association. Illus.: 3-cylinder 2-6-4T No. 2511 entering Barking with a train for Southend probably pre-WW2, No. 42515 on Plaistow hed on 15 March 1958: Royal Scot No. 46146 The Rifle Brigade at Holyhead shed (Eric Treacy). .

Nisbet, Alistair F. Curiosities at Crystal Palace. 604-7.
A system known as the Gliding Railway was exhibited at the Crystal Palace between 12 July and 6 November 1889 and was the subject of a Royal Society of Arts paper by Douglas Galton who had established that skidding was an inefficient methods of halting steel wheels on steel rails. The system had been previously demonstrated at the Esplenade des Invalides in Paris and appears to have been invented by Girard (patents?) and improved by Barre and was known as Chemin de fer Glissant. It was subsequently exhibited in Edinburgh in 1890. The system was based on establishing a thin fim of water upon which the vehicle slid and was kept in place by a railway-like guidance system.  Propulsion was achieved by jets of water which acted on the underside of the vehicle. A considerable quantity of water was lost and the innovators were aware of the problem of freezing in winter and proposed to add glycerine. Major General Hutchinson was requested to report upon the system for the Board of Trade. Galton presented a paper to the Royal Society of Arts on the system which was finally exhibited at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893.

8F haulage. 608-11.
Colour photo-feature on Stanier 2-8-0: No. 48067 in York mpd yard in Juky 1965 (Derek Penney); No. 48689 on Willesden mpd on 14 September 1963 (with star on cab indicating balanced for use at higher speeds) (Geoff Rixon); No. 48400 on Bath Green Park mpd in June 1962  (Geoff Rixon); No. 48011 north of Lapworth station with freight train on 29 April 1964 (Michael Mensing); No. 48773 at Eastleigh Works when returned from War Department on 25 May 1957 (with distinctive feed water cover) (R.C. Riley); No. 48221 on Willesden mpd in April 1963 (Geoff Rixon); No. 48127 passing Leamington Spa General with northbound freight on 7 October 1961 (Michael Mensing) see letter on p. 764 from Michael Dunn who states that train was running southbound; No. 48146 on northbound coal train at Crossflats in July 1966 (Derek Penney); No. 48490 at Sharnbrook Summit with northbound freight loaded with spoil? on 18 September 1961 (Michael Mensing); No. 48406 at Bletchley with train of iron ore tipplers under electrification works at end of 1964 (Geoff Rixon). See also front cover.

Wells, Jeffrey. LMS goods depots in the 1930s. 612-17.
Main source was reports in the Railway Gazette published during the 1930s. The LMS under the influence of Sir Josiah Stamp and E.J.H. Lemon attempted to modernise freight handling by improving the layouts of many depots, by streamlining handling methods and by limited mechanization, notably by the use of electric capstans for moving wagons in depots, but there was still a place for horses. Specific projects included the introduction of electric lighting at Rochdale; an improved layout at Accrington to reduce the amount of barrowing; the segregation of inward and outward traffic at Blackburn; the replacement of decks by cart-ways at Burton-on-Trent; a new depot at Blackpool Talbot Road; cost savings due to electrification at Lancaster Castle and the Midland Freight Centre located at Derby St. Mary's. Illustrations: Derby St. Mary's. prior to modernisation; plan of Accrington goods shed; Walker mobile crane; Coventry improvement plan and conveyor at Lancaster Castle goods depot.

The LNER J38 and J39 0-6-0s. 618-19.
Colour photo-feature: J38 No. 65914 at Craigentinny sidings in 1959 (chimney of Portobello power station in background?); J39 No. 64813 at Eyemouth with branch passenger train in June 1956 with many vans in sidings of this (still) busy fishing harbour (J.G. Wallace); J38 No. 65930 with weed spraying? train at Dunfermline Lower in March 1964 (Malcolm Thompson); J38 No. 65934 with empty mineral wagons passing engine shed in Alloa (with J37 poking out) in April 1965 (Trevor Owen).

Evans, Edward A. South East Wales wanderings: a pot-pourri of things Welsh. 620-4.
Flooding at Mountain Ash caused by River Cynon. Method of working through Cardiff Road involved closing dampers and firebox door. Pumping of black slurry by NCB locomotives on their internal system. Abercynon duty JB auto-train powered by 64XX pannier tank took in Pontypridd, Cardiff Clarence Road and Penarth. Publicity for British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1958. Special train from Cirencester conveyed polo ponies in horse boxes. The signalman at Penrhiwfelin also served as porter at Ystrad Mynach. QUAKERS YARD WEST TUNNEL JUNCTION SIGNAL BOX: the cast iron plate was only slightly shorter than the width of the signal box (but never claim biggest: see letter from Micahel Dunn on p. 764). The tunnel known variously as West Tunnel, Cefn Glas, Dyffryn Isaf or Quakers Yard Tunnel was a hell hole as it was unventilated and on a 1 in 100 gradient and many freights needed a banker. Merthyr used to have a terminus with several platforms, this was shrunk in 1971 and still further in the late 1990s. Treharris saw a Royal Train on 25 July 1958, but the station closed on 13 June 1964.

By steamer and ferry. 625-7.
Black & white photo-feature: Caledonian Steam Packet Co. paddle steamer Caledonia with passengers being landed by boats (see letter from D.W. Mosley on possible location of Corrie, rather than Pirnmill, on Island of Arran) and confirmed by Russell Plummer on p. 764; Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway advertisement (during time of Aspinall as General Manager) for its extentive shipping operations based on Goole; launching of TSS Marchioness of Graham at the Fairfield yard in March 1936; dining saloon in TSS Maid of Kent Russell Plummer on p. 764 adds information on final years of this vessel when used on Weymouth to Cherbourg service; TSMV Norfolk Ferry showing Interfrigo refrigerated wagon being secured on deck in 1971; Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway advertisement (during time of Aspinall as General Manager) for its Zeebrugge to Hull sailings targeted towards German passengers; TSS Avalon at Harwich on 16 April 1965 Russell Plummer on p. 764 notes that through services from the Hook used to be provided to much of northern Europe; Lake Windermere steamer? Tern, and Royal Liver Building in Liverpool (BR publicity photograph).

Kettering Furnaces. Roy Hobbs (photographer) and John Scholes (captions). 628-9
Colour photo-feature: photographs taken on 3 October 1962 on 3ft gauge iron stone railway: Ketterring Furnaces No. 7 was a Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST (WN 1370/1897) seen in three photographs: side view; on train being loaded with iron stone by Ruston Bucyrus 33RB shovel; and crosssing fields with loaded train. Black Hawthorn Ketterring Furnaces No. 2 was an 0-4-0ST WN 501/1879 at unloading point with train of wooden-bodied tippers.

Coombs, L.F.E. Interface [carriage and wagon couplings]. 630-5.
The interface is considered in terms of traction, shock prevention (it is regretable that the author ignores draw-gear springs and shock resistant wagons) and gangways (mainly applicable to passenger vehicles. Rubber is not mentioned although it has had a long history in this application both in buffing and draw-gear. The earliest railways used chains and hooks to couple chaldron or other primitive wagons. The loose coupling persisted in Britain long after dumb buffers were mandated out of existence. It is stated that Henry Booth of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway invented the screw coupling which is still in use on Mainland Europe and to a limited extent in Britain. The Instanter coupling formed an improvement upon the loose coupling. Automatic couplings are dominated by the buckeye, Janney or knuckle type which was developed in North America and introduced on the Great Northern Railway for passenger stock in 1896. The Great Western Railway experimented with this type of coupling but reverted to the screw type. The Southern used it for its steam corridor stock and it became standard on British Railways. The Pullman gangway is closely associated with its use. Fold down couplings and buffers were fitted to interface with screw type couplings and with motive power (the Gresley corridor tenders with buckeye couplings are not mentioned). London Transport suffered from mildly incompatible Ward and Wedgelock couplers. The rather fiendish Norwegian or Colonial centre coupling with its savage hook is mentioned but not illustrated: it was common in countries like Malaysia and is used on the Festiniog and Isle of Man railways. The Tightlock and Scharfenberg couplings which enable the automatic coupling and uncoupling of multiple units are mentioned (but diagrams would have been useful). The special long bar coupling used to haul HST units is mentioned but not illustrated. Slip coaches are slipped in at the end. The question of adaptors to link Pullman-type gangways with earlier British Standard type is considered by John Macnab on p. 764.

On display [based on LNER publicity material in the David V. Beeken Collection]. 636
Colour photo-feature:  advertisements for exhibition of rolling stock at Hull Paragon Station on Sunday, 25 March 1928 (incorporates picture of D49 Shire class No. 234 Yorkshire) and for another at York on Sunday 14 October 1934 in aid of County Hospital Building Fund.

