The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 33 (1927)

key file

No. 413 (15 January 1927)

Pacific type locomotives: Nigerian Railways. 1. illustration, diagram (side & front. elevations)
Supplied by Nasmyth Wilson under supervision of Crown Agents for the Colonies

Recent locomotives for the Egyptian State Railways. 2-3. 2 illustrations
North British Locomotive Co. 2-6-2T and 4-4-2T designs.

Southern Railway electrification. 3.
Electrical equipment for Central Section ordered Metropolitan-Vickers including motors and control gear for the motor coaches. Caterham Valley lie included..

A novel tee-square and drawing board. 3.

Railway electrification in Sweden: Stockholm and Gothenburg. 4-7.. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), map
Including power house at Trollhattan and outdoor transformer station. Electrification at 16000V singlde-phase.

2-8-2 tender locomotives for the Barsi Light Railway. 7. illustration. diagram (side elevation)
Nasmyth Wilson

Jacquet, A. "Type 10" express locomotive, Belgian National Railway Company. 8-11. 4 diagrams. including side elevation.
Type 10 designed by J.B. Flamme fitted with doublw chimney

Lasseur, E. Hungarian State Railway locomotives. 13-18. 7 illustrations

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 18-19. 2 illustrations.
Locomotives built by Company between 1874 and 1878: 0-6-0 and 2-4-0T.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 24-5.
Kitson 0-8-0ST Nos. 1274-93 and 0-6-0 M26 class.

Great Western Ry. 28.
No. 5001 Llandovery Castle fitted with 6ft 6in coupled wheels. No. 102 La France withdrawn. Former Taff Vale Railway Works in Cardiff closed and replaced by Caerphilly Works.

London and North Eastern Ry. 28
Named night sleeping car trains: Highlandman, Aberdonian and Night Scotsman.

London Midland & Scottish Ry. 28
Floriston water troughs.

The Panama Railway. 28-31. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), map

A quaint passenger train, Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Ry. 31-2. illustration
Gazelle on Criggion branch.

London & North Eastern Ry. 32
New three-cylinder 4-4-0 passenger enngine to be built at Darlington to be known as D49, with first order for 28 engines. Some of these engines are to be compound (KPJ: emphasis), probably three. The boilers will be similar to the last 2-6-0 class built at Darlington, also the cab. (KPJ: K3 was last such, and boiler did not follow that pattern).
Some of the J39 class were stationed at West Hartlepool, Saltburn, Middlesbrough and Newcastle and others were to go to Grimsby and Immingham. On the North Eastern Section they were intended to displace certain P2 and P3 classes which were intended to be transferred to the Great Eastern district following alteration to their chimneys.
The 4-6-0 Cambridge engine sent to Craigellachie for bridge tests was No. 8526. It had since been returned, but during its absence No. 9454 (NBR 0-6-0) was sent to Cambridge in its place. NBR section No. 9903 Cock o' the North had been fitted with a Worthington feed water heater and pump.
The Prince of Wales visited Doncaster Works and inspected Pacific locomotive No. 2553 Manna which was renamed Prince of Wales.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (L. & N.W. Section). 32
Nos. 13033-5 were the latest 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines to be built at Crewe and put into service on this section. Crewe had taken delevery of 4F 0-6-0 superheater goods emgines Nos. 4397-9 ex-North British Locomotive Company and 4341-5 ex-Kerr Stuart & Co. Last two 0-6-0T shunting tanks, Nos. 16498-9 delivered from Vulcan Foundry. Precursor class No. 2017 Tubal had been converted to George the Fifth with superheater and renumbered 5244. Latest addition to class G1 (superheated with Belpaire boiler) was former C class No. 2541 renumbered as 8953. Several Claughton class were running with oil-burning apparatus which had formerly been fitted to Prince of Wales type: these included Claughton type Nos. 986 and 2174 and Prince of Wales Nos. 5628 and 5645. Former North London Railway 4-4-0T type Nos. 2812, 2836, 2855 and 2856 (LMS Nos. 6486, 6467, 6463 and 6464) had been broken up at Bow. A former North Staffordshire Railway 2-4-0T had been working on the Broad Street to Poplar service.

E.J.H. Lemon. 32
Mr E.J.H. Lemon had been appointed Carriage & Wagon Superintendent from 1 January 1927. His predecessor, R.W. Reid, became Vice President for works and ancilliary undertakings on same date. Lemon was Manaager of the Derby Carriage and Wagon Works from January 1917; was appointed Divisional Carriage & Wagon Superintendent of the LMS in March 1923 and from 1 January 1925  Divisional Carriage & Wagon Superintendent at Newton Heath and Earlestown.

North Staffordshire Ry. locomotive shops in Stoke-on-Trent. 32
Closed 31 December 1926: staff transferred to Crewe and Derby.

Zeeland Steamship Co. 32
Transferred from 1 January 1927 from Folkestone to Flushing to Parkestone Quay with departure from Liverpool Street at 10.00

Leeds, Halifax & Bradford Junction Ry. 32.
Erratum: locomotive No. 99 should have been No. 399 (printer's error)

Southern Ry. 32
1927 programme for new construction: ten express locomotives of the King Arthur or Lord Nelson type; five 4-6-0 goods engines; twenty River class tank engines and 0-8-0 shunting locomotives.

Reviews. 32.
Les locomotives articulées. L. Weiner. Brussels: Buggenhoudt

Correspondence. 33

L.B. & S.C. engines. Frederick William Holliday
Response to letter by W.E Briggs in November Issue. Claimed that Stroudley Gladstone caused great surprise to engineering community by having a big coupled leading wheel (6ft 6 in diameter) and that would come off track at curves, but loaomotives rode well on curves. Old Sussex was builtby Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1864 and rebuilt by Stroudley in 1871. The rebuilding included Stroudley standard boiler, cab, chimney and cylinders. The framing at the rear as extended to take the cab. "She was a fine engine"  
Response to letter from Bennett. Craven No. 25 was stationed at Battersea running shed and worked between Victoria and Croydon in conjunction with Craven tank engines Nos. 11, 167. 213, 214 and 217. No. 11 was "a splendid little engine" with boiler pressure limited to 100 psi. "She was always in evidence". No. 25 was scrapped in about 1878.  

The "Sussex's" reversing gear. Malcolm M. Niven.
See letter November Issue by Briggs. Locomotive was LBSCR No. 203 Sussex originally built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1864 and rebuilt at Brighton Works under Stroudley in 1871 and was fitted with Dodd's gear wherein the wedge motion was actuated by David Joy's fluid pressure reversing gear.

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating. 33
See letter by J.S. Gillespie on p. 407 of Volume 32. Argues that modern superheating excluded the smokebox type as the steam did not achieve a high enough temperature. Futhermore, Aspinall acknowledged the limitations of this type in the discussion on Fowler's paper presented to the Instn Civ. Engrs in 1914.

No. 414 (15 February 1927)

New Kitson Meyer type locomotives for Colombia. 35 + plate. diagrams., map
2-6-6-2T for Giradot line. P.C. Dewhurst involvement.

Exceptional load. 46.
Machinery for Arapuri Dam transported by out-of-gauge train from Auckland to Putaruri on 13 December 1926.

William C. Wilson. 47.
Retired after sixty years service with North British Locomotive Co.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 48.
Reference is made to a series of twenty 2-4-0 passenger engines, Nos. 200-219, built by the Avonside Co., and added to the railway stock of motive power in 1867. (Mr. Cortazzi was 'locomotive superintendent 1861- 1868.) "The last six of these engines were kept m stock In Bombay until 1875.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 52-3
At the meeting held on January 14, a paper on "The Internal Combustion Boiler and its application to the Locomotive" was read by Mr. O. Brunler. After commenting on the necessity for engineers to find some more effective means of applying and utilising the heat generated from fuel in locomotives, the author proceeded to describe and illustrate an internal combustion boiler, the fundamental principle of which is the kindling and maintenance of a flame burning in water, in order to produce steam for power or heating purposes. For locomotive fuel to be utilised in this manner, liquid or powdered solid was recommended.
In order to explain the operation of the boiler, a cross-section of it was shown. Combustion is started in the boiler by means of a pilot lamp. Fuel oil and the air for combustion are supplied to the pilot lamp and to the main burner under a pressure which barely exceeds the boiler pressure. Before starting, the water level in the steam generator is lowered below the lower outlet of the burner. The cover of the pilot lamp is removed and the fire-clay lining in the pilot lamp is heated up to red heat by means of a blow lamp, or any other suitable method. The valves of the pilot lamp are opened, and the combustible mixture of oil and air ignites on the red-hot fireclay. Then the cover is pulled down again and the flame of the pilot lamp makes its way to the main burner. After a few minutes, when the burner is hot enough to vaporise the oil, the main regulating valve is opened, and the flame bums in the steam generator. As soon as the main flame bums on the surface of the water in the generator, the valve of the water reservoir is opened and the water rises up to the middle of the burner, and the flame then burns in the water, as shown in the diagram. A photograph of the flame actually burning in the water was shown by the lecturer.
By means of a superheater designed on the san:e principle as the pilot lamp, and whose flame burns in the steam reservoir or in the steam pipe, the steam can be superheated to any required degree.
The size of the flame, and, consequently, the quantity of steam produced, can be increased or decreased by turning one wheel only. As this. regulates the combustible mixture with a fixed ratio, It is impossible for the combustion to be altered through mistakes of an operator; once the regulating valve is properly set the combustion is always complete.
The flame temperature at the burner outlet is, approximately, 1,800° to 2,000°C. Since carbon monoxide bums to carbon dioxide at a temperature above 800°C., it is evident that at the high flame temperature of about 2,000°C. all the carbon monoxide is converted into carbon dioxide. The steam-gas mixture which has been frequently analysed has never been found to contain carbon monoxide. This shows that fuel can be burnt more completely in water than in the open. The combustion under pressure brings the molecules of the fuel into better contact with the oxygen of the combustion air; therefore, under pressure, and in water, a perfect combustion can be obtained. Due to the very high flame temperature, the water surrounding the former evaporates instantly. It is evident that after a few minutes the required steam pressure can be obtained. As a rule, a boiler pressure of 170 lb. per sq. in. is reached in practice within six minutes after the flame is submerged m the water.
The gases produced during combustion consist of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and slight traces of oxygen (about ,05 to .03 kg. per kilo. of oil burnt), and are mixed with the steam forming a steam-gas mixture, which consists of about 50 per cent. of steam and 50 per cent. of gases, according to the fuel used, the ratio of steam and gas varying slightly. The followmg is a typical analysis of the composition of the steam-gas mixture:
Carbonic acid 3·6 kg. (1·8m3)
Oxygen  0·04 kg. (.04m3)
Nitrogen 12·91 kg. (10.2m3)
Steam  15·1 kg. (19.5m3)
This steam-gas mixture consists of the same gases which are produced in gas and oil engines, the only difference being that in these engines the amount of steam in the combustion gases is much less. The specific heat of the steam-gas mixture is low, and a mixture of steam and gas has an extremely high power of expansion. Consequently, the highest efficiency is obtainable from a highly superheated steam-gas mixture.

On January 27 an exhaustive paper was read by E.C. Poultney on Locomotive performance and its influence on modern practice.
The author first enumerated the primary factors expected from a locomotive regarding haulage of its train, etc., and then proceeded to summarise the in- fluence of weight on the ultimate power available, as follows :-
The influence of weight on the ultimate power available is considered:
Anything that raises the indicated tractive effort curve for any given boiler, increases pull at the tender. This would mean improved engine performance. Valve gears, cylinder proportions, compounding, and other modifications leading to a better use of steam, tend in this direction.
Anything which improves boiler output for given engine conditions also raises the traction curve. The superheater, feed heater and the firebox with its grate deserve attention, but proportions of tube length to diameter and other features covering combustion air supply are also important
Anything which decreases machine friction at a given power output raises the tender dran-bar pull curve.
Anything that lowers locomotivc weight for a given capacity is important. It also means a higher net pull.
Anything that lowers rolling and head air resistances is deserving of attention.
A number of tables were shown to illustrate the gains and losses in steam generation resulting from different additions or modifications to the boiler. The effect of a brick arch, for instance, was noted, and a gain of quite 5 per cent. in efficiency secured by the employment of this comparatively simple and inexpensive adjunct.
Superheating was carefully analysed and various points connected with it, outlined, showing that, although the fitting of a superheater reduces the extent of evaporating surfaces and somewhat reduces efficiency of a superheater boiler, this is no argument against high temperature superheating, which, as was shown in the paper, offers great and important advantages over saturated steam.
A number of illustrations showing different locomotives in which special features have been embodied to secure some of the different gains enumerated by the author were shown, including compound locomotives, superheated engines, valve gears and water tube boilers as well as some results from the performance of the Horatio Allen, of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad, wherein a machine efficiency of 93·86 per cent. and a thermal efficiency of 8 ·02 per cent. was recorded. In the discussion which followed and in which several members took part, Mr. Carr (B.N.R.) touched a very important feature in modern locomotive design by pointing out the very small proportion of the total weight of engine and tender utilised for adhesion whilst axle loads had been increased, necessitating heavier and more costly permanent way.

