The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 33 (1927)

key file

No. 413 (15 January 1927)

Pacific type locomotives: Nigerian Railways. 1. illus., diagr. (s./f. els.)

Recent locomotives for the Egyptian State Railways. 2-3.
North British Locomotive Co. 2-6-2T and 4-4-2T designs.

Southern Railway electrification. 3.
Electrical equipment for Central Section ordered Metropolitan-Vickers.

A novel tee-square and drawing board. 3.

Railway electrification in Sweden: Stockholm and Gothenburg. 4-7

2-8-2 tender locomotives for the Barsi Light Railway. 7. diagr. (s.el.)
Nasmyth Wilson

Jacquet, A. "Type 10" express locomotive, Belgian National Railway Company. 8-11. 4 diagrs. including s.el.
fitted with doublw chimney

Lasseur, E. Hungarian State Railway locomotives. 13-18. 7 illus.

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 18-19.
Locomotives built by Company between 1874 and 1878: 0-6-0 and 2-4-0T.

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating on the Great Western Railway. 23-

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 24-5.
Kitson 0-8-0ST Nos. 1274-93 and 0-6-0 M26 class.

Great Western Ry. 28.
No. 5001 Llandovery Castle fitted with 6ft 6in coupled wheels. No. 102 La France withdrawn. Former Taff Vale Railway Works in Cardiff closed and replaced by Caerphilly Works.

London and North Eastern Ry. 28
Named night sleeping car trains: Highlandman, Aberdonian and Night Scotsman.

London Midland & Scottish Ry. 28
Floriston water troughs.

The Panama Railway. 28-31.

A quaint passenger train, Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Ry. 31-2. illus.
Gazelle on Criggion branch.

London & North Eastern Ry. 32
New three-cylinder 4-4-0 passenger enngine to be built at Darlington to be known as D49, with first order for 28 engines. Some of these engines are to be compound (KPJ: emphasis), probably three. The boilers will be similar to the last 2-6-0 class built at Darlington, also the cab. (KPJ: K3 was last such, and boiler did not follow that pattern).
Some of the J39 class were stationed at West Hartlepool, Saltburn, Middlesbrough and Newcastle and others were to go to Grimsby and Immingham. On the North Eastern Section they were intended to displace certain P2 and P3 classes which were intended to be transferred to the Great Eastern district following alteration to their chimneys.
The 4-6-0 Cambridge engine sent to Craigellachie for bridge tests was No. 8526. It had since been returned, but during its absence No. 9454 (NBR 0-6-0) was sent to Cambridge in its place. NBR section No. 9903 Cock o' the North had been fitted with a Worthington feed water heater and pump.
The Prince of Wales visited Doncaster Works and inspected Pacific locomotive No. 2553 Manna which was renamed Prince of Wales.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (L. & N.W. Section). 32
Nos. 13033-5 were the latest 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines to be built at Crewe and put into service on this section. Crewe had taken delevery of 4F 0-6-0 superheater goods emgines Nos. 4397-9 ex-North British Locomotive Company and 4341-5 ex-Kerr Stuart & Co. Last two 0-6-0T shunting tanks, Nos. 16498-9 delivered from Vulcan Foundry. Precursor class No. 2017 Tubal had been converted to George the Fifth with superheater and renumbered 5244. Latest addition to class G1 (superheated with Belpaire boiler) was former C class No. 2541 renumbered as 8953. Several Claughton class were running with oil-burning apparatus which had formerly been fitted to Prince of Wales type: these included Claughton type Nos. 986 and 2174 and Prince of Wales Nos. 5628 and 5645. Former North London Railway 4-4-0T type Nos. 2812, 2836, 2855 and 2856 (LMS Nos. 6486, 6467, 6463 and 6464) had been broken up at Bow. A former North Staffordshire Railway 2-4-0T had been working on the Broad Street to Poplar service.

E.J.H. Lemon. 32
Mr E.J.H. Lemon had been appointed Carriage & Wagon Superintendent from 1 January 1927. His predecessor, R.W. Reid, became Vice President for works and ancilliary undertakings on same date. Lemon was Manaager of the Derby Carriage and Wagon Works from January 1917; was appointed Divisional Carriage & Wagon Superintendent of the LMS in March 1923 and from 1 January 1925  Divisional Carriage & Wagon Superintendent at Newton Heath and Earlestown.

North Staffordshire Ry. locomotive shops in Stoke-on-Trent. 32
Closed 31 December 1926: staff transferred to Crewe and Derby.

Zeeland Steamship Co. 32
Transferred from 1 January 1927 from Folkestone to Flushing to Parkestone Quay with departure from Liverpool Street at 10.00

Leeds, Halifax & Bradford Junction Ry. 32.
Erratum: locomotive No. 99 should have been No. 399 (printer's error)

Southern Ry. 32
1927 programme for new construction: ten express locomotives of the King Arthur or Lord Nelson type; five 4-6-0 goods engines; twenty River class tank engines and 0-8-0 shunting locomotives.

Reviews. 32.
Les locomotives articulées. L. Weiner. Brussels: Buggenhoudt

Correspondence. 33

L.B. & S.C. engines. Frederick William Holliday
Response to letter by W.E Briggs in November Issue. Claimed that Stroudley Gladstone caused great surprise to engineering community by having a big coupled leading wheel (6ft 6 in diameter) and that would come off track at curves, but loaomotives rode well on curves. Old Sussex was builtby Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1864 and rebuilt by Stroudley in 1871. The rebuilding included Stroudley standard boiler, cab, chimney and cylinders. The framing at the rear as extended to take the cab. "She was a fine engine"  
Response to letter from Bennett. Craven No. 25 was stationed at Battersea running shed and worked between Victoria and Croydon in conjunction with Craven tank engines Nos. 11, 167. 213, 214 and 217. No. 11 was "a splendid little engine" with boiler pressure limited to 100 psi. "She was always in evidence". No. 25 was scrapped in about 1878.  

The "Sussex's" reversing gear. Malcolm M. Niven.
See letter November Issue by Briggs. Locomotive was LBSCR No. 203 Sussex originally built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1864 and rebuilt at Brighton Works under Stroudley in 1871 and was fitted with Dodd's gear wherein the wedge motion was actuated by David Joy's fluid pressure reversing gear.

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating. 33
See letter by J.S. Gillespie on p. 407 of Volume 32. Argues that modern superheating excluded the smokebox type as the steam did not achieve a high enough temperature. Futhermore, Aspinall acknowledged the limitations of this type in the discussion on Fowler's paper presented to the Instn Civ. Engrs in 1914.

No. 414 (15 February 1927)

New Kitson Meyer type locomotives for Colombia. 35 + plate. diagrams., map
2-6-6-2T for Giradot line. P.C. Dewhurst involvement.

Exceptional load. 46.
Machinery for Arapuri Dam transported by out-of-gauge train from Auckland to Putaruri on 13 December 1926.