Readers' Forum. 637-8.
The road to Holyhead. Paul Russenberger.
Comment on "aloofness" of Stewart Cox: writer's parents came into contact with him (and his wife Marguerite) during their retirement: it seems that Cox was a profoundly shy and quiet man. Roland Bond consumed his cornflakes without milk.
The road to Holyhead. Jeremy Clarke
Corrects information given in article about the Great Cockrow Railway and its predecessor the Greywood Central Railway created by John Samuel, a housebuilder, at his home from 1946. The Great Cockrow Railway forms part of the Ian Allan estate and involved A.B. MacLeod ('Uncle Mac'), J.E.P. Howey (RHDR) as well as Roland Bond. John Samuel's monster freelance Pacific Eureka was built by Louis Shaw in 1927 and has a twin Lorna Doone which is currently in the miniature railway museum in Cleethorpes. Roland Bond favoured driving an R1 type 4-4-0.
The East Coast Main Line timetable. A.J. Mullay
Passenger loadings were covered by letter writer in Backtrack, 1992, 6, 32- and in Streamlined steam.
The East Coast Main Line timetable. Peter Clark
Cites series of articles in British Railways Illustrated published in 2011 by Brian Bailey one of which quotes a memo from Sir Ralph Wedgewood giving the costs of running the Coronation. Also notes that he found the fast Deltic-hauled expresses which stopped at Hitchin useful for business journeys to and from Edinburgh in the 1960s.
A Diesel named 'Diesel'. Stephen Spark.
Long letter on motive power acquistion by the Mauritius Government Railways, under their management by Pierre Cantin and the action of the Colonial Office and the Crown Agents which attempted to encourage the supply of British-built staem locomotives in spite of a lack of coal on the island. Having attempted to met the need with modified Austerity locomotives it was agreed to seek diesel electric locomotives, but only Brush and NBL responded and neither was able to promise rapid supply. Cantin had been in contact with Whitcomb in the USA: this caused great anguish in the Colonial Office and NBL supplied a couple of diesel hydraulic locomotives. By which time the decision had been taken to abandon the Mauritius Government Railways and the diesel hydraulics were able to assist a Sharp Stewart 0-6-0T of 1864 with demolition. Remarkably the NBL locomotives were acquired by New Jersey based dealer S. Kearney. R.C. Bond observed the NBL locomotives at work on trial in Scotland and this may have had some bearing on the use of hydraulic transmission on the Western Reagion. See also further letter from David Burton on page 764 which records the restraints on purchases of items and materials from outwith the Sterling Area..
The Midland Railway from 1900... James Hargrave. 638.
Points out that the Midland Railway ("the awkward squad in almost every respect") split its ordinary stock and had consolidated its fixed dividend/fixed interest securities at 2.5% rather then the 3-4% common to almost every other railway: i.e. the £205 million contained a low of water.Also page 340: Duke of Norfolk was "certainly not the Queen's uncle".
Reston to Duns. Bill Jamieson
In the final months of freight traffic was worked by D1765, D1970, D242, D1986 and D272. The 1-Co-Co-1 type was used in spite of D181 having been derailed earlier. From 1957 until 1962 the J39 class was the usual motive power with the exception of Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46462 being used on the annual inspection. BR class 2 Nos. 78012, 78024 and 78025 then provided motive power until displaced by Class 2 2-6-0s Nos. 77002 and 77004. Rare visitors included V2 class No. 60836, B1 No. 61116 and K3 class. An A2 or A1 Pacific also arrived in about 1961.
Marylebone Station. Richard Pratt.
Explanation of jigger as block and tackle rigged in a different way to normal and later a hydraulic lifting device set on, or in, a warehouse wall
Southern in the saddle. V.B. Orchard
Notes that 0-4-0ST Ironside ran to Eastleigh for scrapping; also observes that locomotives housed in paint ahop at Eastleigh were not intended for preservation in a "Southern Railway Museum"
The Wigtownshire Railway. William Tollan
Proposed additional junctions at Dunragit and Newton Stewart might have enabled Glasgow trains to reach Garlieston for the Isle of Man without reversing twice; also difficulties with Garlieston harbour being tidal and of limited depth. An experimental sailing by the paddle streamer Waverley from Garlieston to Ramsey could not cope with the rough seas of the Solway Firth..

In the Manchester shade [Manchester Central on 10 May 1966]. Alan Tyson. rear cover
Train shed viewed from "country end": close examination reveals two 2-6-4Ts.

No. 11 (Issue No. 247) November

BR 'Britannia' Pacific No.70022 Tornado looks out from the darkness of Cardiff Canton shed, where former GWR 4-6-0 No.5095 Barbary Castle is already sampling the air, in April 1960. I. Gammell. front cover

Built to last. Michael Blakemore. 643.
Editorial built around a new edition of Gordon Biddle's Britain's historic railway buildings: a gazetteer of structures and sites now published by Ian Allan rather than by Oxford University Press.

Rebuilding the Bulleid 4-6-2s. Colour photographs by S.C. Townroe and notes and captions by Philip Atkins. 644-6.
Colour photographs in Colour-Rail Collection were taken in Eastleigh Works in mid-1950s during the reconstruction of the Merchant Navy class Pacifics:  No. 35014 with new inside cylinder (cast at Crewe) and smokebox saddle; No. 35014 with fully clad boiler and new cylindrical smokebox; frames  from No. 34005 and new fabricated smokebox saddle on 8 June 1957 (behind partially visible 8F probably ex-WD No. 500 to be No. 48773); also on 8 June 1957 boiler with new cylindrical smokebox for No. 34005; on 12 June 1957 frames and smokebox saddle combined with reversing mechanism visible, and on 16 June partially clad and lined boiler in position. See also letter from Michael Yardley which criticises caption for implying that Bulleid Pacifics powered "last" steam express service in Britain.

Wells, Jeffrey. Grand openings and gross inconveniences. Part One.  647-53.
Article constructed around reportage and engravings from the Illustrated London News (ILN) for 1852. Begins with a general survey of the state of the railway system following the Great Exhibition and prior to the Crimean War in which the London & North Western Railway was according to Christian Wolmar  in Fire and steam was "the big bruiser of the railways". The Euston Square Confederacy had hoped to strangle the new Great Northern Railway of traffic. Wells then sketches the major events of 1852: the new Palace of Westminster, the death of the Duke of Wellington and the visit of Queen Victoria to Chester and North Wales (this last was covered by Wells in Rly Arch., 2010 (29), 55 et seq).. This is followed by a series of railway events in 1852 as portrayed in the ILN: the dates given herein are hopefully those of publication, rather than actual event dates. On 1 February 1852 the opening of the Hastings & Tunbridge Wells Railway was reported. On 4 September 1852 the ILN reported on the opening of the  West Cornwall Railway from Truro to Penzance and illustrating the celebrations at Penzance which took place on 25 August. The text is supported by citations from MacDermot's History of the Great Western Railway. The ILN of 8 January 1853 recorded that a storm at the endof 1852 had inflicted severe damage to the railway on its approach to Penzance. On 18 September the ILN reported on the opening of the Morayshire Railway between Elgin and Lossiemouth on 10 September: Wells cites Barclay-Harvey and Vallance for support. The ILN for 25 September 1852 reported on the extension of the South Wales Railway from Swansea to Carmarthen and in particular on the opening celebrations at Carmarthen on 17 September which were somewhat premature as the Board of Trade inspection delayed opening until 11 October. The ILN of 9 October reported on floods in Lewes on 4 October which affected the railway although the disturbance was attributed to the Great Eastern Railway! There was also an accident to a train due to flooding by the River Rother on the line between Tunbridge Wells and Hastings. On 16 October there were reports of floods in County Durham at Ferry Hill which were attributed to the Great Northern Railway. Concluded p. 754. See also letter from Michael Knott in next volume p. 61 (anecdote on Lossiemouth branch).

McNair, Miles. Locomotives that might have been. 654-5.
Reproduction of paintings by Robin Barnes of (1) Manningham shed in "1947" with crimson lake Stanier 4-4-0 (see Don Rowland Rly Wld, 1985, 46, 130) and compound rebuilt with conical boiler and (2) a Tuplin 4-8-0 derived from Claughton design. There is also a colour photograph of a model of the Stanier 4-4-0 painted black. The design of the "Stanier 4-4-0" is credited to "A.E. Owen" (more probably Owens: ex-Stoke draughtsman moved to Derby and who became deputy chief draughtsman thereat: note Cox's Chronicles of steam includes an outside-cylinder 2-4-2T schemed at about that period of WW2). The Tuplin 4-8-0 is one of his engineeering doodles not the rather more "substantial" Beames 4-8-0

Stewart-David, David. Great Western on the move. 656-9.
Boyhood lineside observations made in June 1956 near North Pole Junction where the West London Extension Railway connected with the Great Western main line. Site was reached by trolleybus with destination "near Willesden Junction". Author was struck by relative variety on the WLER which included a former Great Eastern J17 0-6-0 struggling up the bank, Fowler and Stanier 2-6-2T, a Super D former LNWR 0-8-0 and a Southern U class 2-6-0, with the "predictable nature" of Western Region motive power: King, Castsle and Hall 4-6-0s, 61XX on suburban workings and 97XX and 15XX on empty stock movements. The only "unusal" types seen were Princess Margaret, a fading Star, and No. 4900 Saint Martin which was not quite a standard Hall. He comments on the unproductive empty stock movements. Illustrated with Author's own black & white photographs: Castle No. 7001 Sir James Milne at Paddington in November 1957; 2-6-2T No. 6165 shunting at Southall in September 1960; No. 1005 County of Radnor at Old Oak Common mpd in August 1959; GWR diesel railcar No. W21W at Colnbrook in August 1958; and Eric Treacy photograph of No. 70027 Rising Star departing on down South Wales express and Castle No. 5063 Earl Baldwin (light engine) at Westbourne Bridge

Bennett, Alan. Beyond the fringe: Somerset's deep England identity. 660-3.
Publicity literature produced by the Great Western Railway to encourage travel to Smiling Somerset (front cover illustrated) of book written by Maxwell Fraser published in 1931. Another title was Somerset Ways (front cover illustrated in colour) was published in 1928. Cheddar, Wells and Glastonbury (a brochure) was published in 1936. The covers of Somerset, again by Maxwell Taylor are depicted in colour for the 1936 and 1938 editions. Western Hills & Moorlands (published 1937) depicted the Quantocks, but in a simpler two-colour fomat and Visit the West Country depicted Allerford and was published in the Coronation year of 1937 and was aimed at the American market.