H.M. the Queen's Saloon. L.N.E.R.  53
Rearrangements made to the Queen's day railway saloon, at the Doncaster works of the London and North-Eastern Ry. This vehicle was originally built in 1907. It was 67 ft. long, 69 ft. over buffers, and is carried :on two six-wheeled bogies. It was so arranged that it could form part of the Royal train or be used as a single unit when her Majesty travels alone, as sometimes happens on her visits to Goldsborough or to Sandringham.
It consists of a day saloon, a private saloon, and a dressing room, with accommodation for the equerry and an attendant's balcony, fitted so that meals can be prepared when the saloon forms the principal unit of the train. It is customary on these occasions to serve meals in the day saloon. This latter is the principal apartment, arranged in the Louis XVI. style, the furniture being light French mahogany, upholstered in green velvet. The small private saloon or boudoir is enamelled in jade, and is upholstered similarly to the day saloon. The Queen's dressing room is entered from the boudoir.
All the details of the decoration and the furniture were settled by her Majesty: who took great interest in the re-arranging and re-conditioning of the vehicle. It is lighted throughout by electricity, with shaded lamps on the bracket tables and lino-lights concealed behind the cornice round the full length of the day saloon and the boudoir.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).  53
No. 4346 was latest 0-6-0 ex Kerr Stuart & Co., to be delivered to Crewe for service on this section. Delivery of twenty-five similar engines ex Andrew Barclay & Co., had been commenced; the first four engines, Nos. 4357-60, being already at work. A further five 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines have recently been completed at Crewe, Nos. 13036-40.
We understand that the 4-6-0 engines ordered from the N. B. Loco. Co. Ltd. are to have three H.P. cylinders (18in x 26in) and 6 ft. 9 in. wheels.
Experiment class 4-6-0, No. 1993 Richard Moon (L.M.S. No. 5472) had been converted to superheater. Latest addition to class G1 (superheater) was No. 2528 (now L.M.S. No. 9027), which formerly was class D. Special tank shunting engines Nos. 3379 and 3651 and ex NLR 4-4-0 passenger tank No. 2824 have been withdrawn.

Pullman cars for Continental service. 54-6. 3 illustrations
Thirty cars constructed by Leeds Forge Co. Ltd for Wagon-Lits services to Nice and Milan. Kitchens had coal-fired ranges.

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 57-9.
0-6-0ST No. 1134 Buffalo and 2-2-2 Sir Alexander classes

Central buffer couplers. 59-60. 2 diagrams

A novel carriage ventilator. 61-2. 4 diagrams

G.W.R. 20-ton wagons. 62
Discounts offered to customers as incentive to use high capacity wagons, including through the tipping appliances at coaal exporting docks in South Wales.

The manufacture, heat treatment, and testing of locomotive axles. 62-4.
Including steel specifications.

The Panama Railway. 64
Locomotives supplied by the Portland Locomotive Works between 1852 and 1873 with works numbers and names

Correspondence. 65

Stephenson Locomotive Society. Re L.B. & S.C. Locomotive "Gladstone. J.N. Maskelyne
It is with the utmost satisfaction that the Council of the Stephenson Locomotive Society is able to announce that negotiations for the preservation and acquisition of William Stroudley's celebrated Express Passenger Locomotive Gladstone are now completed. Everyone interested in railway history will remember that this locomotive was the first of a class of thirty-six which made the name of its designer famous throughout the world. Built in 1882, and put to work in December of that year, the Gladstone has completed forty-four years' service. It has just been withdrawn by the Southern Ry. Co., in order to be restored to its original condition and re-painted in the very distinctive yellow colour adopted by Stroudley. Arrangements have been made with the London & North Eastern Ry. Co., for the Gladstone to be housed in their Railway Museum at York, until such time as accommodation can be found in London, possibly at South Kensington Museum, in the course of a few years.
The Stephenson Locomotive Society has made itself responsible for the cost of the work of restoring the engine, and has opened a fund to defray the somewhat heavy expenses. Anyone who may be interested in the preservation of historic locomotives is invited to contribute to this fund, and, any donations received will be acknowledged gratefully by the Society's treasurer, Mr. F. H. Smith, 159, Albert Road, Croydon, Surrey, to whom all contributions should be sent.

Three-cylinder locomotives. William T. Hoecker.
Reply to correspondent "Diamond," whose letter appeared on page 407 of the December Locomotive. The fact that locomotive builders spend considerable sums in advertising, in order to popularise a certain type of construction, is no indication that the design in question is the most suitable that can be adapted to fit all circumstances. The first Union Pacific 4-12-2 locomotive has been in service but nine months, so that its ultimate success cannot yet be predicted with confidence. The well-known history of other multi-cylinder locomotives in America should not be forgotten by the over-optimistic.
Since" Diamond" requires proof of the statement that it is impossible to obtain equality of power-output from the several cylinders of a 3-cylinder locomotive equipped with a combination valve-gear, he is advised to consult the following publications ;-
I. Pamphlet issued in 1924 by the Lehigh Valley R.R. Co., and the American Locomotive Co., containing numerous indicator diagrams taken from the Lehigh Valley 4-8-2 engine No. 5000, equipped with Gresley gear.
2. Railway andj Locomotive Engineering, Nov. 1924, page 331, depicting indicator diagrams taken from South Manchuria Ry. 2-8-2 engine No. 1601, equipped with Gresley gear.
3. Robert Garbe-Die Dampflokomotiven der Gegenwart- 1920, pages 573 and 842.
4. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1925, pages 969 and 982, with; special reference to the Gresley gear.
"Diamond's" statement concerning "varied loading at high revolutions" is not in accord with the consensus of opinion among engineers, as designers of multi-cylinder locomotives invariably strive to obtain equal piston loads in all cylinders, to insure a uniform turning moment.
I should like to ask" Diamond" one further question. It has recently been stated in the technical press that the L. & N.E.R. "Pacificr' locomotive No. 4477, Gay Crusader, has a " modified valve-motion." What does this modification consist of, and why was it deemed necessary?
(We understand the modification to the valve motion of engine No. 4477, L. & N.E.R. is to give a longer valve travel, and the result has been to slightly reduce the coal consumption. Editor.)

Recent accidents. 65-6
The Inspecting Officers of the Ministry of Transport issued their reports on four accidents, all occurring on the London and North Eastern Ry.
On 22 July 1926, the 8-20 p.m. passenger train from Newcastle to South Shields had just started, after stopping at Gateshead East Station, when it was run into in the rear by a light engine which had followed it from Newcastle. The passenger train consisted of five bogie vehicles, weighing 111 tons 1 cwt., and was drawn by 2-4-2 tank engine No. 1599, weighing 53 tons 16 cwt. The light engine was No. 698, of 4-4-2 type, and weighing, with six-wheeled tender, 121 tons 10 cwt. The last vehicle of the train was telescoped and all the others more or less damaged, whilst the light engine had the front buffer beam damaged beyond repair, the left frame badly bent in front and other minor damage; twenty-one passengers complained of shock or injury. The mishap was due to the temporary inability of the signalman at Gateshead Junction to replace the home signal to danger after the passing of the passenger train, and permissive working being in force between Newcastle and Gateshead, the driver of the light engine, who was close behind, took the signal as referring to him. The signals are power operated on the electro-pneumatic system, and the inability to replace the home signal was due to the distant signal check lock not clearing, although it was after- wards found in working order, and Major Hall suggests, among other recommendations, that the check lock, which is not generally used on modern power installations, should be removed.
When the 9-47 p.m. electric train on the circular service from Newcastle via Monkseaton and Heaton, on August 7, had passed Manors station on the homeward journey, it came into sidelong collision at Manors Junction at about 10-50 p.m. with a goods train which was crossing immediately in front of it. The dead body of the motorman was subsequently discovered under a bridge a short distance west of Heaton station, and the train was consequently running driverless. Considerable damage was done to the stock, and sixteen passengers complained of injuries. Subsequent examination showed that the automatic control, generally known as the "dead man's handle," had been tied down with two handkerchiefs so as to keep the button depressed. Major Hall concludes that this had been done deliberately by the motorman, who was therefore alone responsible for the accident.
The third report referred to the level crossing accident at Naworth on August 30, which aroused much public comment at the time, the 1-18 p.m. express passenger train from Newcastle to Carlisle colliding with a road motor coach which had been irregularly allowed to pass over the crossing. The train consisted of two six-wheeled vans next to the engine and six bogie coaches, weighing in all 176 tons, was drawn by 4-4-0 type engine No. 1929, weighing 91 tons 6 cwt., and was travelling about 50 miles per hour. The train was not derailed and suffered but slight damage; the road coach was, however, completely wrecked, and, of its sixteen occupants, eight were killed, three seriously and three slightly injured, whilst the porter in charge of the gates was killed also. Lt.-Col. Mount states that no blame of any kind can be attributed either to the driver of the train or of the road motor, and that the porter in charge was solely responsible, having (1) failed to observe the position of the indicators in the porters' room, (2) omitted to place the signals at danger before opening the gates, and (3) failed to open the gates in the proper sequence. He also recommends that, having regard to the traffic over the crossing, its equipment should be brought into line with modern practice and the gates suitably interlocked with the signals.
The last case was a collision at Wortley East Junction, between Armley and Leeds, on September 18, the 6-38 a.m. passenger train from Bradford to Leeds running into a light engine standing on the up main line. The train consisted of five coaches, the first and last pair being of the articulated bogie type and the centre one a six wheeler; it was drawn by 4-4-2 tank engine No. 4549, weighing 621 tons. The light engine, which was stationary with its chimney facing the passenger train, was No. 6104, of the 4-6-0 type, whiich with six-wheeled tender weighed 119 tons. The train was travelling at considerable speed and 'injuries were suffered by thirteen passengers and all four enginemen, whilst the passenger guard complained of shock. Major Hall finds the driver of the light engine had stopped clear of the paints leading to. the goads line over which the signalman intended he should have passed. He does not blame the enginemen for this, but the signalman who. should have satisfied himself that the main line was clear before accepting the passenger train. The enginemen, however, should have carried out the instructions with regard to. the fireman proceeding immediately to the signal box to. remind the signalman af the engine's position. He also makes certain recommendations as to the signalling arrangements at this past.

Reviews. 66

The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Alfred Rosling Bennett, London: Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
Readers of these pages will have no need to be reminded of the series of articles with the above title contributed by Mr. Bennett between 1920 and 1925, and the interest which they aroused together with the amount of additional matter which subsequently came to light has induced him to republish them in book form, incorporating therewith all the further data which is now available. The book may be regarded as supplementary to the usually recognised text books an the locomot ive, dealing as it does, not with typical standard designs, but with a heterogeneaus collection of locomotives of endless variety, of the majorrty of which no. duplicates were ever built. It does more, however, than merely record a number of unique, and in same cases freakish, specimens of the locomotive engine, as, combined with the author's voluminous nates, it sets forth the life work of one who. made the locomotive a hobby, as well as a business, and showed a good deal of originality in the designs he produced. Mr. Boultan was a man of resource, and it is fortunate that his history and that of the works which he controlled, should be put on record, as, whilst adapting his products to. the needs of his clients, he was enabled to carry aut many interesting departures in locomotive construction and design. Whilst the whale story, embellished.with a number of anecdotes written in Mr. Bennett's well-known attractive style, is of outstanding interest to. the student of locomotive history, two sections of the work claim special attention. The first deals with the part played by I.W. Boulton in the development of the water tube bailer, and althaugh this particular feature has never established itself in favour with locomotive engineers, the value of a full account of what was, perhaps, the mast extensive series of experiments made with this type of boiler is obvious. The second gives, we believe for the first time, a complete record of the experiments made in using hat bricks in a locomotive firebox far generating steam without the emission of smoke, a condition considered paramount for the equipment of locomotive pawer an the Metropolitan Ry. prior to. its opening, and which led to the many mysterious rumours regarding Fowler's Ghost, as it was called, which are now definitely set at rest. In Chapter IV. Bennett regrets that there is no certainty as to when Trent, a 0-4-2 tender engine of Sharp's build, purchased by Boulton from the L. & N.W.R. and originally belonging to. the Manchester and Birmingham Ry., was built. There can, however, be no. reasonable doubt that all the four engines of this class possessed by the M. & B. Ry. first saw the light in 1842. The work is illustrated by no less than ninety blocks, many of which have been specially drawn far it, and form by no means its least valuable feature ..

