Backtrack Volume 31 (2017)

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Published by Pendragon, Easingwold, YO61 3YS

January (Number 309)

GWR 'King' 4-6-0 No.6006 King George I is monarch of all it surveys at Swindon Works in February 1960. Trevor Owen. front cover

Notes from a small island. Michael Blakemore. 3
Editorial with title reminisicent of Bill Bryson, but considers one of the smaller, and more democratic British Islands noted for its antique railways.
One current feature which has particulartly, as they say, 'floated my boat' is 'By Steam to the Steamers', Malcolm Rivett's survey of the railway connections with sailings to and from the Isle of Man. The reason for my interest is that when I was a lad in Bury in the 1960s the summer holidays - or that part of them not occupied by the family fortnight away - stretched ahead with seemingly limitless opportunities for days out, mostly local explorations, picnics and simple pleasures of that ilk. In those far-off days whereof I write we had no car, but then neither did many families, so the local bus and coach operators stepped forward with their programmes - who remembers Ribble, Warburton's, Yelloways, Fred Craven? - to run us to the usual seaside resorts, Chester, Alton Towers, Hardcastle Crags (the 'Switzerland of the Pennines' if you believe it) and  so on. Evening outings were promoted to the futuristic world of Manchester Airport viewing gallery and (improbable as it might seem) Charnock Richard services on the M6, joined later by Lancaster services as a tantalising alternative, at the time the only contact most us had with the sleek connotations of aeroplanes and motorways. But good old British Railways was on its marks as well with a range of excursion fares and one of its most attractive offers was a combined train and boat ticket to Douglas, Isle of Man - there and back in a day.
The adventure started by taking the train from Bury's Knowsley Street station on the Central Lancashire line between Rochdale and Bolton: steam-hauled (a Standard Class 4 as I recall) in non-corridor compartment coaches. Many of its trains continued beyond Bolton towards the Lancashire Coast or, in our case, Liverpool Exchange and from there an easy stride took us to the Landing Stage where the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company's boat awaited us.
There is something special, I think, about leaving a country by sea, even if only to cross to the Isle of Man. I watched Liverpool and its famous waterfront recede as we sailed into the Mersey and then first parallel to the coast, with Blackpool Tower still a clear and distant shape, until we left the land behind us. On board a proper ship you could stroll ' around the decks, imagining yourself bound for the 'New World' while taking in the tang of the salty air and the churning foam as you ploughed through the briny. You could descend to look down over the engine room where there was generally a man with an oil can going round its machinery and before reaching the island you could partake of a decent lunch in the dining saloon.
There wasn't time enough in Douglas, unfortunately, to travel on the Isle of Man Railway but I did note that its fine terminus station was looking rather shabby. The second visit occurred after the railway had experienced closure but in the first year after its revival under the 'Ailsa regime' and one of its bright green engines did hint at cautious optimism. We did have the chance to ride the length of the famous horse tramway, though! incidentally, today's Manx government seems strangely ambivalent about the horse trams at the moment; perhaps they have an 'image problem'. Hopefully it will come to appreciate what a distinctive historic asset it has.
In the succeeding years the Isle of Man suffered a downturn in its tourist popularity as holidays abroad became more affordable, with the island further disadvantaged by its relative inaccessibility for the 'short break' market. It was not until the 1990s that I made the crossing again - this time to stay on the island and enjoy the Isle of Man Steam Railway's remaining line to Port Erin along with its two vintage electric railways to Ramsey and Snaefell Summit. The Isle of Man and its railways seem to have weathered some awkward times and now seem in good heart- which is more than can be said for the 'big railway' which took me from Bury to Liverpool to board my first 'packet': it closed in 1970!

Visiting Kentish Town and Cricklewood. Geoff Rixon. 4-6.
Colour photo-feature: Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 45622 Nyasaland at Kentish Town on 9 June 1962; No. 45598 Basutoland at Cricklewood in 1963; No. 45639 Raleigh at Kentish Town on 9 June 1962; BR class 5 No. 73092 (in green livery) at on 23 March 1963; rebuilt Scot No. 46112 (minus nameplate: see letter from Leonard Rogers) at Cricklewood 0n 23 February 1963; Class 5 No. 44984 at Cricklewood in September 1963; Jubilee No. 45569 Tasmania at Cricklewood on 4 August 1963.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Claims against railway companies. 7-12.
In May 1910 a Forfar solicitor claimed damages from the Caledonian Railway when he had been prevented from speaking to a client on the station platform as he had been withheld by the Company's staff as he did not possess a platform ticket. The solicitor lost his case against the railway. The accident on the Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway at Pardoran Siding near Linlithgow on 13 October 1862 led to several claims for compensation from passengers, one of whom was Henry Bardner, a factor on an estate who was severely injured. The railway lost the case for £3000 compensation and sought to appeal, but the Lord President refused to set aside the verdict. A minor shunting bump at Perth caused by the Scottish North Eastern Railway led to claims for damages from a group of Professional Pedestrians which the railway tried to fight, but was eventually settled out of court. Mrs Janet Carr claimed that she had injured whilst alighting from a train at Springfield in Fife, but the case was lost, as was an appeal to the Court of Session. William Gant was severely injured whilst attempting to board a moving train at Plaistow. The London Tilbury & Southend Railway sought to limit the claim by arguing that it was a workmen's train, but Gant argued that he had paid a higher price to travel on the train. Unfortunately the final outcome is not known. John Mitchell whilst alighting at Strichen on 1 May 1893 was injured as the train was too long for the platform and he sought damages ftom the Great North of Scotland Railway. The Railway attempted to fight the case  and it eventually came before the Sheriff-Principal who rejected the Company's appeal. On 22 September 1906 Mrs Janet Neilson sustained injuries when she attempted to alight at Cupar from a train which had overshot the platform. The North British Railway attempted to fight the claim, but eventually settled out of court. Mrs Isabella Gray sued the GNSR for a large sum for severe injuries sustained when she was struck by a locomotive whilst crossing the line at Ruthrieston. The Company contested the case as she have used the footbridge: the result of the challenge is not recorded. Finally (and this has a 2017 resonance) the Great Eastern Railway was taken to court in Stowmarket for blocking Stowupland level crossing. The case was lost, but the railway company's application for costs was rejected. Illustrations: Forfar station exterior and platforms; Perth platforms c1912; Springfield station in July 2012; Plaistow station pre-LTSR electrification; Strichen station; Ruthrieston.station; and contemporary Stowupland level crossing.    

To the North East Coast Exhibition. 13
Advertising material for excursions run by the LNER to an exhibition organized to promote industrial activity during the depth of the Financial Depression: it ran from May to October 1929. The material is in the David V. Beeken Collection.

John Jarvis. From gravel to buddleia. 14-19.
Situated off London Transport Watford branch the former gravel  workings were used by London Transport to dump waste materials such as ash, concrete from tube permanent way, spent ballast and conductor rail insulators. For a time the residual Metropolitan Railway locomotives of 0-6-2T and 0-4-4T were used, but were replaced by former Great Western/Western Region 57XX pannier tanks which were adorned in Metropolitan red. Later battery electric locomotives took over and as they topped aznd tailed the trains tha former brake vans, some of which had been built by Hurst Nelson, ceased to be needed. Illustrations (all colour): L90 (ex 7760) with Ashford Works brake van in Croxley Tip in July 1969; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45114 passing under Croxley Hall farm bridge with up train from Nottingham in November 1965; pannier tank with Ashford and Hurst Nelson barke vans in January 1971 passing magnificent Croxley Hall sub-station; L90 taking water at Watford station; Croxley gravel workings in 1914 and 1961 (Ordnance Survey 1:2500 maps); Croxley track diagrams; battery locomotives L30 and L22 at Northwood in snow in March 1970 with Croxley Tip train; L90 with Hurst Nelson brake van in Croxley Tip in april 1969; return working near Pinner inb August 1969.

Malcolm Rivett. By steam to the steamers: the story of the Isle of Man boat trains. – Part One. The first 100 years. 20-4.
Liverpool was the main departure point, but Riverside station was not used and passengers made their own way from the City's stations, but most of these provided train seervices to connect with the the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company's vessels. The Furness Railway attempterd to encourage traffic via Barrow at Ramsden Dock or at Piel Pier, but was dependent upon other companies and the Midland Railway decided to develop Heysham and its own turbine steamer the Manxman. The LNWR and Lancashire & Yorkshire Railways encouraged traffic via Fleetwood and Blackpool Corporation ran boat trams to Fleetwood to encourage day return traffic to Douglas.There were sailings to Greenock and even to Glasgow, but Ardrossan was the major departure point using the Caledonain Railway's Montgomerie Pier. Illustrations: Prince's Landing Stage in Liverpool (probably pre-WW2); Ramsden Dock station and docks (amazing "aerial" view from 1890; Midland Railway publicity material for turbine steamer Manxman; Fleetwood station interior with second class refreshment room (therefore pre-WW1); central Liverpool stations showing tram routes and Overhead Railway (1935) ; Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 45584 North West Frontier at Dobbs Brow Junction (caption not clear as to where train is going); LMS advertisement promoting The Manxman train 

Alan Bennett. Shakespeare Country: the Great Western and its celebration of Englishness. 25-7.
The texts by Maxwell Fraser receive closer scrutiny than other articles on Great Western publicity material noting in particular the use of the words "museum" and "relics", and as usual mention is made of the significant American market potential. M. Dewar, the Company's Publicity Officer from 1934 requested her to use less florid language. Illustrations (coloured covers of publicity leaflets): Shakespeare Country 1939; Rambles in Shakespeare Land and the Cotswolds, 1938; Shakespeare Country British Railways 1955; Shakespeare Country 1961 and Shakespeare Country 1949 (which showed Harvard House and Garrick Inn).

Peter Butler. The junctions at Firbeck. 28-30.
The South Yorkshire Coalfield was relatively late to be developed and the South Yorkshire Joint Railway was unusual in that all the formerly competitive railways came together to serve it with a line going north from Dinnington. It was owned by the Midland, Great Central, Great Northern, North Eastern and Lancashire & Yorkshire Railways. It served mines at Firbeck and at Haworth. A limited passenger service was operated between Doncaster and Shireoaks. This ended in 1926, but excursion traffic lasted longer.

East Anglian stopping points. Dick Riley. 31.
Colour photo-feature: Woodbridge station in October 1956; Long Melford on 18 May 1957 with train in platform, and Linton station on 27 April 1958 (with limousine parked outside).

'Kings' of the road. 32-5.
Colour photo-feature: majority fitted with double chimneys: No. 6000 King George V at Paddington with bell and headboard for Bath Festival on 3 June 1959 at Paddington with train for Bristol; No. 6005 King George II approaching Warwick in 1958; No. 6011 King James I at Old Oak Common with Birmingham train with GWR coaches at front of train on 21 December 1962 (M. Smith); No. 6021 King Richard II at Leamington Spa in October 1961 (caption mildly incorrect); No. 6025 King Henry III at Paddington leaving with train for Pllymouth on 29 May 1962; No. 6021 King Richard II  passing White Waltham with dopwn ex[press formed of carmine & cream (and some chocolate & cream) coaches; No. 6023 King Edward II climbing to Dainton in June 1958 with 15.30 Paddington to Penzance (P.W. Gray); No. 6009 King Charles II at Shrewsbury in September 1961; and No. 6015 King Richard III near Sear Green with 07.40 Birkenhead to Paddington in September 1062 (J.P. Mullett): nearly all in excellent external condition with nameplates gllinting even though about to be withdrawn from service. See also letter on page 253 from Leonard Rogers who amplifies some of the information.  

The Jutland 'Jubilees'. notes (mainly on origins of names) by A.J. Mullay. 36-7.
Black & white photo-feature of Jubilee class 4-6-0 with names associated with the WW1 Battle of Jutland:: No. 45699 Galatea (cruiser which fired opening volley) locomotive on up Thames Clyde Express in June 1955 passing Trent Junction; No. 5677 Beatty at Crewe North MPD in late 1930s (Beatty was a commander of a battle cruiser and subsequent admiral); No. 5715 Invincible and Royal Scot No. 6163 Civil Service Rifleman near summit of Shap in 1930s (HMS Invincible was sunk during battle); No. 45654 Hood passing Wellingborough in May 1959 with exptress for Bradford (Admiral Hood died on the Invincible); No. 45647 Sturdee at Leeds City in 1964 (Sturdee was another admiral) and No. 5714 Revenge at Carlisle Kingmoor on 10 April 1939 (HMS Revenge was an oil-burning battleship)  

Jeremy Clarke. Inherited express passenger locomotives of the South Eastern & Chatham Railway. 38-45
On the London Chatham & Dover Railway at the time that the working agreement with the South Eastern Railway came into operation, the influence of Crampton was still vaguely seen in a few locomotives rebuilt by Martley, but the main influence was Wiliam Kirtley and his draughtsman Robert Surtees. On the South Eastern James Stirling (who like Kirtley came from a family of engineers) was the dominant influence. Illustrations (all 4-4-0): M3 class No. 647 at Longhedge on 6 October 1920; F class No. 1078 at Stewarts Lane in 1934; F classe No. 103 at Bexley with strawberry traffic; B class No. 34 at London Bridge c1923; F class No. 240 at Folkestone Junction on 28 June 1893; M1 class No. 635 at Sheerness on 16 October 1920; F1 class No. 1205 at Lewes East Junction with a train for London in 1933 (George R. Grigs); F1 No. A249 at Honor Oak Park with birdcage set with a Redhill to London Bridge train (George R. Grigs); F1 class No. 110 passing Paddock Wood with train of military tanks from Richborough to Aldershot; B1 class No. A448 (caption error quoted as B448) at Lewes witha Brighton to Maidstone West train formed of immaculate birdcage set in 1929 (George R. Grigs); B1 class No. 1448 at Dartford on 26 April 1947 (R.C. Riley)

Lincolnshire signal boxes. Dafydd Whyles. 46-7.
Wrawby Junction interior; Immingham West exterior (on Associated British Ports land); Immingham Reception sidings exterior; Goxhill interior with signaller Graham Smith operating gate wheel; Heckington rocker frame; Ancaster inhterior; Boston Docks exterior.

James Rogers. Ripon – a city no longer with a railway. Part One. 48-55.
There are real (as in royal) cities and most enjoy train services: St. Andrews, St. Davids, Wells and Ripon are disgraceful exceptions along with Walsingham which now enjoys basilica status. It was served by the Leeds & Thirsk Railway which was incorporated in 1845 and rapidly served the city from the Thirsk end in 1848 and more fully in the following year. It became the Leeds Northern Railway when it was extended from Melberby to Stockton via Northallerton. The viaduct adjacent to the River Ure was originally timber, but this was replaced by a masonry structure except for the actual crossing where an iron structure was erected which received an extensive repair in 1959. Includes a list of station masters who served at the station. Illustrations view from station towards the North Bridge (road bridge) and Cathedral (coloured postcard); (remainder J.W. Hague unless noted otherwise) Class 4 2-4-4T No. 80116 approaching with two coaches from King's Cross; A3 No. 60084 Trigo crossing River Ure with down Queen of Scots; map; B1 No. 61019 Nilghai light engine in Ripon station; B1 No. 61069 and A2/3 Herringbone cross viaduct with Newcastle to Liverpool train in 1950s; miltary booking office and subway entrance in 1971; BR Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76021 with Thirsk to Leeds empty atock on 4 February 1953; Class 5 No. 45075 approaching Ripon from north; Q6 0-8-0 passing station with southbound freight; and B16/1 and A3 on southbound express ;

Michael B. Binks. The origins, diagnoses and historical prevention of track failures. Part Two. 56-60
Rial failures: most can only be detected by ultrasonic equipment, ferro-magnetic testing or dye penetration. Vertical head and web splits are visible and can be measured by callipers. Wheelburns are cauded by slipping wheels. Star cracks radiate from bolt holes. Taches Ovalles start as shatter cracks during manufacture. Alumino-thermal defects are caused by faulty onsite welding and squats are fatigue defects generated in the wheel contact zone. Water is a major agent in track bed deterioration. Softwood sleepers are liable to rot and if a concrete sleeper is damaged water may enter and corrode the metal reinforcement. Flooding may scour out the ballast and leave the track without support. It may also lead to the collapse of embankments and cuttings. Railways constructed too near the sea may suffer repeated damage. Wet tunnels lead to rapid rail wear. Mining is also the cause of subsidence and track failure. Illustrations: 8F No. 48665 at Bourne End with train of track panels on 20 March 1963 (colour); baseplate movements caused by loose chair screws; portable power tool to tighten fishplate bolts (R. Bance & Co. Ltd.); switch rail damage (Bill Butland); timber sleeper damage (Bill Butland); squat defect (Bill Butland); Network South East livery train and locomotive No. 47 583 County of Hertfordshire at Reading in 1988 (colour); embankment slip due to undermining; cyclic top.

Readers' Forum. 61

Somerset's Railway. Peter Davis
Since the Bristol and North Somerset Railway ran all the way to Frome – the later (October p.604) statement "there was once a mineral branch north west to Radstock" makes no sense at all. A passenger service ran from Bristol Temple Meads to Frome until 31 October 1959 – I rode on the last trains – and the line was double track between Radstock and Mells Road. There was, however, a mineral branch, the private Newbury Railway, off this line to Vobster quarry and Newbury and Mackintosh collieries; and the other mineral line, from Hapsford Junction to Whatley quarry, is as far as I know still open. The remainder of the line between Hapsford and Radstock was mothballed years ago and has been the subject of disputes among rival interests over retention as a heritage railway or conversion to a cycle track. The B&NS could almost claim to be a cross-country main line since, post-World War II, it hosted a daily 'express service', the 'Boat Train' connecting with the up Channel Islands service from Weymouth at Frome. Leaving there at 17.55, it called at Radstock and Pensford only arriving in Bristol TM at 18.52.
On p.602 the branch from Hallatrow to Camerton, later extended, incorporating parts of the closed Somerset Coal Canal, to Lympley Stoke, is mentioned and we are told that "Hamerton would benefit from a second platform (a bay) for the branch trains and then a third as the line was extended to Lympley." Presumably for "Hamerton" read "Hallatrow". Hallatrow became a crossing place in the remodelling of 1909 before which there was a single platform and a goods loop to the north which extended south into a headshunt with a platform face on the far side of the station building. The existing track plan is ambiguous as to whether on not this was purely a loading bay or used for Camerton departures. Specific photographic evidence is tantalisingly lacking but clearly shows a fence between the down platform and this bay. Mike Vincent in his excellent book, Through Countryside and Coalfield, OPC 1990, gives no clue as to the way Hallatrow was operated as a junction.
Whereas mixed trains ran on the original 1882 Camerton branch, the through trains between Hallatrow and (usually) Freshford were either steam railmotors or a '517' 0-4-2T and auto coach.
The junction on the Bristol & Exeter main line for the Yeovil branch was at Durston (not Durlston) and there was never "a further branch ... north east towards Castle Cary" (both p. 603). The 'cut-off' between Castle Cary and Curry Rivel lunction west of Langport opened in the summer of 1906 and was an entirely new line as was the three-mile section from Athelney Junction to the split-level Cogload Junction.
Finally, not mentioned, the branch from the East Somerset Railway to Merehead quarry is still open from Witham; it also forms the main line connection to the heritage East Somerset Railway. Otherwise a very interesting article with lots of human interest stories.

The train ferries. Paul Joyce
Having just read R.A.S. Hennessey's very fine article on train ferries, I then randomly picked up Ian. H. Lane's Plymouth Steam 1954-1963. In it he states "The [Plymouth] breakwater is two miles offshore from the Hoe, a mile long ... The engineer commissioned to undertake its construction was Sir Joshua Rennie. Some of the stone was obtained from Quarries beside the River Plym at Oreston, and there, a 3ft 6in gauge railway was built. The stones were placed on wagons which were run onto the ships, which were fitted with rails in their holds, and taken out into the Sound. In the earlier years of work the stone was off-loaded by crane at the breakwater site. Eventually, however, rails and turntables were placed on the partly built breakwater. The wagons were lifted off the ships with their loads and returned to the ships empty when they had deposited the stone at the required place."