William C. Wilson. 47.
Retired after sixty years service with North British Locomotive Co.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 48.
Reference is made to a series of twenty 2-4-0 passenger engines, Nos. 200-219, built by the Avonside Co., and added to the railway stock of motive power in 1867. (Mr. Cortazzi was 'locomotive superintendent 1861- 1868.) "The last six of these engines were kept m stock In Bombay until 1875.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 52-3
At the meeting held on January 14, a paper on "The Internal Combustion Boiler and its application to the Locomotive" was read by Mr. O. Brunler. After commenting on the necessity for engineers to find some more effective means of applying and utilising the heat generated from fuel in locomotives, the author proceeded to describe and illustrate an internal combustion boiler, the fundamental principle of which is the kindling and maintenance of a flame burning in water, in order to produce steam for power or heating purposes. For locomotive fuel to be utilised in this manner, liquid or powdered solid was recommended.
In order to explain the operation of the boiler, a cross-section of it was shown. Combustion is started in the boiler by means of a pilot lamp. Fuel oil and the air for combustion are supplied to the pilot lamp and to the main burner under a pressure which barely exceeds the boiler pressure. Before starting, the water level in the steam generator is lowered below the lower outlet of the burner. The cover of the pilot lamp is removed and the fire-clay lining in the pilot lamp is heated up to red heat by means of a blow lamp, or any other suitable method. The valves of the pilot lamp are opened, and the combustible mixture of oil and air ignites on the red-hot fireclay. Then the cover is pulled down again and the flame of the pilot lamp makes its way to the main burner. After a few minutes, when the burner is hot enough to vaporise the oil, the main regulating valve is opened, and the flame bums in the steam generator. As soon as the main flame bums on the surface of the water in the generator, the valve of the water reservoir is opened and the water rises up to the middle of the burner, and the flame then burns in the water, as shown in the diagram. A photograph of the flame actually burning in the water was shown by the lecturer.
By means of a superheater designed on the san:e principle as the pilot lamp, and whose flame burns in the steam reservoir or in the steam pipe, the steam can be superheated to any required degree.
The size of the flame, and, consequently, the quantity of steam produced, can be increased or decreased by turning one wheel only. As this. regulates the combustible mixture with a fixed ratio, It is impossible for the combustion to be altered through mistakes of an operator; once the regulating valve is properly set the combustion is always complete.
The flame temperature at the burner outlet is, approximately, 1,800° to 2,000°C. Since carbon monoxide bums to carbon dioxide at a temperature above 800°C., it is evident that at the high flame temperature of about 2,000°C. all the carbon monoxide is converted into carbon dioxide. The steam-gas mixture which has been frequently analysed has never been found to contain carbon monoxide. This shows that fuel can be burnt more completely in water than in the open. The combustion under pressure brings the molecules of the fuel into better contact with the oxygen of the combustion air; therefore, under pressure, and in water, a perfect combustion can be obtained. Due to the very high flame temperature, the water surrounding the former evaporates instantly. It is evident that after a few minutes the required steam pressure can be obtained. As a rule, a boiler pressure of 170 lb. per sq. in. is reached in practice within six minutes after the flame is submerged m the water.
The gases produced during combustion consist of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and slight traces of oxygen (about ,05 to .03 kg. per kilo. of oil burnt), and are mixed with the steam forming a steam-gas mixture, which consists of about 50 per cent. of steam and 50 per cent. of gases, according to the fuel used, the ratio of steam and gas varying slightly. The followmg is a typical analysis of the composition of the steam-gas mixture:
Carbonic acid 3·6 kg. (1·8m3)
Oxygen  0·04 kg. (.04m3)
Nitrogen 12·91 kg. (10.2m3)
Steam  15·1 kg. (19.5m3)
This steam-gas mixture consists of the same gases which are produced in gas and oil engines, the only difference being that in these engines the amount of steam in the combustion gases is much less. The specific heat of the steam-gas mixture is low, and a mixture of steam and gas has an extremely high power of expansion. Consequently, the highest efficiency is obtainable from a highly superheated steam-gas mixture.

On January 27 an exhaustive paper was read by E.C. Poultney on Locomotive performance and its influence on modern practice.
The author first enumerated the primary factors expected from a locomotive regarding haulage of its train, etc., and then proceeded to summarise the in- fluence of weight on the ultimate power available, as follows :-
The influence of weight on the ultimate power available is considered:
Anything that raises the indicated tractive effort curve for any given boiler, increases pull at the tender. This would mean improved engine performance. Valve gears, cylinder proportions, compounding, and other modifications leading to a better use of steam, tend in this direction.
Anything which improves boiler output for given engine conditions also raises the traction curve. The superheater, feed heater and the firebox with its grate deserve attention, but proportions of tube length to diameter and other features covering combustion air supply are also important
Anything which decreases machine friction at a given power output raises the tender dran-bar pull curve.
Anything that lowers locomotivc weight for a given capacity is important. It also means a higher net pull.
Anything that lowers rolling and head air resistances is deserving of attention.
A number of tables were shown to illustrate the gains and losses in steam generation resulting from different additions or modifications to the boiler. The effect of a brick arch, for instance, was noted, and a gain of quite 5 per cent. in efficiency secured by the employment of this comparatively simple and inexpensive adjunct.
Superheating was carefully analysed and various points connected with it, outlined, showing that, although the fitting of a superheater reduces the extent of evaporating surfaces and somewhat reduces efficiency of a superheater boiler, this is no argument against high temperature superheating, which, as was shown in the paper, offers great and important advantages over saturated steam.
A number of illustrations showing different locomotives in which special features have been embodied to secure some of the different gains enumerated by the author were shown, including compound locomotives, superheated engines, valve gears and water tube boilers as well as some results from the performance of the Horatio Allen, of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad, wherein a machine efficiency of 93·86 per cent. and a thermal efficiency of 8 ·02 per cent. was recorded. In the discussion which followed and in which several members took part, Mr. Carr (B.N.R.) touched a very important feature in modern locomotive design by pointing out the very small proportion of the total weight of engine and tender utilised for adhesion whilst axle loads had been increased, necessitating heavier and more costly permanent way.

H.M. the Queen's Saloon. L.N.E.R.  53
Rearrangements made to the Queen's day railway saloon, at the Doncaster works of the London and North-Eastern Ry. This vehicle was originally built in 1907. It was 67 ft. long, 69 ft. over buffers, and is carried :on two six-wheeled bogies. It was so arranged that it could form part of the Royal train or be used as a single unit when her Majesty travels alone, as sometimes happens on her visits to Goldsborough or to Sandringham.
It consists of a day saloon, a private saloon, and a dressing room, with accommodation for the equerry and an attendant's balcony, fitted so that meals can be prepared when the saloon forms the principal unit of the train. It is customary on these occasions to serve meals in the day saloon. This latter is the principal apartment, arranged in the Louis XVI. style, the furniture being light French mahogany, upholstered in green velvet. The small private saloon or boudoir is enamelled in jade, and is upholstered similarly to the day saloon. The Queen's dressing room is entered from the boudoir.
All the details of the decoration and the furniture were settled by her Majesty: who took great interest in the re-arranging and re-conditioning of the vehicle. It is lighted throughout by electricity, with shaded lamps on the bracket tables and lino-lights concealed behind the cornice round the full length of the day saloon and the boudoir.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).  53
No. 4346 was latest 0-6-0 ex Kerr Stuart & Co., to be delivered to Crewe for service on this section. Delivery of twenty-five similar engines ex Andrew Barclay & Co., had been commenced; the first four engines, Nos. 4357-60, being already at work. A further five 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines have recently been completed at Crewe, Nos. 13036-40.
We understand that the 4-6-0 engines ordered from the N. B. Loco. Co. Ltd. are to have three H.P. cylinders (18in x 26in) and 6 ft. 9 in. wheels.
Experiment class 4-6-0, No. 1993 Richard Moon (L.M.S. No. 5472) had been converted to superheater. Latest addition to class G1 (superheater) was No. 2528 (now L.M.S. No. 9027), which formerly was class D. Special tank shunting engines Nos. 3379 and 3651 and ex NLR 4-4-0 passenger tank No. 2824 have been withdrawn.