Les rampes de chemins de fer et les lignes de montagne, L. Wiener. Brussels: Imprimerie F. van Buggenhoudt, S. . Lcndon: Locomotive Publish- ing Co., Ltd.
As a fitting supplement to his work an Articulated Locomotives, of which a notice appeared in our last issue, in this book the author deals with the problems the civil engineer has to. face in laying aut mountain railways. The fixing of the gradients, the course of the line and the gauge have to. be studied in relation to. the capacity for efficiently meeting traffic re- quirements. Then again, existing lines often have to. be modified or modernised to. meet altered conditions. Data far calculating pawer of the locomotives required, with due allowances far the fuel used, influence of curves, climate, etc., are valuable far reference purpases. The writer then gives leading particulars, methods of working, etc., of mountain lines all aver the world.
These include the various lines crossing the Alps, Rockies, Alleghanies and Cordilleras, as well as the railways an the frontier of India and in Burma. Plans of the curves of the Gothard, Loetschberg, and other Cantinental lines are given. A big section is then devoted to rack railways of various types, while the concluding chapter describes various forms of aerial ropeways.

Instruction book — M.L.S. locomotive superheaters. London : The Superheater Company, Ltd. Third Edition.
Based an experience gained fram the maintenance and operation of M.L.S. smoke tube superheaters fitted to. locomotives of all types and operating an practically every railway, the instructions given in this handbook provide practical information as to the mast efficient manner of installing, operating and maintaining the superheater apparatus. At the end of the booklet is a section devoted to. Questians and Answers regarding superheated locomotives.

The Locomotive of to-day (Eighth edition). London : The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
That the above meets the want of a popular and practical text-book an the mad ern locomotive, written in a style appreciated by students, engineers and locomotive men generally, is confirmed by its extraordinary success and universal sale. In this, the eighth edition, the publishers have entirely revised the book and have had the contents largely re-written. In details of practice which have undergone radical change during the quarter-century, the Locomotive of To-day has held its awn, the latest and mast up-to-date procedure has replaced the obsolete. Where boilers were built up of a number of plates, one often now provides the boiler shell, whilst another forms the wrapper plate. The latest and mast approved methods of securing tubes, including electric welding,

No. 415 (15 March 1927)

4-6-0 locomotives, Ceylon Government Rys. 69-70. illustration, diagram (side & front/rear elevations)
Light locomotive with 4ft coupled wheels buit by Nasmyth Wilson & Co. Ltd

Three-cylinder compound locomotive, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 72 + plate f.p. 72. diagram. (side elevation)

Electric passenger rail car and shunting locomotive. 77-8. 2 illustrations
Electromobiles Ltd of Otley supplied a battery poweered railcar to the War Office to convey personnel  at the artillery ranges onn Shoeburyness. A battery powered shunting locomotive capable of hauling 300 tons was illustrated.

Amac, pseud. The "Director" class, L. & N.E.R. in Soctland. 82.
The difficulties experienced by Scottish drivers with a strange design of cab, especially with the right-hand drive.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 83-5. 4 illustrations

Obituary. 86
John Metcalfe died at Redcar on 18 February 1927; aged 87. Born in Middlesbrough. Worked as a fireman on the Stockton & Darlington Railway from age 14. Drove the now preserved Derwent and worked on footplate for over fifty years.

Ferdinand Achard. The first British locomotives of the St. Etienne-Lyon Railway. 88-92. 2 diagrams
Reprinted in full from Transactions of the Newcomen Society.

Notes on  the manufacture of the Standard British Buffer. 92-3. 6 diagrams
Black-finished forging manufactured from mild steel. The type of furnace, hammers, forging and plating and machining of the spindle and buffer head are all specified.

[Edinburgh Pullman]. 93
Since the middle of February the Up and Down Edinburgh Pullman has been worked between London and Harrogate has been worked by Director class No. 5511 Marne stationed at Leeds' The train ran via Church Fenton and Knottingley. London men work the train with an Atlantic on alternate days.

Technical essays. IX—On the future policy of the mechanical department. 94-6..

Manufacture, heat treatment, and testing of locomotive axles. 97-8.

Locomotive with cylinders and frame in one steel casting.  100. 2 illustrations.
0-8-0 for St. Louis Terminal Railway with castings supplied by Commonwealth Steel Co.

L.B. & S.C. R. locomotive "Gladstone". 100.
Restoration nearing completion.

High power electric locomotive. 100.
William P. Durtnall paper to Junior Institution of Engineers (North East Coast branch) on design of 2200 horse power high speed locomotive.

Correspondence. 101

[Sussex's valve gear] William E. Briggs
Re M.M. Niven's remarks on Sussex's valve gear, and wish to make it clear that I did not mean in my first letter that Sussex was fitted with the well-known Joy radial valve gear, but with a gear invented by that same eminent engineer.
I quite appreciate the employment of the term "Dodd's gear," but as the gear employed on Sussex was always spoken of as Joy's in the shops at Brighton, I employed the term in the same sense in my letter
Unfortunately my time at Brighton Works as a premium apprentice did not commence until after Sussex had gone to her rest, otherwise I might have had an intimate acquaintance with this most interesting engine, but I well remember conversations I had with some of the men who had worked on the fluid pressure gear, etc., particularly I recall a chat with the man—a very old hand—who had the task of boring the tiny hole right through, or nearly so, the crank axle, and he spoke of his fears lest the drill employed should break off well inside the shaft, and the difficulty of extracting the broken piece.
In the Railway Magazine for October, 1908, page 321, there appears an illustration of a pair of single driving wheels fitted up complete on crank with the Joy gear we are now considering, and although underneath the picture there is a bracketed suggestion that the wheels belong to a "Midland" engine, yet to anyone familiar with former "Brighton" practice, there is no doubt that the illustration is that of Sussex's driving wheels. Furthermore, the site would easily be recognised by anyone familiar with the Brighton Works as they were at the time that Sussex was being fitted up with the experimental gear.
Reverting to my request for a view of the front end of the old 2-2-2 tank No. 14 of 1852, apparently none of my fellow readers have been able to help in this matter with a drawing, may I now ask if any gentleman could kindly give a description of the general practice of Craven at that period (the early  1850s), as I have an idea that the early Cravens had flat smoke box doors, two doors to each smoke box and meeting together and fastened on vertical centre line of boiler. Also what shape were the smoke box sides at the bottom, of those days? did they curve inwards and was the front plate of smoke box spread out at the sides of bottom of smoke box, as was the practice in later days. If any reader can help in these matters I shall be very thankful.
I was interested to read that the Southern are to build some 0-8-0 tanks, I do not know for which section these are intended, but it is interesting to call to mind that R.J. Billinton had two 0-8-0 tanks on order at the Brighton Works towards the end of 1904. In most respects they would have been identical with his last series of 4 ft. 6 in. radial tanks (now known as the E.6 class), but with a coupled wheel in place of the trailing radial of the E.6 class, but after the decease of Billinton in November, 1904, the order for the eight-coupled arrangement was cancelled, and the engines left the works in 1905 as 0-6-2 tanks of the E.6 class. Before closing may I advise all interested in the old Sussex to read also the Railway Magazine article appearing in the December, 1908, issue, where extracts are given from the diaries of the David Joy, and his own comments on Sussex.

Expansion. M.M. Niven.
We have recently been informed that a new valve and gear is being experimented with: the Caprotti poppet valves, operated by means of a gear-box. The writer has seen diagrams of this gear cutting off at 3 per cent. of the stroke, taken off an Italian State Ry. engine, and as our knowledge and experience goes, we know that 15 per cent. is the minimum possible cut-off with other gears hitherto. With superheating and other improvements, and with the successful performance of the compound engines of the Midland Ry. (now L.M.S.), a gear such as Lentz or Caprotti will no doubt become universal in the future.
D.K. Clark was the first experimental worker who seriously took up expansive working. He demonstrated that a portion of the steam admitted to the cylinders at each stroke was condensed, and that it was partly re-evaporated at the end of the expansion, and that by this destroying process, the efforts at economy by cutting off early and expanding were baffled, insomuch that it was impossible with economy to cut off earlier than one third of the stroke."
Above words were quoted by A. Mallet in 1877 before the Societe des Ingenieurs Civils. D.K. Clark read a paper in 1852 before the Institution of Civil Engineers on this subject. Every responsible engineer knows that the saturated steam locomotive was sluggish and did not pull well when cutting-off behind the 25 per cent. grade, nor did the beat tell that this was the case. The writer has a very sensitive ear and can by it tell if an engine is being driven scientifically. The old slide valve served its day well when steam was lower in pressure, but piston valves are often unsatisfactory, and troublesome, due to carbonisation of segments and rings, and we must look to such as the Caprotti or similarly con- trolled valves, as by such the steam locomotive has a long and useful career before it. What was impossible to D.K. Clark will become a fact to-day.

Reviews. 101

La locomotive: description raissonee de ses organes, U. Lamalle and F. Legein. Brussels: Ramlot Freres et Soeur. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
The present volume represents the third edition of a most practical treatise on the locomotive, more particularly as it exists on the Belgian Rys., the joint authors being attached to the administration of the Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer Belges. It is not pretended to be a historical work, and few pages are devoted to this, but a full description, accompanied with clear drawings, is given to all the details of the modern locomotive—its boiler, mechanism, framing and fittings. Although other Continental and even British practice is at times mentioned, it is presumably only in connection with adoption on the Belgian types, for, under Air Brakes, we find no description of the Knorr apparatus, although vehicles fitted with this brake must at times circulate over the Belgian lines. Under Distributeurs (slide valves), etc., we would have expected to find more mention—and, perhaps, illustrations—of poppet valves, such as the Caprotti, Lentz., etc., but they are simply mentioned as being under trial, no comment being made. Similarly, the volume is silent on many of the more recent developments of superheating, high-pressure boilers, etc. They are probably reserved for future editions to be published, when such devices have found more general adoption on the locomotives of the Belgian Rys. The book is another interesting addition to practical treatises on modern locomotive engineering, and will, we feel sure, find many readers this side of the Channel.

[English Electric Journal]. 102
Special Traction Number of the English Electric Journal contains profusely illustrated articles on the electric traction works of the English Electric Company; electrification of the lines of the Port of Montreal; electric traction equipments in Japan; "under-car" control equipments for 1,500-volt motor coaches, etc.

Holiday Haunts. Published by the Superintendent of the Line, Great Western Ry., Paddington Station. 102
The 1927 edition of this G.W.R. publication celebrates its twenty-first birthday. To mark the occasion it has been again enlarged, and contains a mass of information for the tourist, holiday-maker, and for the general public. When the first edition appeared in May, 1906, it comprised 334 pages, the present issue contains 1,000 pages with over 400 selected illustrations of places of beauty and interest on the "Holiday Line." A special staff attached to the Publicity Department at Paddington has been engaged since May last in collecting pictures and information to be used, and incidentally it may be mentioned that no less than 219 tons of paper were required for the 175,000 copies printed. To ensure publication of the guide on 1 March, the procedure at the printing works is arranged to a pre-arranged time schedule. The guide circulates not only all over Great Britain and Ireland, but copies are placed on all ocean liners, and sent to all the principal clubs throughout the British Dominions.

L. & N.E.R. signalling experiments. 102
E.F. Fleet, of York, signal engineer of the North-Eastern area of the L. & N.E.R., and recently elected President of the Institute of Railway Signal Engineers, has been responsible. for two experiments in safer signalling practice on the L. & N.E.R. One of these is a system of intermittent or transient track circuit which has been installed at Castleford, in place of token instruments on a section of single line. The continuous current track circuit is dispensed with, but before a train can be signalled in either direction the transient impulse current must have swept the track from both ends, first by the signalman offering the train, and then by the signalman accepting the train.
The other development is the introduction of the three-colour daylight system of signalling between Croft and Darlington on the main line. This installation will result in closing down three signal boxes, thus effecting economy in working. It is proposed to adopt approach lighting. In the normal position, no light is exhibited, but when a train approaches within 1,200 or 1,800 yards, the colour light signal will be illuminated by the track circuit control, and the red, yellow or green light will show the length of clear headway in advance of the train. When the train has passed it maintains a red light showing in the signal until it has covered 1,600 to 2,000 yards ahead.

Battery locomotives for power stations and works.  102
The D.P Battery Co. Ltd., of Bakewell, Derbyshire, and 11 Victoria Street, Westminster, have issued a well- produced booklet dealing with the services given by Battery locomotives at the super power station of the Electricity Department of the Glasgow Corporation in handling the coal supplies, and the removal of ashes. A photo reproduction shows this locomotive handling a load of 150 tons. During eighteen months the tonnage hauled totalled 758,730, with a total battery discharge of 37,798 units. This locomotive is fitted with a Kathanode battery of 108 cells, capacity 384 ampere hours at the 5-hour rate of discharge. The battery has been in constant use for three years, and still gives full capacity. It is seldom necessary to charge it more than once in 24 hours.
The other locomotive illustrated is of the combined trolley and battery type at the Peterborough works of Baker, Perkins, Ltd. This locomotive is operated both in the works and outside, the length of track being over two miles. Only a short section is equipped with overhead line, and when in that area the trolley is brought into use. A special feature of the equipment is the arrangement by which the battery can be charged whilst shunting is in progress. Apart from propelling the locomotive, the battery is used for various auxiliary purposes, such as lighting, driving electric cranes and motors. The maintenance costs of the Kathanode batteries have been found to be extremely low, and after four years' service are still in excellent working order.