'Let's go Glasgow Electric'. Stephen Abbott
To add to John Macnab's letter (November issue), a detailed Scottish Region account of the emergency reintroduction of steam trains was published in Trains Illustrated, July 1961. The notes which follow are a brief summary.
At 01.38 on Sunday 18 December 1960 it was agreed to run no trains at all that day and to re-establish the steam service by Monday morning. The 72 electric sets were gradually moved under their own power to stabling points including Ardmore and Hyndland, the process completed by 16.25. By 21.30 the 42 steam locomotives required had been transferred (some out of storage) from Glasgow area sheds and as far afield as Ardrossan, Hurlford, Bathgate and Hawick, to Eastfield, Park head, Kipps, Dumbarton, Helensburgh and Balloch. Helensburgh and Balloch sheds had to be reopened and coaling facilities provided at Bridgeton and Clydebank Dock Junction (replacing Hyndland). Soon after 08.00 a special stores train was arranged to run from Parkhead to Helensburgh conveying coal, oil, brake blocks, firebars, headlamps, shovels, etc.
At 14.00 representatives of the enginemen's local departmental committees were briefed and returned to their depots to help prepare rosters, completed by 21.30.ln all 294 footplate staff living over a wide area needed to be advised of their Monday duties. A few could be reached by telephone, but most had to be contacted by messenger, staff volunteering to help using their own cars and motorcycles.
Meanwhile 272 coaches in 36 sets had to be assembled, mostly from stock stored at Bellahouston, Crookston, Smithy Lye, Rutherglen and in the Glasgow North District. These were inspected on Sunday morning and worked to suitable points for attention, where it was found that 100 rotary valves and 200 steam pipes had been pilfered during storage. Replacements were brought in from local depots by road transport and from Edinburgh and elsewhere by passenger train, but it was also found necessary to remove components from vehicles under repair in the main Glasgow works. Batteries also had to be brought in to replace those which had gone flat. By 18.30 examination and repair of coaches was nearing completion and as many staff as possible were released for a short rest. At 23.00 staff were booked on to clean and service the coaches, which had become very dirty during storage and steam heat them using specially provided locomotives.
Timetable compilation was mainly down to four men; one worked out east-west timings, another west-east, a third checked for conflicts at junctions and the fourth determined complementary changes on the Riverside line. Stations and depots were kept informed of the general nature of the proposed train service and timetables and diagrams were distributed overnight on Sunday/Monday - in some cases station masters asked for delivery to their own homes and undertook to answer the door promptly at 04.00! The diagrams were too late to be linked with early rostering arrangement so staff were detailed at each terminal point on the Monday morning to advise the driver of each incoming train of his next turn, until rosters could be adjusted later in the day. With only a few hitches, the Monday morning train service operated to plan. A sad but necessary task was removal of the signs at Queen Street advertising the electric train service.
The new colour light signalling for the electric service included additional signals in tunnel sections. These reduced head ways with no danger of signals being obscured by smoke and the power doors prevented passengers from alighting from trains stopped at signals. For resumption of steam working, to avoid stopping a steam train in a tunnel, the signalling controls had to altered to prevent a station starting Signal from clearing until the line was unoccupied into the station ahead.
Two new stations at Garscadden and Hyndland had been built with 420ft platforms to accommodate six-car electric trains. As both are on a gradient of about 1 in 110 the Ministry ofTransport required them to be lengthened to 500ft to provide a margin for braking with steam traction. Platform extensions in timber were completed in 36 hours from approval of the work.
To echo Mr. Macnab, this was a remarkable effort, on a par with the gauge conversion west of Exeter in 1892 - but that had been planned for many months! Further response from the man then on the ground page 125

'Let's go Glasgow Electric'. John Macnab 
An error of my memory banks has revealed itself within a sentence of my letter published in the November issue whereby I state that "If I recall aright" (which I now find wrong) that the lady in charge of the office typing pool was honoured in some way for her work during the 'Blue Train' crisis. A lady was so honoured some ten years later totally unrelated to that particular occasion. Apologies for that - I wish to set the record straight.

LNWR via Market Harborough. Stephen Spark 
In your colour interlude on the LNWR Market Harborough line (September, p. 527) the caption suggests that grass behind the Met-Cam DMUs was set alight by a previous steam-hauled train. It is surely more likely that this was the result of controlled burning to prevent exactly that problem occurring. You will note that the blackened vegetation ends exactly at the fence line, which would be unlikely if set alight accidentally.
I was brought up next to the Guildford New Line and remember my mother's frustration as the PW gang chose the best washing day to fill the air with smoke. It was unpleasant while it lasted, but the practice resulted in the neat, well- maintained lines ides we associate with the 1960s railway scene. A bonus was the magnificent display of primroses that passengers were able to enjoy in spring and similar splashes of colour from wild flowers in summer. The men knew their job, for I never saw the flames flick through the fence into our garden.

Finale of the A4. Eric Oates
Thank you for the splendid article by Allan Trotter in respect of the last days of the 'Streaks' in Scotland including his account of the BR Farewell Special with No.60019 Bittern on 3 September 1966.
I fear, however, his notes of locomotives seen that day at Aberdeen Ferryhill may have become a little blurred. The then-recently withdrawn NO.60034 Lord Faringdon was by this time stored at Perth shed, where the tender swap with No.60024 Kingfisher had taken placed on or about 24th August 1966. The tender-less A4 he described at Ferryhill on the final weekend was in fact No. 60004 William Whitelaw which had given up its corridor tender to No.60009 Union of South Africa for subsequent purchase and preservation by John Cameron. This latter A4 too was stored out of use at 61B at the same time. So our lucky author would have in fact seen four A4s on the Saturday of the BR special: Nos. 60004, 60009, 60019 and 60024. I was fortunate to get to Aberdeen the following morning and have my notes from that visit to confirm these details. I then joined the South West Railway Society Granite City tour for the southbound journey to Edinburgh with Kingfisher before Bittern then took over for the run to York and its own purchase by the late Geoff Drury.

Clearing the air. John C. Hughes 
In my article on the ventilation of the Mersey Railway, November issue p. 696, I said that after leaving the board Francis Fox issued a pamphlet claiming that the company was saving money by running the fans more slowly and using cheaper fuel in the engines. I have now discovered that this information was originally provided when Fox was giving evidence to the Parliamentary inquiry into the ventilation of the Metropolitan Railway. This was in March 1897, at a time when Francis Fox was still on the board of the Mersey Railway and presumably knew whereof he spoke. This inquiry also produced some detailed information as to air quality at various points on the Mersey over a period of two days, suggesting that it was not too bad and certainly a lot better than the Met. Unfortunately, the Mersey's management did not need much notice of the inspection to ensure that the fans were going at full belt and that the engines were provided with the best fuel available.

Down South. Roy Hobbs 
Small error in the caption to the top photograph on p. 683. The train is departing Woking, rather than Lewes.

Book Reviews. 62

The Royal Arsenal Railways — the rise and fall of a military railway network. Mark Smithers, Pen and Sword Transport, hardback, 171 pp. Reviewed SDW *****
It must be rare for a reviewer to be presented with a volume which is likely to become to be regarded as the 'standard work' on the subject matter considered - but this might just be one of those occasions!
From the 1820s through the high Victorian days of Empire and on to the two world wars of the last century until its closure in 1967 the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich provided a significant proportion of the military might of British forces. Initially three 'factories' the sites were amalgamated in 1891 and, as at that time, railways were seen as the transport panacea, the Royal Arsenal Railways became an official entity.
This beautifully-produced book falls neatly into three parts, the history of the system, a consideration of the locomotives and rolling stock used on three gauges, 18 inches, two foot and standard gauge, within the system and a survey of the surviving remains of the system, both in situ at Woolwich and dispersed at various museums and preserved railways around the country in action. The book is lavishly, and appropriately, illustrated and has three remarkable maps at its heart. Copious appendices cover such wide-ranging topics as Arsenal staff, locomotive details ranging from 'pen pictures' of those supplied by Manning Wardle to histories of those machines on the 18 inch and standard gauges. There is a useful index.
Surely going to be the standard work on the subject, a worthy addition to the store of railway literature - well-recommended!

Dark days and brighter days for Northern Ireland Railways. Edwin McMillan. Colourpoint, 288 pp. softback, Reviewed by DWM ***
Books of railway reminiscence have become fairly commonplace over recent years, usually involving themselves with tales of the footplate or signal box or, on occasion, the higher levels of railway management. This book takes an entirely different angle; written by an enthusiastic railwayman - and obviously a railway enthusiast, it is a very detailed account, from platform level, of the trials, tribulations and eventual triumph of the railways of Northern Ireland through the awful times of 'The Troubles' and on into the less turbulent present.
The book falls conveniently into three parts: an outline of the author's railway career, a detailed account of incidents and occurrences during 'The Troubles' and a more general account of railways operations. As well as the development of stations, special trains and operational accidents and incidents this latter section includes the formation of 'The Railway Patrol' - the author's remarkable initiative to deal with the little-addressed topic of anti-social behaviour, vandalism and trespass on the railway.
The detailed account of the attacks on the railway by terrorists is a darkly Northern Irish episode. The 'diary' style of the book works very well here and the damage and disruption caused by the explosions, fires and derailments is graphically illustrated.
Throughout the book the photographs are a splendid and apposite selection, many of the author's own taking and, as ever, the Colourpoint 'style' has assured a book of considerable quality. To the best of your reviewer's knowledge there isn't a 'formal' history of Northern Ireland Railways in print at the present time. Were one to appear then this personal account would complement it brilliantly - a detailed story with a human touch and well worth a read.

Swindon Works — the legend. Rosa Matheson. History Press, 192 pp. Reviewed by DMA. ***
Every day men and women went into Swindon Works and every day locomotives and rolling stock, green, black, chocolate and cream came out. Every evening a tide of people left the Works football crowding the nearby streets. Every day those people coming out were more experienced, heavier with knowledge than they had been in the morning; the Works producing engineers as well as locomotives. Rosa Matheson's book is largely about the people who went 'Inside', their larks, accidents and experiences. She describes well known figures and gives a voice to many otherwise anonymous workers from 1840s to 1980s. Some loved their work and the sense of family, others (Alfred Williams for one) came to hate it, but all were shaped and transformed by their time behind those tall stone walls.
One product of Swindon Works that Matheson does not mention is Christopher Hinton (Material herein used to form part of new entry). While Matheson may not mention Christopher Hinton she does introduce a procession of Swindon characters and their memories of their time inside. lan Williams (great-great nephew of Alfred) captured the camaraderie of the place: "To be honest, the rail works was one huge storybook where almost everyone knew everyone someway or other, and if you were on your own anywhere in the town, in a pub or club, cafe or bar, there would always be someone else who recognised you from 'the Works' and came across and chatted to you, so in a manner of speaking if you worked in the Works, you would never be alone wherever you went in the town."
With chapters on 'What was Swindon Works?', 'Fascinating Facts and Figures', 'Myths and Legends' and 'The Not-So-Good Bits, this slim book is not a reference volume to complement a fine library, it does not reveal new information. It is, however, a book you would buy for a young person in your life hoping that they might put down their phone for a few minutes to learn about their ancestors and the railway factory that made their town and made it famous. Matheson herself says" As writers and publishers of history we have, I believe, a duty to bring this history to new and younger audiences, as well as faithful followers, so that the history of their forbears will not be lost ... "

Surrey with the frost on top. David Idle. rear cover.
Rebuilt Bulleid Pacific No. 34059 Sir Archibald Sinclair on 10.18 Bournemouth to Waterloo on 28 December 1965 near Woking with frost on ground.

February (Number 310)

SR L1 Class 4-4-0 No.31786 at Tonbridge locomotive depot, well cleaned for special duty on 11th June 1961. R.C. Riley. front cover

Rivalries . Alistair F. Nisbet. 67
Guest Editorial; inter-company rivalry as maifested between the Caledonian and North British Railways and as perceived through memberships of the North British Study Group, the Caledonian Railway Assiciation and the Great Eastern Railway Society [and as the purveyance of false information is much in the news those seeking non-information on competition between the Great Eastern and the Caledonian should be trumped]. The saddest manifestation of extreme competition were the remains of the unopened stations on the Caley lines south of Paisley still mouldering in the 1950s: has a recent book on these been reviewed in Backtrack? See letter from Robert Darlaston (p. 254) on failure to anticipate the need for extra heavy rail capacity between Birmingham and Wolverhampton 

Beyond Euston. David Idle. 68-71.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44909 passing under Bletchley flyover with down coal empties on 8 Febnuarty 1964; Jubilee class No. 45604 Ceylon on Bushey water troughs with 07.30 Birmingham New Street to Euston on 23 November 1963; Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41239 inside Willesden shed on 8 March 1964; diesel electric No. 10001 descending Camden bank with empty stock for 10.10 Euston to Perth on 10 May 1964; Caprotti class 5 No. 44744 picking up water from Castlethorpe troughs with electric catenary in place on 15.00 Euston to Nortampton on 30 July 1963 (NB desination boards on coaches and Stanier articulated twin at front); rebuilt Patriot No. 45512 Bunsen at Bletchley on parcels train on 30 July 1963: Britannia Pacific No. 70024 Vulcan passesd Hunton Bridge, south of King's Langley on 22 June 1963; Class 2 2-6-0 No. 78039 passes through the Euston rebuilding chaos on empty stock on 13 June 1964; No. 78003 at Willesden motive power depot on 8 August 1965 (71 lower) see also letter on page 253 from Ray Fisher about diesel hauled train in background which was not on North London Railway, but on the Midland Railway's 1868 connection.

Alistair F. Nisbet  The road engine. 72-9.
"Road engine" is a Nisbet neolgism relating to locomotives appearing on public roads preferably with bells and cowcatchers (Dundee's lacked both). The Y9 0-4-0ST haunted Dundee Docks and most of them were fitted with tenders known as runners. They were accessible to the public within Dundee Docks (KPJ remembers Dad chatting to the driver of one in that location in 1948) Alistair's memories are a wee bit later and more detailed.  The history of Dundee's  industries and trade, based firstly on linen for sails, then on jute (and on the whale oil needed to transform it into a textile) led to the development of docks along the Tay estuary. Railway development was early in Dundee, sufficiently so for more than one gauge to co-exist for a time and these railways used the city streets for access, hence the title. Table of places where trains used to run along the road (which sadly lacks Sheringham where almost the entire volunteer workforce is required to pass a train from the real railway onto the NNR). Illustrations: Y9 0-4-0ST No. 68110 with train passes Dundee East station on 7 May 1955 (G.M. Staddon); No. 8110 on shed at Dundee; No. 68100 shunts wagons across Dock Street; No. 68107 passing Dundee Corporation singe deck bus in Shore Terrace; J37 0-6-0 No. 64600 shunting near Camperdown Junction on 5 October 1962 (C.C. Thorburn); No. 68100 on shed at Dundee (P.H. Groom), map of Dundee Docks; Y9 No. 68123 alongside East station (G.C. Bett); J37 No. 64600 passing Camperdown Junction signal box; 5 October 1962 (C.C. Thorburn); No. 68123 shunting in Dock Sttreet on 16 September 1954 (G. Pearson); road tractor crossing South Union Street with mineral wagon on 7 August 1961; (C.C. Thorburn); North British diesel hydraulic No. 11703 near docks; LBSCR D1 0-4-2T No. 2215 in Grove Road, Deptford in yeaars subject to the Blackout; AEC double deck bus about to cross embedded railway line in Ebbw Vale. Further information on p. 253 from Graham Akers (white hot ingots on Ashton Old Road); Tim Edmonds (Westward Ho! & Appledore);  Bill Housley on Internet source on Port Sunlight; Bill Armstrong: Alford & Sutton, Westward Ho!; Bridgwater Docks and Barry? Letter on page 317 from Jim Dix on use Huddersfield tram tracks to convey coal to mills from a connection to the L&YR: KPJ Huddersfield, like Glasgow deliberately set its gauge to slightly narrower than standard to accept standard guage wagons, but according to Bett and Gillham the coal was conveyed in special tramway vehicles 

Federico Tak. The railway navvy in nineteenth century Britain. 80-2
Probably underplays the role canal and road construction in the eighteenth century played in the development of the navvy: Standedge Canal and Telford's "fast transit" canals and roads, especially that to Holyhead preceded most major railway constuction. Most of the skills were applicable to any major works. Equally, the methods of payment in kind, the squalour and the disease were not unique to railway construction, although conditions at Woodhead did engage the attention of social reformers like Edwin Chadwick. Books by Coleman, Cowley and MacAmhlaigh are cited. Illustrations: Alan Fearnley painting of Ribblehead Viaduct under construction in 1870s (but showing construction in wrong direction); photograph of Dent Head Viaduct under construction; and death certificate. See also letter from Stephen Berry on p. 253.

Bill Taylor. The railway in Court: dispute over running powers. 83-5
Predominantly one case which eventually was taken all the way the the House of Lords and was overtaken by history. Most disputes concerning running powers were capable of being resolved by the Railway & Canal Traffic Commission. The dispute examined was between the Midland Railway and the Great Central Railway, partly in respect of rights granted to the Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway. Very specifically they concerned traffic from Shirebrook Colliery over the Warsop Curve at Shirebrook Junction wherein the Great Central sought to use the Curve for traffic from Mansfield collieries. The case was handled by the Great Central's solicitor Dixon Davis  and heard by Mr Justice Neville. Judgement was given on 24 October 1913 which upheld the Midland's restrictions on the use of the Curve. By this time the Great Central had gained access to Mansfield via the Mansfield Railway and in 1914 such disputes were contrary to the War Effort. Illustrations: Shirebrook Junction c1908 (MR official photograph); Shirebrook station (MKidland Railway) on 28 August 1961 with BR Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75062 arriving with train formed of Gresley corridor stock from Yarmouth Vauxhall; Worksop station with 07.49 to Sheffrield Victoria headed by B1 No. 61127; K1 No. 62019 with train of cement containers from Streetley at Whitwell on 6 June 1962. See also caption apologia.

Malcolm Rivett. By steam to the steamers: the story of the Isle of Man boat trains. – Part Two. The heyday and the long decline. 86-91.
How the Great Western competed for traffic to the Island; the Manxman service from Euston; the brief surge in post 1945 traffic followed by the loss of surface traffic to the Island to air and competition from warmer islands elsewhere.  The Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. was slow to accommodate road vehicles and to switch from steam power. Illustrations (all colour unless specfied otherwise): schematic map of LMS and GWR services to Douglas via Liverpool, Fleetwood, Heysham and Ardrossan for 1938: Lady of Mann (b&w: Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. vessel); GWR brochure cover (b&w); LMS and GWR brochure cover of 1939 showing railways on Island and flights from Ronaldsway; Manx Tourist Board 1956 advertisement in British Railways Wales and North West Holiday Guide; handbill Halifax to Douglas via Fleetwood (1957) and rebuilt Scot No. 46164 The Artists' Rifleman climbing Camden bank on down The Manxman on 7 July 1954; advertisement in Shields Weekly news aimed at elderly people for through traain from Newcastle to Liverpool Riverside for Douglas on 8 June 1968; advertisement showing electric train and fares; rail bus No. 144 017 at Lancaster forming boat train for Heysham Port on 23 July 2016 and model of Isle of Man ship in glass case at Blackburn station on 22 September 1979 (J,S. Gilks). Michael Yardley (p. 253) mentions another late steam working run in connection with Manx sailings

Eric Bruton's A3 Pacifics. 92-5
Black & white photo-feature: No. 60037 Hyperion (blue livery) on 12.00 departure from Edinburgh Waverley up Queen of Scots Pullman on 8 June 1951; No. 60110 Robert the Devil (apple green) at Marshmoor on 15.30 King's Cross to Newcastle on 15 April 1950; No. 60096 Papyrus (apple green) on 08.24 Grantham to King's Cross passing Hatfield on 16 April 1949; No. 60043 Brown Jack (Brunswick green) climbing Cockburnspath bank with up Queen of Scots Pullman on 26 June 1954; No. 60037 Hyperion passing Haymarket station en route to Haymarket shed oin evening of 8 June 1951; No. 60055 Woolwinder on Sunday King's Cross to Glasgow express on 5 March 1950 approaching Welwyn Garden City; No. 60108 Victor Wild (blue livery) on 19.21 King's Cross to Peterborough stopping train leaving Hadley North Tunnel on 2 August 1951; No. 60041 Salmon Trout climbs through roack cutting on approach to the Forth Bridge with 12.08 Perth to Euston on 29 June 1954.

