Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 44 (1938)
Key file

Number 545 (15 January 1938)

2-10-4 heavy goods engine, South African Railways. 7-8. illustration

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 9-11. 5 illustrations

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 18-21.

Number 546 (15 February 1938)

Rebuilt 4-6-0 type engine, No. 2364, L.N.E.R. 32-3. illustration, 2 diagrams (side & front elevations)
Former North Eastern Railway Raven locomotive rebuilt with Gresley Walchaerts valve gear. B16/2

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 55

Number 547 (14 March 1938)

Steam suburban services. 65

G.W.R. "Manor" class, 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines. 66-7. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 81-3. 3 illustrations
Includes biographical details of locomotive superintendents: R. Andrews, F.G. Slesser, J. Cleminson

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 83-6.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: Counterbalancing and its effect on the locomotives and on the bridges. 86-7
Paper 381 was read by D.C. Brown, member, at the meeting held on 23 February in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The President, Lt.-Col F. R. Collins, D.S.O., took the chair. Following are brief extracts from the paper.
One of the principal causes of impact on rail- way bridges is the hammer-blow due to :the counterbalancing arrangements on the locomo- tives. As unbalanced reciprocating masses tend to shake the locomotive, and as the balancing of them gives rise to hammer-blow, the requirements of the locomotive engineer and the civil engineer are mutually opposed. The whole subject of counterbalancing, therefore, is a matter of com- promise, and the purpose of the paper is to ex- amine the problem from both points of view. When investigating the methods of balancing locomotives, the principal features to be borne in mind are:-
(i) To balance revolving parts in the pair of wheels to which they belong.
(ii) To limit the "overbalance" (i.e., the pro- portion of reciprocating parts balanced) to the minimum necessary to ensure smooth running.
(iii) To distribute the overbalance as evenly as practicable amongst the coupled wheels.
(iv) To reduce to a minimum the weight of the revolving and reciprocating parts, particularly the latter. Special grades of high tensile steel are available for the manufacture of coupling and connecting rods and the use of these materials in preference to straight carbon steel results in an appreciable saving in weight.
(v) To ensure that the wheels as, cast do actually comply with the designer's instructions. It has been found that the balance weights are often light, due to the metal being porous. This difficulty can be overcome by checking each pair of coupled wheels after mounting on the axle, and then correcting for any dis- crepancy.
The parts of a locomotive which move relative to the frame can be divided into two classes those which revolve and those which reciprocate. ' The revolving parts can be fully balanced by means of masses in the wheels, and the degree of . balance remains constant at all angular positions during rotation of the wheels.
The reciprocating parts, on the other hand, can only act In the plane of reciprocation, which for the sake of simplicity will be assumed to be hori- zontal. If the obliquity of the connecting rod is neglected, as it usually is in locomotive balancing problems, the reciprocating mas'ses will behave in the horizontal plane exactly as if they were revolving masses centred at the crank pins. They can, therefore, be fully balanced in this plane by revolving balance weights situated in the wheels. The reciprocating forces, however, have no component except in the horizontal plane. Hence, In the vertical plane, the revolving masses used to balance them will themselves be totally unbalanced, and will give rise to hammer-blow on the track.
As far as the vibration of the locomotive is concerned the balance for the reciprocating masses can be distributed In any convenient manner amongst the coupled wheels. Revolving parts, however, can only be balanced in the pair of wheels In which they occur. This has, often led to difficulty, especially in America where there has frequently been insufficient room in the small driving wheels to balance the massive revolving parts, and as a result heavy hammer-blows due to the underbalance of the revolving parts are not uncommon. In 1935 the Central of Georgia R.R. found .710 bent rails in a distance of only about 100 miles, and this was attributed to underbalanced revolving masses in the driving wheels of their 2-10-2 locomotives. Not only had the engines been underbalanced when built, but in service some of the lead in the balance weight had been lost, thus accentuating the defect. In British built locomotives it is usual to balance the whole of the revolving and a proportion of the reciprocating masses. The actual balance crescents in the wheels are therefore made up, in theory, of two components, the balance for the revolving masses, and the, "overbalance," that is, the part which balances a proportion of the reciprocatmg masses.
When a live load passes, over a bridge at speed it imposes on the structure, in addition to its own weight, certain forces due partly to the irregularity of the track and partlv to features inherent in the design of the locomotive. The additional forces are:-
(a) Hammer-blow caused by the balancing of the reciprocating masses of the locomotive, or by lack of balance of the revolving masses.
(b) The effects of rail joint and other irregu- la:rities of the track and wheels.
(c) Lurching due to transverse unevenness of the track or transverse variations of the relative stiffness of the two rails.
(d ) A number of minor irregularities too small to be treated separately.
.Although the underlying principles governing Impact effect were not fully understood until quite recent years, the presence of impact forces had long been realised and various means had been adopted to allow for them in designing bridges. As early as 1849, at a time when even the elementary theory of stresses in girders was in its mfancy, a Royal Commission which had been appointed to enquire into some disastrous failures of cast iron bridges, singled out "impact" and "fatigue" as two of the principal factors to be investigated. As a result of the report of this Commission the Board of Trade specified that cast iron girders for railway bridges should be so designed that their breaking strength was equal to three times the dead load plus six times the live load. In other words, they called for an impact allowance of 100 per cent. on all spans. We now know that this allowance was excessive especially for the longer spans.
Subsequently as a result of Wohler/s experiments on fatigue a number of bridges were designed by means of "range of stress" formulae, so-called because the allowable stress depended on the ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress. Although these formulae included no direct allowance for impact, generally speaking they took care of its effects. Apart from other considerations, however, they were inconvenient to use as the dead weight of the completed structure had to be assessed before the allowable working stress could be determined. These difficulties were overcome by the well-known "Pencoyd" formula and others of the same general form.
This formula was frankly unscientific in origin as it had been evolved merely by plotting values obtained from a number of existing designs. On the other hand, it represented practice that had proved reliable in service, it provided an impact allowance which decreased with increase of span and it was, moreover, simple to use. Consequently it gained wide popularity, but as it was found to provide an excessive allowance a num- ber of variations were adopted.
The Indian authorities have been keenly interested In research on problems connected with bridge design, and the method adopted in their bridge investigation of 1925-1926 was to work on the basis of the natural loaded frequency of the bndge. By this means a basic theoretical formula was evolved and this was substantiated by experimental results: Then, by substituting in this formula for limiting conditions, a covering curve was obtained. How does all this affect the Locomotive engineer? Does it make it possible for him to run heavier locomotives? The question is not so simple to answer as may appear at first sight. As previously stated, the "Pencoyd" and some of the other formula- of this type are now known to have given extravagant values for the impact, and bndges designed with these excessive allowances are found to be capable of carrying loads greater than those originally permitted. Thus the Indian Railway Board, due to the adoption of the impact formula which they now use, were able to allow appreciable increases in axle loads. After describing the manner in which hammer- blow affects the bridge structure and showing how a reduction in hammer-blow may enable the civil engmeer to permit an increase in the static weight of the locomotive, the author then examined the trend of modern counterbalancing, also the effects on the locomotive of the disturbing forces. Instances of low proportions of counter-balance were given, various existing methods of limiting the counterbalance proportions were described, and these were analysed from the point of view of both the locomotive engineer and the civil engmeer. A method of limitation combining the two methods, was suggested.