The Superheater Company. 102
17, East 42nd Street, New York City,: Spanish edition of their instruction book, covering the installation, operation, maintenance, and repairs of their locomotive superheaters. It is a translation of the American edition and has been prepared for distribution in Spanish speaking countries. The instructions given apply generally to the Elesco type of superheater, irrespective of whether made by the American Co., or by its associations in England, France or Germany. Copies jwill be sent wherever they can be used advantageously.

Hadfields Ltd., Hecla Works, Sheffield,  102
Leaflets illustrating examples of railway trackwork constructed of Hadfield's patent manganese steel rolled rails. In addition to the British railways using Hadfields patent Era manganese steel for their permanent way, it is also used on many railways in other countries, including Belgium, Holland, Spain, Japan, South America, South Africa, Australia and Canada. By reason of its extreme hardness and toughness, this material has successfully met the demand for track work that is subject to the severe wear and tear of modern traffic. The hundreds of crossings in Era steel on the London Tube Rys. show scarcely any signs of wear, although many have had more than 200 million tons of traffic over them. Another circular describes Hadfields Hadura steel shear blades for cutting hot blooms, bars, billets, etc.

Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co., Ltd.,  102
Order from Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd., for eighty-two electrically driven air compressors, type C.M.38, for the supply of compressed air to the brake equipments on electric locomotives of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. Saxby & Farmer (India) Ltd., of Calcutta, who are associated with The Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co., Ltd., of London and Chippenham, have been given the con- tract for the supply of Westinghouse semi-automatic daylight signals, and A.C. track circuiting over approximately three miles of double track, between Churchgate and Grant Road, on the Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry., the control apparatus for these signals being located in four cabins

New railway bridge at Nottingham. 102
The bridge at Trent Lane, on the L. & N.E. Ry. line from Nottingham to Grantham, is to be replaced by a new structure. A start has been made with the erection of the iron and wood staging which is to carry temporarily the new bridge, in preparation for placing it in position. The staging will be alongside the present bridge, and the exchange will be effected in one day, the old bridge being removed in sections, and the new bridge being rolled in its entirety on the existing stone abutments. These rise to a height of about fifteen feet above the L.M. & S. line from Nottingham to Newark, and the roadway. The task will not be an easy one, for the new bridge, which is designed to take the heaviest locomotives likely to be run in the future, will weigh 580 tons. It is being constructed in three spans by John Butler & Co. Ltd., Stanningley, Leeds, who have erected the centre span in their works, and this will shortly be dispatched to Nottingham. Special wagons will be required to take the main steel girders, which are 114 ft. in length and about 9 ft 6 in. in depth, and weigh 45 tons each. They are about the longest continuous girders that the firm have made. The bridge, which has a total length of approximately 200 feet, is to carry a double track.

No. 416 (14 April 1927)

Plymouth, Birkenhead and the North Express Great Western Ry. 103 + plate (missing)
Photograph by B. Whicher of 10.30 ex-Plymouth Millbay leaving Teignmouth at 11.44: train formed of very mixed rolling stock behind Saint class 4-6-0 No. 2977 Robertson

Locomotives for working boat specials, Port of London Authority. 103-4. 2 illustrations
Outside cylinder 0-6-0T Nos. 69 and 70 built by R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.  in 1922 and working at Tilbury Dock. Livery dark blue

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 104
Nos. 13041-4 were latest 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines ex-Crewe to be put into service on this section. Two additional class 4 0-6-0s had also been delivered and put into traffic: No. 4347 ex Kerr Stuart & Co., and No. 4361 ex A. Barclay & Sons. It is understood that a further twenty of the same type were to be built at Crewe.
Class B compound, No. 826, and class D simple, No. 1815, had been converted to class G1 (superheater) and renumbered 8905 and 9044 respectively. The former engine had also been provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. No. 2352, a 0-6-2 side tank coal engine (now No. 7835), had been adapted for working motor trains.
The 4-4-0 Webb compound, No. 1944 Victoria and Albert had been withdrawn for scrapping, thus leaving only one other of the type in service, viz., No. 1974 Howe which latter was fitted experimentally with a superheater. Other withdrawals of note were: 6 ft. 6 in. straight link class No. 1678 Airey and 4 ft. 6 in. passenger tanks, Nos s. 820 and 1358.

Compound express locomotive German Railways (Baden). 104-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Four-cylinder compound 4-6-2

Rebuilt locomotive: Norwegian State Railways. 107-8.  2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-10-0 of Ofoten Railway rebuilt as 2-10-0

Narrow gauge tender locomotive, Central Provinces Ry., India. 108-9. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
2ft 6in gauge 2-8-2 built Nasmyth Wilson & Co. uundeer supervision of Rendel Palmer & Tritton

The Panama Railway.  110-12. 5 illustrations, map
Colonel M.L. Walker was President of the Panama Railway in 1927, C.L. McIlvaine was Executive Secretary of the Panama Canal Zone. The locomotives were mainly supplied by Baldwin

Ahrons, E.L.. Early Great Western standard gauge locomotives. 113-15. 4 illustrations.
2-2-2 Sir Alexander class including rebuildings; including No. 1122 Beaconsfield. Also  0-6-0ST No. 1227

Household, H.W.G. Some notes on the Eskdale Railway. 115-117. 4 illustrations.
Mainly on handling stone traffic: most of the illustrations relate to this.

Royal Train for the Duke & Duchess of York, New Zealand Government Railways. 119; 118. 4 illustrations.
Includes photograph of four New Zealand Government Railways officials: Ewart, Chief Clerk, CME's office; J.F. Mackley, Chief Locomotive Engineer, North Island; F.C. Widdop, Chief Engineer and G.S. Lynde Chief Mechanical Engineer

The Alexandra Newport & South Wales Docks and Railway and its locomotives. 120-1. 3 illustrations
(Continued from page 80)_
The earliest engines of the Alexandra Dock Co. were purchased from the L. & N.W. Ry. and numbered as follows:-
L.N.\\'. No. Date . at time of Makers. Date pur- disposal. Built. chased.





Date built

Date purchased


Sir George Elliot


R. Stephenson & Co.




Lord Tredegar


R. Stephenson & Co.




J. R. Maclean


R. & W. Hawthorn






R. & W. Hawthorn




J. C. Parkinson


Worcester Eng. Co




Lady Tredegar


Sharp Stewart & Co.






Sharp Bros.



Of the above, all except No. 5 were originally tender engines which had been converted at Crewe works to saddle tanks between 1865 and 1870. The cylinders were 18 in. by 24 in., and the coupled wheels 5 ft. in diameter. Nos. I, 2, 3, 4 and 6 were all practically similar in appearance, and Fig. 1, which shows No. 2 Lord Tredegar, suffices to illustrate this class as fitted with the A.D. Company's standard chimney and cab of the period.
Nos. 1 and 2 were built by R. Stephenson & Co. (Nos. 624 and 625) in 1848 as Nos. 216 and 220 of the Southern Division of the L. & N.W. Ry.· No. 216 was renumbered 816 in 1862, and 1156 in 1864. It was rebuilt as a saddle tank in 1865, and finally renumbered 1805 in 1872. No. 220 became No. 820 in 1862, and No. 1199 in 1864. It was reconstructed as a saddle tank two years later, and carried the number 1807 from 1872.
No. 3, ordered for the Huddersfield and Manchester Ry., was delivered to the North Eastern Division, L.&N.W. Ry., but transferred to the Southern Division as No. 87. This engine was built by R. & W. Hawthorn (works No. 558) in 1847. Its number was changed to 687 in 1862 and to 1215 in 1863. It emerged from Crewe Works as a saddle tank in 1866, and finally became No. 1852 in 1872.
No. 4 was also a Hawthorn engine (works No. 709), built in 1849. It was at first No. 244 of the Southern Division, but became No. 844 in 1862; No. 1213 in 1863, and No. 1850 in 1872. It had been converted to a saddle tank in 1869.
No. 6, built by Sharp Bros. & Co.( No. 1011) in 1857, received the Southern Division No. 276, and was rebuilt as a saddle tank in 1870. Its number was changed to 1152 in 1871, and again to 1837 in 1874. This engine is recorded as having been sold to the Ebbw Vale Steel & Iron Co., but it very soon passed nto the hands of the Alexandra Dock Co.
These engines were displaced from 1898 onwards, but at least one was employed at the docks for some years later to supply steam to an air-compressing plant. Two were sold to the South Hetton Colliery Co., and as Nos. 8 and 9 are still at work, the former having been rebuilt as a side tank engine. No. 9, formerly No. 1, Sir George Elliot, of the Alexandra Dock Co., now carries the name Sir George. It was rebuilt in 1911; the leading coupled wheel centres being shortened 18 in., whilst a new saddle tank has been provided, this being taken from an engine now broken up.
Engine No. 5 J.C. Parkinson, was a double- framed 0-6-0 side tank, with a history of more than usual interest. Originally one of five engines (Nos. 34 to 38) built by the Worcester Engine Co. in 1868 for working the severely graded St. John's Wood section of the Metropolitan Ry. (varying from 1 in 27 to 1 in 80), it was found in practice to be too large to do the work economically. The five engines were therefore put aside for some years; one being sold in 1873 to the Sirhowy Ry. (on which line it was numbered 9) and the remainder to the Taff Vale Ry. When the Sirhowy Ry. was absorbed by the L. & N.W. Ry. in 1876, No. 9 was taken into the latter Company's stock as No. 2241, but very soon became No. 1891. It was sold in 1879 to the Alexandra Dock Co., who gave it the number 5, and the name, J.C. Parkinson. The original dimensions were-cylinders 20 in. dia., by 24 in. stroke, inclined at 1 in 8½. The valves were on top of the cylinders, and were actuated by rocking shafts and Allan's straight link motion. Diameter of wheels, 4 ft.; boiler, 11 ft. long and 4 ft. 3 in. in diameter. Heating surface, 1,132 sq. ft. Working pressure, 130 lb. Grate area, 22¼ sq. ft. Wheelbase, 14 ft. Weight, 45 tons.
Whilst in possession of the Alexandra Dock Co. this engine was rebuilt twice and completed fifty-eight years of service with five different railways. In 1900, it was renumbered 7, and again in 1905 as 26. Fig. 2 shows the appearance of this engine after its first rebuilding in 1891, to the following dimensions :-Cylinders, 18 in. by 24 in.; diameter of wheels, 4 ft.; boiler, 12 ft. long and 4 ft. 5 in. in dia.; heating surface of tubes, 975 sq. ft., and of firebox, 95 sq. ft. Total, 1,070 sq. ft. Working pressure,. 150 lb.; total weight, 46 tons 14 cwt. In 1921 the engine was again rebuilt by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. As built the firing space on the footplate was rather small and in consequence the frames have been lengthened at the trailing end to accommodate a pair of radial carrying wheels, advantage of this being taken to increase the bunker capacity at the same time, and a new boiler with pop safety valves was also provided. Fig. 3 shows this, the oldest engine of the Alexandra Dock Co., at its amalgamation with the Great Western Ry. by whom it was numbered 663. The latest dimensions were:- Cylinders, 18 in. by 24 in. stroke; coupled wheels, 4 ft. dia.; radial wheels 3 ft. dia. Bunker, 145 cubic ft. capacity flush with coping. New boiler of the Belpaire type with steel inner firebox and provided with magnesia lagging; minimum, internal diameter of boiler, 4 ft. 1£ in.; length between tube-plates, 11 ft. 7 i in.; heating surface, 184 tubes of 1£ in. dia., 979 sq. ft.; firebox, 95 sq. ft., total, 1,074 sq. ft. Grate area, 19·3 sq. ft. Working pressure, 180 lb. per sq. in. relieved by Ross pop safety valves. It was withdrawn from service in 1926.

Blake Boiler, Wagon and Engineering Co., Ltd., Darlington. 121
The business of the Blake Boiler, Wagon and Engineering Co., Ltd., Darlington, has recently been taken over by the Metropolitan Railway Carriage, Wagon and Finance Co., Ltd., Birmingham. This follows upon the approval by the share- holders of the Darlington firm of the terms offered by the Metropolitan Company for the purchase of thelworks. The work at present in hand will be completed in about a month, when it is understood the business will be transferred to Birmingham. 'Fhe Metropolitan Carriage Company have negotiations in hand respecting the utilisation of the works, at Darlington.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 122-4.
Fig. 39 0-6-0 Peel and Fig. 40 as rebuilt as NER No. 1072.