The South Eastern & Chatham L Class and the L1 4-4-0s. 96
Colour photo-feature: L classs No. 31774 at Tumbridge Wells West c1956; L1 class No. 31706 on Tonbridge shed in polished state on 11 June 1961 (R.C. Riley); L No. 31770 ar4riving Lewes with faded red birdcage set on 1 September 1956 (Ray Oakley) see letter from Neil Knowlden who objects to caption wording; L No. 31772 leaving Tonbridge with red birdcage set; L1 No. 31754 passing St Mary Cray Junction with Dover tio Victoria train formed of two green coaches plus carmine & cream set; L1 No. 71753 at Dover Marine on 12 July 1958 (Trevor Owen); and L1 No. 31759 at coaling stage Ashford shed on 12 September 1954 (Trevor Owen).

Allan Trotter. Swindon-built diesel multiple units in Scotland.  99-101
Very strange piece that whilst noting some of the muddle relating to the Inter-City and other related Swindon built units there is no photograph of one of the original trains; the interiors of which mirrored contemporary locomotive-hauled stock with compartments, guard's vans and buffets. Illustrations (all colour): ex-Edinburgh-Glasgow driving motor brake second on train for Ayr at Kilwinning (which had maroon background station nameboards in June 1977; Aberdeen bound three-car set in original dark green livery at Elgin in April 1968; two Ayrshire units at Ayr with Glasgow service in September 1976; driving motor second leading Class 126 (corporate blue & grey livery) arriving Glasgow Central in June 1981; Ayrshire unit in corporate blue & grey livery at Barassie with Ayr service in April 1982; and eight car train leaving Inverness for Aberdeen in October 1975 (picture would frighten Abellio Lesser East Anglia which operates a single car unit on last train from Norwich to Sheringham on Saturday nights).  See also letter from John Macnab

David J. Hayes. A Wednesbury winter's night. Part Two. 102-9
Part 1 see previous Volume. Based on train register from Wednesbury No. 1 signal box and Working Timetable appropriate for Thursday 9 December 1976. Dudley Freightliner Terminal had opened in November 1967 and closed in September 1986. It even had a weekly service to Norwich!. Illustrations: Class 25/3 No. 25 273 leaving Wednesbury Exchange Sidings probably for Bescot Yard on 27 June 1977 (Michael Mensing); No. 46 053 with load of steel probably bpounf for Wolverhampton Steel Terminal passing Wednesbury on 13 July 1977 (John Whitehouse); Nos. 20 180 and 20 181 exit Wednesbury Exchange Sidings on 13 July 1977 (John Whitehouse); Nos. 20 047 and 20 008 pass under former GWR Snow Hill to Wolverhampton main line on 14 July 1977 (John Whitehouse);  Class 31/1 No. 31 254 with load of steel probably from Scunthorpe to Brierly Hill on 14 July 1977 (John Whitehouse);  Class 47 035 with Dudley to Glasgow Gushetfaulds Freightliner passing Ocker Hill Power Station on 14 July 1977 (John Whitehouse); Wednesbury No. 1 signal box interior with signalman Ian Johnston at work in 1980s; Class 45 075 with empty bogie tank wagons from Wednesbury Exchange Sidings passing Ocker Hill power station on 11 May 1977 (John Whitehouse).

Chris Fox. Namings and centenaries: a review of four examples of British Railways paperwork. 110-11
London Midland Region produced The story of New Street by F.W. Grocott to mark its centenary in 1951 (unattractive cover shown in colour); Western Region brochure: Centenary Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash; Western Region brochure Naming ceremony of the last steam locomotive built by British Railways (No. 92220 Evening Star) and Souvenir of two locomotive naming ceremonies on the Western Region of Briish Railways (Type 47 D1661 North Star named by Ray Gunter and D1662 Isambard Kingdom Brunel by Lord Mayor of Bristol, K. Dalby. (all with colour illustrations of covers). See also comments by Robert Darlaston on page 254   and from Nick Daunt on p. 253

Jeffrey Wells. More Great Western Railway improvement schemes. 112-19.
Based mainly on reports in Railway Gazette for period 1933 to 1935 and reflecting investment funded by Government Guaranteed Loans. Projects included improvements at Cardiff General station, a new locomotive depot at Didcot, a new marshalling yard at Swindon and quadrupling of the track on the main line to, and  beyond, Swindon and on the approaches to Birmingham.  Illustrations: No. 5096 Bridgwater Castle and No. 6338 at east end of Cardiff General in September 1962 (colour: Barry Gant); Patform 1 at Cardiff General c1920; unpleasant rear of Cardiff General facing Temperance Town; Cardiff General  frontage on 30 June 1964; map (Cardiff General); Taff Vale Railway Class A 0-6-2T No, 377 at Riverside station in early 1950s; Didcat station on 11 November 1932; Swindon station in 1930s; No. 2945 Hillingdon Court on westbound express passing Wantage Road in early 1950s; Attocks Green & South Tardley station c1910; Solihull station pre-1939; No. 4115 at Knowle & Dorridge end 1950s (colour). See also letter from Terry McCarthy on p. 190 who considers caption to initial illustration (No. 5096) is incorrect and that text is misleading on connections to former TVR and RR lines in Cardiff from GWR

Pick a colour. Paul Aitken. 120-1
Colour photo-feature: No. 56 118 in Loadhaul livery at Penmaenmawr on 2 June 1997; No. 47 818 in Porterbrook livery at York on 22 July 1997 see also letter from David Cable on page 190; No. 37 242 in Mainline livery at Penmaenmawr on 2 June 1997; No.56 072 in Transrail livery at Carlisle on 11 September 2003; No. 66 050 in EW&S red livery at Carlisle on 27 September 1997 (with Nos. 37 098 in Dutch livery and 37 513  in Loadhaul livery

David Wadley. The Metropolitan Railway Appendix to the Working Timetable, August 1921. 122-4
Instructions for cleaning up luggage vans after carrying watercress from Chesham; fish from Monument, applying asbestos dust as well  as sand to electrical fires, horse traffic, notices informing if skating available on Ruislip Lido and bookingv seats on Pullman cars: all on a railway to become part of London Transport within twelve years. Illustrations: 0-6-4T No. 94 Lord Aberconway on breakdown train at Neasden in 1934; Wood station on Brill branch in 1935; Verney Junction c1935: see letter from Tim Edmonds which gives date as 9 May 1936, and Monumennt station in 1933

Readers' forum 125

Let's go Glasgow Electric. Robert Herriot 
I have been following this quite avidly as I grew up in Lanarkshire and in 1960, and for some years afterwards, travelled by train from Shettleston to Coatbridge Sunnyside to go to school. My memory of the 'Blue Trains' is slightly at odds with that of John Macnab in your November issue. On the Friday afternoon we all arrived at Sunnyside to hear that there had been an explosion on a train and that they were not running. We heard from the station staff that 'arrangements' were being made but there was no indication what these might be, While we waited no eastbound trains came through so it seemed that all services had been suspended. I suppose that bus substitution was out of the question as it was late on a Friday with the rush hour about to start and further it covered the whole of the NB tracks on the north side. What had been arranged eventually materialised in the form of a Vl/V3 and a string of carriages. I got home somewhat late but I can't remember what happened for the rest of the day and Saturday. See also letter from John Macnab on pp. 253-4.

Let's go Glasgow Electric. John Macnab,
With reference to the fulsome detailing of the emergency events of 18th/19th December 1960 in the July 1961 issue of Trains Illustrated, I handed my copy of the magazine to be read by those in the Glasgow North operating office (particularly to the control staff so involved) who had participated and to give themselves a congratulatory pat on the back. My own article 'Blue Remembered Trains' published by Backtrack in the December 2000 issue also touches on this and includes a photograph of the hastily extended platforms at Hyndland along with a J37-hauled service. We were somewhat pushed for steam motive power! In another accompanying photograph EMU stock is shown en route to Manchester double-headed by two steam locomotives with covering/barrier LNER coaches for the necessary buckeye coupling connections as well as braking power.
We did find ourselves somewhat short of non-corridor stock that summer of 1961 and the Eastern Region sent around 100 coaches of various permutations and articulations to help out. They were, for the most part, displaced stock from Great Eastern and Marylebone suburban services and given a temporary reprieve from the breakers. All, however, were withdrawn and condemned by us the following summer. Th; restoration of services in October 1961 did not warrant the same degree of journalistic coverage - that of the previous year was truly an emergency.

A steady climb. John Macnab 
Within article (on Beattock) mention is made (p. 712) of a single coach being propelled on the Beattock-Moffat branch in the years from 1949 until 1952 notably by ex-L&YR 2-4-2T's that had provision for push-pull working. In this connection the 1953 allocation of coaching stock to the Scottish Region has a 1938-built composite non-corridor No.SC 179HM of Dia. 261A, or alternatively 1921A, and classified as motor-fitted stock that would appear to be the one used on this service. Hence the need for the guard to "keep a sharp lookout" as quoted it remained in general use on withdrawal of this particular service as a 'normal' composite until, on condemnation, broken up in Ardmore Yards in May 1964. The single brake third non-corridor on the 'Siege' service also illustrated on p 712 and unfortunately unidentifiable may also have been of interest as an individual vehicle.

A steady climb. C.A. Allenby
The fatal accident near Beattock Summit mentioned by A.J. Mullay in his informative article occurred on 8th June 1950 at Harthope, about a mile and a half south of the Summit, caused by a fire on the 11.00 Birmingham to Glasgow which resulted in the death of five passengers.
Whilst not as serious, two collisions in the Beattock vicinity were of sufficient concern to the Railway Inspectorate for them to produce official 'Railway Accident' reports for the Ministry of Transport. On 18 May 1969 the 21.30 Euston to Inverness passenger train failed a mile and a half north of Greskine signal box. Assistance was rendered by the 22.15 Euston to Glasgow passenger train with the Beattock pilot coupled to the rear. Unfortunately the Inverness train initially pulled away from the Glasgow train, they were not coupled, only for it to then to come to a sudden stop. The inevitable collision resulted in the death of the Glasgow train driver and slight injuries to a total of nineteen passengers and two sleeping car attendants from the two trains.
On 6 October 1971 the Class 6 01.40 Motherwell to Margam steel train lost control descending Beattock bank owing to the brake power being insufficient and was running at a speed estimated to be 80mph when it ran into the Class 8 (maximum speed 35mph) 00.30 Motherwell to Carlisle mixed freight train at a point just under two miles south of Beattock station. This resulted in the death of the Carlisle freight train guard.

The departure list. George Smith 
I am advised, by Tom Hutchinson, that the picture on p751 is of Black Boy Incline, Shildon, not the nearby Brusselton incline. However, my comments on the public's lackadaisical attitude to early railways are still relevant. I can only offer apologies and say in my defence that the picture I used came from an old postcard that someone marked up 'Brusselton Incline' on the reverse.

High Speed Trains. L.A. Summers 
I was interested to see your evocation of the career of the BR High Speed diesel trains, now Class 43, with which, apart from the last suggestion, and possibly, surprisingly, I largely agree. There is no doubt that these sets are a significant success story not matched by their imitators and successors. That said, let us be clear that this does not support the view that main line dieselisation on BR was a successful replacement policy for much more expensive electrilication. The evidence shows that diesel locomotive utilisation was, in many cases, no better than when steam was being deployed intelligently and that the supposed economic advantages were only achieved with long-term operation. It was realised, first on the Continent, possibly in Italy, that the diesel locomotive-hauled train had many of the same restraints as a steam-hauled one and that this could best be improved by building high power railcar (or DMU) trains. The FS Settebello sets were an expression of this change in approach. This, I suggest, is the reason why locomotive- hauled passenger trains are rare, replaced by railcars that can run in any direction without the restraints incurred by both steam and diesel locomotives. As an aside I believe that it would have been possible, had the desire existed, to improve both steam and diesel locomotive utilisation by providing a driving van at the rear of a train, but that is a different matter. Also, while saluting the HST let's not suggest that we approve of the Government's asinine truncation of the GWR main line electrification project. Short-termism of this kind has bedevilled the railway infrastructure for far too long. The WR main lines should have been electrified 35 years ago.

Ups and down the City roads. Michael Elliott
The Scammell Scarab shown in the illustration on the rear cover of the December 2016 edition is of interest in that the vehicle concerned - KLC 268 - is one of around one hundred Scarabs that received a non-standard cab built in the Eastern Region workshops at Temple Mills rather than the steel cab supplied by Scammell. The KLC registration number is one of series issued by the London County Council to commercial vehicles from September 1949; the Scarab was introduced in 1948as a replacement for the original model MH Mechanical Horse that went into production in 1933. The Temple Mills workshops continued to build bodies for British Railways road vehicle fleet into the 1960s.

Visiting Kentish Town and Cricklewood. Leonard Rogers 
Unlike those on many remaining named steam locomotives in 1964 and 1965, which were removed as an anti-theft measure, the Sherwood Forester plates on 'Royal Scot' No.46112 were taken off as early as September 1961, although the locomotive was not withdrawn until April 1964. At this time the name was transferred to brand-new No.D100, the first of over twenty of Class 45 to receive regimental names, most of which had previously been carried by 'Royal Scot' or 'Patriot' Class steam locos. No.46112 was an Annesley locomotive at the time of Geoff Rixon's photograph and, in all probability, would have worked into Marylebone. Cricklewood was the servicing base for GC line steam after the closure of Neasden in June 1962. Notice that the supporting brackets for the nameplates have been neatly removed - many locomotives which had their plates removed in later years had supports and/or backing plates crudely left in situ.

The train ferries. Bert Blissett.
Although it is always difficult, with the passage of time, to define 'cause and effect', my recollection of the last two cross- Channel train ferry services (Harwich- Zeebrugge and Dover-Dunkerque) is that the proposed Channel Tunnel weighed much less importantly in the equation in the 1980s than is implied in the articles. The major investment made in the late 1980s in this activity involved the building of a large new ship (the Nord-Pas de Calais) for SNCF's Armement Naval, specilically to concentrate the remaining railborne traffic on one single route (the shorter one, permitting three and occasionally four round trips per 24 hours, with a single vessel). In order to achieve this, significant new investment was made at both Dover (Admiralty Pier) and Dunkerque (Port Ouest). Once the NPC entered service (indeed some months prior to that), the days of the Harwich operation were numbered, with or without the prospect of transfer to a future Tunnel, and irrespective of the sale of Sealink.
One minor detail among many that could be added: in 1972 the Cambridge Ferry made ten voyages from Harwich to Dublin transporting rolling stock to ClE. For a comprehensive account of the last years of Britain's train ferry activity, I can highly recommend the article by D. Ratcliffe and Ernie Puddick in Rail Express, Feb. 2006. One further detail: the NPC ceased conveying rail freight traffic not in 1994 as stated, but on 22 December 1995, long after some freight flows had commenced using the Channel Tunnel; one unresolved dilemma concerned the highly-profitable flows of dangerous goods which were banned from the Tunnel but were insufficient to sustain a vestigial train ferry operation.
On a totally different tack, I was surprised (in the author's justified encomium of Follet Holt) to see the Entre Rios Railway described as "prestigious". In its London boardroom perhaps: but in Argentina it was a byword for impecunious and unreliable rail transport, a bit like the Eastern Counties Railway or the London, Chatham & Dover Railway in UK. It was built to serve the low-lying and backward area known to Argentinians as 'Mesopotamia', between the Parana and Uruguay rivers, which (with its railway) was frequently flooded. Until the first of these rivers was bridged in 1977 by the Zarate-Brazo Largo viaduct, a journey between its catchment area and Buenos Aires involved the ferry crossing (to/from Ibicuy) mentioned by the author. Efficient these ferries may have been, but they nevertheless added to the impression of an interminable and unpredictable journey: their passengers' views may have been coloured by memories of the collision in 1926 of two of the ferries (the Maria Parera and the Lucia Carbo), the former sinking in less than fifteen minutes. Finally, in support of the author's thesis of British-inspired train ferries elsewhere in the world, he might have mentioned the Romanshorn-Friedrichshafen operation on Lake Constance (opened 1869) where, as Ransome-Wallis relates, "the steam ferry ship to operate these services was designed by an Englishman, J. Scott-Russell, a Member of the ICE and, in his day, an authority on ferries".

Bob Farmer's Index Bob Farmer's usual page-by-page index to Backtrack Vol.30 can be had from him at bob.rosemary.farmer&gmail.com

Book Reviews. 126

Matthew Murray 1765-1826 and the firm of Fenton, Murray and Co., 1795-1844. Paul Murray Thompson. 498pp, 100 b&w illustrations, softback, privately published in a limited edition of 500 by the author. reviewed by MR *****
The author is a direct descendant of Matthew Murray and came to his subject from that personal connection and has thus found the time and had the patience for his researches that otherwise may have had time limitations. The result, this considerable volume, is as he admits "more of a source history of the records" than a typical biographical narrative. For the cognoscenti, however, this compendium, including contemporary drawings and engravings will be of inestimable value. Some previous writings have suggested that Murray might have been born in Stockton-on-Tees but here it seems clear that he originated in Northumberland and grew up and received his early work experience on Tyneside.
He has become known as 'the Father of Leeds Engineering', his early work in that city being associated with John Marshall and the attempts to introduce and improve machinery for the production of textiles other than cotton; in particular linen from flax.
When he became involved in his own partnership and the building and growth of the Round Foundry in Water Lane, the range of his interest grew considerably. He made many improvements to the steam engine and was to manufacture a great number of engines for many applications including marine ones. Other innovations involved machinery and also structural ironwork for the erection of fireproof mills and factories.
He will be best known to readers of this magazine for being the first commercial manufacturer of steam railway locomotives: those built to John Blenkinsop's rack system although Blenkinsop's patent only covered the rack rail and pinion gear arrangement (the high pressure non-condensing engine was Trevithick's). Murray's contributions were much longer-lasting: two cylinders set at 90 degrees and the 'D' slide-valve. The Round Foundry constructed seven of these locomotives before Murray ceased their manufacture. He was well aware of the safety concerns around high-pressure steam especially when such equipment was in the hands of the careless. Most land and marine boilers worked at low pressures at that time.
Thus he turned down George Stephenson's request to quote for a locomotive engine for the Stockton & Darlington Railway, although just before his death he proposed a machine with a seperate boiler and engine units with chain coupling between their axles, ostensibly to reduce axle weight and prevent rail breakages (especially where cast iron was used).
A few years after his death in 1826, the company changed its policy and 71 locomotives were built for twenty railway companies in England and continental Europe between 1831 and 1842 and notably 23 for the broad gauge Great Western Railway. Twenty were express passenger 'Firefly' Class 2-2-2s and their designer Daniel Gooch was to report that they were the best made of the seven firms which had supplied the type to his company. Fenton, Murray & Jackson closed in 1844. A series of events concerning debts and bankrupcy brought the end just as the 'Railway Mania' was reaching its height.
This is not a book for reading in bed – it weighs in at over 41b! However, it is printed on the best quality paper and in a large font with wide line spacings, making it easy to follow the mix of text, extended quotations and transcribed documents, even for elderly eyes. The only quibble is with the index which is rather inadequate and a few numbered sub-headings in each chapter in conjunction with an extended contents page would help to navigate through a complex work. This is essential for anyone interested in industrial and mechanical engineering developments in this period and beyond.