The Model Railway Club Exhibition. 87
Held Central Hall, Westminster, Aprill 19 to 23

London & Nortth Eastern Railway. 87
New engines completed at North Road Works, Darlington, of the 0-6-0 type J39 class, and put into traffic  Nos. 1535 (Hull); 1537, 1538 and 1541 (Newport), also No. 1542. New V2 class, 2-6-2 Nos. 4799 to 4802 for the North Eastern section. The latest streamlined A4 Pacifics were Nos. 4466 Herring Gull, and 4467 Wild Swan, and not as given in our last issue. No. 4468 Mallard, has been fitted with a Kylchap double chimney. The last two of the ex N.B R Atlantics have been withdrawn, Nos. 9875 Midlothian, and 9901 St. Johnston.

W.A. Tuplin. Mixed traffic locomotives. 88-9. table

F.C. Hambleton. L.N.W. compounds: the "Teutonic" class, 89-90. illustration, diagram (side elevation), table
Three cylinder compoundsWith one exception, No. 1304 Jeannie Deans, the class was named after White Star liners

Incline working on L.M.S. Rly: historic stationary winding engines. 91-3. 5 illustrations
At Middleton Incline was an engine built by the Butterley Iron Works in 1825. At Swannington the engine was built by the Horsley (Coal and Iron) Company of West Bromwich in 1833.