C.W. Brett. Electric welding in repairs to locomotives and rolling stock. 125. 2 illustrations

Gustav Reder. Locomotives of the Madrid, Zaragoza and Alicante Railway. 126-7. illustration

Internal combustion shunting locomotive, Great Western Ry. 128-9. 3 illustrations
Supplied Motor Rail & Tram Car of Bedford.

British locomotive builders, past and present. 130-2.
List with brief notes: is this what Lowe was based upon? Continued page 163

The manufacture, heat treatment, and testing of locomotive axles. 132-3. 4 illustrations

No. 417 (14 May 1927)

London, Midland & Scottish Railway 10 a.m. Scotch Express near Oxenholme. 137 + sepia photographic plate
Hauled by Hughes 4-cylinder 4-6-0

Superheater goods locomotives—London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 137-8. illustration.
On of 25 built by Andrew Barclay: No. 4357 illustrated

4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratt locomotive. Benguella Railway. 138-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
One of six built by Beyer Peacock & Co.

Marc Seguin's tubular boiler. 141

Recent narrow gauge tank locomotives. 142-3. 3 illustrations.
2ft 8in gauge 0-4-2ST supplied by Peckett for Dorset china clay line (very low boiler); 3ft gauge 0-4-0 Jean, and 2ft 6in 0-4-0 Cranmore for Australian gas works.

E.C. Poultney. A high pressure compouind locomotive. 144-7. illustration, 3 diagrams
4-10-2 built by Baldwin Locomotive Co. and exhibited at the Annual Convention of the American Railroad Association at Atlantic City: No. 60,000

Model of Stephenson's "Killingworth" locomotive. 147-8. illustration
Made by Twining Models Ltd of Northampton for Science Museum. See letter from Robert Young on p. 203

New steam rail auto-car, L. & N.E. Ry.. 149-50. 2 illustrations.
Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd. Includes details of test running in the Whitby area. Livery was imitation teak; seating moquette with red and black pattern on buff background.

New 15 in. gauge 4-8-2 type locomotive. Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. 150-1. illustration
Davey, Paxman & Co. of Colchester supplied to requirements of Captain J.E.P. Howey for 15 inch gauge line to be named Hercules and Samson: full dimensions tabulated.

The Deli Railway, Sumatra. 151-2. 2 illustrations.
Medan to Deli: 3ft 6in gauge: 2-6-4T illustrated. .

Early Great Western standard gauge engines, Llynvi & Ogmore Ry. supplementary notes. 156-7. illus., diagr.
0-6-0ST supplied by Black Hawthorn.

Obituary: Harold L. Hopwood. 157.
Died 23 April 1927 aged 46. Superintendent of Line for Southern Area, LNER. Joined GNR 13 January 1897. Published in Rly Mag. Founder member of Railway Club.

Special tool steels. 157-8. illustration

The Model Railway Club Exhibition. 158

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating on the Great Western Railway. 161-2.

British locomotive builders, past and present. 163-4.
Continued from page 130. List with brief notes

No. 418 (15 June 1927)

The preservation of the "Gladstone". 171-2. illustration
Illustration shows 0-4-2 Gladstone in Stroudley yellow livery alongside Lord Nelson. Ceremony at York on 31 May 1927 involved  W.H. Whitworth of Stephenson Locomotive Society, C.M. Stedman, divisional running superintendent, George Davidson, divisional general manager, J.B. Harper, chairman of York Museum Committee and E.M. Bywell curator.

Two-cylinder compound freight locomotives, Central Argentine Ry. 172-3. illustration
Twenty cross compound 2-8-2 built by Beyer, Peacock & Co.  Belpaire firebox: hish pressure cylinder was 21 x 26in and low pressure 31½ x 26in. Boiler pressure 200 psi.

Locomotives for Kimberley Diamond Mines. 173. illustration
John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd  supplied four 0-4-2T for 18 inch gauge lines ownde by De Beers Consolidated Mines in South Africa

New six-coupled bogie goods engines, Southern Railway. 174-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
S15: Urie design modified by Maunsell

Pennsylvania R.R. 175
A new number plate had been adopted for the front of the smokebox of locomotives made in the form of a " key-stone," the accepted emblem of the State of Pennsylvania and the adopted "trade-mark" of the Pennsylvania R.R.

London & North Eastern Ry. 175
No. 1268, 1272 and 1273 were 0-6-0 (J39 class) completed at Darlington. Several of the recently purchased 2-8-0 (W.D. type) were being reconditioned at Gorton. No. 6633 (late W.D. 2126) had already been put into traffic.

Inspection cars, Great Southern Railways of Ireland. 175. illustration
For use by engineers when inspecting on the Great Southern Rys. of Ireland, four closed type petrol railcars had been built by the Drewry Car Co. at their works at Burton-on-Trent. These vehicles are fitted with the builders' standard 20-h.p. engines and three-speed gear boxes, with reverse gears giving all three speeds in each direction. The control arrangements are arranged at the centre of the car, so that whichever way it is running the. leading seat is available for the use of the inspecting engineer. The seats, which are fitted with reversible back rests, are arranged so that there is a gangway along one side of the car, and ample space is left at each end for the provision of a folding table on which plans and drawings can be examined. The cars are built to suit the Irish standard 5 ft. 3 in. gauge track, and are capable of a maximum speed of 35 to 40 miles per hour.

Union Pacific R.R. 175
By utilising compressed air from the air brake supply for operating the engine whistle on certain services whereon much signalling is performed by the whistle, it is claimed that a saving in fuel of a value of about 5s. per locomotive per day is made. Several railways are now operating the engine whistle in this manner, so saving high pressure, superheated steam.

Southern Pacific R.R. 175
By the introduction of much longer runs for passenger locomotives, Los Angeles to El Paso, 815 miles, and so cutting out four changes of engines at intermediate points, the number of locomotives required for operating ten trains, five in each direction, has been reduced from fifty to twenty-five, the labour, stores and expenses of the intermediate sheds curtailed, and about £12,000 saved per annum.

"Garratt" patent locomotives (2-6-0 + 0-6-2 type) for the London, Midland & Scottish Railway Co.. 176. illustration
Three supplied by Beyer Peacock & Co. to specification of Sir Henry Fowler for Toton to Brent coal traffic

The first "Baltic" express locomotives in the U.S.A. 177-8. illustration
American Locomotive Co. for New York Central Railway to work fastest expresses such as Twentieth Century Limited and Empire State Express.

Modified Fairlie locomotives, South African Railways. 178-9. illustration
Built by Henschel & Sons of Cassel with a long rigid frame. 2-8-2+2-8-2

Great Western Ry. 178.
'The first of the new "Cathedral" class 4-6-0 four-cylinder express engines is expected to be completed in early June': notes main dimensions correctly

Benguella Railway Garratt locomotives, valves and valve gear. 179-80. diagram
with Lentz valve gear

Great Western Ry. 180
Several of the 0-6-2T (ex. T.V.R.) are appearing with new tanks, which makes them closely resemble Barry engines in external appearance. One of these is No. 577, the date on the motion is 11/26 ; another is No. 484, which has a Belpaire firebox and Swindon superheater; others are 583, dated 6/25, and 573 dated 9/26. Others of the 0-6-2T type have been rebuilt with Camel domeless boilers, e.g., No. 284, 335, 394, 292, 399 (H. L. & Co., 3411/1920), 297, 374, 286, 364, 298 (11/25), 602. Makers' plates are being removed from the leading splashers and put on the back of the bunker in many cases. New tank side sheets have been provided in some instances. Of the latest series of 0-6-2T, No: 5680/1/2/6 are at Barry and 5684/7/8/9/90/3 on the T.V. section. No. 5619, at one time in London, is now on the T.V. section. Several 2-6-2T of the 4500 class have recently been sent to London for empty coach working, among them being Nos. 4592-4599, 5500 and 5501, which are new from Swindon.

Messrs. Kitson & Co. Ltd. 180
Had orders from the Midland Ry. of Western Australia for three 2-8-2 tender locomotives, and from the Manchester Ship Canal Co. for one 0-6-0 tank engine.

An experimental water-tube boiler locomotive. 180-2. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side & front elevations)
Several Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry., Algerian Lines 4-6-0 locomotives were fitted with Robert water tube boilers in 1909-12..

Autocars for the German Government Railways, 183-4. 4 illustrations, diagram
Manufactured by Waggon & Maschinenbau Actiengesellschaft of Gorlitz: four wheel and bogie versions with petrol engines (in case of bogie vehicle mounted on the bogie).

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 184-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Stephenson's handwriting. 190-1.
Communications between George Stephenson and Michael Longridge.

Ljungstrom turbine locomotive. 193
On 20 May the Beyer Peacock experimental locomotive hauled an up train into St. Pancras.

New wagons for Anglo-German goods service via the Harwich-Zeebrugge train ferry. 199-200. illustration
Built Wismar Waggon Fabrik

The Institute of Transport, Birmingham Meeting. 202
Congress of the Institute of Transport was held at Birmingham from 18-21 May under the presidency of R.H. Selbie, general manager of the Metropolitan Ry. On 19 May, following a civic welcome to the delegates by A.H. James, the Lord Mayor, two papers were read and discussed: Traffic Control, by Mr. J. H. Follows and Industry and Transport, by George Cadbury. In the afternoon, visits were made by three separate parties to Cadbury's works, Guy Motors, and the L.M.S. Ry. Curzon Street Goods Depot, on the site of the old terminus of the London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Rys. The London and Birmingham Ry. Hotel building is now used as the District Goods Manager's offices. The old station roofs still remain, although additions and alterations have been made. The elaborate boundary wall of the Grand Junction Company's property, also the booking offices, as well as other traces of the old station can be seen. The London and Birmingham Company's station-master's house in the stable yard is at the present time used as a repair shed for wagon tarpaulins. Although the old landmarks are in evidence, the handling of goods is effected on up-to-date lines; electric battery trucks are almost universally employed for loading and unloading. On Friday morning, 20 May E. S. Shrapnell-Smith and W. P. Robinson presented a paper, Highways cost per ton mile of traffic, and Principal Grant Robertson, of the University of Birmingham, gave Transport in England—a brief survey. Both papers were followed by interesting discussions. In the afternoon, a party of members, invited by the L.M.S. Ry. Co., went by special train to Derby to view the Carriage and Wagon Works, where they were conducted round by J. W. Smith, the works manager [KPJ: should this have been W.J. Smith?]. Modern methods of building carriage and wagon stock on ass production lines were in evidence. Various stages of construction were shown from the saw-mill to the paint shop. The timber is cut to templates, and finished to final dimensions before being passed on to the erectors. There are about ten operations of three minutes each in constructing a standard goods wagon, so that a new wagon is turned out every thirty minutes. Hydraulic power tools are used for cramping, and pneumatic for drilling, screwing, bolt-tightening, etc. Carriage building is, arranged on similar "quick production" methods. A bogie composite carriage was erected for the benefit of the visitors in less than twenty minutes, the schedule time. Saturday's programme included a visit to the "Sentinel" Wagon Works, at Shrewsbury. The party were shown the various stages of construction of the "Sentinel" road wagons, as well as the rail-motors and shunting locomotives. A recently built chain-driven standard gauge locomotive was being tested in steam, and the many advantages claimed for this efficient and economical type of locomotive were clearly demonstrated. A large number of vehicles under construction, both road and rail, were seen in the shops, including two fine shunting locomotives, ready for delivery to the Great Southern Rys. of Ireland. The successful organisation of the Congress was effected by the Local Congress Committee, in conjunction with the Headquarters Committee, of which Mr. A. Winter Gray is secretary.