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Berwickshire Railway. 664-70.
The railway from Reston to Duns (originally Dunse) was covered on page 472 et seq. One extraordinary feature of this article is that  the Leaderfoot Viaduct (remarkably still extant) is not illustrated (widely visible via Google or in Backtrack, 2009, 23, 356), nor is its construction considered. Nevertheless, the article does give details of those who promoted the railway, namely Sir Hugh Hume Campbell of Marchmont Hall and David Robertson MP, Lord Lietutenant of Berwickshire, both of whom donated land. An Act was obtained in July 1862.. The first turf was cut near Greenlaw which was then the county town on 16 October 1862. The line was opened to Earlston on 22 October 1863 following an inspection by Captain Tyler. Captain Rich inspected the Earlston to Ravenswood Junction section which opened on 2 October 1865: this section included the 130 ft high Leaderfoot Viaduct. A proposed Coldstream to Edinburgh railway would have run via Greenlaw, Gordon and Lauderdale. The North British Railway operated the line. Services tended to be operated in two halves with few through trains to Reston, or long waiting times at Duns. Illustrations: St Boswells station in 1900s?; Gordon station with daily pick-up goods in 1950s; Earlston station in 1900s?; Greenlaw station; A3 No. 60095 Coronach on 10.05 Edinburgh Waverley to London St Pancras on 15 June 1956; Earlston station; washout at Langton Burn following August 1948 floods; exteriors of St Boswells station; Branch Line Society railtour at Greenlaw hauled by No. 62471 Glen Falloch on 4 April 1959, and B1 No. 61324 at limit of railway in Greenlaw on 14 April 1963 when working Scottish Rambler No. 2 railtour..

Essex country blues. John D. Mann (photographer). 671.
Colour photo-feature: No. 37 022 at Woodham Ferrars with a train of hoppers carrying sand for Southminster on 9 May 1978; Class 105 DMU at Mistley on 19 May 1977; and Class 47/0 with train of Mk 1 coaches at Thorpe-le-Soken with Leicester to Clacton-on-Sea excursion on 11 April 1977.

Western Standards. 672-5.
Colour photo-feature: Standard Class 5 4-6-0 No. 73040 at Wrexham General; Britannia No. 70015 Apollo at Goodwick shed, Fishguard in June 1958 (I. Davidson); Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82040 at Cheddar in August 1962; 9F No. 92212 at Pangbourne on 3 September 1964 (David Idle); BR Class 5 No. 73025 at Craven Arms & Stokesay with train for Swansea Victoria in May 1962; 9F No. 92220 Evening Star on down Capitals United Express passing Ealing Broadway in June 1960 (A.C. Sterndale); Britannia No. 70029 Shooting Star on up Red Dragon in Sonning Cutting in April 1960 (P.J. Hughes); Class 4 2-6-0s Nos. 76038 and 76047 climb towards Talerddig with down Cambrian Coast Express on 20 August 1963 (Michael Mensing); ,Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75005 near Winchester with northbound train for Newbury in March 1960 (Trevor Owen);9F No. 92244 passing Cattybrook brickworks with freight from South Wales on 2 September 1963 (David Idle). Long letter from Martin Johnson (V. 26 p. 61) explaining reasons for unpopularity of Britannia class on Western Region..

Flann, John L. The Longridge Branch and the Whittingham Railway. 676-81.
The railway originated as a horse-worked line for conveying high qua;ity ashlar millstone grit from the Pennines to Preston. The project was initiated by Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood. Royal Assent was received in July 1836 and the line opened in May 1840 from a terminus at Deepdale in Preston. The line suffered from not being connected to either other railways, nor to the Docks. Passengers were conveyed. The Fleetwood, Preston & West Riding Junction Railway was formed to assist in the devlopment of Fleetwood and to connect into the Preston & Longridge Railway. This brought steam traction to the line in the form of two Sharp Stewart 0-4-2 locomotives: Gardner of 1856 and Addison of 1860. A new station was added at Maudland Bridge, but extension to Clitheroe was thwarted. The LNWR & LYR assumed joint ownership in 1867 and the original locomotives were withdrawn in 1874. The line was worked by Ramsbottom DX 0-6-0s and later by Cauliflower 0-6-0s and Webb 2-4-2Ts. Push & pull operation was tried for the passenger services, but was not successful. The Yorkshire Dales Railway sought to link Hellifield with Longridge, but was unsuccessful. Passenger services were withdrawn on 2 June 1930, but freight was conveyed until November 1967. The Whittingham Hospital Light Railway linked to the branch at Grimsargh: it opened in 1889 and served a large mental hospital. Motive power was provided by an Andrew Barclay 0-4-0ST of 1889 and by an Andrew Barclay 0-4-2T of 1904. A Stroudley D1 0-4-2T replaced these and this in turn was displaced by a Sentinal from Bolton Gas Works named Gradwell. For many years the passengers were conveyed from the asylum to the Ribble bus stop. Wikipedia has full details of the locomotives and the mental hospital. Book cited: Norman Parker's Preston and Longridge Railway. (1972) and should have been: R.B. Cornwell's The history of the Whittingham Hospital Railway, 1884-1957 (2009). See also letter from Emma Hewitt (next volume p. 126) on Longridge Station Heritage Visitor Centre..

Eric Bruton on the Midland. 682-4.
Black & white photo-feature: Jubilee No. 45739 Ulster at Radlett on 09.12 Bradford Forster Square to St Pancras on 23 February 1952; Jubilee No. 5699 Galatea on 10.00 St.Pancras to Glasgow near Radlett on 15 February 1948; Class 5 No. 44846 on 10.30 Wellingborough to St. Pancras on Sunday 18 January 1953; Jubilee No. 45594 Bhopal with 07.04 ex-Sheffield at Harlington Tip Sidings near Sundon on 19 April 1952; 3F 0-6-0 No. 3265 shunting at St Albans on 24 May 1947 (note LNER/LMS joint ownership of goods shed seen behind); Jubilee No. 5610 Gold Coast on 12.05 ex-Derby to St. Pancras at Radlett on 26 June 1948; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44847 approaching Buxton with Sunday 09.35 stopping train from Nottingham Midland on 26 April 1953; 4P compound No. 41048 at Sundon with 11.00 all stations ex-Bedford on 19 April 1952; Beyer-Garratt 2-6-6-2 with fixed coal bunker leading near Castle Bromwich on 10 May 1950.

The LMS Ivatt tanks. David Idle. 685-7.
Colour photo-feature: No. 41319 at Nine Elms on 11 May 1967; No. 41320 at Blandford Forum on railtour on 25 March 1967; No. 40301 at Bramley & Wonersh on 13.34 ex-Gulidford on 10 October 1963; No. 41287 at Baynards on 15.00 ex-Horsham on 10 October 1963; No. 41207 at Shrewsbury with 13.45 to Kidderminster via Severn Valley line on 26 August 1963; Nos. 41307 and 41249 at Highbridge (Somerset & Dorset) on 26 August 1963.

Tatlow, Peter. Recollections of a railway civil engineer. Part Four. A graduate engineer steps forth. 688-93.
Started this part of his career  in the Bridge Office at Deepdene House, Dorking, working for Willie (W.C.) Wontner who had worked on the East African Railways. His first task was to scheme a replacemeent girder bridge for a portion of the 1838 London & Greenwich Railway viaduct at Church Road Deptford where a dual carriage-way road was required. Another project was associated with the South London line where it crossed the Old Kent Road and the superstructure and cast iron columns were in urgent need of replacement and the new bridge had to accommodate the installation of dual carriageway on the road. In this case it wsas possible to exploit the standard steel bridge designs which had been developed for the London Midland Region electrification programme. The preparation and replication of engineering drawings is briefly considered: the dye-line process was still being used in 1959. Tatlow moved on to become Engineering Assistant (Bridges) at Woking where he was resident engineer for several projects. Operations included strengthening Barnes railway bridge on the Hounslow Loop and the maintenance of the pontoon beside Portsmouth Harbour station which served the Gosport ferries. The author had a near miss in being involved in the Thirsk accident which involved the destruction of DP2 when seven were killed as he had travelled on the preceding train. The debacle involving the partial collapse of the Clapham Junction signal box on 10 May 1965 is illustrated but had been described in an earlier Backtrack article. Illustrations: London & Greenwich Railway viaduct at Church Road Deptford jn May 1963; SDJR 2-8-0 No. 53810 at Bath Green Park shed on 11 April 1963 (used for model of locomotive see Wright, B. Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway 2-8-0s. Model Rlys., 1972, 1, 564); barges and piling rig working on dolphin pile to locate pontoons used by Portsmouth to Gosport ferries in 1964; partial collapse of Clapham Junction signal box on 10 May 1965 (see 1997, 11, 649); advanced corrosion in wrough iron girders led to a major replacement operation with steel girders at Vauxhall  using two carnes on 13 June 1965 ,(see 1999, 13, 208); rebuilt West Country Pacific No. 34017 Ilfracombe taking water at Southamptonon 14 July 1966; two diesel-powered Cowans Sheldon breakdown cranes working on bridge renewal at Raynes Park on 15 October 1967; heavy timber shoring supportin retaining wall at Mitcham on 21 May 1968.