Pullman cars for Continental service. 54-6. 3 illustrations
Thirty cars constructed by Leeds Forge Co. Ltd for Wagon-Lits services to Nice and Milan. Kitchens had coal-fired ranges.

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 57-9.
0-6-0ST No. 1134 Buffalo and 2-2-2 Sir Alexander classes

Central buffer couplers. 59-60. 2 diagrams

A novel carriage ventilator. 61-2. 4 diagrams

G.W.R. 20-ton wagons. 62
Discounts offered to customers as incentive to use high capacity wagons, including through the tipping appliances at coaal exporting docks in South Wales.

The manufacture, heat treatment, and testing of locomotive axles. 62-4.
Including steel specifications.

The Panama Railway. 64
Locomotives supplied by the Portland Locomotive Works between 1852 and 1873 with works numbers and names

Correspondence. 65

Stephenson Locomotive Society. Re L.B. & S.C. Locomotive "Gladstone. J.N. Maskelyne
It is with the utmost satisfaction that the Council of the Stephenson Locomotive Society is able to announce that negotiations for the preservation and acquisition of William Stroudley's celebrated Express Passenger Locomotive Gladstone are now completed. Everyone interested in railway history will remember that this locomotive was the first of a class of thirty-six which made the name of its designer famous throughout the world. Built in 1882, and put to work in December of that year, the Gladstone has completed forty-four years' service. It has just been withdrawn by the Southern Ry. Co., in order to be restored to its original condition and re-painted in the very distinctive yellow colour adopted by Stroudley. Arrangements have been made with the London & North Eastern Ry. Co., for the Gladstone to be housed in their Railway Museum at York, until such time as accommodation can be found in London, possibly at South Kensington Museum, in the course of a few years.
The Stephenson Locomotive Society has made itself responsible for the cost of the work of restoring the engine, and has opened a fund to defray the somewhat heavy expenses. Anyone who may be interested in the preservation of historic locomotives is invited to contribute to this fund, and, any donations received will be acknowledged gratefully by the Society's treasurer, Mr. F. H. Smith, 159, Albert Road, Croydon, Surrey, to whom all contributions should be sent.

Three-cylinder locomotives. William T. Hoecker.
Reply to correspondent "Diamond," whose letter appeared on page 407 of the December Locomotive. The fact that locomotive builders spend considerable sums in advertising, in order to popularise a certain type of construction, is no indication that the design in question is the most suitable that can be adapted to fit all circumstances. The first Union Pacific 4-12-2 locomotive has been in service but nine months, so that its ultimate success cannot yet be predicted with confidence. The well-known history of other multi-cylinder locomotives in America should not be forgotten by the over-optimistic.
Since" Diamond" requires proof of the statement that it is impossible to obtain equality of power-output from the several cylinders of a 3-cylinder locomotive equipped with a combination valve-gear, he is advised to consult the following publications ;-
I. Pamphlet issued in 1924 by the Lehigh Valley R.R. Co., and the American Locomotive Co., containing numerous indicator diagrams taken from the Lehigh Valley 4-8-2 engine No. 5000, equipped with Gresley gear.
2. Railway andj Locomotive Engineering, Nov. 1924, page 331, depicting indicator diagrams taken from South Manchuria Ry. 2-8-2 engine No. 1601, equipped with Gresley gear.
3. Robert Garbe-Die Dampflokomotiven der Gegenwart- 1920, pages 573 and 842.
4. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1925, pages 969 and 982, with; special reference to the Gresley gear.
"Diamond's" statement concerning "varied loading at high revolutions" is not in accord with the consensus of opinion among engineers, as designers of multi-cylinder locomotives invariably strive to obtain equal piston loads in all cylinders, to insure a uniform turning moment.
I should like to ask" Diamond" one further question. It has recently been stated in the technical press that the L. & N.E.R. "Pacificr' locomotive No. 4477, Gay Crusader, has a " modified valve-motion." What does this modification consist of, and why was it deemed necessary?
(We understand the modification to the valve motion of engine No. 4477, L. & N.E.R. is to give a longer valve travel, and the result has been to slightly reduce the coal consumption. Editor.)

Recent accidents. 65-6
The Inspecting Officers of the Ministry of Transport issued their reports on four accidents, all occurring on the London and North Eastern Ry.
On 22 July 1926, the 8-20 p.m. passenger train from Newcastle to South Shields had just started, after stopping at Gateshead East Station, when it was run into in the rear by a light engine which had followed it from Newcastle. The passenger train consisted of five bogie vehicles, weighing 111 tons 1 cwt., and was drawn by 2-4-2 tank engine No. 1599, weighing 53 tons 16 cwt. The light engine was No. 698, of 4-4-2 type, and weighing, with six-wheeled tender, 121 tons 10 cwt. The last vehicle of the train was telescoped and all the others more or less damaged, whilst the light engine had the front buffer beam damaged beyond repair, the left frame badly bent in front and other minor damage; twenty-one passengers complained of shock or injury. The mishap was due to the temporary inability of the signalman at Gateshead Junction to replace the home signal to danger after the passing of the passenger train, and permissive working being in force between Newcastle and Gateshead, the driver of the light engine, who was close behind, took the signal as referring to him. The signals are power operated on the electro-pneumatic system, and the inability to replace the home signal was due to the distant signal check lock not clearing, although it was after- wards found in working order, and Major Hall suggests, among other recommendations, that the check lock, which is not generally used on modern power installations, should be removed.
When the 9-47 p.m. electric train on the circular service from Newcastle via Monkseaton and Heaton, on August 7, had passed Manors station on the homeward journey, it came into sidelong collision at Manors Junction at about 10-50 p.m. with a goods train which was crossing immediately in front of it. The dead body of the motorman was subsequently discovered under a bridge a short distance west of Heaton station, and the train was consequently running driverless. Considerable damage was done to the stock, and sixteen passengers complained of injuries. Subsequent examination showed that the automatic control, generally known as the "dead man's handle," had been tied down with two handkerchiefs so as to keep the button depressed. Major Hall concludes that this had been done deliberately by the motorman, who was therefore alone responsible for the accident.
The third report referred to the level crossing accident at Naworth on August 30, which aroused much public comment at the time, the 1-18 p.m. express passenger train from Newcastle to Carlisle colliding with a road motor coach which had been irregularly allowed to pass over the crossing. The train consisted of two six-wheeled vans next to the engine and six bogie coaches, weighing in all 176 tons, was drawn by 4-4-0 type engine No. 1929, weighing 91 tons 6 cwt., and was travelling about 50 miles per hour. The train was not derailed and suffered but slight damage; the road coach was, however, completely wrecked, and, of its sixteen occupants, eight were killed, three seriously and three slightly injured, whilst the porter in charge of the gates was killed also. Lt.-Col. Mount states that no blame of any kind can be attributed either to the driver of the train or of the road motor, and that the porter in charge was solely responsible, having (1) failed to observe the position of the indicators in the porters' room, (2) omitted to place the signals at danger before opening the gates, and (3) failed to open the gates in the proper sequence. He also recommends that, having regard to the traffic over the crossing, its equipment should be brought into line with modern practice and the gates suitably interlocked with the signals.
The last case was a collision at Wortley East Junction, between Armley and Leeds, on September 18, the 6-38 a.m. passenger train from Bradford to Leeds running into a light engine standing on the up main line. The train consisted of five coaches, the first and last pair being of the articulated bogie type and the centre one a six wheeler; it was drawn by 4-4-2 tank engine No. 4549, weighing 621 tons. The light engine, which was stationary with its chimney facing the passenger train, was No. 6104, of the 4-6-0 type, whiich with six-wheeled tender weighed 119 tons. The train was travelling at considerable speed and 'injuries were suffered by thirteen passengers and all four enginemen, whilst the passenger guard complained of shock. Major Hall finds the driver of the light engine had stopped clear of the paints leading to. the goads line over which the signalman intended he should have passed. He does not blame the enginemen for this, but the signalman who. should have satisfied himself that the main line was clear before accepting the passenger train. The enginemen, however, should have carried out the instructions with regard to. the fireman proceeding immediately to the signal box to. remind the signalman af the engine's position. He also makes certain recommendations as to the signalling arrangements at this past.