Commuters: the history of a British way of life. Simon Webb. Pen and Sword History. paperback. 150pp. Reviewed by GBS ***
At some times and in some countries it seemed that commuter traffic around great cities would be the last refuge of passenger travel by rail, and commuting is so bound up with the economy and social life of modern nations that it is surprising that it seems never to have received the comprehensive treatment it deserves. This popular survey of the topic in Great Britain, down through history and covering all transport modes, is therefore welcome.
Though short the book is wide-ranging. It covers the distant origins of the journey between home and work, long before the term 'commuting' was coined and imported from the United States. Travel on foot, by boat, by bus and tram, by train, and by motor car are covered in lively style. There is a pleasing diversion into literary coverage of commuting habits, as well as rather more recherche discussions of the etymology of the word and of the social stratification latent in different modes, such as the popular associations of the tram and the more refined ambience of the bus (although one wonders if steady embourgeoisement really caused the triumph of the latter, as implied). The separation of home and work, a crucial factor in industrialisation and hence the birth of the modern world, depended on public transport, and the process is well described. There is an index and a selection of illustrations, together with a bibliography.
This is an accessible summary of a complex and important subject, supported by an interesting range of anecdote and reference. Sadly, it would have benefited from more careful research and editing, and is slightly marred by avoidable howlers. For example, the unusual Gravesend and Northfleet line was not the 'first electric tram to run in Britain'; and the Northern City Line, site of the appalling 1975 accident, most certainly did not run between 'West Drayton, a station near near London Airport, and Moorgate'. A useful introduction, but the definitive book on the subject is still to come.

Stephenson's Rocket 1829 onwards – Owners' Workshop Manual An insight into the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the iconic steam locomotive. Richard Gibbon. Haynes Publishing. 160pp. Reviewed by RW ****
Although this book, which was produced in conjunction with the Science Museum, is in the form of the well known Haynes car service manuals, it is not just a manual but a full account of the origins of this most famous locomotive and its various replicas which have been made since 1829, together with the those of Novelty and Sans Pareil, built for the 1980 Rocket 150 celebration.
After an introduction, the book continues with the development of steam- powered railways. particularly in Durham, andthe planned Liverpool to Manchester (L&M) Railway proposing a competition for the best locomotive, culminating in the Rainhill Trials of 1829. The book then deals with with the opening of the L&M itself and the part played by Rocket in the early operation of the line. Chapter Two deals in detail with the construction of Rocket itself, with particular reference to the original locomotive in its present form and the sectioined replica made for the Science Museum in 1935. Chapter Three contains accounts of their various experiences from people who had travelled in trains drawn by Rocket itself, or a replica, either as a passenger or on the footplate as crew.
The next chapter starts with a Rocket maintemance chart as for a car, showing the daily lubrication points, together with the other essential maintenance tasks such as boiler washouts, which have to be performed at regular intervals in order to ensure continued efficient operation. Chapter Five discusses the ten known replica Rockets which have been built since 1829 up to 2010. Chapter Six discusses how full size working replicas of pioneer locomotives, as at Beamish, can bring railway history vividly to life. The book then describes the two replicas, Novelty and Sans Pareil, the other main contenders for the L&M £500 Prize, and their part, with the replica Rocket, in the 2002 renactment of the Rainhill Trials (actually held in Wales) for a BBC television programme, continuing with the recent replica Rocket, made in 2010 .
The last chapter discusses how Rocket (apart from having no brakes) became the template for almost all the steam locomotives which followed for over 150 years. The book ends with a glossary of technical terms, some supplementary information and a comprehensive index
.

Flying Scotsman LNER Class A1/A3 Pacific 4472, 1923 onwards. Phil Atkins. Hayes Publishing, Reviewed by APT ****
Why is LNER Class A3 4-6-2 No.4472 Flying Scotsman so famous and popular with the public? It was certainly not the best member of the class performance-wise, but it was the first steam locomotive to be officially credited with 100mph and also it was the first Pacific delivered to the newly formed LNER.
Undoubtedly, a further reason for the popularity is that the name it carries it overcomes that common confusion present in the public's mind - namely the differentiation between a train and a locomotive - it is so much easier when they are called one and the same. The name Flying Scotsman was only applied to the engine when it was displayed at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley in 1924. Although it had long been applied unofficially to east coast 'Scotch' expresses, it was only also in 1924 that it was applied officially to the 10.00am(ish) service for Edinburgh and, of course, its corresponding up working.
In preservation, the engine has long been popular with the public starting right from the moment when Alan Pegler bought it from British Railways and, in a series of well publicised runs, was able to operate it over the national network, enabling thousands of spectators and enthusiasts to see it - your reviewer being one. Subsequently the engine has experienced more drama and excitement than perhaps any locomotive is entitled to, including trips to the USA and Australia, plus several changes of ownership prompted by bankruptcy. These adventures culminated in a dramatic rescue by Sir William McAlpine to avoid it being broken up for scrap to payoff debts. Then, in 2004 – this time to prevent it possibly going abroad - the locomotive was saved for the nation by the NRM purchasing it under sealed bids for £2.31 million – somewhat more than the £3,000 Alan Pelger paid for the engine in 1963 – and representing an annual price rise of 18 per cent.
Initially the NRM intended to use No.4472 to haul charter trains out of York but it quickly became apparent to its latest owner that the engine was in far poorer condition than the museum had been led to believe. The decision was taken in September 2004 to admit the engine to the NRM workshops for a 'heavy intermediate repair'. Unfortunately, on leaving the workshop in May 2005, the repairs did not have the desired effect of improving itseighteen-month heavy general repair in January 2006, which was intended to be a full restoration of the locomotive.
It was then that the problems started in earnest. It would prove to be one of the extremest overhaul and renewal projects undertaken so far in the heritage railways sector but this was not realized at the start. Secondly, the NRM found itself to be ill-equipped to carry out the overhaul. The work started without a plausible restoration plan, using the museum's in-house technical staff who, in fairness, were not geared up for a multi-million pound restoration scheme. Unfortunately, the NRM did not have the professional engineering capacity or experience to describe in sufficient detail the work required using drawings and detailed specifications in modern electronic format. This prevented it from having parts of the restoration carried out by large-scale, commercial, non-railway engineering companies. Consequently, it had to rely on the small 'cottage industry' companies that have sprung up since 1968 in support of the heritage railway scene.
Such a large project. being almost wholly dependent on such comparatively limited engineering capacity. ensured it inevitably took a long time to complete – even if this was not anticipated at the outset. That it took ten years was partly due to the NRM's inexperience in managing such a large project. A deficiency in project planning and management meant mistakes were made, procedures such as checking the frame structure for cracking and alignment was performed late and out of sequence, consequently some work had to be done twice. But anyone who had seen the engine running during one of its many appearances in 2016 will not be left in any doubt that an excellent restoration and rebuild has been done.
The book is subtitled an insight into maintaining, operating and restoring the legendary steam locomotive - and that precisely sums it up. The latter half describes the restoration in some detail accompanied by a large number of photographs illustrating the different stages and processes involved in the rebuilding.
The first half looks at the genesis of the Gresley Al Class Pacific, its metamorphosis into the A3 Class, together with chapters on how Flying Scotsman was originally constructed, together with something of its operational life. Once again, these chapters are accompanied by photographs of the procedures and parts of locomotive anatomy together with some drawings.
Altogether, a book that should particularly appeal to the enthusiast who is not just interested in Flying Scotsman, but who is also keen to learn just how much work and effort goes into the restoration of steam locomotives so that they may continue to run in the 21st century.

Anyone for Rugby. Geoff Rixon. rear cover
Platform scene at Rugby Midland with footplate crew chatting up a couple of blond dolly birds in July 1962

March (Number 311)

Great Eastern B12 4-6-0 in Scotland: LNER No. 1543 at Kittybrewster shed, Aberdeen, in September 1949. J.M. Jarvis. front cover

Changing at York. Tom Heavyside.  132-4
Colour photo-feature (all in locomotives and passenger rolling stock in business-like corporate blue livery except possibly scruffy Type 37): No. 46 027 on Newcastle to Liverpool service formed of Mark 1 stock with mini-buffet (a few years before it would have had a proper dining car) on 21 May 1977 (Minster and North Eastern Railway offices very visible); No. 56 106 with empty oil tank wagons for Teeside at north end of avoiding line on 28 June 1986; Deltic No. 55 106 Royal Scots Grey on up Talsiman on 21 May 1977; No. 37 208 at Chloners Whin with down freight with train ferry and Speedlink wagons; p. 133 lower: No. 47 462 on heavy express pasing Drinhouses Yard on 15 May 1981. Further information in letter from David J. Hayes on page 317; No. 47145 on Newcastle to Paignton express approaching from north on 28 June 1986; No. 45 142 on Scarborough to Holyhead seevice on 28 June 1986.

What about the Workers? 135
Black & white photo-feature: Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5219 in Bank Hall shed in very posed photograph of engine cleaning; Waterloo A signak box in very posed photograph taken on 27 October 1936 just before it being replaced by new power box; blacksmiths queue for cup of tea in Stratford Works; fitters working on motion of an A4 Pacific inside King's Cross shed in 1953 (photograph taken in association with British Transport Film Elizabethan Express of 1953; propoganda photogrph taken during General Strike of 1926 of Royal Navy ratings manually shunting wagos in Nine Elms goods depot;   

Edward Gibbins. The closure of the Midland & Great Northern Joint Line - Part One. 138-44
Argues that LNER might have been forced to press for closure in the late 1930s, but for the outbreak of WW2 (but Gibbins does not outline its strategic significance,. if any, at that time). The lack of traffic, both passenger and freight, is emphasised and the difficulties of operating a long mainly single track line, especially in the few periods of very high traffic. In many cases it was quicker to use many of the alternative routes which had also formed part of the LNER. KPJ: the only portrion still open is between Sheringham and Cromer and thence over the sole remnant of the Norfolk & Suffolk Joint Railway leading onto the Cromer main line. Illustrations: M&GN Class C 4-4-0 No. 80 leaving Norwich City on 26 June 1929; M&GN Class D? (C) 4-4-0 No. 17 at Yarmouth Beach pre-WW1; CLass D 0-6-0 No. 72 at Yarmouth Beach on 12 July 1937;  15.12 Nottingham to Yarmouth express passing Edwalton headed by M&GN 4-4-0 No. 53 assisted by (inside) Fowler 2-6-4T which presumably came off before the train reached the Fens in 1933; Weston station on 5 August 1958; J3 0-6-0 No. 86 on freight near Thursford on 4 July 1936 (H.C. Casserley: car visiblke on lane parallel to railway); F3 2-4-2T No. 8097 at Sheringham with train formed of three interesting corridor coaches for service via Overstrand?; J6 0-6-0 No. 64172 at Spalding Town with last 09.55 Saxby to King's Lynn on 28 February 1959 (T.J. Edgington); Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43107 shunting at Yarmouth Beach in September 1958 (colour: E.V. Fry)  

Mike Fenton. The Brimscombe bankers. 145-9.
The Trans-Cotswold railway was both set in beautiful scenery and demanding as there was a long 1 in 60 climb from the west which in steam days demanded the use of banking engines for freight and some passenger trains. The author is unfortunate not to have traversed the line in the days of steam, but relied upon the memories of Jeff Pegller who worked on the banking engines and the somewhat better known Chalford Autos from the 1940s until the demise of steam, and Lionel Padin, a Chalford local historian. The Cheltenham & Great Western Union Railway was conceived in response to a London & Birmingham Railway threat to serve Cheltenham by a branch off from Tring. It was a broad gauge line and linked Swindon with Gloucester and Cheltenham via Sapperton Tunnel responding to the route of the Thames & Severn Canal. The bankers latterly were Great Western 2-6-2T locomotives of the 51XX varieties. Illustrations: 43XX on freight with 61XX as banker: 2 colour views by Roy Denison taken on 6 April 1963 both taken from across Thames & Severn Canal: first alongside large water tank at Brimscombe; second view of banker working hard as begins ascent; passenger train approaches Sapperton Tunnel on 9 May 1961 (colour: Roy Denison); gradient profile; track plan pre-1964; Brimscombe station with baulk permanent way still in place in 1880s and two saddle tanks on running lines: 1076 class 0-6-0ST assisting Atbara class 4-4-0 on express at Stroud c1903; 2721 class 0-6-0ST No. 2768 at Brimscombe c1905; smoke everywhere L.E. Copeland photograph taken from Rack Hill in 1934 with heavy freight making ascent (note spare railmotor trailer); Brimscombe East signal box in April 1934 (L.E. Copeland); Hymek diesel hydraulic No. 7088 on light 12.25 Gloucester to Swindon passing No. 6106 on 16 September 1964 (W. Potter); 51XX No. 4142 banking a freight viewed from Cowcombe Hill and banker returning down bank on 23 July 1962 (W. Potter); 3150 class No. 3164 at Sapperton Sidings signal box with Driver Wally Green; No. 4141 and No. 7003 Emley Castle head up Cheltenham Spa Express up bank on 23 July 1962 (Humphrey Household); Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82039 with No. 4100 climbing bank on 12.45 Glouceswter to Swindon on 5 June 1965 (W. Potter); winter with snow at Brimscombe in early 1950s; 9F 2-10-0 on freight and No. 4100 at rear of freight on bank on 12 June 1965 (W. Potter). See also letter from Michael L. Roach on p. 317.

Miles Macnair. Getting a quart out of a pint pot. Part One. Boosters and steam tenders. 155-9
The text is headed by a Robin Barnes painting (colour) of an Archibald Sturrock steam tender with the cab of the locomotive enveloped in steam. The text attempts to show that Sturrock may not have been the first to adopt the technique and was certainly not the last as shown by many other examples mainly taken from material in the Locomotive Magazine, but some from Drury . Verpilleux, working with Seguin in France was probablly the first in 1843 (see Locomotive Mag., 1934, 40, 174) and subsequently modified the locomotive with a larger boiler (illustrated). Sturrock's programme is covered by Grove which Macnair raises to the status of "definitive work" and the books and Backtrack article by Vernon as well as the steamindex GNR page. Charles Sacre of the Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire also particpated in the steam tender project by ordering ten steam tenders from Neilson. Macnair adds an additional ill-omen for Sturrock: that he did not get on with Packe who virtually owned the Great Northern and left assisting in the foundation of the Yorkshire Engine Co. Some of the redundant steam tenders were converted by Isaac Watt Boulton into saddle tanks. The Eastern Railway in France built at least one steam tender locomotive to work in the Viosges mountains and Neilson & Co. built ten to work on the Cordoba & Belmez in Spain and these lasted seven years. Neilson also supplied four steam tenders to the Caledonian Railway and these were attached to Connor 189 class 2-4-0 engines, but these were inadequate: but were more satisfactory when attached to the more powerful 197 class. The programme failed to be enlarged as it had been intended to fit them to the first twelve of a new class of 0-4-2 in 1861, but the mofied tenders were cancelled.. The steam tenders were useful for providing extra braking power. The concept did not die but emerged in three vast Mallet compounds built for the Erie Railroad with steam tenders given a Whyte classification of 2-8-8-8-2 and known as Triplexes (illustrated). Once the grate area had been increased the three worked as bankers until 1927. Drury states that Baldwin supplied a similar locomotive to the Virginian Railroad (see also Locomotive Mag., 1917, 23, 85) for banking between Elmore and Clark's Gap, but it was too large to negotiate a tunnel on the intended incline and had to be cut down into two locomotives. Rather more successful was the programme instigated by J. Hainen on the Southern Railway (USA) to fit steam tenders based on withdrawn 2-8-0 and 2-6-0 locomotives to augment the power of 2-8-2s working between Asheville North Carolina and Hayne South Carolina. These enabled an extra 300 tons  to be handled over relativelly long distances.  A Poultney steam tender was fitted to 15 inch gauge River Esk 2-8-2. (illustrated). Finally a turbine was fitted to the tender of a reciprocating steam locomtive: this was both described in the Locomotive Magazine and demonstrated by Henschel to members of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers (illustrated). See also letter from Paul Craig on Sturrock 's resignation

Representing the Eastern Counties. 160-3
Colour photo-feature: D15 with Belpaire boiler in LNER lined black livery No. 891 at Bishops Stortford in 1938; B12/3 No. 8537 in apple green livery with polished brass beading on splashers at Broxbourne in June 1939; D16/3 No. 62546 Claud Hamilton at Yarmouth South Town shed with Mark 1 open second in carmine & cream livery in May 1956 (Bruce Chapman); E4 2-4-0 No. 62785 on Cambruidge shed with B17 and B1 nearby on 20 May 1957 (R.C. Riley); B12/3 No. 61571 near Stratfotrd c1958; B12/3 ex-Works at Stratford on 14 November 1954 (Trevor Owen); B12/4 No. 1524 with small round-top boiler in apple green livery at Kittybrewster, Aberdeen in August 1947 (J.M. Jarvis: see also front cover); D16/3 No. 62613 at King's Lynn on 1 June 1960 (R.C. Riley: see also rear cover); B12/3 No. 61561 leaving Framlingham on 2 May 1958 with train of carmine & cream teak corridor stock robably on Framlingham Ciollege working (R.C. Riley)

James Rogers. Ripon — a City no longer with a railway. Part Two. 164-70
Studley Royal, when a residence of the Earl and Countess de Grey was an important calling point for British Royalty including the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1863; a subsequent Prince of Wales on 14 August 1902 and as King on 12 August 1913. Studley Royal has since declined into a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and remains unworthy of railway communication. The City's loss of its train service is a further tarnishment of Barbara Castle's false political image (are there any untarnished politicians?). Illustrations: Deltic No. 9006 on down Queen of Scots Pullman crossibg River Ure c1962; D20 No. 62387 on a doiwn stopping train (J.W. Hague and all remainder); A1 No. 60153 Flamboyant approaching from north on express;  two BR Class 4 2-6-4Ts Nos. 80117 and 80118 on empty stock north of the station in 1958; WD No. 90068 with down freight north of station; B1 No. 61062 running into station with northbound CTAC Scottish Tours Express with Ripon Cathedral visible in background; A1 No. 60154 Bon Accord with down express; J25 0-6-0 No. 65726 with freightlette; Type 37 diesel electric with train of ammonia tank wagos en route from Heysham Moss to Newport (Teeside); Baywood Chemicals alias Ripon station in December 1971.

Jeffrey Wells. A Lancashire alliance 1863-1870. 171-7
Lancashire Union Railway: joint railway between Lancashire & Yorkshire and London & North Western Railway. The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, Lord Lindsay, John Lancaster, Alfred Hewlett and James Diggle wished to promote a railway between the Wigan coalfield and East Lancashire as typified by Blackburn an Burnley. The Lancashire Union Railway sought to meet this transport need. The London & North Western Railway was supportive, but the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway was hostile, but eventually agreed to a joint line authorised on 25 July 1864. The Civil Engineers of both companies were responsible: William Baker and Sturges Meek. The railway opened on 1 December 1869. The Blackburn Standard, Preston Guardian and Liverpool Mercury are the main newspaper sources quoted. Illustrations:. Cherry Tree station on 5 August 1964; Febiscoweles Three Arch Bridge on 18 June 1966; Withnell station; Brinscall station; Heapey station; Chorley statiojn c1921 and 5 August 1964; Adlington station; Red Rock station and Boar's Head station and junction c1925;

Morfa Mawddach in Limbo. Max Birchenough. 178-9
Colour photo-feature: Five colour views taken in April 1968 with much falling into disrepair

Jeffrey Wells. The Great Silence and the railways - 1919. 180-1
On 11 November 1919 at 11.00 two minutes silence was observed throughout the United Kingdom to commemorate the dead who had fallen during WW1: newspaper reports on how this was undertaken on the railway at Dundee, Hull, Longdown, Crewe, Stafford, Bristol and at various stations in London. Illustrations:: (none of the actual "event"): Crewe Platform 4 1930s; Longdown July 1903; Stafford c1910.