C.H.E. [Cuthbert Hamilton Ellis]. Famous locomotive engineers. IV. Archibald Sturrock. 93-6. 2 illustrations (including portrait)
Formed the basis for one of Author's Twenty locomotive men

Lubrication and lubricants. 96-7.
Report of W.A. Stanier's summary of papers relating to Reciprocating steam engines at an Institution  of Mechanical Engineers conference on Lubrication and Lubricants. Stanier (according to this report) paid especial attentiion to studies on the French, German and Canadian National railways. The work of Chatel on compound locomotives in France received extended mention.

Number 548 (15 April 1938)

Post Office Mail Trains. 99-100
The working of the Down and Up Postals timed to ensure that Post Office workers could maximize their effort by switching between the two trains; also details of trains which conected with it at Rugby, Tamworth, Crewe and Carlisle. During the King's stay at Balmoral special arrangements were made to expidite Mail to and from His Majesty.

New 4-6-0 locomotives, Bengal Nagpur Railway. 103-4. illustration
Class GSM supplied by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn of Darlington to the designs and specifications of Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners.

2-8-2 oil-burning tank loco. for Mexico. 102. illustration
Hudswell, Clarke & Co. locomotive for Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. 20 x 24in cylinders activated by Walschaerts valve gear, 3ft 9in coupled wheeels, 1262ft2 total heating surface and 24ft2  grate area. Holden system of oil firing and Belpaire firebox.

Tasmanian Government Railway. 102
Streamlined locomotives (R class Pacifics) and four coach train with buffet car with green and black livery to run between Launceston and Hobart.

Articulated 3-car diesel-engined train, L.M.S. 102
Built at Derby: demonstration run from Euston to Tring and back on 24 March 1938. Scheduled to enter service between Oxford and Cambridge. Seats for 162 passengers.

Sentinel geared steam locos., Egyptian State Railways. 103-5.. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
Four locomotives built by North British Locomotive Co. with Sentinel engines. Each totally enclosed engine had two 11 x 12in cylinders driving wheels of 3ft 8¾in diameter. The driving wheels were not coupled: thus in Whyte notation they were 2-2-2-2. They eliminated hammer blow. They had 200 psi Belpaire boilers which were identical to those used in 4-4-0 locomotives supplied in 1937 (see LM, 43, 304). The valve gear was modified Hackworth. An industrial 2-2-2 saddle tank with two Sentinel engines is also described.

[Bridge reconstruction on LMS Bath to Mangotsfield line]. 105
12 bridges were reconstructed to enable heavier locomotives to work through to Bath,

Articulated railcar, G.N. Rly., (Ireland). 106-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & end elevations, plan)
G. Howden design for Dublin to Howth suburban service with Walker patent power bogie with two Gardner 6LW diesel engines, Vulcan-Sinclair hydraulic transmission and five-speed gearbox. Burlingham hot water heating, Dunlopillo upholstery and Rexine finishes.

Wirral Lines electrification, L.M.S. Railway. 108-13. 6 illustrations.
Photographs include consol and circuit breakers in electricity control room and maintenance depot. Mersey Railway rolling stock had to be modified for working to New Brighton.

36-ton travelling crane, Southern Railway. 114-15. 2 illustrations
Ransomes & Rapier Ltd Stokes cranes for Nine Elms and Bricklayers Arms depots.

C.P.R. bell for L.N.E.R. loco. 115. illustration.
As fitted to No. 4489 Dominion of Canada.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. The development of rail motor car services in France. 115-17.
Precis of Paper No. 389 by L. Dumas

Number 149 (14 May 1938)

Stream-lined Pacific type locos., Victorian Railways. 134. illustration

2-6-4 type broad-gauge tank engines, South Indian Railway. 135-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive L.N.E.R. 136-7 + folding plate f.p. 146. diagram, plan.
Detailed working diagrams.V2.

Three-car oil-engined train L.M.S.R. 139-43. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Built at Derby with Leyland engines and hydraulic torque comverters. Special attention is paid to the articulation. The livery is described as Post Office red on the lower part of the vehicles and "aluminium" above.

W.A. Tuplin.  Mixed traffic locomotives. 143-4.
Modern designs: GWR 43XX 2-6-0; Gresley 2-6-0 classes leading to No. 1000

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 157-9

Number 550 (15 June 1938)

The control of transport. 165
Professor Alexander Gray of Edinburgh University paper presented to Institute of Transport Congress held in Edinburgh considered the financial performance of the amalgamated railways and the London Passenger Transport Board, and in particular the removal of the 62 bus ciompanies

Improved 2-8-0 freight engines, G.W.R. 166. illustration
38XX series: Side window cab, outside steam pioes and improved sanding gear: No. 2884 illustrated.