Reviews. 66

The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Alfred Rosling Bennett, London: Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
Readers of these pages will have no need to be reminded of the series of articles with the above title contributed by Mr. Bennett between 1920 and 1925, and the interest which they aroused together with the amount of additional matter which subsequently came to light has induced him to republish them in book form, incorporating therewith all the further data which is now available. The book may be regarded as supplementary to the usually recognised text books an the locomot ive, dealing as it does, not with typical standard designs, but with a heterogeneaus collection of locomotives of endless variety, of the majorrty of which no. duplicates were ever built. It does more, however, than merely record a number of unique, and in same cases freakish, specimens of the locomotive engine, as, combined with the author's voluminous nates, it sets forth the life work of one who. made the locomotive a hobby, as well as a business, and showed a good deal of originality in the designs he produced. Mr. Boultan was a man of resource, and it is fortunate that his history and that of the works which he controlled, should be put on record, as, whilst adapting his products to. the needs of his clients, he was enabled to carry aut many interesting departures in locomotive construction and design. Whilst the whale story, embellished.with a number of anecdotes written in Mr. Bennett's well-known attractive style, is of outstanding interest to. the student of locomotive history, two sections of the work claim special attention. The first deals with the part played by I.W. Boulton in the development of the water tube bailer, and althaugh this particular feature has never established itself in favour with locomotive engineers, the value of a full account of what was, perhaps, the mast extensive series of experiments made with this type of boiler is obvious. The second gives, we believe for the first time, a complete record of the experiments made in using hat bricks in a locomotive firebox far generating steam without the emission of smoke, a condition considered paramount for the equipment of locomotive pawer an the Metropolitan Ry. prior to. its opening, and which led to the many mysterious rumours regarding Fowler's Ghost, as it was called, which are now definitely set at rest. In Chapter IV. Bennett regrets that there is no certainty as to when Trent, a 0-4-2 tender engine of Sharp's build, purchased by Boulton from the L. & N.W.R. and originally belonging to. the Manchester and Birmingham Ry., was built. There can, however, be no. reasonable doubt that all the four engines of this class possessed by the M. & B. Ry. first saw the light in 1842. The work is illustrated by no less than ninety blocks, many of which have been specially drawn far it, and form by no means its least valuable feature ..

Les rampes de chemins de fer et les lignes de montagne, L. Wiener. Brussels: Imprimerie F. van Buggenhoudt, S. . Lcndon: Locomotive Publish- ing Co., Ltd.
As a fitting supplement to his work an Articulated Locomotives, of which a notice appeared in our last issue, in this book the author deals with the problems the civil engineer has to. face in laying aut mountain railways. The fixing of the gradients, the course of the line and the gauge have to. be studied in relation to. the capacity for efficiently meeting traffic re- quirements. Then again, existing lines often have to. be modified or modernised to. meet altered conditions. Data far calculating pawer of the locomotives required, with due allowances far the fuel used, influence of curves, climate, etc., are valuable far reference purpases. The writer then gives leading particulars, methods of working, etc., of mountain lines all aver the world.
These include the various lines crossing the Alps, Rockies, Alleghanies and Cordilleras, as well as the railways an the frontier of India and in Burma. Plans of the curves of the Gothard, Loetschberg, and other Cantinental lines are given. A big section is then devoted to rack railways of various types, while the concluding chapter describes various forms of aerial ropeways.

Instruction book — M.L.S. locomotive superheaters. London : The Superheater Company, Ltd. Third Edition.
Based an experience gained fram the maintenance and operation of M.L.S. smoke tube superheaters fitted to. locomotives of all types and operating an practically every railway, the instructions given in this handbook provide practical information as to the mast efficient manner of installing, operating and maintaining the superheater apparatus. At the end of the booklet is a section devoted to. Questians and Answers regarding superheated locomotives.

The Locomotive of to-day (Eighth edition). London : The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
That the above meets the want of a popular and practical text-book an the mad ern locomotive, written in a style appreciated by students, engineers and locomotive men generally, is confirmed by its extraordinary success and universal sale. In this, the eighth edition, the publishers have entirely revised the book and have had the contents largely re-written. In details of practice which have undergone radical change during the quarter-century, the Locomotive of To-day has held its awn, the latest and mast up-to-date procedure has replaced the obsolete. Where boilers were built up of a number of plates, one often now provides the boiler shell, whilst another forms the wrapper plate. The latest and mast approved methods of securing tubes, including electric welding,

No. 415 (15 March 1927)

4-6-0 locomotives, Ceylon Government Rys. 69-70. illustration, diagram (side & front/rear elevations)
Light locomotive with 4ft coupled wheels buit by Nasmyth Wilson & Co. Ltd

Three-cylinder compound locomotive, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 72 + plate f.p. 72. diagram. (side elevation)

Electric passenger rail car and shunting locomotive. 77-8. 2 illustrations
Electromobiles Ltd of Otley supplied a battery poweered railcar to the War Office to convey personnel  at the artillery ranges onn Shoeburyness. A battery powered shunting locomotive capable of hauling 300 tons was illustrated.

Amac, pseud. The "Director" class, L. & N.E.R. in Soctland. 82.
The difficulties experienced by Scottish drivers with a strange design of cab, especially with the right-hand drive.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 83-5. 4 illustrations

Obituary. 86
John Metcalfe died at Redcar on 18 February 1927; aged 87. Born in Middlesbrough. Worked as a fireman on the Stockton & Darlington Railway from age 14. Drove the now preserved Derwent and worked on footplate for over fifty years.

Ferdinand Achard. The first British locomotives of the St. Etienne-Lyon Railway. 88-92. 2 diagrams
Reprinted in full from Transactions of the Newcomen Society.

The manufacture, heat treatment, and testing of locomotive axles. 97-8.

Locomotive with cylinders and frame in one steel casting.  100. 2 illus.
0-8-0 for St. Louis Terminal Railway with castings supplied by Commonwealth Steel Co.

L.B. & S.C. R. locomotive "Gladstone". 100.
Restoration nearing completion.

High power electric locomotive. 100.
William P. Durtnall paper to Junior Institution of Engineers (North East Coast branch) on design of 2200 horse power high speed locomotive.

Correspondence. 101
William E. Briggs.
Writer had been a premium apprentice at Brighton Works and had seen Sussex when fitted with Joy valve gear and there is a picture in the Railway Magazine (1908, October, p. 321) showing it in this condition. He had noted that the Southern Railway was about to construct an 0-8-0T: R.J. Billinton had been about to order two 0-8-0Ts which would have been identical to the E6 0-6-2T type except that the extra coupled axle would have replaced the radial axle.
Expansion. M.M. Niven
Caprotti valve gear: D.K. Clark had discussed expansvie working in his 1852 ICE paper.