Michael H.C. Baker. Beyond Clapham Junction. 182-8
A mixture of autobiographical material with indications to what many readers may have missed as their sardine-like transits were endured, assuming that the archaic fireman's union members permitted such ventures on their approaches to Waterloo or Victoria possibly by Eurostar (which briefly enabled one to arrive in Central London having enjoyed dinner on the train — must have been like arriving on the up Bournemouth Belle). Illustrations: London Transport trams on conduit track outside Clapham Junction station in 1935: see letter from Graham Smith for more precise location and notes on the mainly unvestibuled E/1 class former London County Council tram cars dominating the street scene at Vauxhall; Marsh 4-6-2T No. 32326 (malchite green) with an up Oxted train in 1949 at Clapham Junction; M7 0-4-4T No. 30248 approching Earlsfield with empty stock; LBSCR B4 4-4-0 No. 210 with LBSCR Royal Train under wires south of Clapham Junction c1910 see also letter from Bill Armsttrong on page 254 who writes about the boiler classification of this Royal performer and other LBSCR locomotives; 4 SUB No. 4352 approaching Clapham Junction c1955; Lord Nelson No. 30855 Robert Blake in Wandsworth cutting with up Ocean Liner Express on 2 June 1959; King Arthur No. 30788 Sir Urre of the Mount in Clapham sidings in November 1961; LBSCR parcels office at Clapham Junction extant "today" (colour); C class 0-6-0 No. 31510 on empty stock approaching Vauxhall on 1 July 1961; interior of Battersea Park station on 6 September 2006 (colour); Battle of Britain class No. 21C163 in malchite green at Stewarts Lane in 1947; E4 0-6-2T No. 32500 detached itself from empty stoack on approach to Clapham Junction in November 1961; Eurostar departing from Waterloo International with Big Ben behind (colour) 

John C. Hughes. Carruthers (and others). 189
Advertisement for Dr Tibbles' Vi-Cocoa from Liverpool Daily Post (22 March 1900) showing L. Carruthers making a drink in a signal cabin on the Liverpool Overhead Railway. In 1902 James Logan Carruthers was convicted of fraud from the LOR (Liverpool Echo, 8 November 1902)

Readers' Forum. 190

Dispute over running powers. Editor
A gremlin struck and transposed the photograph captions, as eagle-eyed readers doubtless noticed. Apologies all round. Ed.

Snaigow and Durn. John Roake  
David Williams, in his piece about Snaigow and Dum states these locomotives, as had many other Highland Railway locomotives in the past, carried the names of the residences of directors of the Highland Railway, a statement which has been made many times before. But is this actually correct, even if the result is the same? In the Scottish Highlands it was (is?) usual to speak or refer to an untitled gentleman in possession of an estate colloquially by the name of that estate. Thus the Highland Railway was following the practices of other railway companies by naming their locomotives after the directors of the company, it just so happening that in Highland circles those directors shared their names with that of their estates.

Swindon-built diesel multiple units in Scotland. John Macnab
Trailer Composite Corridors Nos. 59402-12 are shown to be both as working Edinburgh- Glasgow and Glasgow-Ayr and Stranraer services. That shown for the latter is correct. There is also no mention of the two Trailer Buffet Firsts Nos. 59098/9 that formed part of the 'Ayrshire' allocation. It is correct that Motor Seconds Nos.79088 and 79168 transferred to Ayr with Trailer Firsts 79470/9 becoming, in effect, surrogate Class 126 along with their Ayr counterparts on the inception of TOPS. Incidentally, we in the coaching rolling section at Glasgow HQ never referred to trailers within these sets having a differing TOPS number, eg Class 188, simply regarding the unit(s) as one class. Prior to this in the 1960s several individual Edinburgh-Glasgow Motor Seconds were 'loaned' to Ayr depot from time to time. There was never to my knowledge a reciprocal movement. Of the Aberdeen-Inverness sets one was borrowed for several years in the early 1960s to work a Glasgow Queen Street-Oban summer timetabled service routed via Crianlarich Upper and Lower. The photograph on p101 of a lengthy DMU working departing for Aberdeen shows an anomaly in that the leading Class 120 appears to be without its Trailer Buffet Second.
One other Swindon aspect of these units was that all bore, when new, the Regional owning prefix as 'Sc' as opposed to the normal. shall we say correct, SC The only other builder to do likewise was Craven's of Sheffield for the Class 311 EMUs.

Pick a colour. David Cable 
The caption to the photograph (February) of the Class 47 in Porterbook purple and white needs amplifying. There were five locomotives carrying variations of the Porterbrook house colours: two Class 47s, Nos.47 807 and 47 817, Class 55 No.D9016, Class  57 No..57 601 and Class 87 No. 87 002, the latter carrying a different style on both side of the bodywork. Interested readers can see photographs of all of these in my book Lost Liveries of Privatisation, published around six years ago by lan Allan. As a matter of interest, Porterbrook also leased out three Class 170 DMUs (Nos.170397-9) which carried various non-standard colours.

More GWR Improvement Schemes. Terry McCarthy 
The caption of photograph on p. 112 of the February issue has incorrectly interpreted the positions of the locomotive shown. No.6338 is not on a platform road, but is on the up relief line It is unlikely, therefore, to be preparing 'to leave with an up local'. More probably it is on a goods train, awaiting the signals on the gantry to change. Furthermore, I venture to suggest No. 5096 is passing on the down relief, as suggested by the direction the safety valve steam is blowing, possibly heading for Cardiff Canton shed. The track visible behind No. 6338 is the up through Platform 2, while the outer rail of the down platform track can be seen between the edge of Platform 3 and No. 5096.
Also on p. 113 the last sentene, at the end of the third paragraph under the sub-heading 'Cardiff General Station' states: "The TVR was the first steam operated railway connecting the inland collieries and ironworks to the port of Cardiff and from 1840 to 1923 the TVR steadfastly remained independent and aloof of the mighty GWR."To be accurate, the TVR was incorporated in 1836, but amalgamated with the GWR on 1st January 1922, following the passage of the Railways Act, 1921.
On p. 114, under the sub-heading 'Cardiff General station improvements 1933/4', the second paragraph is rather ambiguous. The TVR gained access to Cardiff General with the construction of a link. between the Queen Street-Bute Road line in 1896, which enabled the TVR to link its Valleys and Penarth and Cadoxton lines for through passenger services. However, the Rhymney Railway line did not gain access to Cardiff General until July 1928, when the former RR route was connected to the TVR route into Queen Street station and onwards to Cardiff General.

L and L1 Class 4-4-0s. Neil Knowlden
On p97 (February) caption  No. 31772 was "leading a Chatham 'birdcage' carriage" is a little misleading as all such vehicles had been formed into permanent formations for many years and "a Chatham 'birdcage' set" might have been appropriate phraseology. In fact, these sixty-footers always had been in sets of three (apart from a couple of sets augmented at different dates) with a 'birdcage' at both ends and another typical set is shown in the upper photograph but you might notice the 'plain' roof at the far end in the middle photograph so this is undoubtedly set No. 571 which included brake third 3464. Nobody seems to have discovered why this coach had no 'birdcage' though it's been suggested that it might have been involved in an accident; the fact that the next batch of trio-sets was built without 'birdcages' may not be irrelevant.

Book Reviews. 190

Great Western aspects - commuters: the history of a British way of life. Simon Webb. Pen and Sword History. 150pp. Reviewed by GBS ***
At some times and in some countries it seemed that commuter traffic around great cities would be the last refuge of passenger travel by rail, and commuting is so bound up with the economy and social life of modern nations that it is surprising that it seems never to have received the comprehensive treatment it deserves. This popular survey of the topic in Great Britain, down through history and covering all transport modes, is therefore welcome.
Though short the book is wide-ranging. It covers the distant origins of the journey between home and work, long before the term 'commuting' was coined and imported from the United States. Travel on foot, by boat, by bus and tram, by train, and by motor car are covered in lively style. There is a pleasing diversion into literary coverage of commuting habits, as well as rather more recherche discussions of the etymology of the word and of the social stratification latent in different modes, such as the popular associations of the tram and the more refined ambience of the bus (although one wonders if steady embourgeoisement really caused the triumph of the latter, as implied). The separation of home and work, a crucial factor in industrialisation and hence the birth of the modern world, depended on public transport, and the process is well described. There is an index and a selection of illustrations, together with a bibliography.
This is an accessible summary of a complex and important subject, supported by an interesting range of anecdote and reference. Sadly, it would have benefited from more careful research and editing, and is slightly marred by avoidable howlers. For example, the unusual Gravesend and Northfleet line was not the 'first electric tram to run in Britain'; and the Northern City Line, site of the appalling 1975 accident, most certainly did not run between 'West Drayton, a station near London Airport, and Moorgate'. A useful introduction, but the definitive book on the subject is still to come.

Southern Style Part Two - London, Brighton & South Coast Railway. P.J. Wisdom. HMRS. Reviewed by B.C. Lane ****
Like the previous volume in this series (The London & South Western Railway published in 2014), this 117-page softback book deals with all the liveries of the LB&SCR in depth and will be an invaluable addition to modellers of the company. While locomotives take prime position, carriages, goods stock, road vehicles, structures and signage are all well covered, even Pullmans and shipping too. An additional folder includes fifteen specimen colour samples for modeller (including the three shades of grey) which include reference numbers to the Humbrol range of paints. There are 170 mono photographs including several colour plates mainly of preserved items. The team which put the volume together must be congratulated on the depth of information available on this topic.
If there is one thing that lets it down it is the standard of some of the line drawings illustrating the various liveries. Numerous instances of lining panels where the lines are not concentric or properly formed let the standard down and one cab side diagram bears little resemblance to the true lining as illustrated in Brian Haresnape's 1985 book on Stroudley locomotives or to the many scale drawings from the pen of J. N. Maskelyne, both of which form a respected alternative reference to the niceties of the old livery styles. That aside, this book will be a valuable addition to many a modeller's book shelf.

Imagery and information. Kevin Robertson. Noodle Books, 112pp, Reviewed by DMA
More of a Commonplace Book than a commonplace book, this is an absorbing collection of photographs and prose. The only thread running through it is the Great Western itself, otherwise the matter is distinct by time, location and topic. In the introduction Robertson describes the book as " ... a collection of pieces perhaps slightly off beat but also I hope of interest... Neither does it follow a theme, instead the idea was to include what I have personally found of interest - and I Sincerely hope you do to".
The book pokes through dull red embers of the Great Western. The first chapter is on 'The End of the Broad Gauge' with a photograph of four 'Rover' Class locomotives lined up all forlorn in May 1892 at Newton Abbott, ready to be taken to Swindon for cutting up. There is also one of a genial C. B. Collett beside that coffee pot engine Tiny. 'The New Railway' is an account of the building of the Badminton line. This is illustrated with contemporary photographs taken by David Smith, a navvy missionary who looked after the moral and spiritual welfare of the men and boys engaged on the work. The images show the different phases of construction from half excavated cuttings to the finished line and the navvies themselves. There are chapters on the accidents at Loughor (1904) and Slough (1900) and colour photographs which include Great Western coaches in plum and spilt milk, the Fairford branch in 1961 and some railway inclines at Somerset colleries.
Much of the book is taken up by a history of 'The GWR Economic System of Maintenance'. This was a method by which permanent way gangs could, through a key, take occupation of a lightly used line and so avoid the need for flagmen. To quote Robertson " ... the system may be described as being one where a section of single line is sub-divided into small sections with a key box at intervals along that section. One key, which will fit into any of the boxes in a given section, is provided and which, when withdrawn, prevents the signalman at either end from obtaining a 'token' and so allowing a train to pass". This system included the use of telephone huts so that the gangers could communicate with the signalmen and of trolleys, first hand and then motor, which allowed a given number of men to cover a greater length of line. Even in the Edwardian heyday of the country railway there were concerns over the cost of maintaining lines which had limited revenue. The book describes in detail how the system evolved and how it was rolled out on different lines. There are photographs showing the equipment (sophisticated technology at this time) and the men at work. The system came to be copied by other railways. One snippet that caught my eye related to the introduction of this method on the Shipston-on-Stout branch in 1905. Even at that late date one of the nine men in the gang was retained to maintain the four miles of horse tramway that went north from Longdon Road. This was a remnant of that piece of the Georgian industrial revolution, the 1826 Stratford and Moreton Tramway. A snippet to transcribe into my own Commonplace Book, if I ever get to start one.

Distant delight. R.C. Riley. rear cover
D16/3 No. 62522 on up local passenger train passing distant signals for Ely North Junction on 26 April 1958 (what was building on right?)

April (Number 312)

LMS Fowler Class 4 2-6-4T No.42414 at Shap Wells assisting northbound freight up to Shap Summit on 26 September 1964. Gavin Morrison. front cover
See also feature on LMS 2-6-4Ts

Valediction to Old Oak Common. Dick Riley. 196-8
Colour photo-feature: Castle class No. 5049 Earl of Plymouth; Modified Hall No. 6994 Baggrave Hall on 5 May 1956 (see Editorial letter on page 317); 61XX No. 6135 in lined green livery on 23 June 1957. 47XX No. 4704 in lined green livery on 27 October 1957; Star class No. 4056 Princess Margaret in lined green livery on 23 September 1956; No. 6937 Conyngham Hall and No. 4703 within gloom of roundhouse; and D1000 Western Enterprise in desert sand livery D1035 Western Yeoman in maroon along with two Hymeks on 11c April 1964 (all locomotives outside except for pair noted),

Birmingham Snow Hill and Moor Street. John Edgington. 199
Photo-feature: black & white images: Snow Hill station Colmore Row frontage on 12 November 1966; No. 1414 with auto coach on 18.17 service to Dudley in Snow Hill on 3 August 1967; No. 6000 King George V arriving on 09.10 express from Paddington en route to Birkenhead on 27 December 1960; No. 46237 City of Bristol on 09.10 express from Paddington en route to Birkenhead on 25 April 1955 (in previous photos locomotives would be changed at Wolverhampton); ACV lightweight diesel train arriving on 16.10 from Solihull on 31 August 1955; preserved 45XX No. 4555 on up freight on 8 August 1964; Moor Street station exterior on 5 May 1968; 15.35 diesel railcar for Stratford-upon-Avon in Moor Street on 13 July 1968; colour image taken by K. Hughes of old posters discovered in 1972 after Snow Hill had closed, including ones of the Broads, Edinburgh and Cardiff Castle.

Alan Taylor. North Eastern Region freight in the early 1960s. 202-7.
The North Eastern Region carried 25% of British Railways freight. The Teeside steel and heavy chemicals industries plus coal from the Yorkshire Coalfield were major contributors and in 1960 the Region's earnings from freight were twice those from passengers. The completion of quarupling of the track between York and Northallerton assisted in increasing productivity by eliminating the banking on the route via Ripon and Harrogate. Modern marshalling yards were constructed on the Tees (with two humps), Tyne and at Healey Mills. The Tees Yard was opened by E.T. Judge the Managing Director of Dorman & Long on 21 May 1963. Thornaby motive power depot near the Yard was the most modern in Britain. Construction of the Tyne Yard involved neggotiations with the National Coal Board not to mine beneath the site; the transport of colliery waste to level the site in addition to that optained from openiong up the tunnel at Corbridge. Dringhouses Yard handled much of Rowntrees output of chocolate confectionery and was a major sorting centre for Class C express freight with services like the Humber Clyde. Steam productivity was increased at Healey Mills by including a turntable in the plans. Like the other yards it included space for overhead electrification. Lord Roberts, Chairman of the NCB, opened this yard on 23 July 1963. Dowty Automatic Wagon Control was installed in the yards. Block train working included Yorkshire coal, iron ore for Consett from Tyne Dock and bagged fertiliser from ICI at Billingham. Illustrations: WD Austerity No. 90171 climbing towards Hebden Bridge with load of power station coal on 27 January 1960 (colour: Gavin Morrison); B16 Nio. 61456 passing Pilmoor with up fast freight in containers in late 1950s; Q6 No. 63399 outside Thornaby motive power depot on 12 March 1962 (colour: Gavin Morrison); Q6 No. 63396 with coal train at Penshaw Moor on 4 July 1962; J27 No. 65879 with coal empties climbing Seaton Bank on way to South Hetton Colliery in September 1967 (colour: Roy Hobbs); No. 40 006 leaving Tyne Yard with empty ballast hoppers on 28 August 1974 (Tom Heavyside); No. 47 042 passing Dringhouses Yard in York with up fast freight on 7 April 1979 (Tom Heavyside); 9F 2-10-0 No. 92066 with train of iron ore hoppers with No. 92067 banking at rear at Annfield Plain in September 1960 (Trevor Owen). See also letter from Paul Craig on p. 317.

Mike G. Fell. Whitmore. Part One. 208-13
Construction of the Grand Junction Railway between Crewe and Stafford.  Mainly concerns the contract let out to James Trubshaw to construct the section between Stafford and Whitmore.  The original structures and perment way are detailed: stone blocks were used in the cuttings; wooden sleepers on the embankments. Difficulties included hard to work clay and excessive water which needed to be drained. The section from Whitmore to Crewe was known as the Madeley contract and was granted to Thomas Townshend. On 1 July 1837 a senior party set out from Liverpool Lime Street for Whitmore. Rope haulage took them up to Edge Hill where 2-2-2 locomotives Zamiel and Saracen took them onto Warrington. The Manchester Guardian report is not clear what motive power was provided for the onward journey to Whitmore, but was impressed by the ability to climb. On 4 July the first train ran from a temporary syatiion at Vauxhall in Birmingham to Whitmore hauled by Wildfire. Whitmore was connected by omnibus to Newcastle and the Potteries and to Shrewsbury by stagecoach. A serious accident occurred on 11 February 1845 when two trains collided and two Irish pig-drivers were killed. Lt. Col. Sir Frederic Smith found that the driver Ireland was to blame for running at excessive speed. Illustrations: Joseph Locke (colour reproduction of portrait painted by Siir Francis Grant); map; Whitmore station from roadside including stationmaster's house; model of GJR 2-2-2 No. 8 Wildfire; engraving of summit rock cutting from Thomas Roscoe The book of the Grand Junction Railway; Webb Jubilee class four-cylinder compound with 10.25 express from Euston on 25 September 1900; two up trains approaching water troughs, one hauled by Whitworth 2-4-0 No. 635 Zamiel and the other by Problem class 2-2-2 No. 134 Owl c1900 (P.W. Pilcher); two Webb three cylinder 2-2-2-0 compounds Experiment No. 1113 Hecate and Teutonic No. 1304 Jeannie Deans double-head express on Whitmore troughs ( P.W. Pilcher); 0-4-2 crane tank inserting a "ferret" into the water main at Madeley on 12 June 1938 (Nigel Payton); Claughton No. 5925 E.C. Trench, Precursor No. 5282 Champion and Royal Scot No. 6143 The South Staffordshire Regiment (W. Leslie Good)

Edward Gibbins. The Closure of the Midland & Great Northern Joint Line - Part Two. 214-20.
Part 1 see page 138. Responses to closure proposals were received from Holland County Council included that of Spalding Rural District Council; Bourne Urban District Council, South Kesteven RDC most of which made vacuous proposals on the basis that they would cost nothing to the rate payers. The few replacement bus services did not last long. Illustrations: Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43145 with a train of Canaries supporters from Norwich (birding is major industry out there) at Fakenham West en route to Sheffield on 28 February 1958 (colour: David Lawrence); No. 43092 and agricultural tractors on Cross Keys swing bridge; B12/3 No. 61540 and B17 in engine shed at Cromer Beach on 19 September 1954 (T.J. Edgington); No. 43150 shunting empty passenger stock at Melton Constable on 6 August 1955 (T.J. Edgington); Holbeach station on 5 August 1958 (note concrete signal post); J17 approaching Corpusty & Saxthorpe station with a localn freight on 8 August 1958; No. 43161 on final 09.08 Yarmouth Beach to Birmingham New Street at Spalding Town on 28 February 1959; No. 43108 at  Melton Constable on 28 February 1959 (colour: David Lawrence).

Take the motor car. 221
LNER publicity material From the David V. Beeken Collection dated April 1932 encouraging motorists to take their vehivles by train and travel as passengers (2 colour images)

Eric Stuart. Aldgate to Glyncorrwg. 222-3
Great Western Main Line & City close-coupled coaches were introduced in 1922 to replace older stock for services from Windsor, Uxbridge (Vine Street) and elsewhere to Liverpool Street or Aldgate which were worked by steam to Paddington (Bishop's Road) and then were taken over by Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives with similar return workings in the evening. The workings ceased in 1939 and were never resumed. The rolling stock continued in service and some was used to provide colliers' services to South and North Rhondda pits at Glyncorrwg which were worked by being pushed up the hill (but not in normal push & pull fashion, although the driver travelled in the leading vehicle with control of the brake). Illustrations (all by H.C. Casserley): set at Uxbridge (Vine Street) on 1 October 1955; 57XX No. 9617 at North Rhondda Halt with 15.00 working to Glyncorrwg. Originally published in Underground News.