London & Southampton Railway Centenary. 166

2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.S.R., Northern Counties Committee. 167. diagram (side elevation)
W class diagram shows No. 90 Duke of Abercorn. Other names listed

New high-power electric locomotives, Swiss Federal Railways,. 167

4-6-4 express locomotives. New York Central Sytem. 168. illustration
Class J-3A Hudson supplied by American Locomotive Co. of Schenectady. No. 5445 (illustrated) streamlined locomotives to haul Twentieth Century Limited

2 ft. 6 in. gauge "Mikado" locomotive, Chosen Ry. Co. 169-70. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Korea: Kokai (Yellow Sea) line: locomotives supplied by Kisha Seizo Kaisha Ltd and by Nippon Sharyo Ltd in Japan

Leeds City Station. 170
The  combination of the Wellington and New stations as Leeds City: a joint LMS/LNER venture with the new (LMS) Queen's Hotel

High-power diesel locomotive for Roumania. 171-3. illustration
Supplied by Sulzer Bros. of Winterthur and Henschel of Kassel for operation over the Transylvanian Alps from Campina to Brassov with gradients of 1 in 47/1 in 50.

Miniature locomotive for a garden railway. 173. illustration
10¼ inch gauge 4-4-2 designed J.N. Maskelyne for railway in Dudley. Two locomotives supplied with boilers manufactured by T. Goodhand of Gillingham in Kent.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 174-8. 9 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Mechanical coaling plants. Illustrations of those at Colchester, York, Doncaster and Whitemoor on the LNER and Rugby on the LMS.

G.W.R. Centenary. 178.
On Whit Monday 1 June 1938 the line opened from Paddington to Maidenhead

Institute of Transport Congress, Edinburgh May 18-21, 1938. 179.
President Sir Alexander Gibb; three keynote papers: The problem of rates classification by George Mills, Divisional General Manager, LNER Scottish Area; Transport in Europe, regulation and control by Archibald Henderson, Chairman of the Traffic Commissioners, Southern Area, Scotland and Post War development of government control by Profesor Alexander Gray of Edinburgh University.

Manchester & Bolton Railway Centenary, 179
Opened 29 May 1838: used Bury locomotives with names

London & North Eastern Ry. 179
New J39 0-6-0 locomotives allocated to North Eastern Area Nos. 1546, 1548, 1551, 1558 and 1560; to Scottish Area Nos. 1862, 1863 and 1896; and to Southern Area Nos. 1804, 1808, 1835, 1898 and 1903. Two engines of J39 class had been fitted with all-welded boilers: Nos. 1509 and 1535. Withdrawals included last F8 2-4-2T Nos. 40 and 420 and ex Hull & Barnsley 0-6-0s Nos. 2412m 2540 and 2542.

O.J. Morris. Eastleigh Railway Museum. 180-3. 5 illustrations

Breidsprecher break of gauge device. 184-5. illustration, diagram
change gauge between German and Russian railway systems.

L.M.S.R. engine casualties. 185-6.
Presentation of Motive Power Shields by Sir Josiah Stamp at Euston on 25 May 1938 gave names of winning district motive power superintendents: J.E. Wood, Plaistow, W.H. Ensor Shrewsbury; A.H. Whitaker, Bristol; W.E. Blakesley, Crewe; I.E. Mercer, Werllingborough; H.B. Buckle, Derby; H.G. Prentice, Motherwell; F.C. Anker, Nottingham; S.W. Gerrard, Longsight and Wakefield, D. O'Hara.