No. 416 (14 April 1927)

Plymouth, Birkenhead and the North Express Great Western Ry. 103 + plate (missing)
Photograph by B. Whicher of 10.30 ex-Plymouth Millbay leaving Teignmouth at 11.44: train formed of very mixed rolling stock behind Saint class 4-6-0 No. 2977 Robertson

Compound express locomotive German Railways (Baden). 104-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Four-cylinder compound 4-6-2

The Panama Railway.  110-12. 5 illustrations, map

Household, H.W.G. Some notes on the Eskdale Railway. 115-117. 4 illustrations.
Mainly on handling stone traffic: most of the illustrations relate to this.

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 118

Royal Train for the Duke & Duchess of York, New Zealand Government Railways. 119; 118. 4 illustrations.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 122-4.
Fig. 39 0-6-0 Peel and Fig. 40 as rebuilt as NER No. 1072.

Internal combustion shunting locomotive, Great Western Ry. 128-9. 3 illus.
Supplied Motor Rail & Tram Car of Bedford.

British locomotive builders, past and present. 130-2.
List with brief notes: is this what Lowe was based upon? Continued page 163

The manufacture, heat treatment, and testing of locomotive axles. 132-3.

No. 417 (14 May 1927)

London, Midland & Scottish Railway 10 a.m. Scotch Express near Oxenholme. 137 + sepia photographic plate
Hauled by Hughes 4-cylinder 4-6-0

Marc Seguin's tubular boiler. 141

Recent narrow gauge tank locomotives. 142-3. 3 illustrations.
2ft 8in gauge 0-4-2ST supplied by Peckett for Dorset china clay line (very low boiler); 3ft gauge 0-4-0 Jean, and 2ft 6in 0-4-0 Cranmore for Australian gas works.

New steam rail auto-car, L. & N.E. Ry.. 149-50. 2 illustrations.
Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd. Includes details of test running in the Whitby area. Livery was imitation teak; seating moquette with red and black pattern on buff background.

New 15 in. gauge 4-8-2 type locomotive. Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. 150-1. illustration
Davey, Paxman & Co. of Colchester supplied to requirements of Captain J.E.P. Howey for 15 inch gauge line to be named Hercules and Samson: full dimensions tabulated.

The Deli Railway, Sumatra. 151-2. 2 illustrations.
Medan to Deli: 3ft 6in gauge: 2-6-4T illustrated. .

Early Great Western standard gauge engines, Llynvi & Ogmore Ry. supplementary notes. 156-7. illus., diagr.
0-6-0ST supplied by Black Hawthorn.

Obituary: Harold L. Hopwood. 157.
Died 23 April 1927 aged 46. Superintendent of Line for Southern Area, LNER. Joined GNR 13 January 1897. Published in Rly Mag. Founder member of Railway Club.

Special tool steels. 157-8. illustration

The Model Railway Club Exhibition. 158

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating on the Great Western Railway. 161-2.

British locomotive builders, past and present. 163-4.
Continued from page 130. List with brief notes

No. 418 (15 June 1927)

The preservation of the "Gladstone". 171-2. illustration
Illustration shows 0-4-2 Gladstone in Stroudley yellow livery alongside Lord Nelson

Great Western Ry. 178.
'The first of the new "Cathedral" class 4-6-0 four-cylinder express engines is expected to be completed in early June': notes main dimensions correctly

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 184-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Stephenson's handwriting. 190-1.
Communications between George Stephenson and Michael Longridge.

Ljungstrom turbine locomotive. 193
On 20 May the Beyer Peacock experimental locomotive hauled an up train into St. Pancras.

New wagons for Anglo-German goods service via the Harwich-Zeebrugge train ferry. 199-200. illustration
Built Wismar Waggon Fabrik

No. 419 (15 July 1927)

Garratt articulated locomotives, Mauritius railways. 205. illustration
Three large Garratt locomotives of entirely new design were ordered by the Crown Agents for the Colonies for the Mauritius Railways, from Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., on 14 December 1926, and they were completed and shipped from Birkenhead on 30 April 1927, nineteen weeks from receipt of the order.

L.M. & S. Rv. appointments. 205
Officially notified of the following appointments :- W. Land to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, chief general superintendent's office, Crewe. W. Paterson to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, Derby. W. F. BJake to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, Derby. H. D. Atkinson to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, Derby. O. E. Kinsman to be assistant, motive power staff section, Derby. R. C Morris to be district locomotive superintendent's assistant, Devons Road, Bow. G. F. Horne to be district locomotive superintendent's assistant. Newton Heath.

United Dairies Ltd. 205
Applied for permission to construct a light railway at Finchley to bring milk to London in specially constructed glass-lined tank wagons.

Four-cylinder 4-6-0 express locomotive, Great Western Ry. 206-7. 3 illustrations.
King class: King George V illustrated

Vacuum brake on freight trains in India. 225.
Signed Celer et Audax

Factors in the design of steam locomotives. Section II. Combustion: firegrate and smokebox. 231-3.

C.A. Cardew. Influence of driving wheel diameter upon the steam consumption and overall economy of the steam locomotive. 233-4.
Higher piston speeds lead to higher thermal efficiency as demonstrated in Willans tests on stationary engines; but higher piston speeds lead to increased friction of crank pins, crosshead slides and pistons; large wheels lead to less vibration and less stress to the track, and to less hammer blow on bridges and other structures.

Light shunting tractors. 235. illustration
Mercury tractors with petrol engine made by Bramco of Birmingham.

Axleboxes of Anglo-German wagons, Harwich-Zeebrugge train ferry. 236. diagram

Recent accidents. 236-7.
Southern Railway: 4 November 1926 near Bramshot Halt: collision due to deceased driver failing to observe signals: Col. Pringle investigated

No. 420 (15 August 1927)

4-6-0 three-cylinder express passenger engines, L.M. & S. Ry the "Royal Scot" No. 6100. 239-40. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built North British Locomotive Co. to the design of Sir Henry Fowler. Intended for haulage of express trains between London Euston and Glasgow Central. Number on tender, LMS device on cab side, no nameplate on locomotive illustrated. Next: No. 6101 Highland Chieftain.

2-8-2 type locomotives for the Kenya & Uganda Ry. 241-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd of Darlington to the requirements of H.B. Emley, chief mecanical engineer under the supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton on behalf of the Crown Agents

Multi-cylinder locoomotive Midland Ry.. 243-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Cecil Paget patented design of 2-6-2 with sleeve valves, wide firebox of unusual construction. Scrapped in 1919, but achieved 82 mile/hour on trial. Aim was perfect balancing..

Dynamometeer car, State Railways of Czecho-Slovakia. 245-6; 247. 5 illustrations, diagram (side & rear cross-sections, 2 plans)
Built Ringhoffer Works in Prague.

Technical essays. No. XIV — On the training of the locomotive engineer. 246; 248.
Suggests sandwich course with winters spent in academic study and summers in workshops.

Centenary of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 248-51. 3 illustrations.