The LMS Class 4 2-6-2 tanks. 224-7
Colour photo-feature: Fowler type No. 42384 leaving Saddleworth station with Manchester to Huddersfield stopping train on 14 May 1960 (bungalow we used to live in just out of sight top left) (Gavin Morrison); Fairburn version No. 42141 at Whitehall Junction with Bradford portion of express from Bristol on 16 April 1962; Stanier version No. 42664 passing Bowling Junction with Leeds portion of express from Liverpool on 2 July 1966 (Gavin Morrison); Stanier No. 42478 and Fairburn No. 42110 outside Crewe Works with Mobile Test Unit No.s behind in 1958 (Derek Penney); Fairburn No. 42210 banking train of vans at Shap Wells in snow on 28 November 1964 (Gavin Morrison); Stanier No. 42665 on Tebay shed in 1966 (Derek Penney); Fairburn No. 42142 leaving Bradford Exchange with through coaches to King's Cross (working to Wakefield) on 31 May 1966 (Gavin Morrison); Fairburn No. 42273 with express from Edinburgh Princes Street at Bridge of Allen in 1958 (Derek Penney); Stanier No. 42587 on last day of Birkenhead to Paddington through workings leaving Hooton on 5 March 1967 (Gavin Morrison); Fowler No. 42320 leaving Hellifield  with 12 noon all stations to Carlisle on 4 November 1961 (Gavin Morrison); Fairburn No. 42106 on 16.08 Victoria to Tunbridge Wells near Clapham junction on 20 June 1959 (R.C. Riley), See also front cover .

Stephen Roberts. Herefordshire's Railways. 228-33
"There can be few counties in England which have seen such a contraction in railway services as Herefordshire". The county town has less than 60,000 population, but is a cathedral city. Only four passenger stations remain: one is in a minor settlement at Colwall. Ross-on-Wye is the major centre without proper railway access and the closure of the Hereford to Gloucester line caused a major breach in the transport network. Illustrations: map; Leominster station on 27 June 1950; Kington station in July 1957 (2 years after closure to passengers); Kingsland station, c1910; 0-6-0PT No. 7420 at Presteign with 18.00 to Kington on 27 September 1947; Hereford station with Saint class No. 2937 Clevedon Court on 16.00 to Cardiff and 43XX No. 7308 alongside on 8 May 1963 (T.J. Edgington); Fencote station in September 1952; Bromyard station with hop-pickers specials c1910; Dorstone station (Golden Valley Railway); Ross-on-Wye station with 2251 class 0-6-0 No. 2286 on freight; Symonds Yat station. See also letter on page 317 from Michael Horton

Jeremy Clarke. Southern pre-grouping 0-6-0 freight engines. 234-9.
340 0-6-0 tender locomotives were acquired: 15% of the total. The oldest were Beattie-designed double frame locomotives built by Beyer Peacock: these were withdrawn in 1923; similar single-frame engines were withdrawn in the followuing year. The one remaining Stroudley C1 Class was also withdrawn in 1924, The Robert Billinton version (C2) were known as 'Vulcans' as the were supplied by Vulcan Foundry. Marsh produced a slightly larger boilered version: the C3 class. This boiler was also fitted to the C2 type and greatly improved performance: they were classified C2X. Most Brighton locomives had domes, chimneys and cabs reduced in height to enable them to run on the other sections. The SECR contributed the Stirling O class which had originally been fitted domeless boilers, but had all been reboilered by the Grouping. Amongst their final duties was shunting onto the train ferries at Dover where their light weight was useful. The Wainwright C class was designed by Robert Surtees and was capable of mixed traffic work: Nock noted their ability to substitute for passenger engines and run nearly to schedule. No. 685 was rebuilt as a saddle tank for shunting work. The LSWR. the largest and richest constituent provided only 71 of this wheel arrangement: the Drummonf 700 Class and the Adams 395 class: the former were known as 'Black Motors'. Locommotives of the Adams 395 class were small and light. Fifty had beeen sold to the War Department prior to the Grouping. Illustrations: C class No. 1268 on Ashford shed in September 1937 (colour: J.P. Mullett); C2 class No. 552 with LBSCR lamp irons and Salter safety valves; C2X Nos. 32544 and 32444 and K class 2-6-0 No. 32346 on Norwood Junction shed in July 1956 (colour: P. Glenn); C2X No. 32449 with permanent way train at Three Bridges on 4 October 1959 (E. Bruton); C2X No. 554; O1 No. 31430 at Dover Marine on 19 July 1958; 700 class No. 30699 ex Works at Eastleigh in 1954 (colour);   O1 No. 31258 at Dover Harbour with a ferry wagon on 1 February 1959; C class No. 1592 at Chelsfield with a train of six-wheel carriages presumably a hop pickers special in early 1930s; Beyer Peacock double frame No. 273-A at Strawberry Hill on 29 July 1922; Beyer Peacock single frame No. 0229; Adams 395 class No. 3093 with LCDR M class boiler; 700 class No. 697 on Nine Elms to Feltham freight passing Queen's Road, Battersea on 27 September 1946. See also letters from Neil Knowlden and Rory Wilson on page 317. 

Neil Taylor. On the street where you live. 240-1
Colour photo-feature of street signs: all in South Wales (two including Welsh version): all now far removed from their associated railways (most obviously at Crumlin): Railway View Golygfa'r Rheilffordd at Tredegar in Gwent; Great Western Avenue Rhodfa Orllewinol Fawr in Bridgend; Halt Road, Rhigos, Hirwaun; Incline Row, Taibach, Port Talbot; Sidings Terrace, Skewen, Neath; Upper Viaduct Tce [Terrace] in Crumlin, Neath.

Malcolm Timperley. A good run for your money. [club cars]. 242-6
Harold Bowman, an iron founder, commuted between St. Annes and his business in Manchester by the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. In October 1895 he formed the Lytham St. Annes and Blackpool Travelling Club which negotiated with John Herman Stafford, General Manager of the railway to provide a carriage for the exclusive use of its members; all of whom would alrready hold first class contracts (the term used for season tickets in the North West). By 1902 three bogie vehicles were in use attached to different Blackpool services. The Clubs had strict rules and a steward who served non-alcoholic drinks. Next on the scene was the Bridlington-Hull Saloon Committee for which the North Eastern Railway provided a six-wheel saloon from 1903. Similar services wereagreed between Withernsea and Hull and from Harrogate to Leeds. The LNWR provided the iniative for a Llandudno to Manchester service by accelerating the service in 1904 and by providing special saloons from the summer of 1906 which provided breakfast on the inward and dinner on the return service. This was followed by aq club car for the Windermere to Manchester service which also called at Lancaster and Preston. A special stop was made at Barton & Broughton to pick up Henry Astley-Bell, a cottton magnate. Following WW1 the LNER expanded its services by extending the Bridlington service back to Scarborough, by providing a Scarborough to Leeds service and by intigating a Harrogate to Bradford service. The LMS built a new car for the Blackpool service in 1935 and a club car for the Coronation Scot train which went to the USA and post-WW2 was used on evening business services from the long platform at Exchange/ Victoria (KPJ personal observations). On 3 November 1924 the locomotive on the return club train broke a tyre approaching Lytham which led to the deaths of 14 passengers and Driver William Crookes. Matlock District Council approached the LMS in an attempt to provide a club car to Manchester. KPJ remembers that in the grim post-war period the evening departures to Llandudno, Blackpool and Southport were still called "club trains". Illustrations: Hughes 4-6-0 on Blackpool club train; female steward for club car during WW1; L&YR interior of club car c1905; exterior of six-wheel Bridlington to Hull club coach; LNWR twin club saloons Nos. 234 and 235 at Wolverton Works for Llandudno service; interior view of No. 234; smoking section L&YR club saloon; NER bogie clerestory vehicle built 1889 deputed to club car use; interior Scarborough to Leeds club car and interior of Scraborough-Brdlington-Hull car.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Curious aspects of passenger behaviour. 247-52.
On 28 April 1913 Crewe received a Royal visit. On the same day an escaped lunatic, Francis Dudley Marriott caused mayhem in the town and during attempts to recapture him he fell on broken glass and died as a result. The railway compartment was the location for murder, molestation, indescent assault and for the release of pet mice between Glasgow and Paisley to intimidate lady passengers, one of whom smuggled her cat onto the train to achieve revenge. The wearing of kilts was found to be offensive to some. Illustratiions (in some cases far removed from incidents described in text): Ambergate station; Snaresbrook station; J37 No. 64598 on freight at Johnshaven station; George Hudson (portrait); kilted and bearded soldiers; Marsden station staff in 1908; Crewe station; new quadruped (cartoon); Middleton Junction station.

Readers' Forum. 253-4

'King' country. Leonard Rogers 
The train being hauled by No. 6011 (photograph top of p33) was 10.50 Paddington to Shrewsbury, a Christmas period 'relief' working, which the locomotive hauled throughout that day. (see report in Modern Railways, Feb. 1963, p138.) This was one of the last reported workings by this locomotive, one of the last four of the class, which were all withdrawn at the end of the month. Incidentally, No. 6018 took the 13.25 'relief to Penzance out of Paddington as well that day.
The train hauled by No.6021 illustrated on the lower half of p33 carries headcode V07. This indicates that it was the 11.40 Birkenhead-Paddington, due at Leamington around 15.30. 5uch a time is consistent with the angle of the shadows, given the time of year and the fact that Leamington station lies roughly west-east. Lastly, if the headcode A05 is correct for the train which No.6025 (top of p34) was hauling, it will have been the 07.25 ex-Wolverhampton, rather than a working from Plymouth.

The railway navvy in Great Britain. Stephen Berry
One of my great, great-grandfather's was a navvy. Born in 1812 in Wivelsfield, Sussex, he was the son of an agricultural labourer and no doubt started his working life in a similar way, but by 1841 the Redhill to Tonbridge line was in the course of construction and he was living in a shanty town at Bletchingley, near Godstone, in Surrey. In 1851 he was in lodgings in Little Gonerby, Grantham, working on the East Coast Main Line at Grantham. I have some evidence that he was working near Maidstone in around 1855 and, shortly afterwards, on the Cornwall Railway at Devonport. It was here that he was in lodgings and where he met my great, great-grandmother, who was a niece of the proprietor. In January 1861, when he was 48 and she 17, they eloped to Bristol, marrying at Temple church (very near the station). He obviously decided to relinquish his former hard lifestyle as the couple returned westwards and settled down, firstly in Liskeard and subsequently in Looe, as he took employment on the Liskeard & Looe Railway as a lengthsman, responsible for track maintenance. He lived to the ripe old age of 69 - ironically dying not of hard use as a navvy but because a maypole fell on him! He certainly doesn't seem to fit the generally accepted picture of a railway navvy but I suspect that, as in many instances, we hear far more about the really wayward characters than those who simply carried out their work honestly and got on with life.

Namings and centenaries. Nick Daunt 
Re London Midland Region publication, The story of New Street, both because I grew up in Birmingham and I have a copy of this booklet myself. Although I would agree that the LMR could have chosen a better day to take their cover photograph, I am sorry that Mr. Fox finds the frontage of the Queen's Hotel above the main entrance to the station "grim" and "unappealing". Of course, this is a matter of personal taste, but I would point out that the fine Italianate architecture of the building can be seen to much better advantage in the 1904 view on p9 of the booklet. The Illustrated London News of  10 June 1854 had an excellent engraving of the then new hotel together with a most enthusiastic description of its architectural details. By the time of the cover photograph to which Mr. Fox objects, the building had been disfigured by British Railways with singularly unattractive lettering and a totally inappropriate clock. Furthermore, like so many of our public buildings in the 1950s, it was covered with a thick layer of soot. Imagine what it would look like if this were to be removed - as has now happened at many of our finest Victorian stations. I must admit that the rear of the hotel, overlooking the station itself, was truly grim, with its unadorned brick and unsightly clutter of down-pipes and fire escape ladders. But this had never been intended to be seen by passengers, being hidden by the overall roof which covered the LNWR side of the station. When this was removed after the Second World War the rear of the hotel was revealed in all its ugliness It forms the background to many a classic 1950s shot of 'Jubilee-hauled London expresses standing at Platform 3.
Unfortunately I missed the centenary exhibition at the beginning of June 1954, whereas my spotting career did not begin until near the end of the summer holidays of that year. The three locomotives present were LNWR 2-4-0 No.790 Hardwicke, Midland 2-4-0 No.158A and LMS 4-6-2 No. 46235 City of Birmingham. At that time, Stanier Pacifies were banned at New Street because of the limited clearances in the tunnels. According to spotter lore, No. 46235 was towed dead into the station with its out-of-gauge parts removed. The ban was lifted in August 1959, after which 'Semis" did begin to make appearances at New Street, although I never saw one. There is a fine colour picture of No. 46245 City of London on a Euston express taken on 5 August 1963 in Railway Liveries, BR Steam 1948-1968, by Brian Haresnape, revised by Colin Boocock (Ian Allan, 1989), with the rear of the hotel in all its glory. As for City of Birmingham, it is now rather badly displayed in the Thinktank museum in the city. [KPJ: suspect that Grocott was LMR public relations officer in Birmingham, but cannot confirm:: e-book available from Transport Treasures see Steamindex home page]

The road engine. Graham Akers
Re other street railways: one existed in the Openshaw district of Manchester — a standard gauge railway ran from the factory gates of Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth's steel processing factory in North Street, down the centre of Wood Street, across Ashton Old Road (one of two arterial roads to the east) and through the gates of the Whitworth Bessemer Steel Works (being about 250 yards in the road). White hot ingots of up to 250 tons were moved from the steel making plant to the processing plant where many were forged into naval guns. A sketch of such a movement was made by Frank Wightman in 1927 and appears in A history of Gorton and Openshaw by Ernest France. The movement was controlled by two flagmen and used two tank engines, one at either end of the train. Barrier wagons were interposed between the locomotives and the bolster wagon carrying the load. It would give H&S nightmares today. Despite the heat shields the ingots must have warmed up the houses in Wood Street nicely as they slowly passed! The railway remained in use until the 1950s when as a small boy I witnessed a few movements of rather more modest loads across Ashton Old Road.

The road engine. Tim Edmonds
Re omission from the list for England is the Bideford, Westward Ho! & Appledore Railway in North Devon. This short-lived line (1901-1917) began from a platform-less station in the middle of the road on Bideford Quay and continued round the corner along Pill Road for a short distance before reaching reserved track for the rest of its route. The arrangements on the Quay led to conflicts with Bideford Corporation, who were concerned about the dangers to pedestrians and vehicular traffic and the locomotives were all fitted with skirts covering wheels and motion, tramway-style.

The road engine. Bill Housley
Re additional street railways: Lever Brothers Railway at Bromborough? More specifically the area at Brothertons Ltd. and Stork Margarine known as 'Port Rainbow'. Rather than me describe it, there is a large selection at the 'Britain from Above' website (http://www.britainfromabove.org. uk/asearch?search=bromborough) which, when logged into, shows 'zoom-able' views of this area (on some, steam locomotives can be discerned). The line climbed a short gradient, crossed a road on a curve and then ran parallel to it for a couple of hundred yards before turning into the Stork complex.

The road engine. Bill Armstrong
Re other street railways: Alford & Sutton Tramway; the Bideford, Westward Ho! & Appledore Railway. I think that the GWR's Bridgwater Docks branch may have also partly run along the public highway and did the ex-Berry Railway E Class 0-6-0Ts do so when venturing out on to the breakwater at Barry?

By steam to the steamers. Michael Yardley.
Re working to and from Riverside station in 1968: as this occurred during university term he was away from the city and was unaware of it. Normally the tortuous and slow passage through Waterloo Tunnel and across the docks to Riverside would have taken too long to be worthwhile for trippers to the Isle of Man and Riverside was normally only used to connect with deep-sea liners, latterly only Canadian Pacific. One associated train service not mentioned was the 14.20SO Liverpool Exchange-Manchester Victoria which ran in the summer peak after the Liverpool Exchange-Bradford/Leeds service was taken over by DMUs providing a regular two- hourly service to Harrogate. The 14.30 left Exchange, the nearest of Liverpool's main termini to the Princes Landing Stage, not long after the arrival of the Douglas steamer and presumably the number of passengers wanting to travel to Manchester was too many for a three-car DMU. The 14.20 was steam-hauled until 1967 and was for some time the only booked passenger working over the Westwood Park line which avoided the congestion and speed restrictions at Wigan Wallgate. No equivalent return working appeared in the timetable so presumably an ECS working was required.

Beyond Euston. Ray Fisher 
Caption correction: engineering train standing on the viaduct is not on the North London line itself, which runs well to the left of the picture, but on the Midland's 1868 connection from the NLR at Acton Wells Junction to Cricklewood (freight-only since 1902). The line also linked with the Great Central at Neasden (alongside the Metropolitan) as soon as it opened in 1899 but no connection with the West Coast Main Line was made until a single track was laid as late as 1963. This and its steel girder bridge are clearly shown between the two locomotives. Bridge and viaduct both cross the Paddington branch of the Grand Union Canal that runs parallel to the yard tracks. I am a little puzzled by the activity around the engineering train given space limitations on the viaduct and wonder whether it is actually standing on the wrong line.

The Metropolitan Railway Appendix to the WTT and A Wednesbury winter's night. Tim Edmonds
The photograph of Verney Junction on p. 123 captioned 'date unknown' and credited to the London Transport Museum was taken by H.C. Casserley. I have a booklet called Service Suspended written by Casserley and published by lan Allan in 1951 which includes this picture on p15 with a date of May 1936. The same picture appears on p. 69 of Forgotten Railways: Chilterns and Cotswolds by R. Davies and M. D. Grant, published by David & Charles in 1975, gives the more precise date of 9 May 1936.
In the general comments department, I must say how much I have enjoyed the two-part article 'A Wednesbury Winter's Night' by David J. Hayes. With a judicious mix of facts based on primary sources and pertinent photographs, plus some artistic licence in spinning a tale around them, the author has produced something which is extremely readable, highly informative and brings out the atmosphere of the working railway in an industrial townscape long since departed. Excellent!

"Let's go Glasgow Electric'. John Macnab
To clarify further the problems concerning the Glasgow 'Blue Trains' in December 1960, I can perhaps enlighten Robert Herriot in that the incident he refers to as happening on Friday 17 December was the culmination of a series of mishaps (not quite exactly, another took place just before midnight on that date) with the transformers on the units concerned. Prior to this from the commencement of 'Blue Train' services the previous month there had been such as overhead wires down, blown fuses and jammed sliding doors which, by and large, Glaswegians bore with stoicism.
However, on Monday 13 December a service on the Balloch branch suffered a transformer explosion in the guard's compartment, ripping open the carriage roof and bringing down the bulkhead between the guard's compartment and the passenger saloon, injuring eight people, including the guard, and necessitating their removal to hospital. (An earlier similar incident had occurred at Charing Cross on 30 October before the start of public services). Another less damaging failure occurred the following day, Tuesday 14, which heralded the despatch to Glasgow from London of the Chief Inspecting Officer for Railways from the Ministry ofTransport to hold an official inquiry. Before the inquiry convened which had technical engineering experts to hand there were the further mishaps on Friday 17 that would appear to include the one which Robert Herriot encountered.
With seventeen sets already unserviceable by way of the above incidents and other faults, the General Manager and his departmental chiefs decided to withdraw the electric units in the interests of safety and revert to steam operation. It was somewhat disappointing as the trains, prior to public service, had covered a considerable amount of service test running with no transformer problems. I do believe that the Great Eastern lines in the London area also had transformer problems and failures with new EMUs (Class 302) but with less calamitous results. The rest is now history. In passing, bus substitution as mentioned by Robert Herriot was not generally an option in those days in the event of individual train failures or service disruptions.