Turner, David. To Hampton Court. 694-7.
Cornelius Stovin, Traffic Manager of the London & Southampton Railway was very aware of the tourist potential of Hampton Court Palace and a branch line opened on 1 February 1849. Brassey was the contractor and a locomotive called Black Diamond was used for test running. The line was electrified in 1916. Includes notes on early operating practices including the use of horses as motive power. Tailing-in was practiced on incoming trains whereby the points were switched between the locomotive and the train once the train had achieved sufficient momentum to enter the treminus without the locomotive. Gross over-crowding was common on race days and passengers were expected to enter trains by unconventional means. Illustrations: Hampton Court station c1930; Thames Ditton station in 1938; Hampton Court stations with electric multiple units in 1938; viaduct forming part of flying junction with rebuilt Bulleid Pacific No. 34060 25 Squadron passing on down Bournemouth Belle (colour). Letter from John Gilks (V. 26 p. 61) states that there was a catch point on the embankment near flying junction and subsequent housing development took place below the catch point; also a V2 went through viaduct and into embankment.

Wells, Jeffrey. Newton Heath revisited. 698-700.
Essentially a black & white photo-feature, but with some notes on the history of the lines which had junctions at this location (including tle Loop Line which by-passed Miles Platting, and the junction for Oldham), and of the works for locomotives and carriage & wagons as well as the very large locomotive sheds serving 150 locomotives: see also previous feature in Volume 15 (2001) p. 152. Illustrations: panormamic view looking towards Manchester on 20 July 1963 (T.A. Fletcher); timber footbridge on 14 May 1956 (British Railways official); Jubilee No. 45698 Mars on Liverpool Exchange to Newcastle train passing Newton Heath in 1950s (Arthur Bendell); view of shed with Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 44696 and 45193, rebuilt Scot No. 46140 The King's Royal Rifle Corps and Jubilee No. 45710 Irresistible on 17 September 1961 (W.J. Sutherland); 8F 2-8-0 No. 48455 hauling empty stock on 12 April 1957 (R.M. Casserley); B1 No. 61309 on eastbound express (Arthur Bendell) and Class 5 No. 44728 on express to Bradford Exchange. See letters in V. 26 page 61 from S.R. Price  (Caption p. 700 states Liverpool-Newcastle services were frequent on the Calder Valley route and were occasionally drawn by B1s is not correct: there were four regular daily Liverpool-Newcastle services and only one used the L&YR Calder Valley route, the 10.30 from Liverpool Exchange drawn by a Bank Hall Jubilee or occasionally a Patriot or Class 5. The other three services were from Lime Street and called at Manchester Exchange, took the LNWR route via Huddersfield and thus did not pass Newton Heath. B1s did feature on the Calder Valley route, e.g. on the 17.10 Manchester Victoria-York, but not on the Liverpool-Newcastle train The train pictured on p699 is almost certainly the 10.30am, which did call at Manchester Victoria as caption states but then would have reached Newton Heath via the Cheetham Hill loop and would not have ascended Miles Platting Bank and from John Henderson: caption on p. 699 to  No.45698 Mars at Newton Heath: writer used this service when travelling to Castleford, but train always travelled out of Manchester Victoria via the loop line from East Junction to Thorpes Bridge as a result the train would not have been banked up the 1 in 47 Miles Platting bank as stated . The gradients were easier on the loop line and he never saw any of these services being banked. It also calls into question whether the photograph does show a Newcastle train as these did travel up the bank but via the Standedge route branching off at Miles Platting and not via the Calder Valley. They also started from Manchester Exchange at that time. Incidentally, the loop line will shortly be reopened as part of the Metrolink line to Oldham and Rochdale which branches off the Bury line at Irk Valley Viaduct.  

Readers' Forum. 701
A diesel named 'Diesel'. A.J. Mullay
Response to letters from P.J. McCarthy p. 510 although notes that unlike the legislation for nationalising the coal mines, that for railways failed to incorporate working conditions possibly because of the non-involvement of Ernest Bevin; to Doug Landau on the mileage figures relating to the Stanier Duchess Pacifics and Gresley A4 clas and from R. Farmer on the inventor of the "Diesel engine": comprression ignition engine was invented by Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (corrected KPJ) and Charles Richard Binney
By steamer and ferry. D.W. Mosley
Considers location to be Corrie on Island of Arran, rather than Pirnmill, as Pirnmill tended to be served by turbine steamers on Cambeltown sailings, and south end of Bute may be visible in photograph of Caledonia.
Marriott reinforced concrete station nameboards. Alan Whitaker.
Includes photograph taken by H.C. Casserley of nameboard at Clayton on Bradford to Queensbury line and story of the rescue of the Thornton nameboard in 1971 and that at Horton Park.
Pulling up Beattock and Class 116 DMUs. Leonard Rogers.
See colour photographic features begiining on page 548 where caption inferred that V2 shown in last photograph (p. 551) was an "unusal working": at time photograph taken V2 and B1 class locomotives were usual on the particular freight working routed via Beattock rathr than than via the Waverley route and comment on Michael Mensing photographs from page 564 which displayed not only varieties of green, but also the hues of blue used in the transition to Rail blue and the forms of warning panels

Book Reviews. 702.
Southern Electric, a new history, Volume Two, Main line electrification, the war years, and British Railways. David Brown. Capital Transport Publishing,  247pp, RH *****
This book is the second part of David Brown's grand chronicle, completing the scene set in Vol 1 (see BT 2010, 24, 702). The structure is similar; about one third of the text records what was done and how, with careful attention to the technological infrastructure and financing of the SR's ambitious project for large-scale electrification – most of the funding was greatly aided by Government assistance; 'twas ever thus. The remainder of the book is the long and complex record of rolling stock acquisition and deployment, a rather dense treatment but certainly a scholarly and exhaustive one. The SR schemes were mainly a resounding success and daily proof of this is all around southern England to this day. But it was not an unalloyed triumph, as this book makes clear. The choice of low voltage direct current has saddled England with a world oddity, a massive long-distance third rail network, with numerous sub-stations and winter problems. Interestingly, there was a plan for a 1.5k V de side-contact system for the Bournemouth electrification, but it was not to be. Also, the SR never cracked the problem of rough riding by its EMUs. At the risk of offending the Bulleid tendency, one has to accept that his sureness of touch was missing in the direly spartan HAL stock and the rather awful art deco buffet car. Nor was the double deck experiment properly thought through. Still, together with the electrical chief Raworth he did produce the ingenious 'booster' electric locomotives, if not many of them.
The text brings us into the last era of the 'Southern School' stock: the austere EPBs, the useful Class 7ls and electro-diesels. It is rounded off with the succeeding 'BR School' with its curious PEP experiments and the unpopular Class 455, "the nadir of BR EMU design and construction". The story ends in 1983, although in our own times some really comfortable stock has graced the SR electric lines, at last giving passengers a ride worthy of Sir Herbert Walker's big visions.
As with the SR, so with this well-presented book. Its maps are excellent and a useful bibliography has been added, but there is still no index. The good organisation of the text mitigates this problem, but Moody indexed his works on the same subject, so this omission is unwelcome in what is otherwise an outstanding work of reference. Also, the very fine illustrations are heavily weighted towards the coverage of rolling stock. What of the infrastructure? The interiors of the three generations of sub-stations, the cabling, pointwork, signalling? These were key players in the game, well covered in the narrative, but marginalised as illustrations. By the strict BT canons of judgement a non-indexed book (tut! tut! KPJ) of this kind is problematic as a winner of the coveted five-star award, but so extensive is the learning, so complete the saga of a great railway enterprise that equity must waive the requirement. This work will become a standard for years to come; one hopes that further editions will put the necessary icing on this substantial cake.

Farewell the Derry Road: a history of the railway line from 1847 to 1965 with photographic memories from the past. Eric T. Challoner. Colourpoint.160pp. **** DWM
The Derry Road is one of the great 'lost causes' of recent railway history, ranking alongside routes like the Waverley and the Somerset & Dorset on the mainland. In reality the Derry Road was the Great Northern Railway (Ireland's) 75 mile-long cross-country route from Portadown, through the towns of Dungannon, Omagh and Strabane to the city of Londonderry. The line served rural County Tyrone, facilitated 'cross-border' links and provided connections to the narrow gauge County Donegal system. It was a classic example of the railway integrated into, and serving, its community. The author has no doubt that the closure of the line, in February 1965, was "against the wishes of the passengers and local population and was a political decision by a government that was pursuing a road-based public transport policy". The duplicity of politicians in regard to safeguarding the railways of orthern Ireland is a subject which the author returns to with regularity and considerable warmth. The claim that had "the line lasted just another year it would still be open and would be thriving" is an interesting one. The author has produced a pleasing history of the Derry Road - with one or two excellent twists. In addition to a chronological text the book is well-illustrated and features a remarkable selection of colour pictures of the line in its latter years.