Trial run to Plymouth of Great Western locomotive, No.6000.  251-2.
On 20 July Cornish Riviera was hauled to Plymouth with two coaches slipped at Westbury: it arrived 5 minutes early. Chief Inspector C. Read, Driver Young and fireman Pierce were on the footplate. List of King names ends feature.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 252-3.
Secondhand locomotives acquired: inside cylinder 0-6-0s: Nos. 81 Miller and 82 Hawthorn (Hawthorn WN 532-3 of 1846) acquired from Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway where they had been Cowlairs Incline locomotives. No. 82 illustrated at Shildon. Three Bury 0-4-0s were also acquired: 87 Fryerage; 88 Deanery and 89 Huddersfield: last illustrated as NER No. 1089 (this last was supplied to Manchester & Leeds Railway in 1846

Opening of the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch, Ry. 253-5. 3 illustrations.
Mainly an engineering overview with only a modest amount of information on the locomotives.

Ambidextroous engine drivers. 255.
Lists thoes British railways which had adopted left-hand drive or right-hand drive: former included LNWR; latter the Midland

The "Imperial Indian Mail" trains. 262-4. 3  illustrations, plan.
Sleeping cars ran on six-wheeel bogies and were constructed for the weekly Bombay to Calcutta service. They were constructed at the Matunga workshops of the GIPR in Bombay. The ilustrations show the train leaving Parsik Tunnel and st the Ballard Pier station in Bombay.

Correspondence. 271

Vacuum brake on freight trains in India. W.H. Whitehouse. 271-2..

No. 421 (15 September 1927)

Express passenger locomotive with poppet valves: L. & N.E. Railway. 273-5. 5 illustrations.
This describes the fitting of oscillating cam valve gear to one member of the existing class: the following relate to new construction. The actual valves are illustrated. Also noted that goods engine which we fully described in issue of February 1926, had been in continuous service for upwards of two years, and the poppet valve gear had not, we are informed, given the slightest trouble, nor have any repairs or renewals to any part of it been required.

Four-cylinder express engine, Lord Nelson class, Southern Ry.  275 + colour folding plate facing page. diagram.
Coloured sectionalized diagrams.

Recent Spanish-built locomotives. 276-7. 3 illustrations, table.
4-8-2 and 2-8-0 for Northern Railway and 2-8-0 for Andalusian Railway.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).  277
Seven of the new three-cylinder 4-6-0 type passenger locomotives ex North British Loco. Co. are now in service on this section, Nos. 6100-2, 6105-6 and 6125-6. The first of the series, No. 6100, bears the name Royal Scot. It is understood that all the engines of this class are to be fitted with the Diamond Soot Blower. The construction of the fifty engines ordered from the North British Loco. Co. has been arranged as follows:-twenty-five at the Queen's Park Works, Nos. 6100-24; and twenty- five at the Hyde Park Works, Nos. 6125-49. The makers' numbers of the series are 23595-644 inclusive. At Crewe, the new 2-6-0s are completed up to No. 13082, whilst Nos. 13050-69 had been despatched to Derby for service on the Midland division. No. 4371  was the latest class 4 0-6-0 ex Barclay & Sons to be delivered.
4 ft., 3 in. 0-6-2 coal tanks Nos. 7772 and 7816 (old Nos. 1209 and 1250) had been fitted for working motor trains.
Three additional 6 ft. 6 in. Jumbos had been broken up at Crewe, viz., Nos. 787 Clarendon, 864 Pilot, and 2192 Caradoc. Other withdrawals comprise 0-6-2 coal tanks Nos. 678, 948, 3151, 3447 and 3752; 0-6-0 coal class Nos. 3038, 3173 and 3553; and 0-6-0 special tank No. 3047. L.M.S. 0-6-OT No. 1600 (formerly N.S.R. No. 5BA) had been withdrawn.

Sevenoaks accident, Southern Ry. 277
On Wednesday evening, 24 August, the 5 p.m. train from Cannon Street to Deal was derailed at 5.30 p.m. at Riverhead, between Dunton Green and Sevenoaks. The train was headed by the 2-6-4 tank engine River Cray, No. A800, and consisted of seven bogie carriages and a Pullman car. Thirteen passengers lost their lives, and 48 other passengers were more or less seriously injured. Sir John Pringle is conducting an enquiry into the cause of the disaster on behalf of the Ministry of Transport.

L. & N.E. Ry. 277
A new twin-coach intended for branch line traffic has been built, which, whilst it is 108 ft. 8½ in. long and 8 ft. 10 in. wide, tares only 37½ tons. It had gas lighting, and the bodies overhang the headstocks of the underframes. Articulated trains of four car bodies on five bogies, and 154 ft. 6 in. long, having accommodation for 182 third-class passengers, 22 first-class, and luggage and guard's compartments tare, 63 tons, or less than 1 ton for three passengers.

Sentinel-Carnmell steam rail-cars. 277
Sentinel-Carnmell steam rail-cars were working on the L.M. & S. Ry. branches to Methven, Airdrie-Newhouse, Dalmellington-Ayr, and between Strathaven and Coatbridge.

High speed electric locomotive, C. de F du Midi. 278-80. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Cam shaft control and quill drive

Light traffic work with the "Sentinel" locomotive. 281-2.
Narrow gauge back-to-back locomotive (described as articulated); also non-articulated locomotives for narrow gauge passenger-carrying lines in India and for the Egyptian Nile Delta Railway.

Bennett, A.R. The Malta Railway. 283-5. 5 illustrations.
Workshops at Hamrun. Valletta terminus partly in tunnel. Metre gauge. Manning Wardle 0-6-0Ts

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 292-3. 2 illustrations.
Secondhand locomotives: NER 0-6-0 No. 2259; 2-2-2 No. 93 Uranus. Also tabluates new G. Wilson 0-6-0s.

Canada's first locomotive. 294. illustration

South African Railways. "Hulse"double-decked suburban coach. 299-300.  2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Designed by Oscar Hulse.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 300-2.  2 illustrations.
0-6-0 types: 46 engines supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1877: some were supplied without wheels as a stock of 5 ft. wheels existed supplied by the Yorkshire Engine Co, Class known as L/21 WN 2239-68 and 2310-25. Kitson & Co. supplied Class K/16 known as Kitson's heavy goods in 1877 WN 2146-55. They had 17¾ x 26in cylinders and 4ft 6in wheels. They had steam brakes.Further series followed: K/15 (WN 2180-96) and K/17 (WN 2241-6) with 18 inch diameter cylinders and Smith simple vacuum brakes.

Running a  British locomotive on a United States railroad. 304-5. illustration
King class visit, but mainly earlier (including LNWR) visits from British locomotives

No. 422 (15 October 1927)

Large tank locomotive for South Africa. 307. illustration
4-8-2T built by Avonside Engine Co. Ltd

4-8-0 goods locomotives – Queensland Government Rys. 308. illustration
Twenty five locomotives of the 4-8-0 type, with bogie tenders, were shipped, fully erected, from the Tyne to Brisbane for service on the Queensland Government Rys. They were built at the Scotswood Works, Newcastle by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd., to the requirements of  R.J Chalmers, chief mechanical engineer.

Obituary. 308
Death of E.F.S. Notter, who was locomotive superintendent of the London district of the Great Northern Ry. for twenty-five years. He died on 21 September 1927 in the North Middlesex Hospital, where he had been a patient for several weeks, and was sixty-eight years of age. He commenced work on the railway at Doncaster when he was eighteen. From there he went to Colwick where he had charge of the locomotive department for the Nottingham district, and thence to King's Cross, from which he retired in 1924. Mr. Notter was deeply interested in engineering which, in addition to being his work, was his hobby, and he was a very clever model engineer.

E. C. Poultney. Decapod locomotives — Western Maryland R.R. 308-9.  illustration
Twenty 2-10-0 type engines built by Baldwin Locomotive Works for heavy freight working.