Rivalries. Robert Darlaston.. 254.
In his guest editorial Alistair F. Nisbet requests examples of railway rivalries. One such long-running affair is coincidentally mentioned by Chris Fox on p. 110 of the same issue, drawing attention to the omission of Western Region lines from a map of the Birmingham area published by the LMR.
Rivalry between the LNWR and Great Western in Birmingham lasted for well over a century. An early manifestation is Duddeston viaduct, built by the GWR in 1852-53 from Bordesley towards the LNWR at Curzon Street, which was never used. Much of it still survives. The LNWR enforced its completion despite the line clearly being irrelevant so, as E.T. MacDermot stated in his GWR history, "the derelict Duddeston Viaduct... still stands, a melancholy monument to the ill-conditioned spite of a great Railway Company" lie the LNWR]. Petty rivalry continued down the years to the occasional inconvenience of passengers. About 1958 I was in New Street's Enquiry Office when a person asked for a train to Leamington Spa 'about 3 o'clock'. Quick as a flash and without reference to her timetables, the clerk replied '2.55, change at Coventry', condemning the traveller to a journey of 63 minutes when he could have caught the 3.00pm from Snow Hill reaching Leamington in 24 minutes. I also remember an LMR inspector in Birmingham remarking dismissively: 'Pah! The Western Region is only a holiday line'.
In 1963 it seemed that the LNWR's heirs had finally won when WR lines north of Banbury were transferred to the LMR. Despite their omission from the Beeching 'Reshaping Report', two of the four GW routes out of Birmingham, including Snow Hill itself, were quickly put up for closure. The line to Stratford-upon-Avon luckily survived but only by virtue of a High Court Injunction issued the afternoon before the last train was due to run. Snow Hill and the Wolverhampton line weren't so fortunate, closing at the LMR's second attempt in 1972, after services had been vindictively reduced to three trains each way in the morning and evening. Of course, closure was not solely a result of the feud: undoubtedly sheer harsh economics were the driving factor. Nevertheless, the LMR's approach was sadly negative and lacked any constructive attempt to create an economical operation from a slimmed down Snow Hill. Moreover, at the time, there was undoubtedly a smirk on the face of some LMR men that Snow Hill had at last been eliminated.
Fortunately, that was not the end of the tale. Changed attitudes saw a new Snow Hill open in 1987 and British Rail reintroduced a London service in 1993. But despite its use by the trams of the Midland Metro, the removal of the Snow Hill-Wolverhampton line from the national network resulted in the loss of a fine main line crossing the Midlands from south to north west.Were the line still available, it would provide relief to the now heavily congested Stour Valley route out of New Street. Closure of the former GW route remains one of the most ill-judged decisions of the reshaping era and inter-company rivalry made a modest contribution to its abrupt decline.

Beyond Clapham Junction. Bill Armstrong
Re LBSCR 4-4-0 No. 210 in picture — is a B2X and references to B4 and B4X in the related caption should be to (Marsh classifications) B2, B3 and B2X. Classes B4, HI, H2, 13, J1, J2 or L (all of which first appeared before 1914, or in the case of the L, during that year) should be considered to be underpowered.

Book Reviews. 254

Atlas of the Southern Railway. Richard Harman and Gerry Nichols. Ian Allan Publishing, 2016. 224pp, A4 landscape, Reviewed by JC. *****
In the reviewer's experience no other publication on this subject comes close to the fine detail presented here. The list of sources is itself indicative of the efforts made to confirm the accuracy of the layout of the whole Southern Railway - and other lines in its area - at grouping in 1923 and on the eve of nationalisation at the end of 1947. lt is presented in 146 maps, each with a scale, the more complex parts of the system being shown in larger scale highlights with some of those highlights further highlighted. Stations are laid out in full with sidings and other facilities included. Any changes made during the 25 years of the Southern's existence also feature where appropriate. This is particularly relevant and useful for routes that were electrified up to 1939.
Production is on high-quality and heavy, bright white paper which provides absolute clarity to the black lines of the layouts, essential particularly to show sidings and other non-running lines which are in finer print than the main routes. The book is bound in very stiff board covers with a Southern green background.
There is a contents page and a preface which explains some of the difficulties faced in obtaining precision on mileages. Apparently even official documents tend to differ. The map keys and the maps themselves follow. The book is concluded with an extremely comprehensive index, not just stations but items such as locomotive sheds, EMU depots, signal boxes, tunnels, private sidings, and re-namings. Everyone of the items noted is defined, the map location and the original owning company identified, and other relevant information noted. Despite its small print the index requires no fewer than 32 pages, an indication of how comprehensive the book is. But further indexes segregate these into particular sections, bridges and viaducts, depots, sheds and works, industrial and military railways, level crossings, locations and signal boxes and private sidings - an astonishing number here - as well as stations.
The book obviously would appeal principally to those whose particular interest lies with the Southern Railway, though I would tend to refine the definition further to those whose interest in it is specifically historical. In that light it has no peers when it comes to accuracy and detail or the fineness of production. In that light it is excellent value for its price and is highly recommended.

A contemporary perspective on LMS signalling: Volume 2, Semaphore swansong, Allen Jackson. Crowood Press. 192 pp. over 400 colour illustrations. Reviewed by RF ***
KPJ: this is a mess and has been adjusted: These three books! The heading refers to one! The others are a similarly titled one on GWR semaphore signalling and Volume 1 of that on LMS semaphores. These are produced in a uniform format and have a similar purpose. In 2003 the author recognised that mechanical signal boxes, and especially semaphore signals, were fast disappearing and set out to record photographically what remained. Over the following ten years or so he has clearly spent a considerable amount of time visiting locations where traditional signal boxes and signals remained and photographing pretty well everything that existed. Inevitably this primarily meant secondary routes where absolute block signalling predominated during the period of the survey. The result was these three books. Each book starts with some introductory material, but the main content is a fairly comprehensive illustrated walk through of a selection of routes featuring this type of signalling. In a few cases the routes have been resignalled since the survey was undertaken, so these sections of the books have already become history.
The author states that the objective in writing the books was to 'appeal to the interested lay person rather than the signalling professional' and this does need to be borne in mind by anyone purchasing the books. The main thrust and strength of the books is in reviewing and illustrating the signalling on the selected routes. In the process, the author inevitably describes the functions and working of the block system and the many types of equipment and practices encountered in the survey. Herein lies the weakness of the books. While the author does make a good attempt at explaining some of the complexities of signalling in lay terms, in places the descriptions can be a little strange and misleading. The text and captions would have benefited from a review by someone with a more detailed knowledge of operating and signalling practices and the functions of equipment. Beyond a simple introduction to signalling, those looking for a more thorough understanding of absolute block and mechanical signalling are best looking elsewhere.
The strength and value of the books lies in the route surveys. Each contains a short introduction to the route and its characteristics followed by a short description of each signalled location with basic details of signal box and principle features. There is much useful information on the routes as they are or were in the early years of the 21st century.
The LMS Volume 1 covers Midland, Lancashire & Yorkshire, Furness, Glasgow & South Western and North Staffordshire Routes, while Volume 2 covers London & North Western, Caledonian and Highland routes.
As a record of the signalling which was in use on the chosen routes over the 2000 to 2015 period, which was the main aim of the author, these books are a useful permanent record of what existed. This value will increase as Network Rail implements its extensive signalling modernisation plans, meaning that within the next ten years or so very little of what is depicted in the books will remain in use. Thus the books are a useful reference of the last days of absolute block signalling using traditional signal boxes and predominantly semaphore signalling. With a cover price of only about  5p per photograph the books are very good value for money for the illustrations only.

The LNER Magazine 1927-1947 complete? Working timetables? Locomotive drawings?
These and hundreds of other items are available to purchase in digital format - some as CDs or DVDs to be posted to you, but most as files for instantaneous down load (at very reasonable prices, many less than £l). To see more, visit www.gersocietv.org.uk. In the left hand column select Sales, then go to the FILES EMPORIUM. You don't need to be a member of the GER Society or a GE specialist to benefit. Thus one of our recent projects has been to digitise the Railway and Travel Monthly- all 152 issues, from its launch in 1910 to its demise in 1922, Nearly every railway is covered, in a very similar way to the Railway Magazine of the time, and as a bonus come some valuable insights into developments in other modes of transport, especially shipping. To learn more, find its entry in our Files Emporium (the big blue 'Search the Emporium' button will help you). There you can see some sample pages and download for free a 51-page list of the full contents of every issue. The pair of data DVDs costs £15 plus £1.20 towards postage: for that you get more than 12,000 word-searchable pages!

All in a day's work. Robert Sandusky. rear cover
Doncaster Platform 4 with pink & cream Gresley corridor stock, driver and fireman, school boy with blazer on 14 June 1958

May (Number 313)
note still incomplete!

BR Standard Class 5 4-6-0 No.73069 on the vacuum-worked turntable at Carnforth locomotive depot early on the morning of 6 July 1968. David Rodgers. front cover

Class 56s on the coal. Keith Dungate. 260-1
Colour photo-feature: Nos. 56 091 in British Rail corporate blue livery on merry-go-round coal wagons leaving Healey Mills Yard on 30 September 1986; 56 098 in grey sector livery passing through Doncaster station on MGR empties on 27 March 1995; 56 114 in EWS red livery at Milford West Sidings with MGR for Drax Power Station on 2 May 2001; 56104 in Railfreight Coal Sector livery passing Milford Junction on 16 February 1990; 56 056 in Transrail transient livery near Hambleton Junction with loaded MGR (from Wardley opencast mine) on 30 March 2000.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Railway Post Offices. 262-7
Statistics are tabulated for the firm existence of post offices on each of the Scottish railways: North British (including Northumberland), Caledonian, Glasgow & South Western, Great North of Scotland and Highland Railways. Most of the locations were remote, some such as Riccarton Junction and Tillynaught were extremely so, but Thorntonhall was on the edge of Glasgow. The West Highland line had them at Rannoch, Gorton and at Bridge of Orchy. The Neath & Brecon Railway had a Post Office at Colbren Junction. Martin Mill, Baynards and Mill Hill on the Great Northern all offered Post Office services. The Post Office was highly bureaucratic and there was a tonnage of correspondence between it and the railway companies including on such sensitive issues as the payment of War Bonuses due to staff following WW1. Railway sub-offices (RSO) receive special attention: these were post offices which received mail directly by train. these were initiated in 1856 and ceased in 1906, but postmarks exist dated 1944. One example was Bangor where presorted mail was unloaded from the Irish Mail for forward transit to destinations on Anglesey. Others were at Blisworth, Clacton-on-Sea (an odd location, but possibly for Mersea Island), Alnmouth, Bellingham, Brixham, Bexley, Skye and the Orkneys. There is a Railway Philateley Society. Stations illustrated: Lochluichart c1910; Newcastleton; Wolferton (where Sarah Saward was post mistress and Sandringham was served); Nisbet; Martin Mill (with electric traction); Amberley on 12 June 1968; Baynards; Rannoch and Frant.

Glen Kilday. The Lambton, Hetton & Joicey Railway. 268-74
Based on day out by two fouteen year olds in 1963 when they were given a tour of the works at Philadelphia (County Durham) and footplate trips on two locomotives including one to the staithes on the Wear near Sunderland which involved travel over British Railways lines. Bradyll was seen after it had been used as a snowplough and before transfer to Locomotion (NRM at Shildon where it is preserved and is possibly Nelson No. 2) Illustrations (all by author unless noted otherwise): 0-6-2T No. 31 at Philadelphia on 20 May 1965 (colour: Alan Tyson); map of Lambton Railway in 1904; 0-6-0ST No. 38 at Philadelphia on 20 May 1965 (colour: Alan Tyson); plan of Philadelphia works, c1907; 0-4-0ST No. 33 (Hawthorn Leslie WN 2827/1910); Bradyll (see text); 0-6-2T No. 31 (Kitson WN 4533/1907) under overhaul in Philadelphia works; No. 10 (Robert Stephensom WN 3378/1909) and stripped down 0-4-0ST No. 49 (Manning Wardle WN 2035/1924); No. 28 Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST WN 2530/1902);  No. 29 Kitson 0-6-2T WN 4263/1904 outside main engine shed; No. 52 0-6-2T Neilson Reid WN 5408/1899 (ex-Taff Vale Railway No. 85 and GWR No. 426); No. 29 in shed yard with part of No. 3 (Vulcan Foundry 0-6-0ST) visible; No. 5 (Robert Stephenson WN 3377/1909 taking water at New Penshaw; and No. 5 descending into Deptford Tunnel viewed from footplate.,   

Back to the Settle-Carlisle Line. 275-7.
Black & white photo-feature: class 5 No. 45056 at Ais Gill signal box with southbound freight; Blea Moor with permanent way gang at work; Garsdale railway station (BR period); railwaymen's houses at Garsdale; Ais Gill Viaduct; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42906 with train of new steel wagons; Type 45 on down Thames Clyde Express passing closed Dent station on 3 May 1970.

Dublin Amiens Street — in the rare ould times. Trevor Owen; notes by David Mosley. 278-9.
Colour photo-feature: VS class 4-4-0 No. 207 Boyne (blue livery); T2 4-4-2T No. 65? on train for Howth or Drogheda in 1957; VS class 4-4-0 No. 210 Erne departing on express for Belfast; diesel multiple unit No. 612 in blue & cream livery; engine shed in June 1961 with Q class 4-4-0 No. 132, VS 4-4-0 Lagan as UTA No. 58 and 670 class 0-6-2T No. 673.  

David Joy. South of the Solway. 280-7
The Caledonian and North British Railways in Cumberland; and their entries into Carlisle. The Carlisle Canal, 11¾ miles long, opened in 1823. The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway was incorporated in 1829 and opened in 1838 with a terminus adjacent to the Canal. The Canal was converted into a railway which opened to Port Carlisle in 1854. Horse drawn dandy cars were used on the Port Carlisle section until replaced by steam haulage in 1914. Sentinel railcars were used by the LNER (see NBR Study Gp J., No. 26 p. 13), but the line closed in 1932. The line abounded in curves and was extended to Silloth on Moricambe Bay in 1856. The Caledonian Railway encouraged the creation of the Solway Junction Railway between Kirtlebridge through Annan and across the Solway to Bowness and thence to Brayton Junction on the Maryport & Carlisle Railway. The objective was to ease the conveyance of iron ore from West Cumberland to Lanarkshire. The Solway Viaduct was the longest bridge in the world until the opening of the Tay Bridge, but was seriously damaged by ice in 1881, partly by damage to the cast iron columns and partly by ice flows: the line did not reopen until May 1884. Another difficulty was crossing the peat moss south of Bowness. It was originally envisaged that the line would duplicate part of the railway to Silloth, but running powers were obtained between junctions at Kirkbride and Abbeyholme. Illustrations: preserved Scottish Region GNoSR 4-4-0 No. 49 Gordon Highlander and CR 4-2-2 No. 123 at Silloth on 13 June 1964 (colour: Gavin Morrison); poster advertising opening of Carlisle & Silloth Bay Railway on 28 August 1856; Sir James Graham cuts first sod of Carlisle & Silloth Bay Railway at Drumburgh; map (Scottish railways in England; Silloth station, flour mill and dock sidings, c1900; sanatorium at Silloth developed by Richard Hodgson (chairman NBR); J39 0-6-0 No. 64912 at Silloth with long passenger train in June 1956; Solway Viaduct; Solway Viaduct after damage by ice flows in winter of 1881; Bowness station in 1930; LMS 18 inch goods (Cauliflower) 0-6-0 No. 8414 on freight to Brayton from Abbey Junction; NBR Dandy car No. 1 at Port Carlisle; crowd watching and travelling on final Dandy car from Port Carlisle on 4 April 1914; NBR 0-6-0T No. 22 on horse replacement service on Port Carlisle branch; Diesel railcar at Silloth on 25 May 1959 (J.S. Gilks); Type 2 diesel electric No. 5310 with train formed of LMS corridor stock at Kirkandrews on 6 September 1963; Solway Ranger hauled by GNoSR 4-4-0 No. 49 Gordon Highlander and CR 4-2-2 No. 123 at Kirkbride on 13 June 1964 (colour: Gavin Morrison)     

Carnforth and Cumbria. David Rodgers. 288-92.
Colour photo-feature: BR Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75048 and Britannia No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell inside Carnforth shed on 9 July 1968; No. 45390 in Barrow yard on 1 August 1968; Class 5 No. 44894 shunting in Kendal goods yard on 1 August 1968; BR Standard class 5 No. 73069 backing out of shed on 6 July 1968; No. 44871 at Carnforth on 10 July 1968; Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75048 passing Kent's Bank station with 07.53 trip freight from Carnforth for Ulverston including fuel tank for Glaxo at Plumpton Junction; No. 75048 dropping fire inside Carnforth shed on 10 July 1968; No. 44894 on Winderrmere to Carnforth freight approaching Oxenholme on 1 August 1968; No. 75048 passing Grange-over-Sands with return trip freight on 10 July 1968; No. 45390 with coal empties climbing Lindal bank (1 in 79) on 1 August 1968.     

Michael J. Smith. District Railway electrics. 293-9
Electric multiple units from class A to class N. A class was formed of cars designed for Brooklyn Elevated Railway, but built by Brush Electrical Engineering and intended for the Ealing & South Harrow Railway. They could run as single car trains or as seven car trains. The B class was built in bulk for the full-scale conversion of the Distr4ict Railway to electric traction. The motor cars were built by Brush and by Metropolitan Amalgamated at Ashbury and Lancaster. Other cars were built in France at Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France at Blanc Misseron with some mainly trailer cars built at Pantin, Ivry, St. Denis and Lunéville. The C stock was built by Hurst Nelson (KPJ big thrill finding works photograph of it in "Hurst Nelson Collection" at Motherwell) and was the only Underground stock built in Scotland. For a time C stock was used on LNWR services between Willesden Junction and Earl's Court. C classc stock worked on Hammersmith & City services from 1936 until bomb damage severed the link at Hammersmith in 1940. The E stock had elliptical rathr than clerestory roofs and was built by the Gloucester Crriage & Wagon Co. The F stock had oval cab windows and eliptical roofs and were incompatible with all othe District line stock. It was ordered in 1919 and supplied by the Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. It ended its life working Metropolitan Line services to Uxbridge and after modification on the East London Line. The later stock was neat in appearance and returned to a simpler clerestory roof. Some was owned, but not operated by, the LMS for services to Upminster. Illustrations: motor car No. 3 (A class) at South Harrow; South Harrow car sheds with A class stock when new; A class control trailer; B class trailer when new; B class train at Ealing Broadway in 1908; B class working as single car at Sudbury Town en route for Uxbridge; C or D class unit at Aldersgate Street on Inner Circle service and Midland Railway 0-4-4T outward bound on Widened Lines; C or D class unit at Shoreditch  (note District lozenge station sign on wall) with service for New Cross via East London line through Thames Tunnel; C stock motor car at Putney Bridge on Edgware Road service on 21 May 1952; E stock at Kensington Olympia in September 1953 (A.J. Pike); F stock at Rayners Lane on Uxbridge working; F stock exiting Thames Tunnel at Wapping en route to Shoreditch; former G stock motor car in Q stock at Wapping on 16 September 1971; H stock at Kensington Olympia in September 1953 (A.J. Pike); K stock motor car     

Tony Robinson. The Great Western in Wirral. Part One. 300-5.
Author is son of late locomotive shed master at Mold and elsewhere: see  Oakwood RS 21. Partly based upon childhood memories oh journeys between Chester and the Mersey on the Western Region trains powered by ex-GWR 51XX tank engines and the difference in the rolling stock which had high sills on the window frames and noisy dynamos (KPJ never noted these, but felt the lack of intermediate arm rests in the corridor third compartments and the swish of the vacuum pumps). The Birkenhead & Chester Railway opened on 30 September 1840. Illustrations: 51XX Nos. 4159, 5186 and 4121 in Birkenhead Woodside station just prior to nationalisation; map of GWR in the Wirral; 57XX No. 7714 with 09.55 to West Kirby in April 1952 at Woodside (Mike Bland); 35XX 0-4-2T No. 3575 with West Kirby trsain at Woodside in 1932 (H.C. Casserley); modified Hall No. 6959 Peatling Hall waiting to work 20.45 fitted freight to Paddington with classic Liverpool frontage behind in 1962 (colour: C. Greenwood); map of GWR Morpeth Dock; 20XX No. 2082 in Morpeth yard in 1955 (G.D. Hawkins); open cab 0-6-0PT No. 2011 with warning bell and shunters truck at South Reserve Sidings, c1956; Grange at the Sough with Brook Street Junction signal box; engie sheds at Mollingto0n Street in summer 1948; 28XX No.3829 on 70ft turntable in May 1958 (J.A. Pededn); No. 4704 on shed c1950; 0-6-0PT No. 2069 on shed in 1959 (colour: P.J. Hughes)  

Signalling spotlight: Scottish signal variety. Roy Hobbs; notes by Richard Foster. 306-7
Colour photo-feature: Gleneagles bracket signal (ex-Caledonian Railway; Meigle level crossing  on Alyth branch with simple signal and ground frame photographed 23 April 1962; Rothbury station ex-NBR bracket signal with lamp ffor main signal lowered photographed in 1962; Keith Junction with signal post made from bullhead rail and rotating ground signal mounted on lower part of post (former Great North of Scotland Railway) photographed 23 April 1962; Greenock Princes Pier signal gantry with signals for both directions mounted thereon 

Jeffrey Wells. Railway excursion traffic 1830-1899. 308-15
Early railways (Liverpool & Manchester; Leeds & Selby and Bodmin & Wadebridge) quickly developed excursion trafftc, and this followed earlier efforts made by the owners of canal boats and coastal vessels to encourage non-essential travel. The mechanics institutes encouraged travel as a form of betterment for the labouring classes. The temperance and the Sunday School movements also sought to divert the masses away from chaep alcohol and other social evils. The Great Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace was a great spur for railway travel. The rise of seaside resorts like Scarborough and Blackpool was greatly assisted by railway excursionss. Thomas Cook of Leicester was a great organizer of travel. Illustrations: modest gathering outside Blackpool Talbot Road station possibly awaiting arrival of passengers off train; Jubilee 4-6-0 No. 45581 Bihar and Orissa near Lea Road on excursion en route from Leeds to Blackpool during Easter 1967; L&YR 4-4-0 No. 675 at Southport Chapel Street in 1896 (T.F. Budden); Croston station with Weslyan Sunday School awaiting train for Southport; crowd outside Fleetwood station awaiting boarding Lady Moira for transit to Barrow; Fleetwood station concourse.