Through Scotland with the Caledonian Railway. A.J. Mullay. Stenlake, 184pp. NF ***
The eighteen chapters give a brief history of the Caledonian Railway through its independent existence and the multitude of photographs are grouped in approximate relevance to the chapters. The first chapter, 'Building the Main Line', for example, has 33 photographs illustrating the stations on the line between Carlisle and Glasgow. However, that showing Kirkpatrick station shows a train headed by what is probably a 'Royal Scot' and dates from the LMS era. Lacking a more detailed caption, the casual reader might think that the Caledonian had 4-6-0s fitted with smoke deflectors! The text gives an eclectic view of the Caledonian with chapters on such peripheral topics as the Solway Viaduct and lines built in connection with the construction of various reservoirs. It also contains the occasional urban myth (4-2-2 No. l23 was not designed by Dugald Drummond but was built as a speculative venture by Neilson's and acquired Drummond fittings when the Caledonian decided to purchase it) and dubious generalisations, such as that it was rare for a stretch of line (referring to part of the Solway Junction Railway) to fail a Board of Trade inspection before 1879 – such failures are not particularly uncommon.
The strength of this book is in the wealth of photographs it contains. The majority are old postcards from previous Stenlake volumes and have not been best served by enlargement, but a considerable number are new to this reviewer. Longer captions would have been an improvement, as would the sources of some of them. There are a number of inaccuracies in even the brief captions: eg the Isla Valley in the lower photograph on p30 is not in Strathmore, but actually shows Keith engine shed on the Great North of Scotland Railway!
Overall, this book appears unsure of its audience: it is not a history of the line, nor a photograph album, and seems to be a larger, hardback version of Stenlake's local postcard albums. In this reviewer's opinion it is, unfortunately, over-priced for what it is
.

On the Pullman from Glasgow. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
B1 No. 61342 on Queen of Scots Pullman about to begin its circuitous southbound journey from Queen Street to King's Cross in June 1957.

No. 12 (Issue No. 247) December

GWR 'King' 4-6-0 No.6023 King Edward II heads away from Paddington.  R.C. Riley. front cover
Passing Subway Junction with the 13.55 South Wales express on 10 September 1960: see also colour photo-feature on page 736.

Across the Forth Bridge. Gavin Morrison. 708-10
Colour photo-feature: HST on 12.00 King's Cross to Aberdeen at north end on 22 April 1981;  view from north end of EWS Class 66 hauling empty merry-go-round wagons heading south and northbound Scotrail Class 158 heading towards North Queensferry station on 7 September 2007; Class 101 Metro-Cammell DMU entering Dalmeny on 24 May 1975; floodlit bridge on 24 August 1991 (statistics indicate that towers are higher than highest natural point in Norfolk); EWS Class 66 hauling empty merry-go-round wagons heading south viewed from north cantilever on 11 July 2003; and preserved A$ No. 60009 Union of South Africa at north end on 1 September 1979 In 1926 Christian Barman wrote in The bridge on page 184: "The Forth Bridge is a justifiable example of a truly spacious work in a spacious setting". Sadly it has had to suffer the imposition of an adjacent inferior quality road bridge and is threatened by further intrusiuon..

Stirling, David. The honest men and bonnie lasses: the railways of Ayr. 711-17.
In the 1830s Ayr had a population of about 7500 and its harbour served as a packet port for Liverpool, Glasgow and Dublin. There were daily road coaches to Edinburgh, but communication with Glasgow was maintained by Clyde steamers. The Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock & Ayr Railway was one of the earlist in Scotland and was engineered by John Miller. The line between Glasgow and Paisley was jointly owned with the Glasgow, Paisley & Greenock Railway. This stretch opened in 1837 and was the first joint railway in Britain. Ayr to Irvine opened on 5 August 1839 and the through route to Glasgow opened on 12 August 1840. There was a level crossing with Taylor Gordon's Railway just to the north of the Ayr terminus: this horse-worked line linked Ayr Harbour with collieries near Sanquhar. The line opened in the late 18th century and closed in the late 1880s. Extensions southward were envisaged by the Glasgow & Belfast Union Railway which hoped to reach Portpatrick and by the Ayrshire & Galloway Railway to Castle Douglas which became the Ayr & Dalmellington Railway in 1853. On the last-named the Maybole Junction or Dalrymple Junction provided the starting for the line to Maybole opened on 13 October 1856, later extended via the Maybole & Girvan Railway opened on 24 May 1860. A new Ayr station at Townhead opened in 1856: later the northern part of the twon was served by Newton on Ayr which opened on 1 November 1886. The Ayr to Mauchline line opened on 1 September 1870. At Muirkirk there was an end-on connection with the Caledonian Railway and each company was granted reciprocal running powers: the CR to Ayr and the GSWR to Edinburgh, Leith and Granton. See also letter from David Kelso in V. 26 p. 126: which points to errors in the location of Castle Douglas and the size of Loch Ken depicted on the map on p. 712.

Skelsey, Geoffrey. By tram up the Mountain – Llandudno's Edwardian funicular. 718-22.
Cable worked tramway which climbs initially at 1 in 4 via an intermediate station where passengers have to change and the winding mechanisms are located to the summit of Great Orme Head. An Act was obtained for the system on 23 May 1898. The lower part which is in effect a cable worked street tramway opened om 31 Juy 1902, and the upper on 8 July 1903. The steam ewinding engine was replaced by electric haulage motors in 1958. A serious accident occurred on 23 August 1992 and an improved form of braking was installed. There are traffic lights on the road above the Victoria (lower) tram station which give the trams priority. The trams were constructed by Hurst Nelson of Motherwell. Communication used to be via an overhead line and what appeared to be an electric tramway trolley. All sections are illustrated in colour (photographs by Author taken on 20 July 1998 and by T.J. Edgington in April 1989). The system was taken over by Llandudno Council and is now run by Conwy Borough Council. KPJ travelled on the line in the 1950s when steam was the source of power and the Llandudno & Colwyn Bay Electric Railway was still operating: he had arrived by steamer from Liverpool

Goods, livestock and perishables. 723-5
Black & white photo-feature:: LMS lorry delivering motor oil to motor service depot in Northampton during 1935; Leyburn station on 19 March 1946 showing removal of the Armstrong stables from Middleham to Newmarket — racehorse being loadeed into railway horse box and LNER road horse box in background; remarkable mess on LMS Bletchley station platform with barrows stacked badly with parcels, loose straw, baskets piled too high and ladders stacked against wall; goods yard at Waltham Cross & Abbey on Great Eastern Railway on 31 August 1911 showing coal and coke traffic (presumably for local greenhouse industry) and goods shed; Kyle of Lochalsh station in LMS period with Clan goods 4-6-0 shunting freight (MacBrayne steamer at quayside, barrels of herring? on loading bay); electric trolley hauling several hand trolleys on Scarborough passenger station in 1948 (trolleys carrying parcels with some squashed, basket, a bicycle and milk chruns); cartons of Cerebos salt being transferred from trolley into railway van at Greatham between Stockton and Hartlepool in July 1950; Stewarts Lane goods depot, South Eastern & Chatham Railway after South London line had been electrified with many horse drawn vehicles and one steam lorry: freight in sacks and barrels and crates and unpleasant looking and smelling? loose substances. 

Nisbet, Alistair F. The One Puff Railway. [Mellis & Eye Railway]. 726-31.
Act obtained 25 June 1865. First chairman was Sir Edward Kerrison; contractor was S.C. Ridley. Captain Tyler inspected line on 8 February 1867 and line opened on 1 April 1867, but closed regular to passenger traffic on 2 February 1931. The better off resisdents of Eye tended to travel from Diss as it was served by faster trains, whereas Mellis was only served by slow stopping trains. Special trains continued to run and included the movement of troops during WW2 when freight for the bomber airfields was heavy. Sugar beeet had been introduced into the area in the late 1920s and this produced traffic for Cantley and Bury St. Edmunds. Freight closure came on 10 July 1964 an Mellis closed to passenger traffic on 7 November 1966. Letter from Andrew Kleissner (V. 26 p. 126) highly critical of the way in which Nisbet refers to William F. Bruff.

Cook, Ted with Anthony P. Vent. The youngest signalman. 732-5.
Became signalman at Amberley in September 1967 when aged seventeen. A sub-Post Office for Houghton Bridge was also situated there and signalbox, booking office and Post Office shared the same premises..