L.M. & S. Ry. three-cylinder compound locomotive. 310. diagram (side elevation)
4P compound 4-4-0

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 310.
The following additional Royal Scot class 6 4-6-0's ex North British Locomotive Co. were in service on this section :-Nos. 6103-4, 6107-16 and 6133-8. Others of the same type in service as follows :-Northern division, Nos. 6127-8 and 6131-2; Midland division, Nos. 6129-30. These bring the total of the type so far delivered up to 31. New 2-6-0s up to No. 13085 have been completed at Crewe. Latest class 4 0-6-0 ex Barclays' was No. 4374. 0-6-2 side tank coal engine No. 7830 (old No. 3669) had been fitted for working as a rail motor. The following engines had been withdrawn:- 0-6-2 coal tank No. 2362, 0-6-0 DX. goods No. 3402 and 0-6-0 shunting tank No. 3582.

Rebuilt locomotive, District Ry. 311.  illustration
4-4-0T No. 34: fitted with cab; most of condensing gear (including bridge pipe) removed

Great Western Ry. winter train service. 311.
Faster Cornish Riviera Express (four hours to Plymouth non-stop) and Torbay Express (59.5 mile/h average to Exeter)

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating on the Great Western Railway. 320-2.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers,. 312-14.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 330-1.
2-4-0 No. 98 Pierrmont of 1855; NER No. 1101 and NER No. 1099 at Hopetown Foundary

Household, H.G.W. The Railway Museum, London & North Eastern Ry., York. 332-3.

No. 423 (15 November 1927)

New 0-6-2 tank locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. 341. illustration.
With condensing apparatus. N7/2 built by William Beardmore & Co. Ltd.: No. 2646 illustrated .

Metre gauge 4-6-4 tank engine: Bombay, Baroda and Central India Ry. 342-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built in India at Ajmer Central Workshops to design of W.S. Fraser.

Mumbles Ry. 343
It is expected that the electrification of the Mumbles Ry, at Swansea will be completed by next March. Five two-car trains will maintain a 7½ to 15 minute service, with a schedule speed of 12 miles per hour; each car will accommodate 110 passengers. The overhead trolley system will be used at 650 volts. A sub-station at Blackpill, the middle point of the line, will supply direct current, and this will be entirely automatic in operation. The equipment is being supplied by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd., and the rolling stock by the Brush Engineering Co. Ltd. The Mumbles Ry. can claim to be the oldest railway in Great Britain, for it was incorporated in 1804 and opened in 1807. It is 5½ miles in length and extends from Rutland Street, Swansea, along the shore of Swansea Bay to the pier at Mumbles, running alongside the public road for a considerable part of the route. For nearly seventy years' the vehicles were horse-drawn, and for the last fifty years steam tank locomotives have operated the long trains of double-decked cars which carry the holiday makers in the summer.

Higher steam pressure on the L. & N.E. Ry. 343-4. illustration
No. 4480 Enterprise illustrated: 220 psi boiler

"The Fair of the Iron Horse": Centenary Celebration of a famous Amrican Railway. 345-7. 2 illustrations
A circular track was constructed to parade the locomotives and rolling stock. This also formed the location for the non-railway elements in the parade: people on horseback; people in horse-drawn wagons representing the westward movement of people which would lead to the construction of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad which was initially worked by horse power. Then the historical evolution of the steam power on the railway. This was followed by the visiting locomotives and their trains, including that of the Great Western Railway.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).  347
Latest Royal Scot class three-cylinder 4-6-0s ex North British Loco. Co. to be delivered to Crewe bore Nos. 6117-9, 6121-3, 6139-44 and 6146. Including Nos. 6127-32, which were attached to the Northern division, there were forty-four of these engines in service. New class 4, 0-6-0s had also been delivered to Crewe, as follows:-No. 4375 ex Barclay's and No. 4492 ex North British Loco. Co. The Crewe-built 2-6-0's were all out of the shops and a new series of Class 4 goods had been commenced, Nos. 4437 onwards.
Of the seventy-five R.O.D. 2-8-0 type locomotives, which were recently taken over by the ·L.M.S., a number are being repaired for service, and of these the following were in traffic :-Nos. 9646, 9647, 9649, 9652 and 9653. The second in order was built in 1917 and the others in 1918—all by the North British Loco. Co.
0-6-2 coal side tanks Nos. 7587, 7710 and 7772 old Nos. 3742, 796 and 3769 had been fitted for motor service. Recent withdrawals included the ex-Knott End Ry. 2-6-0T. Blackpool, this being the last of the four Knott End engines to be scrapped. The following ex L. & N.W. Jumbos had also been withdrawn :-Nos. 477 Caractacus, 480 Duchess of Lancaster, and 2189 Avon (6 ft. 6 in. type), and Nos. 424 Sirius and 2158 Sister Dora (6 ft. type). In our article on the Royal Scot train last month, in the list of water troughs on the West Coast route we omitted those south of Tebay.

Cam-operated valve gear locomotive, L.M.& S. Ry. 348-51. illustration, 3 diagrams., table.
Claughton class Alfred Fletcher No. 5908 fitted with Beardmore- Caprotti valve gear

New 15in gauge 4-8-2 type locomotive, Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. 350. illustration
Built by Davey Paxman

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 364-5. 2 illustrations., diagram (side elevation)
Neilson Ghat locomotives: 0-8-0ST WN 1726-35.

L.M.S. Ry. L. & N.W.R. Section. 365.
Several Prince of Wales class locomotives running with tenders from ROD 2-8-0 type.

Modern British railway practice. 369-72.
Paper presebnted to Belfast Association of Engineers by W.K. Wallace on 19 October 1927. Notes that first Ross pap saftey valve was manufactured in the NCC Workshops in Belfast and was fitted to No. 57. Also notes that no further 0-6-0 type would be added to NCC locomotive stock..

The Portstewart Narrow Gauge Tramway. 372-3. . illusttration
Closed due to bus competition.

30 ton coal wagon, Carrongrove Paper Co. Ltd. 373. illusttration
Supplied by Hurst, Nelson & Co. Ltd. of Motherwell

The "Kitson-Still locomotive. 374
The North-Eastern Group of the Inst. of Locomotive Engineers visited the works of Messrs. Kitson & Co. Ltd. Leeds on Friday, Nov. 4, to make an inspection of the very' intere~ting "Kitson-Still" engine which is now practically finished. A general description of this engine was given in Locomotive Mag. December 1923, together with an arrangement drawing, and the present locomotive is practically identical with this, being of the 2-6-2 tank type with a drive by cranks from the gear shaft on to the orthodox type of coupling rod which connects the three coupled wheels on each side.
The large number of members who attended were received at the works by Lieut.-Col. E. Kitson-Clarke, and Mr. H. N. Gresley, president. An inspection was first made of the working unit of the "Kitson-Still locomotive; which was used for testing and expenmental purposes, and is fitted with a brake. This unit consists of the complete cylinder and drive — the locomotive has eight such cylinders and the starting, by steam, and continued running by oil, was regarded with much interest. The novel principle of the combination of steam and internal combustion seemed entirely justified from an examination of the running of this single cylinder unit, as the employment of steam for starting purposes eliminates the need for any form of clutch, which is recognised to be the weak link m high power internal combustion engines, and so far proved a check upon their employment for heavy locomotive purposes. In practice, the steam portion of the engine is intended to be worked for starting and manceuvring purposes, but to a limited extent it can also be used for assistance in running, if, for example, a short steep bank has to be climbed: After this single cylinder unit had been run, and explained in detail to the members, a very thorough inspection was made of the finished engine, which was on the rollers ready for its final running trials before being passed out for experimental service, probably on the L. & N.E. Ry. The whole of the cylinders, connecting gear, heat regeneration arrangements, cab fittings, etc., were carefully and fully described, to the very great interest and edification of all. The tractive effort of the engine is understood to be 24,000 lb. and the weight in running order about 80 tons. Two tanks are provided, one of which carries 1,000 gallons of water and the other 400 gallons of oil fuel, which is used for steam raising in the boiler, and for the drive on the internal combustion side of the eight cylinders.
The trials of this locomotive will be regarded with the greatest of attention by railway men, owing to the novel principles involved, and Messrs. Kitson & Co. are to be congratulated on this new construction, which reflects in every way the greatest credit, as it must have involved a very large amount of ingenious designing and experimental work.