The Aerolite: N.E. Ry. F. W. Brewer.
R.G. Bleasdale's letter in your issue for December last (p. 407): Bleasdale places the 1851 Aerolite in the same category with Gray's engine of 1840, but this classification is, I think, a mistake, the former having outside cylinders, and the latter engine inside cylinders. Apparently, the deciding factor is that both engines had inside bearings for the driving axle, but this feature, in the case of the Kitson engine, was obviously adopted in consequence of the cylinders being placed outside the frames. Gray's design was copied subsequently in the Jenny Lind, and in other partly outside-framed six-wheeled singles, all with inside cylinders, the inside position for the cylinders being clearly an essential part of the design, quite as much so as the choice of internal frames and bearings for the driving wheels. Engines having outside cylinders cannot, therefore, rightly be classed with Gray's or Wilson's 2-2-2 locomotives of the pattern in question. It might be said, more accurately, that the Aerolite of 1851 was a development of Allan's outside cylinder 2-2-2 engine of 1845, but, personally, I regard the Aerolite as having been of Kitson's—the makers—own design. The six-wheeled single with, inside cylinders and outside frames (for all wheels) was first introduced by the Stephensons in 1833, and, apart from the position of the cylinders, the differences exhibited in the various locomotives of that type which came out afterwards constituted differences and improvements in design, rather than the inventions of a new type. The success of Gray's 2-2-2 engines was attributable to his " horse-leg " expansion gear ; to a liberal amount of heating surface; and to a comparatively high steam pressure. The Jenny Lind, which had the Stephenson motion, not only also had an ample allowance of heating surface, but had a boiler pressure still higher than that of Gray's engines. Hence their popularity. Outwardly, the chief distinguishing features were outside frames and axle-boxes for the leading and trailing wheels, and inside frames and bearings for the driving wheels. But these features, by themselves, counted for little. The plan of disposing the H.P. and L.P. cylinders at different angles was, I believe, adopted by T. W. Worsdell in the case of his 1518 class of 7 ft. 7¼ in. 4-2-2 compound, owing to the large dia. of the cylinders of these engines, viz., 20 in. for the H.P., and 28 in. for the L.P., these cylinders having to be accommodated between the frames. There was formerly one other engine, No. 1619, built by Wilson Worsdell as a two-cylinder compound in 1893, which had the cylinders similarly arranged. The cylinders were of the same size as the 1517" class, and the steam chests were outside the frames. A cross-section which I possess of the later Aerolite, built as a two-cylinder compound, shows the centres of both cylinders to be in the same horizontal plane, there being no necessity, in view of the small sizes of the cylinders, 13 in. and 18½ in. by 20 in., for stepping them. It is probable, however, that Bleasdale did not intend to imply that recourse was had to the stepping arrangement in the case of the Aerolite itself. For starting purposes, all of the Worsdell two-cylinder compounds were provided with the flap-valve referred to by Bleasdale. He will, I thick, on consideration see that the little tank engine Aerolite ," of 1851, which had 11 in. by 22 in. outside cylinders, 581 sq. ft. of heating surface, and a grate area of only 9.8 sq. ft., had nothing in common with Gray's 2-2-2 design, except the inside driving wheel bearings, as that design invariably embodied inside cylinders, so far as I know. Of course, outside frames throughout have been tried in six-wheeled single engines, but only in very few instances.

The Killingworth Locomotive. Robert Young.
In an article entitled "Model of Stephenson's Killingworth Locomotive" in the May issue of your magazine, the extraordinary statement is made that the exhaust pipe of the Killingworth engine was fitted with a "blast nozzle." This is a claim which is quite new, and ask for the authority on which the writer bases his assertion. So far as is known no blast nozzle was fitted to any locomotive until Hackworth used it in the Royal George in 1827. Robert Stephenson wrote : "Whatever merit or value may attach to this alteration, I believe to be due to Timothy Hackworth. See Smiles's Lives of George and Robert Stephenson, third volume of Lives of the Engineers, first edition, ,appendix, p. 503. London: John Murray, 1862.

British locomotive builders, past and present. F. W. Brewer.
Unless they are already included under a different title, the two following firms ought, perhaps, to be added to the lists published in your issues for April and May : (1). The Millbrook Foundry Co., Southampton ; (2). Christie, Adams & Hill, Thames, Bank Ironworks. These firms supplied one or two locomotives for the L. & S.W.R. The firm first mentioned built a 5 ft. 6 in. 2-2-2 engine, named Southampton, in 1840, and Messrs. Christie delivered, in 1848, six 6 ft 6 in. singles, which bore the names, Rocklin, Avon, Test, Trent, Stour, and Frome, respectively, and which were presumably constructed at the Thames Bank Ironworks. All seven engines were purchased by the L. & S.W.R. Co. Can any reader give us more information about these two locomotive building concerns?

British locomotive builders, past and present.
Referring to the alphabetical list of private locomotive building concerns in this country which appeared in the last two issues it has been pointed out to us that the firm of Robert Stephenson & Co. was established by George and Robert Stephenson, Edward Pease and Michael Longridge, and not as stated. Messrs. Hardy Rail Motors Ltd., of 50 Charing Cross, S.W.1, are manufacturers of petrol locomotives at their works at Slough and their name was omitted from our list by an oversight.


Lubrication and lubricants, by L Archbutt and R. M. Deeley. 5th edition. London : Chas. Griffin & Co. Ltd.
Since this book was written in 1912 great advance has been made in available information regarding the composition, handling and use of lubricating materials, and much progress has been made in the appliances adopted for satisfactory use of them. This issue of a fifth edition has entailed a con-siderable amount of revision, and much of the contents have been re-written to bring them up-to-date. The authors are evidently in possession of a vast amount of information on the subject, and they have utilised a consider-able portion of this in a particularly attractive manner in the different chapters forming this very exhaustive treatise. The composition of various lubricants is examined by analysis, tests are described and methods of investigation clearly explained. In Chapter XI a very complete survey of lubri-cators of almost every known type is given, a great variety are fully illustrated, Chapter XII is devoted to the design and means of lubrication of bearings. In Chapter XIII ball and roller bearings are dealt with, but we note the authors are very cautious in their references to any application to railway rolling stock, presumably the recent adoption on some rail-ways will form matter for a future edition ; such would be very welcome to many railway engineers. We recommend the book as a standard of reference for all interested in power and machinery.

Indian railways : rates and regulations. By N. B. Mehta, Ph.D. London : P. S. King & Son, Ltd. 10/6.
It is interesting to read the views of an Indian writer on the' present position of railways in that country. That the author is thoroughly in favour of the State management of railways is evidenced throughout the book, but as to how far this benefits the commercial public of India appears problematical. Dr. Mehta analyses many of the rates charged on the Indian railways, and favours the establishment of a Rates Advisory Commission to co-operate with the Railway Board in fixing rates for future adoption and control. Mehta's book will be read by transportation authorities with more than ordinary interest.

Round Tours in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, by Railway. From the Railway Information Bureau, 35 Parliament Street, Westminster, S.W.1.
We have received a booklet compiled for the use of visitors to this country, affording information as to opportunities for seeing the beauty spots by circular tours of different lengths, at inclusive fares, which is the result of combined action on the part of the railway companies. Several tours comprise journeys by rail, road and steamer, and in some cases cover more than one company's system; alternative routes in either direction are provided. Break of journey can be made when going or returning at any point en route. The "go-as-you-please" character should appeal to those who have leisure as well as to those whose itinerary is planned to the last moment. There is no better way of seeing Great Britain than by the railway,- which is known to be the last word in comfort, speed and smooth running. Most of the journeys naturally start from London, but some are in operation from Glasgow. A reduction of 25 per cent in the single fares from point to point is made in the through fares, and these are quoted in English money whilst for the convenience of American visitors they are also given in dollars and cents.

The Railway Year Book. London : Railway Publishing Co., Ltd.
With the present issue this useful book of reference enters upon its thirtieth year of publication.

No. 419 (15 July 1927)

Garratt articulated locomotives, Mauritius railways. 205. illustration
Three large Garratt locomotives of entirely new design were ordered by the Crown Agents for the Colonies for the Mauritius Railways, from Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., on 14 December 1926, and they were completed and shipped from Birkenhead on 30 April 1927, nineteen weeks from receipt of the order.

L.M. & S. Rv. appointments. 205
Officially notified of the following appointments :- W. Land to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, chief general superintendent's office, Crewe. W. Paterson to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, Derby. W. F. BJake to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, Derby. H. D. Atkinson to be assistant to superintendent of motive power, Derby. O. E. Kinsman to be assistant, motive power staff section, Derby. R. C Morris to be district locomotive superintendent's assistant, Devons Road, Bow. G. F. Horne to be district locomotive superintendent's assistant. Newton Heath.

United Dairies Ltd. 205
Applied for permission to construct a light railway at Finchley to bring milk to London in specially constructed glass-lined tank wagons.

Four-cylinder 4-6-0 express locomotive, Great Western Ry. 206-7. 3 illustrations.
King class: King George V illustrated

Vacuum brake on freight trains in India. 225.
Signed Celer et Audax

Factors in the design of steam locomotives. Section II. Combustion: firegrate and smokebox. 231-3.

C.A. Cardew. Influence of driving wheel diameter upon the steam consumption and overall economy of the steam locomotive. 233-4.
Higher piston speeds lead to higher thermal efficiency as demonstrated in Willans tests on stationary engines; but higher piston speeds lead to increased friction of crank pins, crosshead slides and pistons; large wheels lead to less vibration and less stress to the track, and to less hammer blow on bridges and other structures.

Light shunting tractors. 235. illustration
Mercury tractors with petrol engine made by Bramco of Birmingham.

Axleboxes of Anglo-German wagons, Harwich-Zeebrugge train ferry. 236. diagram

Recent accidents. 236-7.
Southern Railway: 4 November 1926 near Bramshot Halt: collision due to deceased driver failing to observe signals: Col. Pringle investigated. Also accidents at  Fenchurch Street collision  between LMS train hauled by 4-4-2T and  LNER 2-4-2T type due to driver of the light engine being misled by an incorrect clear indication given by the disc signal controlling movements from the middle road according to Major Halll.  Two collisions occurred just outside Hull Paragon station within nine days. The first, on 5 February was caused by the 11.45 a.m. L.M. & S. R. excursion train from Halifax over-running the signals at Park Street box, and coming into side-long collision with the 12.59 p.m. passenger train from Hornsea, which was approaching the station at the same time. The excursion train was drawn by engine No. 136 (L. & N.W.R. Prince of Wales class) which, with its six-wheeled tender, weighed 107 tons, whilst that of the Hornsea train was L. and N.E.R. No. 1703, 0-4-4 type tank, weighing 541 tons, the loads of the trains being ten and eight bogie coaches respectively. Both engines and most of the coaches were more or less damaged, but fortunately personal injuries were slight, only two passengers in the Hornsea train and one in the excursion being involved. Lt.-Col. Hall states that the mishap was due to the misreading of the signals by the pilot driver of the excursion train, who was well acquainted with them, and is therefore solely responsible for the occurrence. The second collision, on 14 February was more serious:, the 08.22 passenger train from Withernsea colliding head-on with the 09.05 from Hull to Scarborough, near West Parade Junction signalbox, with the unfortunate result that eight passengers were killed outright, four others died in hospital, whilst twenty-four suffered serious and twenty-two minor injuries, all four enginemen being also injured. Col. Pringle, after a very exhaustive inquiry, found that both trains were properly signalled, and that the collision was due to the Scarborough train having been diverted to the incoming track on which the Withernsea train was approaching, owing to the premature moving of the points leading to that track by a signalman in Park Street box, which he found by experiment it was just possible to accomplish after the replacing of the starting signal and before the bogie wheels of the engine reached them. All points and signals controlled from Paragon station and Park Street boxes have been operated electro-pneumatically since 1905, the installation having worked with entire satisfaction ever since, and the Inspector does not think that this accident, or the previous one of February 5th, was in any way caused by un-necessary complications of lay-out add crossings.

List of British locomotive builders. 237
Our attention has been drawn to the omission of Messrs. Parfitt & Jenkins, of Cardiff, who built thirteen six-coupled saddle tank engines for the Marquis of Bute for the Cardiff Docks, and which were described in the LOCOMOTIVE in Vol. XXX., in the serial articles on the Cardiff Railway.


The "Gladstones" F.W. Brewer. 237
It is greatly to the credit of the Stephenson Society and the Southern Ry. Company that they have been jointly instrumental in preventing the original member of this famous class of express locomotives from being scrapped. The question respecting the use of leading wheels as large as 6 ft. 6 in. in dia. seems to have arisen only in the case of this particular class, yet the "Gladstones " were preceded by six very similar 0-4-2's, which also had 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels, and which were turned out at Brighton from 1878 to 1880. These earlier large-wheeled examples had, however, smaller cylinders, and smaller boilers, than were those of the " Gladstones." Like the latter, these prototypes were designed by Stroudley for working the 08.45 train from Brighton to London, and consequently they ranked as express engines. The success of their much better known, and far more efficient successors, the Gladstones themselves, was undoubtedly very largely due to the latter having comparatively big boilers, and a liberal amount of heating surface and grate area, features which were by no means common in 1882, when the engine now preserved at York first came out. Indeed, in these respects, the Gladstone compares very favourably with the first series of the Caledonian Ry. 4-4-0 Dunalastairs, of 1896, which also had 18¼ in. by 26 in. cylinders, 6 ft. 6 in. four-coupled wheels, and a grate area of 20.63 sq. ft. The boilers were 4 ft. 81 in. by 10 ft. 3½ in., and had a total heating surface of 1,403.23 sq. ft., the corresponding details of the " Gladstones " being 4 ft. 6 in. by 10 ft. 2 in., and the total heating surface (grate area 20.65 sq. ft.), 1,492.10 sq. ft. The pressure carried by the Dunalastairs was 160 lb., or 20 lb. higher than that of the Gladstone, which, in 1882, had the then fairly common figure of 140 lb., but some of the later engines of this series had 150 lb.
The plan of placing the coupling-rod crank pins on the same side as the main cranks, instead of at an angle of 180 deg., was a favourite one with Stroudley, who first employed it when on the Highland Ry., in 1866. Dean adopted the same practice in the case of at least four classes of passenger engines on the Great Western Ry., from about 1888, and S.D. Holden also tried it in the 4-6-0s which were designed by him in 1911 for the Great Eastern line*. Otherwise, the practice remained, and still remains, an unusual one. Stroudley argued that, with his method, all the stresses were in accord, whereas, in the case of the ordinary plan, they were in opposition.