Every inch a 'King'. 736-9.
Colour photo-feature: No. 6008 King James II ex-Swindon Works in July 1957 (W. Oliver); No. 6003 King George IV at Cardiff General waiting to take over up The Red Dragon from Hall in September 1960 (A.A. Jarvis); No. 6023 King Edward II in Ranelagh yard having brought up Capitals United Express on 10 September 1960 and would return to Cardiff with 13.55 (front cover) (R.C. Riley); No. 6009 King Charles II at Old Oak Common on 27 October 1957 (R.C. Riley); No. 6023 King Edward II under repair in Swindon Works in March 1952, with single chimney and in blue livery which looked magnificent on this class (Trevor Owen); No. 6027 King Richard I (with single chimney) passing Savernake with up Mayflower in September 1956; No. 6002 King William IV about to leave Swindon for Paddington in June 1962 (M. Smith); Nos. 6013 King Henry VIII and 6028 King George VI leave Dainton Tunnel with 10.35 Paddington to Penzance on 22 June 1957; No. 6029 King Edward VIII at Old Oak Common on 16 August 1959 (R.C. Riley, both latter)

Bennett, J.D. Commemorating the pioneers of the Railway Age. 740-1
Text mentions memorials to William Huskisson accidentally killed during opening of Liverpool & Manchester Railway on 15 September 1830, including three John Gibson statues of him one in marble inside the Huskisson Monument — a domed rotunda designed by John Foster in St. James's Cemetery in Liverpool; another marble statue (dressed in toga) used to be in the Royal Exchange in London, but is now in Pimlico Gardens; and a bronze which used to be in the Liverpool Customs House is now in Princes Road Toxteth. The marble statue of George Stephenson which stood at the foot of the staircase in the Great Hall in the old Euston dated from 1852 and was by E.H. Baily was removed when Euston was demolished in 1962 and eventually transferred to the National Railway Museum in York. There are at least two other statues of George Stephenson: one, in bronze is by J.G. Lough is in Neville Street, Newcastle upon Tyne and was erected in 1862; another is inside St. George's Hall, Liverpool, is by John Gibson dating from 1851. Robert Stephenson is commemorated by a bronze statue of 1871 by Baron Marochetti at Euston. It originally stood in Euston Square but was moved to its present position in the forecourt of the new Euston station in 1968. The marble statue of Joseph Locke in Locke Park, Bamsley, was originally intended for a site in Westminster, but was erected in its present location in 1866. It was presented by the Institution of Civil Engineers and is by Baron Marochetti. Sir James Ramsden is commemorated by a bronze sculpted by Matthew Noble, erected in 1872 in Ramsden Square in Barrow-in-Furness. Joseph Pease a Quaker, is commemorated by a bronze statue by G.A. Lawson in High Street, Darlington, unveiled in 1875.
A bronze figure by Baron Marochetti of Isambard Kingdom Brunel was erected at the corner of Temple Place and Victoria Embankment in 1877 — the pedestal and surround were by architect Norman Shaw.  Other memorials include one commemorating the centenary of Paddington station (a plaque incorporating a bronze bas-relief portrait of him by E.R. Bevan was unveiled on Platform 1 in 1954). John Doubleday's bronze statue of Brunel, showing him seated and holding his hat, has also been relocated there (originally unveiled in May 1982). On the same day, another statue of Brunel by John Doubleday was unveiled on Broad Quay, Bristol: both statues were presented by the Bristol & West Building Society.
In Station Avenue, York, there is a marble statue of George Leeman (1809-1882), deputy chairman, then chairman, of the North Eastern Railway: it is by G.W. Milburn dating from 1885. A statue of Sir William Armstrong, stands outside the Hancock Museum at Barras Bridge, Newcastle upon Tyne. The bronze is by Sir W.H. Thornycroft and was unveiled in 1906. Richard Trevithick had to wait until 1932 to be commemorated by a bronze statue at his Cornish birthplace near Camborne. In front of the public library, it shows him holding a model of his steam locomotive and was unveiled in 1932. It is by L.S. Merrifield, who also made a bronze relief portrait of him for University College, London in 1933. Sir Samuel Morton Peto, a major nineteenth century railway contractor, including the Yarmouth & Norwich Railway, opened in 1844 was commemorated in 1989, the centenary of his death, by a John Pooler bronze bust inside Norwich Thorpe station. Two railway statues by James Butler, both of bronze, were unveiled in 1994: James Henry Greathead engineer of the City & South London Railway, is on a large oval plinth outside the Royal Exchange in Comhill: the world's first electric tube railway was built using the Greathead shield. The other Butler bronze is outside London Road station, Leicester, commemorates travel entrepreneur.
See also letter from Andrew Kleissner in V. 26 p. 126: statue of George Stephenson on exterior of Keleti (East) station in Budapest.  

West Riding. 742-3
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 No. 44711 approaching Wakefield Kirkgate with an up freight on 1 November 1965; Class 5 No. 45025 passing Calverley & Rodley on combined 08.05 from Carnforth and Lancaster Geen Ayre om 30 October 1965 (David Idle both); 8F No. 48333 on up empty minerals passing Crossflats in October 1967 (Derek Penney); Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75051 running tender first on Horton-in-Ribblesdale to Skipton freight passing closed Hellifield engine shed in April 1966 (Brian Magilton); and WD 2-8-0 No. 90678 with brake van passing Wakefield Kirkgate on 1 November 1965 (David Idle).

Clarke, Jeremy. The National Railway Strike of 1911. 744-8.
The strike which led to the disgusting behaviour of the British army shooting more or less at random in Llanelly (see also Adrian Gray p. 499) under the possibly illegal direction of Winston Churchill when he was Home Secretary. Begins by considering some other strikes: the first was probably in 1848 when the locomotive superintendent of the LNWR, James McConnell was faced with the en bloc resignation of his footplate staff on 31 July 1948, attempted to employ whoever was available, but was forced to reinstate the skilled labour. The author notes the bravery of the workers as it was only fourteen years since the transportation of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. The Railway News of 13 August 1887 reaction to a Midland Railway strike of footplate staff is cited to show how fierce the establishment could be in ts condemnation of industrial unrest. D.E. Marsh's poor labour relations at Brighton are notes and cites Marx's biography of Marsh to note how he antagonised the boilermakers at Brighton Works and treated F.W. Stroudley unjustly. The significance of the 1911 strike was that involved cooperation between the railway unions and led to the railway companies being forced to negotiate with the trade unions. The Transport Workers Federation consisted of the Associated Society of Railway Servants, the Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen (ASLEF), the General Railway Workers Union and the United Pointsmen's and Signalmen's Society. Sidney Buxton, President of the Board of Trade, played a key role in conciliation and a rapid conclusion to the strike. A significant role was played by the coal miners and dock workers who cooperated withe railwaymen.

'Deltic' 50. 749-51
Colour photo-feature: D9016 (before receiving name) with up Heart of Midlothian north of Reston on 24 May 1962; No. D9007 Pinza on down Heart of Midlothian north of Marshall Meadows, Berwick on 23 May 1962 (Michael Mensing both); D9013 (before receiving name) at Newcastle Central on down Flying Scotsman on 2 June 1962, with EMU behind (Michael Mensing); D9000 Royal Scots Grey on up Queen of Scots Pullman in King's Cross on 13 June 1964 (David Idle); No. 55 007 Pinza leaving Newcastle Central with down Flying Scotsman on 14 September 1976 viewed from castle keep; No. 55 020 Nimbus leaving Edinburgh Waverley with 12.10 to London on 23 July 1974 (Hugh Ballantyne: both latter, and unlike remainder painted rail blue)

Brettle, Roger. Horse-drawn passenger trains on the Midland Railway. 752-3.
Article first published in Midland Railway Society Journal No. 13. A painting by A.S. Buxton in the Mansfield Museum & Art Gallery shows a Mansfield & Pinxton Railway horse-drawn train. The S.W. Johnson IMechE Presidential Address includes an illustration of a horse-drawn passenger vehicle. Other lines known to have been worked by horses include the Southwell branch from 1 November 1848 to 31 July 1849. An accident on the Ilkeston branch showed that horse traction was being used as William Yolland reported upon a minor accident in which the points were incorrectly set and the coach entered a siding hitting a coal truck whilst the horse walked on. The service from Clapham Junction to Ingleton was worked by horse in one direction and by gravity in the other between 1850 and 1861. Another accident, reported on by Douglas Galton, occurred on 14 December 1850. This involved a collision between a steam train and a horse-worked tram between Ashchurch and Tewksbury. This led to the deaths of passengers and the horse.

Wells, Jeffrey. Grand openings and gross inconveniences. Part Two. 754-8.
Part 1 began on p.  647. Birrmingham & Oxford Junction Railway was absortbed by the Great Western Railway on 13 August 1848. Initially there was a pressure from the LNWR to make standard gauge on a line which the GWR envisaged as being broad gauge and this led to the Duddeston Viaduct in Birmingham remaining incomplete as this led to a junction with the LNWR. The author cites MacDermot's History of the Great Western Railway. The shambles which occurred immediately prior to the opening of the section north of Banbury when a train from London hauled by the Lord of the Isles collided with some trucks at Aynho but without much damage, but with considerable delay was not mentioned by the Illustrated London News of 16 October 1852 when it was more interested in the engineering works, the feast and a speech by Peto. Other than the opening of King's Cross station described on 23 October 1852 (which included its inspection by Captain Laffan) most of the article is dominated by the autumn floods of that year. The Illustrated London News of 20 November mentioned the flooded Fenlands, the Thames Valley, near Northampton and the Severn Valley. There were landslips near Blisworth, near Ealing and (severe damage) at Crow Mill on the Midland Railway in Leicestershire. Further flood reports were at Abingdon (reported 4 December). A bridge collapsed on the LSWR approach to its London terminal and on New Year's Eve (not reported in the Illustrated London News until 15 January 1853 there was a cliff fall between Teignmouth and Dawlish which disrupted traffic. Illus.: Leamington station (ILN); King's Cross Station (ILN); Spittal Gate cutting collapse (ILN), Ealing Broadway No. 5979 Cruckton Hall on express see letter from Michael J. Smith in following volume p. 126 which corrects caption in relation to comments on District Line station; Crow Mill Viaduct collapse (ILN); landslip at Parson's Tunnel (ILN); Teignmouth station on 25 September 1956..