Correspondence. 374

Early safety valves. E.A. Forward. 374.
Re account of the L. & N.E. Ry. Railway Museum at York, in the October issue of Locomotive Mag.  some observations relative to the two spring-loaded safety valves attributed to Timothy Hackworth. In the first place, Hackworth was certainly not the first to use the direct spring-loaded safety valve on a locomotive, as a drawing of the Murray-Blenkinsop locomotives, published in 1815, shows the safety valves loaded with helical springs.
Hackworth may have devised the multiple plate spring type of valve, as he gives a sketch of one in his notebook dated July 1828, but this valve is of more primitive form, and is, moreover, fitted with an easing lever worked by a string. The Rastrick notebook of 1829, mentioned by Mr. Household, shows this primitive form of valve, including the easing lever, and states that the engine had a weighted lever safety valve as well.
Neither of the two valves at York can be identified with that on the Royal George in 1828 or 1829, but either may have been fitted to it later on. Valves of the same design as the smaller and simpler specimen are shown on original drawings of engines built by Messrs. R. Stephenson & Co. between 1830 and 1833 and they appear to have been largely used at that period as' the "lock-up" valves on locomotives. I should judge the design of the larger valve to be later, 1£ anything, than the smaller one; one like it can be seen on Puffing Billy at the Science Museum, but when it was fitted is not known.

Reviews. 374.

La machine locomotive, Edouard Sauvage. Paris and Liege: Ch. Beranger. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd. 8th edition. 398 pp. and 332 illustrations.
The first edition of this excellent work, described as "a practical book giving a description of the parts, and of the working of a locomotive, for the use of engine men," appeared in 1894, and it is a striking fact that it has ?ow reached its 8th edition. Most of the original illustrations have now been replaced by up-to-date examples of locomo- tive design, and superheaters, exhaust steam injectors, and feed water pumps now appear. The book has, however, become narrowed down to an epitome of French locomotive practice, as all illustrations of non-French engines appear to be excluded. The restriction in this direction has, how- ever, certain compensations, as numerous drawings are given of the various standardised details prepared by the O.C.E.M. (l'Office centra le d'etudes de material de chemins de fer) such as leading and trailing Bissell trucks, crank axles, tyre profiles, etc. It can therefore be thoroughly recommended as instancing modern French locomotive practice. The text is clearly written, and the illustrations in general are good line drawings. As mentioned in the introduction, a law of the (French) Ministry of Public Works "compels locomotive personnel to give proof, by certain examinations, that they understand; in these examinations it is not only suffi- cient to show that they can effectively conduct the trains, but they must explain the functioning of the parts of the engine." To enable enginemen intelligently to comprehend the latter, no better book could be devised, and it will perhaps, some day, be translated into English.

Oerlikon Bulletin, No. 76. 374
This is mainly devoted to the question of determination of efficiency of large turbo- generators. Particulars are given there of a method used by the Oerlikon Co. whereby it is possible to determine very accurately the efficiency of turbo-generators too large to run under normal full-load conditions on test bed. For this purpose use is made of leading reactances which permit of the loading of the turbo-generators with ratings up to 40,000KV A. to their full capacity at power factor zero. The same issue contains the results of tests on traction motors for the electric locomotives which are being supplied by the Oerlikon Co. to the Northern Spanish Railway Co.

The Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co. Ltd.. 374
Received from Southern Ry. Co. an order for power signalling material for London Bridge and Borough Market Junction. The order includes a 311-lever all-electric locking frame, a 35-lever locking frame, and 155 electric point layouts. Four aspect light signals, resonated impedance bonds, and projector type route indicators will be used.

No. 424 (15 December 1927)'

"Pacific" type express locomotive (Class XB), Indian State Rys. 375-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations).
Supplied Vulcan Foundry

Three-cylinder 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. 378-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation).
D49 Shire class. No. 234 Yorkshire illustrated: all names listed, but only numbers for english counties

[Clogher Valley Ry]. 379.
Decision to close passenger service

Magnetic axle tester — Acton Works, Underground Electric Rys. 379.
To detect fractures

Southern Ry. 36-ton steam breakdown cranes. 380-1. illustration
Two supplied by Ransomes & Rapier of Ipswich to specification of R.E.L. Maunsell

R.H. Inness.  (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 385-7. 4 illustrations
2-4-0 No. 114 Edward Pease; No. 114 Nunthorpe and NER No. 1115 (former 115 Meynell) and NER 0-6-0 No. 1112 (former 112 Lion) illustrated. Leading dimensions of Peel class long boiler 0-6-0s supplied by R. & W. Hawthorm  in 1856

H.G.W.  Household. The Railway Museum, London & North Eastern Ry., York. 387-9. 2 illustrations
Early rolling stock, including carriages and wagons; permanent way including that from tramways which acted in association with canals and river navigations. Exhibits from Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway and from Stockton & Darlington Railway

Diesel locomotive for Rangoon. 389-90. illustration
2ft 6in gauge four-wheel supplied by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd. of Leeds.

0-6-0 shunting engines, Sudan Govt. Rys. 390-1. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. outside-cylinder 0-6-0T for 3ft 6in gauge Kassala line. One of illustrations shows complete locomotive being lifted onto motor vessel Belpareil at Hull

F.W. Brewer. The economic advantages of high steram pressures in locomotives. 395-7.
Prompted by the use of 250 psi boilers on King and Royal Scot classes and comparable pressure on Canadian National Railway 4-8-4 types and even higher pressures with water tube boilers on the Delaware & Hudson Rialway ex;perimental locomotives. Notes experiments conducted by S.W. Johson and D. Drummond on the effect of boiler pressure on fuel consumption and studies by Professor Goss at Purdue University on coal consumption over a range of pressures.

Transport of milk in bulk. 398. 3 illustrations
Glass-lined cork-insulated tank wagons assembled at Swindon by the Great Western Railway on behalf of United Dairies

L. Derens. "Stephenson" locomotives for Holland Railway Co. 400-1. illustration, diagram (side eleevation)
2-4-0 standard guage locomotives supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1866/7

[South Shields & Marsden Ry.]. 401
Purchase of former N.E.R. 398 class 0-6-0 No. 396 to become No. 5 and replace No. 8, another former N.E.R. locomotive.

Refrigerator cars for the European train ferry. 402-3. 3 diagrams including plan
Supplied by Refrigerated Transit Transport of Berlin for Harwich to Zeebrugge train ferry.

Locomotives of the Egyptian State Rys. 405-7. 7 illustrations