•Note.—This is not strictly accurate. The original engines of this class, turned out during S.D. Holden's regime, were built in the ordinary way with coupling rod crankpins at 180° to those of the main cranks, and there are five engines running thus. The remainder of the class, however, about 65 in number, have the crank arrangement described by Mr. Brewer, but were all built subsequently under the superintendence of the late A.J. Hill.

Railway pictures, films, etc. 237
As usual, there are a few railway pictures to be found in the Royal Academy's Exhibition this year. Artists do not appear to be able to find nearly as much interest in the "Iron horse" as they do in the "Iron ship"; railway subjects do not appeal to them,. notwithstanding the amount of romance that has been woven around the "steel track." No. 174 "Brigton," by Robert Houston, shows a passenger train in the near foreground, but the exact ownership is difficult to decipher. No. 559 "Through the marshes," by Stanhope A. Forbes, RA., is equally difficult to locate or say on which railway the scene is to be found. In No. 458 "The L.N.E.R. Musical Society at Queen's Hall," by F. W. Elwell, the artist is evidently much more at home, and gives a very realistic impression. An etching by a lady artist, Marjorie Sherlock, of "Waterloo," gives a very lifelike picture of the modern station, as we know it to-day, with a train's arrival.

No. 420 (15 August 1927)

4-6-0 three-cylinder express passenger engines, L.M. & S. Ry the "Royal Scot" No. 6100. 239-40. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built North British Locomotive Co. to the design of Sir Henry Fowler. Intended for haulage of express trains between London Euston and Glasgow Central. Number on tender, LMS device on cab side, no nameplate on locomotive illustrated. Next: No. 6101 Highland Chieftain.

2-8-2 type locomotives for the Kenya & Uganda Ry. 241-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd of Darlington to the requirements of H.B. Emley, chief mecanical engineer under the supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton on behalf of the Crown Agents

Multi-cylinder locoomotive Midland Ry.. 243-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Cecil Paget patented design of 2-6-2 with sleeve valves, wide firebox of unusual construction. Scrapped in 1919, but achieved 82 mile/hour on trial. Aim was perfect balancing..

Dynamometeer car, State Railways of Czecho-Slovakia. 245-6; 247. 5 illustrations, diagram (side & rear cross-sections, 2 plans)
Built Ringhoffer Works in Prague.

Technical essays. No. XIV — On the training of the locomotive engineer. 246; 248.
Suggests sandwich course with winters spent in academic study and summers in workshops.

Centenary of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 248-51. 3 illustrations.

Trial run to Plymouth of Great Western locomotive, No.6000.  251-2.
On 20 July Cornish Riviera was hauled to Plymouth with two coaches slipped at Westbury: it arrived 5 minutes early. Chief Inspector C. Read, Driver Young and fireman Pierce were on the footplate. List of King names ends feature.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 252-3.
Secondhand locomotives acquired: inside cylinder 0-6-0s: Nos. 81 Miller and 82 Hawthorn (Hawthorn WN 532-3 of 1846) acquired from Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway where they had been Cowlairs Incline locomotives. No. 82 illustrated at Shildon. Three Bury 0-4-0s were also acquired: 87 Fryerage; 88 Deanery and 89 Huddersfield: last illustrated as NER No. 1089 (this last was supplied to Manchester & Leeds Railway in 1846

Opening of the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch, Ry. 253-5. 3 illustrations.
Mainly an engineering overview with only a modest amount of information on the locomotives.

Ambidextroous engine drivers. 255.
Lists thoes British railways which had adopted left-hand drive or right-hand drive: former included LNWR; latter the Midland

The "Imperial Indian Mail" trains. 262-4. 3  illustrations, plan.
Sleeping cars ran on six-wheeel bogies and were constructed for the weekly Bombay to Calcutta service. They were constructed at the Matunga workshops of the GIPR in Bombay. The ilustrations show the train leaving Parsik Tunnel and st the Ballard Pier station in Bombay.

Correspondence. 271

Vacuum brake on freight trains in India. W.H. Whitehouse. 271-2..

No. 421 (15 September 1927)

Express passenger locomotive with poppet valves: L. & N.E. Railway. 273-5. 5 illustrations.
This describes the fitting of oscillating cam valve gear to one member of the existing class: the following relate to new construction. The actual valves are illustrated. Also noted that goods engine which we fully described in issue of February 1926, had been in continuous service for upwards of two years, and the poppet valve gear had not, we are informed, given the slightest trouble, nor have any repairs or renewals to any part of it been required.

Four-cylinder express engine, Lord Nelson class, Southern Ry.  275 + colour folding plate facing page. diagram.
Coloured sectionalized diagrams.

Recent Spanish-built locomotives. 276-7. 3 illustrations, table.
4-8-2 and 2-8-0 for Northern Railway and 2-8-0 for Andalusian Railway.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).  277
Seven of the new three-cylinder 4-6-0 type passenger locomotives ex North British Loco. Co. are now in service on this section, Nos. 6100-2, 6105-6 and 6125-6. The first of the series, No. 6100, bears the name Royal Scot. It is understood that all the engines of this class are to be fitted with the Diamond Soot Blower. The construction of the fifty engines ordered from the North British Loco. Co. has been arranged as follows:-twenty-five at the Queen's Park Works, Nos. 6100-24; and twenty- five at the Hyde Park Works, Nos. 6125-49. The makers' numbers of the series are 23595-644 inclusive. At Crewe, the new 2-6-0s are completed up to No. 13082, whilst Nos. 13050-69 had been despatched to Derby for service on the Midland division. No. 4371  was the latest class 4 0-6-0 ex Barclay & Sons to be delivered.
4 ft., 3 in. 0-6-2 coal tanks Nos. 7772 and 7816 (old Nos. 1209 and 1250) had been fitted for working motor trains.
Three additional 6 ft. 6 in. Jumbos had been broken up at Crewe, viz., Nos. 787 Clarendon, 864 Pilot, and 2192 Caradoc. Other withdrawals comprise 0-6-2 coal tanks Nos. 678, 948, 3151, 3447 and 3752; 0-6-0 coal class Nos. 3038, 3173 and 3553; and 0-6-0 special tank No. 3047. L.M.S. 0-6-OT No. 1600 (formerly N.S.R. No. 5BA) had been withdrawn.

Sevenoaks accident, Southern Ry. 277
On Wednesday evening, 24 August, the 5 p.m. train from Cannon Street to Deal was derailed at 5.30 p.m. at Riverhead, between Dunton Green and Sevenoaks. The train was headed by the 2-6-4 tank engine River Cray, No. A800, and consisted of seven bogie carriages and a Pullman car. Thirteen passengers lost their lives, and 48 other passengers were more or less seriously injured. Sir John Pringle is conducting an enquiry into the cause of the disaster on behalf of the Ministry of Transport.

L. & N.E. Ry. 277
A new twin-coach intended for branch line traffic has been built, which, whilst it is 108 ft. 8½ in. long and 8 ft. 10 in. wide, tares only 37½ tons. It had gas lighting, and the bodies overhang the headstocks of the underframes. Articulated trains of four car bodies on five bogies, and 154 ft. 6 in. long, having accommodation for 182 third-class passengers, 22 first-class, and luggage and guard's compartments tare, 63 tons, or less than 1 ton for three passengers.

Sentinel-Carnmell steam rail-cars. 277
Sentinel-Carnmell steam rail-cars were working on the L.M. & S. Ry. branches to Methven, Airdrie-Newhouse, Dalmellington-Ayr, and between Strathaven and Coatbridge.

High speed electric locomotive, C. de F du Midi. 278-80. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Cam shaft control and quill drive

Light traffic work with the "Sentinel" locomotive. 281-2.
Narrow gauge back-to-back locomotive (described as articulated); also non-articulated locomotives for narrow gauge passenger-carrying lines in India and for the Egyptian Nile Delta Railway.

Bennett, A.R. The Malta Railway. 283-5. 5 illustrations.
Workshops at Hamrun. Valletta terminus partly in tunnel. Metre gauge. Manning Wardle 0-6-0Ts

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 292-3. 2 illustrations.
Secondhand locomotives: NER 0-6-0 No. 2259; 2-2-2 No. 93 Uranus. Also tabluates new G. Wilson 0-6-0s.

Canada's first locomotive. 294. illustration

South African Railways. "Hulse"double-decked suburban coach. 299-300.  2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Designed by Oscar Hulse.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 300-2.  2 illustrations.
0-6-0 types: 46 engines supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1877: some were supplied without wheels as a stock of 5 ft. wheels existed supplied by the Yorkshire Engine Co, Class known as L/21 WN 2239-68 and 2310-25. Kitson & Co. supplied Class K/16 known as Kitson's heavy goods in 1877 WN 2146-55. They had 17¾ x 26in cylinders and 4ft 6in wheels. They had steam brakes.Further series followed: K/15 (WN 2180-96) and K/17 (WN 2241-6) with 18 inch diameter cylinders and Smith simple vacuum brakes.

Running a  British locomotive on a United States railroad. 304-5. illustration
King class visit, but mainly earlier (including LNWR) visits from British locomotives

No. 422 (15 October 1927)

Large tank locomotive for South Africa. 307. illustration
4-8-2T built by Avonside Engine Co. Ltd

4-8-0 goods locomotives – Queensland Government Rys. 308. illustration
Twenty five locomotives of the 4-8-0 type, with bogie tenders, were shipped, fully erected, from the Tyne to Brisbane for service on the Queensland Government Rys. They were built at the Scotswood Works, Newcastle by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd., to the requirements of  R.J Chalmers, chief mechanical engineer.

Obituary. 308
Death of E.F.S. Notter, who was locomotive superintendent of the London district of the Great Northern Ry. for twenty-five years. He died on 21 September 1927 in the North Middlesex Hospital, where he had been a patient for several weeks, and was sixty-eight years of age. He commenced work on the railway at Doncaster when he was eighteen. From there he went to Colwick where he had charge of the locomotive department for the Nottingham district, and thence to King's Cross, from which he retired in 1924. Mr. Notter was deeply interested in engineering which, in addition to being his work, was his hobby, and he was a very clever model engineer.

E. C. Poultney. Decapod locomotives — Western Maryland R.R. 308-9.  illustration
Twenty 2-10-0 type engines built by Baldwin Locomotive Works for heavy freight working.

L.M. & S. Ry. three-cylinder compound locomotive. 310. diagram (side elevation)
4P compound 4-4-0

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 310.
The following additional Royal Scot class 6 4-6-0's ex North British Locomotive Co. were in service on this section :-Nos. 6103-4, 6107-16 and 6133-8. Others of the same type in service as follows :-Northern division, Nos. 6127-8 and 6131-2; Midland division, Nos. 6129-30. These bring the total of the type so far delivered up to 31. New 2-6-0s up to No. 13085 have been completed at Crewe. Latest class 4 0-6-0 ex Barclays' was No. 4374. 0-6-2 side tank coal engine No. 7830 (old No. 3669) had been fitted for working as a rail motor. The following engines had been withdrawn:- 0-6-2 coal tank No. 2362, 0-6-0 DX. goods No. 3402 and 0-6-0 shunting tank No. 3582.

Rebuilt locomotive, District Ry. 311.  illustration
4-4-0T No. 34: fitted with cab; most of condensing gear (including bridge pipe) removed

Great Western Ry. winter train service. 311.
Faster Cornish Riviera Express (four hours to Plymouth non-stop) and Torbay Express (59.5 mile/h average to Exeter)

Brewer, F.W. Modern locomotive superheating on the Great Western Railway. 320-2.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers,. 312-14.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 330-1.
2-4-0 No. 98 Pierrmont of 1855; NER No. 1101 and NER No. 1099 at Hopetown Foundary

Household, H.G.W. The Railway Museum, London & North Eastern Ry., York. 332-3.

No. 423 (15 November 1927)

New 0-6-2 tank locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. 341. illustration.
With condensing apparatus. N7/2 built by William Beardmore & Co. Ltd.: No. 2646 illustrated .

Metre gauge 4-6-4 tank engine: Bombay, Baroda and Central India Ry. 342-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built in India at Ajmer Central Workshops to design of W.S. Fraser.