Topping, Brian. Late Shifts. 759-63.
Work as a young firemen at the Bury depot. Noted the violent oscillation experience on WD 2-8-0 No. 90205 when it traversed the avoiding line at Manchester Victoria. Arthur Tennant was the driver when banking a train over the steeply graded climb to Besses o' th' Barn. The rocking from side to side was a feature of the Hughes 2-6-0 locomotives when workin hard as on the 1 in 74 climb to Broadfield. Fire cleaning on No. 42719 involved a quiet dispute with the driver: Topping elected opted to clean out the firebox by removing the firebars one at a time whereas the driver sought unsuccessfully for a long shovel to be used.

Readers' Forum. 764-5.
Great Western on the move. Editor
In the above article in the November issue the author's name inexplicably got left out. The author was David Stewart-David to whom humble apologies are due.
Britain's mightiest locomotive. Nick Daunt,
Gresley Garratt No..2395: comments on Author's claim that "not even the 2395 cabside plates which it had defiantly displayed throughout its service" remained. Writer saw and photographed one of these plates at the Great Garratt Gathering, held at the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry in August 2009 to celebrate the centenary of the building of the very first Beyer-Garratt (narrow gauge 0·4·0 + 0·4·0 No. K1, built for service in Tasmania in 1909). The label of this exhibit gave the basic details of No.2395/9999/69999 and concluded: "69999 was withdrawn from service in October 1955 and stored at BR Gorton before being condemned there in December 1955, The Beyer-Carratt was moved to Doncaster Works by January 1956, when this plate was removed. 69999 was scrapped at Doncaster by May 1956, having run 425,213 miles." Plate is presumably part of a private collection. An excellent study of the genesis of this remarkable locomotive can be found in The Great Central in LNER Days by David Jackson and Owen Russell. Ian Allan 1983). ' [KPJ: RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9B shows the number plates in Figs. 31-3, but not in Fig. 33 (at Gorton Works after being fitted for oil burning)]
8F haulage and South East Wales wanderings. Michael Dunn 
Picture of No. 48127 at Leamington Spa, on p.610 shows train heading away from Birmingham: signal box in view was Leamington Spa South at the London end of the platform. See claim on p.623: longest-ever GWR cast iron signal box nameplate read PENSFORD & BROMLEY COLLIERIES SIDINGS SIGNAL BOX, (42 letters and six spaces), which was located on the North Somerset line. Ordered by Reading In 1910, it did actually read this in full and lasted until the box closed in 1960.
Interface. John Macnab
"Is it BS, PG or Adaptor Fitted?" was often asked about locomotive hauled coaching stock during the early 1960s on the Scottish Region where there was much former LMS and LNER passenger-carrying stock, along with BR Standard stock which created mixed formations on the longer-distance services within the Region. Most LNER and SR stock differed from its LMS and GWR counterparts in having 'Pullman Gangway' (PG) type and the latter two having 'British Standard' (BS) fittings. There were also differences in buffing gear but, more notably, the LNE and SR had buckeye drop-head couplers and the LMS and GW had screw couplings. BR Standard stock was PG gangway and buckeye coupled as built. These differences were brought home with certain internal Scottish workings, eg Glasgow Buchanan Street-Inverness services combining with, and detaching as necessary, portions from Edinburgh Waverley-Inverness trains at Perth, LMS stock still being used in the former and LNER stock in the latter. In general, it meant that with this practice we had to ensure that 'Adaptor-fitted gangways were on the LMS stock used to join correctly with the LNE PG type coaches. Gangways of the differing types connected together were "safe", but coaches thus adjoined very often presented a rather hazardous step for nervous passenger, as the 'bellows'· type gangways on LMS coaches had often suffered over the years, notably becoming bent and twisted at the top and bottom causing gaps to appear between the supposedly safe means of connection as well as there being tears and holes in the material of the gangways themselves, giving unwary passengers a view of the passing scenery they were not inclined to see!, [KPJ: working with Pullman adaptors must have been experienced from long before WW1 when introduced on East Coast Joint Stock in the early 1900s].
By steamer and ferry. Russell Plummer
Paddle steamer Caledonia was taken as the vessel stopped to pick up passengers brought out by small boat off Corrie on the eastern shore of the Isle of Arran. These calls took place in each direction during Caledonia's daily run in summers 1936 to 1938 from Gourock to Dunoon: Wemyss Bay, Rothesay, Tigbnabruaich, Corrie, Brodick, Lamlash and Whiting Bay, although the return sailing went direct from Corrie to Rothesay. Caledonia also appeared on this service, again with rail connections to and from both Gourock and Wemyss Bay, during 1939, but alternated week and week about with sister ship Mercury. Although several Clyde paddle steamers took part in the Dunkirk evacuation from 26 May to 3 June 1940, Caledonia (HMS Goatfell) was not among them. Withdrawn in 1969, Caledonia operated under the name Old Caledonia as a static pub/restaurant berthed on the Thames just above London Bridge from 1971 but was broken-up in Kent after suffering severe fire damage in 1979.
Picture of ferry Maid of Kent's silver service dining room: this vessel enjoyed an 'Indian summer' operating a seasonal service between Weymouth and Cherbourg from 1974 to 1981 and although the dining room had by then become a cafeteria, the experience of a Channel crossing aboard a quiet-running turbine steamer with spacious teak outside decks from which to enjoy the sea view was much to be savoured. During her final seasons, Maid of Kent occasionally featured in excursions with passengers travelling by train to Southampton from London and other Southern Region stations before crossing to Cherbourg aboard Cunard's Queen Elizabeth 2 with lunch on the way! The excursion was offered four times in 1981: after an overnight hotel stay with breakfast in the French port, Maid of Kent carried excursionists back to Weymouth the following afternoon.
The picture of Harwich-Hook of Holland vessel Avalon brings back memories of days when passengers arriving at the Hook at the crack of dawn had a choice of through rail services via the Rhine Valley to Munich and on to Austria, to Berlin, and via Hamburg to Copenhagen – with through coaches also to Oslo and Stockholm. now there's a stopping train to Rotterdam!