Go West  Trevor Owen. 316
Colour photo-feature: 45XX No. 4593 and BR Class 2 2-6-2T No. 82040 at Yeovil on 30 May 1964; Ivatt 2-6-2T Nos, 41301 and 41284 on Dorset Belle near Corfe Castle on 27 February 1966 (KPJ: presumably reached by photographer in Jowett car or van); Ilfracombe station viewd from above in July 1963.

Readers' Forum 317

Roy Hobbs. 317
I'm sorry to have to note the death earlier this year of that fine photographer Roy Hobbs. Roy was a good supporter of Backtrack over many years, going back to David Jenkinson's time, photographing not just locomotives and trains but also the wider railway scene. Some of his work can be seen in the 'Signalling Focus' feature this month. Ed.

Valediction to Old Oak Common. Editor
Acting on 'information received', the opening photograph in Dick Riley's colour feature on p. 196 of the April issue is not actually at Old Oak Common, but at Swindon shed.

Changing at York. David J. Hayes
Picture 133 lower shows Dringhouses Yard in the background, which was once an important Speedlink wagonload hub for the area. Visible in the yard are Railfreight vans with white painted roofs. These were used for Rowntree's confectionary from the company's plant at York, which was reached via the Foss Islands branch from Burton Lane Junction on the York to Scarborough line. The white roofs of the vans reflected sunlight, thus preventing the Rowntree's chocolate products from melting! Rowntree's ceased using rail transport in 1987 and Dringhouses Yard, once an important gathering point for their York-based traffic output, closed shortly after.

Beyond Clapham Junction. Graham Smith 
The caption for the photograph at the top of p. 182 of the March 2017 edition should refer to the location as "outside Vauxhall station" rather than outside Clapham Junction. It is, however, a very interesting scene, almost certainly dating from summer 1936 or possibly 1937. The length and angle of the shadows suggest a morning in summer. Four of the five trams visible are standard E/l class tramcars still retaining open platforms ('unvestibuled'). Although work to fit windscreens and enclosed vestibules to these cars commenced in Charlton Works in summer 1935, at the rate of five cars per week, it took until 1940 to complete approx. 350 unvestibuled E/l class cars still remaining in service (many others having been displaced by trolleybuses in the meantime). The fifth tramcar, in the lower right-hand corner is also an E/l class car but has received a 'rehabilitated' body. These were extensive rebuilds of the former bodies – almost a brand new body – mostly (re)constructed in Charlton Works between October 1935 and the beginning of 1937 (although prototypes were completed somewhat earlier). They featured many improvements, including enclosed vestibules, revised side panelling and destination displays, single, reversible trolley poles and passing point displays on small boards beside the platform entrances (instead of long side boards beneath the lower deck windows). Originally intended to cover 250 rebuilds, the rehabilitation programme was eventually curtailed after just 154 bodies. These were usually allocated to specific services, one being service 78 between Victoria and Norwood on which this car operated. It was probably the first service to receive 'rehab' cars, as a result of Trade Union representations from Norwood Depot, but still probably did not until early 1936. The nearer of the two E/l class cars in the middle of the photograph is bound for Craven Park on service 28 – then following a meandering route between Borough station and Harlesden via Embankment, Putney and Hammersmith (crossing the Thames three times). This service was cut back to Clapham Junction from 12 September 1937 when trolleybuses were introduced on 628 between Clapham Junction and Craven Park. The other car is working service 8, a circular operation between Victoria and Tooting/Brixton. E/1 class cars on this service would be displaced by more modern 'Feltham' cars in stages from 15 November 1936 until summer 1938, 'Felthams' having been replaced in West and North London by new trolleybuses.
I would certainly not envy the task of the two police constables on point duty!

The Brimscombe bankers. Michael L. Roach 
Writer travelled through Brimscombe on a Paddington to Gloucester train in July 1963 hauled by Hall Class No. 6963 Throwley Hall of Old Oak Shed with twelve coaches behind. The locomotive performed very well sustaining 60 to 65mph on the level in several places with a minimum of 28mph on the westbound climb to Sapperton Tunnel. Arrrival at Gloucester Central was two minutes early. There was only one occasion when he stood on the platforms at Brimscombe and enjoyed the ambience of the station and its trains. That day was Monday 12 October 1964 and I was only just in time as the station closed completely when the last passenger trains called only nineteen days later. The station had already closed to goods the previous year. There was still a fair amount of steam around Gloucester at the time of my visit but it would decline rapidly after the end of the month and the withdrawal of passenger services from Gloucester to Chalford and Gloucester to Hereford, both of which were all steam. During my short spell at Brimscombe station I saw a steam freight looped to allow a Chalford auto to pass and then saw the freight depart behind No.6955 Lydcott Hall of Severn Tunnel Junction shed. There was no sign of the banking locomotive while he was there. That morning the locomotive shed was being demolished, having closed twelve months earlier.

Road engines. Jim Dye 
Writer grew up in Huddersfield and can attest that there was a line from what my dad called the Midland yard to the gasworks. It was known to us kids as the 'Beaumont Street Flier' and was steam hauled but I was only about eight or nine years old in the mid-1940s and cannot remember any details but these are documented in http:// www.lostrailwayswestyorkshire.co.uk/ newtown%20goods%201.htm [KPJ: does not work for him]. He doesn't think the power station was connected by rail and in fact they used to ride on the barges bringing coal for it from the Wakefield area. We would hop on and off to open the lock gates which the bargees were happy to let us do. Happy days; can you imagine it being allowed nowadays? Naturally my mum didn't know or she would have stopped it. Whilst it is somewhat outside the scope of this magazine it is interesting that at one time Huddersfield Corporation had two vehicles built to run on the (electric) tramway to take coal from the old L &YR siding to several mills in the town. The trams were replaced by trolley buses but you could still see the lines going into one of the mill yards near where I lived.

Southern pre-grouping 0-6-0 hreight engines. Neil Knowlden .
On SECR matters, Jeremy C1arke has made an error – though I think an understandable one – in stating that the SER O Class were rebuilt to O1 using C Class boilers: the boilers used were, in fact, a type that had originated on the H Class 0-4-4Ts and were used for reboilering a number of SER and LCDR classes at the time (4ft 3in diameter x 107¾in between tube plates x 5ft 8in firebox length, i.e. somewhat smaller than the C boiler at 4ft 5¾in x 111¼in x 5ft l0in) [The locomotive history of the South Eastern & Chatham Railway: D. L .Bradley, RCTS 1961 rev. 1980]. . I'd love to know Jeremy's source that says that C Class No. 499 gained its BR number in 1947 – several months before the renumbering scheme had been settled.
incidentally, on the subject of boilers, those fitted to the Brighton's K Class 2-6-0s were far larger than those on the C2X 0-6-0s and assorted 0-6-2T rebuilds (dimensions not given) so were not circulated with them, freely or otherwise, as implied on p235.

Southern pre-grouping 0-6-0 hreight engines. Rory Wilson
It is as good as certain that no 395 Class were lost at sea (p238, April). Of the 50 locomotives shipped out, five went to Salonika and the other 45 to Egypt, Mesopotamia and Palestine. The four locomotives often listed as lost at sea were in the last shipment and probably went straight to Palestine.

North Eastern Region freight in the early 1960s. John Macnab 
Freight workings have been largely neglected. New marshalling yards so described came on the heels of the mid-1950s Modernisation Plan and, as with others so provided, were welcomed with a fanfare of trumpets and described as 'wonder' yards by a prominent railway commentator of the time. Alas, as became readily evident, they were too late in conception.
The bestowing of titled names on freight services certainly went some way to enhance their appeal, but it was the Scottish Region which was the first to have a freight service officially named in 1954, that being the 19.15 Glasgow Bell's Yard to Inverness as The Heilan' Piper. Five others bearing names followed on with 'Piper' used as above on two of them. As these services were 'piped' (vacuum-braked throughout) it was thought appropriate to add the purely Scottish 'piper' (music) annotation to them.

Getting a quart out of a pint pot. Paul Craig  
Noted a couple of errors regarding Archibald Sturrock, in particular around his retiring from the Great Northern Railway and consider that Miles Macnair has misinterpreted the facts well explained in Tony Vernon's books.
1. Sturrock did not resign in December 1866; in fact he had informed the board at the end of 1865.
2. Stirling joined the GNR in March 1866 as Works Managerl Assistant Loco Engineer.
3. Stirling was appointed on 1st October 1866 as Loco Engineer on a trial basis.
4. Stirling's report came out before the end of 1866.
5. Whilst it is true that Sturrock had been left a wealthy widower, he had had the strain of losing two wives within a couple of years and being left with three young children, but of real import is the fact that his happened over twelve years before he resigned.
6. At a time when many others were forced by circumstances to work until they dropped, Sturrock was able to enjoy a long life after the GNR, eventually dying 43 years later.
7. Knowing Tony Vernon and having discussed much of his work with him, I do not believe that money was the reason for the resignation of Sturrock, nor the failure or otherwise of his steam tender project. He had grown up with the railways and was very much a believer in small companies and no committees, but by 1866 the GNR had started a locomotive committee managed by someone with whom he did not get on, Col. Packe. Personally, I have always thought that Sturrock had got bored and also was a little out of his depth in more modern evolution of steam engines.
8. Just to be even minded, there are a couple of errors in the biography of Sturrock by Tony Vernon. Stirling No.1 is not a 4-2-0, rather a 4-2-2, and also the tender that is at Shildon and which previously had spent over 100 years behind No.1 is not a Sturrock underframe. All the documentation within the GNR tender drawings file shows it to be a Stirling underframe and a Stirling superstructure from slightly later. An error was made by K.H. Leech and compounded more recently by my late friend Malcolm Crawley, but a proper crawl all over it a couple of years ago confirmed my idea that it had never been an outside spring tender underframe.

Herefordshire's railways. Michael Horton
Addenda. No mention was made that Titley Junction has a small standard gauge railway, which is privately owned, and only open to invited guests. Myself and a few friends attended Branch Line Society events, which traversed the line from the renovated platform at the junction, and steam haulage was a bonus. Mention was made of the fact that Rowden Mill is a preserved station, but it is slightly better than a 'non-working' location. A Class 03 diesel has made occasional trips on the short amount of track available for private use only. It appears, however, that the locals are not very supportive of the railway, so consequently operations are kept to a bare minimum. Finally, it think that it is worth a mention that all the lines on the main network have featured steam-hauled rail tours, eg the Severn Valley Explorer on 23 March 2007, which travelled from Bristol Temple Meads to Kidderminster via Hereford behind No.7802 Bradley Manor, so it covered the complete main line network in a single day!

Book Reviews. 318

The LMS Turbomotive - from evolution to legacy. Jeremy Clements and Kevin Robertson. Manchester: Crecy Publishing.159pp, hardback, colour and black and white illustrations. Reviewed by Phil Atkins. *****
Only the third Stanier 4-6-2 to be built, LMS No.6202 was the fifth British steam turbine locomotive to be built since 1910, in the quest to substantially improve upon the inherently abysmally low overall thermal efficiency (typically about 5 per cent) of the conventional steam locomotive. All five attempts are thoroughly described here: the first three employed electric transmission, and with the very considerable benefit of hindsight one can only marvel now at the optimism of the earlier proponents, particularly Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. with their 130¾ ton monster completed in 1922, which substantially exceeded its estimated weight and for this reason merely underwent cursory testing on the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway before being scrapped.
The politics of William Stanier's appointment as CME of the London Midland & Scottish Railway are thoroughly discussed and given the enormity of the conventional task that confronted him upon his arrival in 1932 it is remarkable that he so quickly embarked on this major locomotive experiment. This was inspired by a recently built turbine-propelled 2-8-0 operating on a Swedish iron ore line which had demonstrated a fuel economy of almost 23 per cent when compared with conventional three cylinder 0-8-0s on the same duties. Designed in collaboration with Metropolitan Vickers, Stanier's nameless 'Turbomotive', as it came to be known, was some 2½ years in gestation and was completed in July 1935, for all the world resembling an inside cylindered 'Princess Royal' but with a double chimney. Particularly after the fitting of a modified boiler with increased superheat one year later, No.6202 on test showed a distinct economy in fuel consumption when compared to a standard 'Princess', but not to the 10-15 per cent extent that had been anticipated. The engine always required the additional presence of a skilled fitter on the footplate, quite apart from costing more than twice as much as a production 'Princess'. As such the engine performed quite satisfactorily for fifteen years, albeit with a few substantial periods of inactivity when back in Crewe Works. Except when being tested between London and Glasgow, the engine invariably plied between London and Liverpool. Strangely, photographs of it in Lime Street station, or on Edge Hill shed, appear to be non-existent and are also extremely rare with regard to its workings north of Crewe when on test.
No.6202, as BR No.46202, ceased operation as a turbine locomotive in May 1950, although whether this was as a result of a final sudden turbine failure in traffic is not recorded. After more than two years in Crewe Works it re-emerged in August 1952 as a conventional reciprocating four cylinder engine, with the chassis of a 'Coronation' but retaining its unique five-row superheater boiler and now gaining only a single chimney. An extremely handsome locomotive, now named Princess Anne, after only two months in traffic it was damaged beyond economic repair in the terrible Harrow & Wealdstone accident, although its boiler and tender were recovered and saw further service until well into the 1960s.
LMS No.6202 directly inspired an enormous 4-8-4 rated at 6,900hp ordered by the Pennsylvania Railroad, which for metallurgical reasons resulting from World War 11 was actually later delivered as a unique 6-8-6 in 1944. Partly owing to serious firebox problems arising from very high steam demand when starting away (which never afflicted No.6202) it ceased operation only two years later. In 1945 the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway ordered three 6000hp coal- fired steam turbine electric express passenger locomotives, which only saw two or three years' service in the late 1940s before being scrapped in 1950, by which time the Norfolk & Western Railway had ordered a 4500hp steam electric freight locomotive with a high pressure water tube boiler. Although showing some promise, it arrived too late and also lasted only three years.
The authors move on to gas turbine locomotives, of which Britain boasted three, all initiated in 1946 when the large-scale adoption of the diesel-electric locomotive in the future was by no means a foregone conclusion, although the almost steam-like GB 4-6-0 did not commence road trials on British Railways until fifteen years later in 1961. Only the Union Pacific Railroad in the USA ever operated a fleet of gas turbine locomotives, which was initiated in 1948 and increased to become briefly 55 strong in the early 1960s, only to have become extinct by 1970.
There were other unfulfilled steam turbine locomotive projects not mentioned here, which included a Nord 4-6-4 commenced in France c 1939, that was later completed after the war in 1949 as the now legendary reciprocating 232Ul preserved at Mulhouse. There were also two 2-8-4s in Germany under construction at Krupp's which were destroyed by Allied bombing.
By way of a postscript, the Swedish turbine 2-8-0 and its two 1936-built successors, although retired in 1954, all survive to this day in Sweden where one is still occasionally operated. This book is extremely informative and well illustrated and thoroughly recommended.

A history of North Eastern Railway signalling; edited by Neil Mackay, North Eastern Railway Association. 2016, 320pp, hardback, over 450 illustrations, of which 95 are in colour, and many drawings and signalling diagrams. Reviewed by RDF *****
This book is the product of many years of research by a group of North Eastern Railway Association members, which has resulted in a comprehensive account of the signalling practices of the North Eastern Railway, their development and the signalling equipment used.
The account starts with the opening of the first lines which were to form the NER and traces signalling development through from rudimentary lamps, flags, hot coals and the first fixed signals to the establishment of the block system and interlocking in recognisable form. A particular feature of this period was the extreme reluctance of the NER directors to accept the need for much in the way of signalling and particularly spending much money on it, resulting in a number of accidents which could otherwise have been avoided. But then these views were quite widely held at the time and the same situation existed on a number of other railways. From the early 1870s the NER took a much more positive view and the remainder of the book is devoted to a study of all aspects of signalling work, policies and outcomes on the railway. Chapters cover signals, signal boxes, block signalling equipment, lever frames and interlocking, level crossings and all the other equipment needed for a fully signalled complex railway. This includes some interesting material on the systems provided for the safe operation of several swing bridges.
A particular feature of the North Eastern was its divisional structure, with the railway divided initially into three and later into two with the old Central Division split between the Northern and Southern Division. These were largely autonomous, at least as far as engineering was concerned. This showed very much in signalling where there were substantial and very visual differences between the equipment used on each of the divisions. Only in later years was some degree of standardisation achieved. The NER was also one of the largest railways to use contractors for the majority of its signalling work and this, coupled with the Divisions tending to favour different contractors, also contributed to the variety. The chapters explain, describe and illustrate the different practices and equipment and put them in context.
In the twentieth century the NER was one of the leading companies in embracing modern methods of signalling and signalling equipment. It experimented with a system which would give automatic signals in the cab during fogs and an automatic cab signalling system, both probably rather ahead of their time. In the 1900 to 1910 period, extensive use of power signalling was made for new layout expansion and signalling schemes at Tyne Dock, York, Hull and Newcastle. These featured miniature lever frames and power-operated semaphore signals. An innovative system of automatic signalling using the American Hall system was installed over the ten miles of main line between Alne and Thirsk in 1904/5 saving the cost of construction additional tracks. This system remained in use for around 30 years. The background and features of these schemes are explained and there is some very interesting and thought provoking information and commentary on the costs of the power schemes and their maintenance.
There are many drawings of signal boxes, signals and other signalling equipment and diagrams of signalling layouts which will be of particular interest to historians and modellers alike, and a final short chapter covers the construction of models of NER slotted post signals.
Altogether this is a very comprehensive account of signalling on the North Eastern Railway and the depth of research is evidenced by the fact that the list of references consulted and chapter footnotes alone runs to thirteen pages. The book is written in a very readable style with technical aspects explained well and is very well laid out, with the majority of illustrations appearing on the same or adjacent pages to the associated text, making it an easy read. The exception are the colour illustrations which are grouped together to contain printing costs. If there is a criticism, it might be that some of the photographs are reproduced a little small to see clearly some of the details mentioned in the captions, but then the book is already 320 pages!
This book is essential reading and an essential reference work for anyone interested in the North Eastern Railway or in signalling. It is also a useful reference for those interested in the railways which adjoined the NER and whose trains ran over parts of it. There is much that can be learnt from a comparison of the NER's approach to signalling with that adopted by other railways. Highly recommended.

Online Railway Studies 01904328482 lifelonglearning@york.ac.uk http://www.york.ac.ukllifelonglearning/pg-dip-railways

Coal delivery. David Rodgers. rear cover