Mumbles Ry. 343
It is expected that the electrification of the Mumbles Ry, at Swansea will be completed by next March. Five two-car trains will maintain a 7½ to 15 minute service, with a schedule speed of 12 miles per hour; each car will accommodate 110 passengers. The overhead trolley system will be used at 650 volts. A sub-station at Blackpill, the middle point of the line, will supply direct current, and this will be entirely automatic in operation. The equipment is being supplied by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd., and the rolling stock by the Brush Engineering Co. Ltd. The Mumbles Ry. can claim to be the oldest railway in Great Britain, for it was incorporated in 1804 and opened in 1807. It is 5½ miles in length and extends from Rutland Street, Swansea, along the shore of Swansea Bay to the pier at Mumbles, running alongside the public road for a considerable part of the route. For nearly seventy years' the vehicles were horse-drawn, and for the last fifty years steam tank locomotives have operated the long trains of double-decked cars which carry the holiday makers in the summer.

Higher steam pressure on the L. & N.E. Ry. 343-4. illustration
No. 4480 Enterprise illustrated: 220 psi boiler

"The Fair of the Iron Horse": Centenary Celebration of a famous Amrican Railway. 345-7. 2 illustrations
A circular track was constructed to parade the locomotives and rolling stock. This also formed the location for the non-railway elements in the parade: people on horseback; people in horse-drawn wagons representing the westward movement of people which would lead to the construction of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad which was initially worked by horse power. Then the historical evolution of the steam power on the railway. This was followed by the visiting locomotives and their trains, including that of the Great Western Railway.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).  347
Latest Royal Scot class three-cylinder 4-6-0s ex North British Loco. Co. to be delivered to Crewe bore Nos. 6117-9, 6121-3, 6139-44 and 6146. Including Nos. 6127-32, which were attached to the Northern division, there were forty-four of these engines in service. New class 4, 0-6-0s had also been delivered to Crewe, as follows:-No. 4375 ex Barclay's and No. 4492 ex North British Loco. Co. The Crewe-built 2-6-0's were all out of the shops and a new series of Class 4 goods had been commenced, Nos. 4437 onwards.
Of the seventy-five R.O.D. 2-8-0 type locomotives, which were recently taken over by the ·L.M.S., a number are being repaired for service, and of these the following were in traffic :-Nos. 9646, 9647, 9649, 9652 and 9653. The second in order was built in 1917 and the others in 1918—all by the North British Loco. Co.
0-6-2 coal side tanks Nos. 7587, 7710 and 7772 old Nos. 3742, 796 and 3769 had been fitted for motor service. Recent withdrawals included the ex-Knott End Ry. 2-6-0T. Blackpool, this being the last of the four Knott End engines to be scrapped. The following ex L. & N.W. Jumbos had also been withdrawn :-Nos. 477 Caractacus, 480 Duchess of Lancaster, and 2189 Avon (6 ft. 6 in. type), and Nos. 424 Sirius and 2158 Sister Dora (6 ft. type). In our article on the Royal Scot train last month, in the list of water troughs on the West Coast route we omitted those south of Tebay.

Cam-operated valve gear locomotive, L.M.& S. Ry. 348-51. illustration, 3 diagrams., table.
Claughton class Alfred Fletcher No. 5908 fitted with Beardmore- Caprotti valve gear

New 15in gauge 4-8-2 type locomotive, Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. 350. illustration
Built by Davey Paxman

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 364-5. 2 illustrations., diagram (side elevation)
Neilson Ghat locomotives: 0-8-0ST WN 1726-35.

L.M.S. Ry. L. & N.W.R. Section. 365.
Several Prince of Wales class locomotives running with tenders from ROD 2-8-0 type.

Modern British railway practice. 369-72.
Paper presebnted to Belfast Association of Engineers by W.K. Wallace on 19 October 1927. Notes that first Ross pap saftey valve was manufactured in the NCC Workshops in Belfast and was fitted to No. 57. Also notes that no further 0-6-0 type would be added to NCC locomotive stock..

The Portstewart Narrow Gauge Tramway. 372-3. . illusttration
Closed due to bus competition.

30 ton coal wagon, Carrongrove Paper Co. Ltd. 373. illusttration
Supplied by Hurst, Nelson & Co. Ltd. of Motherwell

The "Kitson-Still locomotive. 374
The North-Eastern Group of the Inst. of Locomotive Engineers visited the works of Messrs. Kitson & Co. Ltd. Leeds on Friday, Nov. 4, to make an inspection of the very' intere~ting "Kitson-Still" engine which is now practically finished. A general description of this engine was given in Locomotive Mag. December 1923, together with an arrangement drawing, and the present locomotive is practically identical with this, being of the 2-6-2 tank type with a drive by cranks from the gear shaft on to the orthodox type of coupling rod which connects the three coupled wheels on each side.
The large number of members who attended were received at the works by Lieut.-Col. E. Kitson-Clarke, and Mr. H. N. Gresley, president. An inspection was first made of the working unit of the "Kitson-Still locomotive; which was used for testing and expenmental purposes, and is fitted with a brake. This unit consists of the complete cylinder and drive — the locomotive has eight such cylinders and the starting, by steam, and continued running by oil, was regarded with much interest. The novel principle of the combination of steam and internal combustion seemed entirely justified from an examination of the running of this single cylinder unit, as the employment of steam for starting purposes eliminates the need for any form of clutch, which is recognised to be the weak link m high power internal combustion engines, and so far proved a check upon their employment for heavy locomotive purposes. In practice, the steam portion of the engine is intended to be worked for starting and manceuvring purposes, but to a limited extent it can also be used for assistance in running, if, for example, a short steep bank has to be climbed: After this single cylinder unit had been run, and explained in detail to the members, a very thorough inspection was made of the finished engine, which was on the rollers ready for its final running trials before being passed out for experimental service, probably on the L. & N.E. Ry. The whole of the cylinders, connecting gear, heat regeneration arrangements, cab fittings, etc., were carefully and fully described, to the very great interest and edification of all. The tractive effort of the engine is understood to be 24,000 lb. and the weight in running order about 80 tons. Two tanks are provided, one of which carries 1,000 gallons of water and the other 400 gallons of oil fuel, which is used for steam raising in the boiler, and for the drive on the internal combustion side of the eight cylinders.
The trials of this locomotive will be regarded with the greatest of attention by railway men, owing to the novel principles involved, and Messrs. Kitson & Co. are to be congratulated on this new construction, which reflects in every way the greatest credit, as it must have involved a very large amount of ingenious designing and experimental work.

Correspondence. 374

Early safety valves. E.A. Forward. 374.
Re account of the L. & N.E. Ry. Railway Museum at York, in the October issue of Locomotive Mag.  some observations relative to the two spring-loaded safety valves attributed to Timothy Hackworth. In the first place, Hackworth was certainly not the first to use the direct spring-loaded safety valve on a locomotive, as a drawing of the Murray-Blenkinsop locomotives, published in 1815, shows the safety valves loaded with helical springs.
Hackworth may have devised the multiple plate spring type of valve, as he gives a sketch of one in his notebook dated July 1828, but this valve is of more primitive form, and is, moreover, fitted with an easing lever worked by a string. The Rastrick notebook of 1829, mentioned by Mr. Household, shows this primitive form of valve, including the easing lever, and states that the engine had a weighted lever safety valve as well.
Neither of the two valves at York can be identified with that on the Royal George in 1828 or 1829, but either may have been fitted to it later on. Valves of the same design as the smaller and simpler specimen are shown on original drawings of engines built by Messrs. R. Stephenson & Co. between 1830 and 1833 and they appear to have been largely used at that period as' the "lock-up" valves on locomotives. I should judge the design of the larger valve to be later, 1£ anything, than the smaller one; one like it can be seen on Puffing Billy at the Science Museum, but when it was fitted is not known.

Reviews. 374.

La machine locomotive, Edouard Sauvage. Paris and Liege: Ch. Beranger. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd. 8th edition. 398 pp. and 332 illustrations.
The first edition of this excellent work, described as "a practical book giving a description of the parts, and of the working of a locomotive, for the use of engine men," appeared in 1894, and it is a striking fact that it has ?ow reached its 8th edition. Most of the original illustrations have now been replaced by up-to-date examples of locomo- tive design, and superheaters, exhaust steam injectors, and feed water pumps now appear. The book has, however, become narrowed down to an epitome of French locomotive practice, as all illustrations of non-French engines appear to be excluded. The restriction in this direction has, how- ever, certain compensations, as numerous drawings are given of the various standardised details prepared by the O.C.E.M. (l'Office centra le d'etudes de material de chemins de fer) such as leading and trailing Bissell trucks, crank axles, tyre profiles, etc. It can therefore be thoroughly recommended as instancing modern French locomotive practice. The text is clearly written, and the illustrations in general are good line drawings. As mentioned in the introduction, a law of the (French) Ministry of Public Works "compels locomotive personnel to give proof, by certain examinations, that they understand; in these examinations it is not only suffi- cient to show that they can effectively conduct the trains, but they must explain the functioning of the parts of the engine." To enable enginemen intelligently to comprehend the latter, no better book could be devised, and it will perhaps, some day, be translated into English.

Oerlikon Bulletin, No. 76. 374
This is mainly devoted to the question of determination of efficiency of large turbo- generators. Particulars are given there of a method used by the Oerlikon Co. whereby it is possible to determine very accurately the efficiency of turbo-generators too large to run under normal full-load conditions on test bed. For this purpose use is made of leading reactances which permit of the loading of the turbo-generators with ratings up to 40,000KV A. to their full capacity at power factor zero. The same issue contains the results of tests on traction motors for the electric locomotives which are being supplied by the Oerlikon Co. to the Northern Spanish Railway Co.

The Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co. Ltd.. 374
Received from Southern Ry. Co. an order for power signalling material for London Bridge and Borough Market Junction. The order includes a 311-lever all-electric locking frame, a 35-lever locking frame, and 155 electric point layouts. Four aspect light signals, resonated impedance bonds, and projector type route indicators will be used.

No. 424 (15 December 1927)'

"Pacific" type express locomotive (Class XB), Indian State Rys. 375-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations).
Supplied Vulcan Foundry

Three-cylinder 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. 378-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation).
D49 Shire class. No. 234 Yorkshire illustrated: all names listed, but only numbers for english counties

[Clogher Valley Ry]. 379.
Decision to close passenger service

Magnetic axle tester — Acton Works, Underground Electric Rys. 379.
To detect fractures

Southern Ry. 36-ton steam breakdown cranes. 380-1. illustration
Two supplied by Ransomes & Rapier of Ipswich to specification of R.E.L. Maunsell

R.H. Inness.  (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 385-7. 4 illustrations
2-4-0 No. 114 Edward Pease; No. 114 Nunthorpe and NER No. 1115 (former 115 Meynell) and NER 0-6-0 No. 1112 (former 112 Lion) illustrated. Leading dimensions of Peel class long boiler 0-6-0s supplied by R. & W. Hawthorm  in 1856

H.G.W.  Household. The Railway Museum, London & North Eastern Ry., York. 387-9. 2 illustrations
Early rolling stock, including carriages and wagons; permanent way including that from tramways which acted in association with canals and river navigations. Exhibits from Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway and from Stockton & Darlington Railway

Diesel locomotive for Rangoon. 389-90. illustration
2ft 6in gauge four-wheel supplied by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd. of Leeds.

0-6-0 shunting engines, Sudan Govt. Rys. 390-1. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. outside-cylinder 0-6-0T for 3ft 6in gauge Kassala line. One of illustrations shows complete locomotive being lifted onto motor vessel Belpareil at Hull

F.W. Brewer. The economic advantages of high steram pressures in locomotives. 395-7.
Prompted by the use of 250 psi boilers on King and Royal Scot classes and comparable pressure on Canadian National Railway 4-8-4 types and even higher pressures with water tube boilers on the Delaware & Hudson Rialway ex;perimental locomotives. Notes experiments conducted by S.W. Johson and D. Drummond on the effect of boiler pressure on fuel consumption and studies by Professor Goss at Purdue University on coal consumption over a range of pressures.

Transport of milk in bulk. 398. 3 illustrations
Glass-lined cork-insulated tank wagons assembled at Swindon by the Great Western Railway on behalf of United Dairies

L. Derens. "Stephenson" locomotives for Holland Railway Co. 400-1. illustration, diagram (side eleevation)
2-4-0 standard guage locomotives supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1866/7

[South Shields & Marsden Ry.]. 401
Purchase of former N.E.R. 398 class 0-6-0 No. 396 to become No. 5 and replace No. 8, another former N.E.R. locomotive.

Refrigerator cars for the European train ferry. 402-3. 3 diagrams including plan
Supplied by Refrigerated Transit Transport of Berlin for Harwich to Zeebrugge train ferry.

Locomotives of the Egyptian State Rys. 405-7. 7 illustrations