A diesel named Diesel. David Burton 
It was unfortunate that the manufacturers of the most successful British-built main-line diesel locomotives during the inter-war period had either ceased trading or discontinued railway equipment manufacture by the end of WW2, but Stephen Spark overlooked the key factor which limited the Crown Agents options when ordering diesel locomotives, or other capital equipment, from manufacturers outside the Sterling Area. In the 1940s and 1950s the UK was in debt having borrowed to cover the costs of fighting WW2. The support provided by the USA during this period had been in the form of loans on which interest was payable, not gifts as is often assumed today on both sides of the Atlantic, and foreign exchange was unavailable to purchase anything from abroad that could not be paid for in Sterling. Venezuela's decision to discontinue the acceptance of Sterling in exchange for its oil exports was probably the principal reason for the cancellation of GWR/Western Region plans for motive power operating in the West of England to burn oil. Shortages of coal there might have been but what was available did not have to be paid for in dollars. Between 1939 and 1945 the country had been subject to total war in its fight for survival and its infrastructure, including the railways, had, under Government control, been run into the ground. The arrears of maintenance and replacement were desperate both at home and in the Empire. By the mid·1950s much of this had been remedied in many parts of the Empire, but only where railway administrations were willing to accept available technology. With the delivery in 1956 of the last 2·8-4 tender locomotives and 4-8-2 + 2-8-4 Garratts, for example, the East African Railways had only six locomotives in main line service that had been built before WW2 (the first batch of the EC3 or '57' Class 4-8-4+4-8-4 Garratts delivered in 1939). Until the floating of the Sterling exchange rate and the virtual abolition of currency exchange controls under Margaret Thatcher's administration in the 1980s, balance of payments crises tended to be the dominant news item: historians need to take account of the contemporary exchange control regulations and restrictions due to shortages of capital when commenting on purchasing decisions made when these were in place.
London East during war and peace. Alan Blackburn,  
When the Southern Railway was formed it had seven Civil Engineering Divisions, not six, with an eighth, if one counted the S&DJR: there wa the London East with its HQ at London Bridge, later Purley, London West at Clapham Junction, later Woking, the Eastern at Tonbridge, later Ashford, the Northern at East Croydon, the Portsmouth Division, located confusingly at Brighton, the Central at Eastleigh and the Western at Exeter. Lastly the S&DJR was administered from Glastonbury. In 1932 the Department was reorganised. The Southern Division at East Croydon was abolished with most of its responsibilities going to London East, minor portions to London West and Brighton which was now renamed more appropriately the Southern Division. At the same time it lost the Portsmouth area to London West and the Isle of Wight to the Central. In the West Country the Glastonbury office was closed and the responsibility for the S&D was transferred to the Western Office at Exeter. Some of the official names were somewhat confusing but in practice everyone spoke of the Division by the office location and not its name
London East during war and peace. David Walsh
One of the pictures, showing the track layout at Slade Green depot, has a caption saying that the spur from the North Kent line to the Barnehurst and Bexleyheath line was 'laid as part of the carriage lengthening project of 1953' at the same time as the depot was enlarged. Reference to an Alan Godfrey reprint of the 1907 OS map for the area shows this spur in place: possibly the author confused this alignment with another similar spur that may laid elsewhere in the division in the mid-1950s.
London East during war and peace. Dave Pulham  
Notes inaccuracies regarding the derailment at Hither Green on Sunday 5 November 1967. The train involved was a twelve-car diesel-electric multiple unit specially built for the London-Hastings line and formed the 19.43 Hastings-Charing Cross. The units involved were Nos. 1007 and 1017. Running under clear signals at 70 mile/h on the up fast line from Orpington, the leading pair of wheels of the third coach were derailed towards the right. The train continued for about ¼ mile when the derailed wheels struck a diamond crossing which caused the third coach, the one ahead and all the coaches behind to be completely derailed. The second to fifth coaches overturned to the right before they stopped 250 yards further on. Casualties were 49 killed and 78 injured of which 27 were serious. Cites Tom Rolt's excellent Red for Danger and two photographs of the recovery were printed in the Railway Magazine for January 1968.
London East during war and peace. Adrian Dover  
In the caption to the picture of the collapsed St. Johns flyover on p588 it is stated that "This was a major peacetime accident in the days ... prior to the installation of colour light signalling in the area." In fact four-aspect colour light signalling was installed in the St. Johns and Parks Bridge area in 1929, as part of a large scheme following suburban electrification of the former-SER lines from London Bridge. The analyses of the accidents in O.S. Nock's Historic Railway Disasters and Adrian Vaughan's Obstruction danger both make it clear that the signals were colour lights (Vaughan includes a diagram of track and signalling) and that the failure to see them was due to the positioning of the signals for right-hand drive locomotives on the curved and tunnelled approaches, to the dense fog in the cutting and, possibly, due to the warmth of the locomotive cab causing drowsiness in a driver and fireman who had been waiting in the cold for an hour at Cannon Street without having eaten a meal during their break, which they assumed would be only a short one after an earlier late arrival in London. Use of the Automatic Warning System (AWS) would probably have prevented this accident. Although there was a feeling at the time that on densely-trafficked suburban lines drivers would have a tendency to cancel AWS warnings automatically when running under successive double- or single-yellow signals, the offending train in this case seems to have had 'greens' before New Cross. A major contributory factor leading to the St. Johns accident was the inadequate train describer equipment between signal boxes, which lead to the Parks Bridge down signalman unnecessarily holding a Hastings train under the mistaken impression that it needed to cross the up line to take the spur to Ladywell for the Mid-Kent line, thus backing-up the actual Mid-Kent (Hayes) train which was struck

Book Reviews. 765
The intemperate engineer: Isambard Kingdom Brunel in his own words. Adrian Vaughan. Ian Allan. 288pp. DTG ****
Just when you thought it was safe to venture into your local bookstore up pops another volume about the enigmatic and contradictory genius IKB. However, what we have here is not the record of great projects but Brunel's own words in a series of letters and interview transcripts from Parliamentary committees, largely relating to the GWR. So if we follow the author's claim we may feel that we are standing next to Brunel as he grapples with numerous complex issues and that we may find some new insights into his character, relationships and methods.
This is indeed a bold claim. What emerges is material that confirms the range, complexity and volume of work Brunel was involved with and how he responded to issues that involved technical and relational dimensions. We get, therefore, glimpses of Brunel's attitude to the people who worked for him, both directly as employees and indirectly as contractors (and even the navvies) as well as to systems of payment and the role of the goverrunent in framing employment law and the progress of the rail network. He was, from the text, clearly a man of strong will, often of fixed mind and difficult to fathom.
The open and plain sub-text to this book and its contents is to ask the question "was Brunel a great engineer?" The answer to that will depend on how the reader views Brunel's work and the methods he adopted to achieve his aims, set against some criteria of what makes a good, or great, engineer. If the question is about the criteria then the reader will have to ask whether or not he or she is using the lens of today or that of the mid-nineteenth century to judge this man and his work.
Adrian Vaughan's book makes no bones about asserting that we have to judge Brunel in the round, to consider his personality along with his triumphs and failures before coming to a view one way or another. It is a book to read in small chunks, with time for reflection, as you go along and to savour the well chosen illustrations. This is a book about a real flesh and blood character, not the detail of his work, and it does thereby allow for a personal re-assessment of myths and bias in our views of Brunel and by extension his contemporaries Robert Stephenson and Joseph Locke. Recommended for those who want to listen to the music behind the words, not just the nuts and bolts of track, bridge or ship.

Return from Dunkirk: railways to the rescue: Operation Dynamo (1940). Peter Tatlow. Oakwood Press. 184pp. DWM *****
This is an excellent account of a remarkable event in the recent  British history. Produced in the usual excellent 'Oakwood format' the 'prologue' to the book is a very personal one and the book is all the better for having been written in remembrance of the author's father's part in the Dunkirk operation, second lieutenant Alan Tatlow being a member of the East Surrey Regiment at the time.
A great strength of the book is that all events are placed in context. Thus the author provides a chronology which runs from 1919 to 1948 with a specific focus on 1939-40, there is an outline of the transport history and infrastructure of the South East corner of England - bus and coach companies also included - and descriptions of the deteriorating military situation across the Channel and the preparations made to receive the defeated Expeditionary Force. The mechanics of the evacuation are thoroughly treated. The transport away from the Kent coast of the troops, provision made for their feeding en route, 'tea and wads' with the WVS to the fore, treatment of the numerous casualties and the eventual dispersal to safe areas are all detailed, even down to motive power and routes used. A particularly poignant chapter concerns the fate of numerous French troops who were returned to their homeland to face renewed German onslaughts. The wider scope of evacuation from France is mentioned, the tragic 'highlight' being the loss of the RMS Lancastria off Nantes with the loss off at least 3,000 lives.
Throughout the book is brilliantly illustrated with excellent and appropriate pictures. There are a number of useful maps and a great deal of supporting information is presented in clearly outlined and understandable tables.
Your reviewer did not find this an 'easy' read; it is a book whose subject demands detailed and careful consideration and then it reveals itself as a masterly study of what a railway system working in dire emergency and in the national interest could really achieve. This book deserves to be recognised as a 'standard' work on the railway aspects of 'Operation Dynamo'.

The Belfast and County Down Railway..Desmond Coakham. Colourpoint, 256 pp. DWM *****
The Belfast & County Down was the smallest of the three main line railway companies serving the North of Ireland. It did exactly what it said on the label, running out from the south eastern suburbs of Belfast along the commuter belt on the shore of Belfast Lough to Bangor and also throwing off a line into rural County Down. This, the 'main line', split at Comber serving the sometime packet port of Donaghadee on the east coast and Downpatrick, Ardglass and Newcastle. The BCDR was linked to the Great Northern of Ireland at its northern and southern extremities, but not to the NCC. The reviewer calls this a 'proper' company history: something which has become quite a rarity in recent years. The author ranges far, wide and deep into his subject, the story is told with style and authority and with a splendid mixture of political, personal and engineering matters covered in appropriate detail. As with all Colourpoint productions, the book is beautifully illustrated with a fine selection of pertinent photographs and is well provided with maps and diagrams. The rise and consolidation of the County Down to its peak in the years leading up to WW1 is recorded in detail. The inter-war years and the competition with road transport and the effect of the WW2 on the railway lead naturally down to the 'nationalisation' of 1948 when the County Down became part of the Ulster Transport Authority. A chapter entitled 'The BCDR as we knew it' gives the author a chance to range over the system at the end of the steam era in word, plan and photograph.
In addition to all the 'background history' of the County Down the author provides details on services, shipping, accidents - which with amazing regularity seem to involve Ballymacarrett Junction just east of the Queen's Quay terminus - signalling and permanent way. Rolling stock and locomotives are thoroughly dealt with. The County Down experimented with diesel traction in the thirties. It used the expertise of the neighbouring Harland &Wolff shipyards to provide a couple of diesel-electrics but on the locomotive side the railway will probably always be associated with the four Beyer, Peacock 'Baltic' tanks it acquired in 1920 - a classic case of 'flattering to deceive!'. The full extent of the locomotive and carriage fleets are listed as a series of tabulated appendices and the book is blessed with a comprehensive index. In his initial acknowledgements the author thanks his publisher 'for undertaking publication of this narrative, hopefully the definitive history of the BCDR'. "It has been a pleasure to review a 'definitive history'; this splendid book comes highly recommended!"

Index to Volume 25. 766

Murky day in Lancashire. J.S. Gilks. rear cover
Class 5 No. 45318 ppassing Bolton East Junction signal box on 5 January 1968.