Early Eastern Counties Railway locomotives. 186-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)

Railway electrification. 187
Sir Ralph Wedgwood, Chief General Manager of the L.N.E.R., contributed a talk to the B.B.C. Transport series which was broadcast on 12 May 1938. He dealt with the possibilities of speed if the lines were electrified. It was true that an electric locomotive could haul a heavy train at a more constant speed than a steam locomotive, and that over a varied line it could maintain a higher speed between point and point. But it was "5 a weight carrier rather than a flier that the electric locomotive would do its best work. Suburban electrification, dependent on the multiple unit, not the electric locomotive, was a proved success, where the passenger traffic was heavy and the goods traffic light. This was particularly the case with London, South of the Thames, where there had grown up by far the largest system of suburban electric railways in the world.
North of the Thames progress had been less rapid, but was making great advances now that the main line companies. and the London Transport Board had pooled their suburban interests. Apart from London, progress was slow — the traffic was less intense, and the pressure of freight traffic on the available facilities was greater. The capital cost was therefore heavier in comparison with the reward to be obtained. Still progress was being made, and new sections of suburban line had been electrified in the Liverpool area, and on Tyneside, within the last few weeks. Main line electrification stood on a different footing. It must justify itself as a business proposition mainly on the economies it brought with it; and unfortunately the smaller the scheme the smaller l was the proportion the economies were likely to bear to the capital expenditure involved. An experiment to be successful must be made on a big scale or not at all. Such an experiment was in progress on one of ,the lines connecting Manchester with Sheffield, where heavy grades, long tunnels and intensive traffic gave favourable conditions for success. Taking the whole of our railways, even those that served the North of Scotland, they gave a more frequent service than any other country in the world — more than twice as frequent as the French railways and eight times as frequent as the U.S.A. Passenger questions, continued Sir Ralph, bulked large in the public eye, but as a matter of fact the railway drew much less than one-half of their revenue from passenger business. Coal and goods traffic gave more money over all. They carried 190 million tons of coal a year out of about 240 million tons produced, but they carried it only 44 miles on an average; in America' they carried it 324 miles, and in India 200 miles. On the other hand, they were themselves one of the largest consumers of coal, and one wagon- load out of every fifteen that they hauled went to stoke the fires of their own locomotives.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 187
E. Thompson, mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area, is to be mechanical engineer (Western section), Doncaster. A. H. Peppercorn, locomotive running supt., Southern Area, to be mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area, Darlington. F. W.. Carr, assistant mechanical engineer. Stratford, to be mechanical engineer, Southern Area (Eastern Section). L. Hyde, works manager, Inverurie, to be works manager, Cowlairs. L. Farr, works manager, Cowlairs, to be works manager, Inverurie.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 188-90

Number 551 (15 July 1938)

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 218-20. illustration, 2 diagrams
Hackworth-Lentz valve gaer fitted to Dutch locomotive

Number 552 (15 August 1938)

New 4-6-2 express locos., L.M.S.R..234. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Non-streamlined: No. 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch illustrated: note that No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn would have streamlined steam passages between cylinders and steam chests and was to be fitted with a hopper ashpan and deep firegrate.

Tank locomotive for Longmoor Military Railway. 234-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Designed and built by W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 0-6-2T with outside cylinders and valve gear named Kitchener

The Royal Visit to France. 236-7. illustration
King and Queen departed Victoria for Dover on Tuesday 19 July on six car Pullman train behind No. 915 Brighton. At Dover boarded Admiralty yacht Enchantress. At Boulogne boarded special painted blue with gold lines behind Nord streamlined super Pacific No. 3.1820 to Batignolles where the locomotive was changed to an Etat streamlined Pacific for the journey over the Ceinture line to the Avenue Foch (Bois de Boulogne) station. The return journey on 22 July started at Invalides Station behind No. 3.1820,

L.M.S. School of Transport. 237-9. illustration, plan
Opening took place on 22 July when a special train from St. Pancras took Lord Stamp and the Minister of Transport Leslie Burgin to Derby. The Principal of the School was Colonel Manton (biographical details given)..

Rebuilt Atlantic engine No. 3279, L.N.E.R. 242-3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Former four-cylinder simple rebuilt with K2 type cylinders and outside valve gear.

E.H.  Livesay. Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate. 244-8.
Concentrates on the section from Kamloops through the Fraser Canyon through Revelstoke and the climb through the Kicking Horse Pass with a 2-10-4 at the rear banking to Banff and on to Calgary

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 249-51.  2 illustrations
Ash handling plant and turntables: Mundt and articulated types

P.C. D[ewhurst],  L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 254-6. 3 illustrations
No. 11 was a 2-4-0T (Fig. 9) built by George England & Co. and exhibited at the Great Exhibition in 1861 and was acquired by the Somerset & Dorset Railway and subsequently was renumbered before beijng sold to the LSWR in 1871: see Locomotive Mag., 1930, 36, 385. Fig. 10 shows No. 15 as numbered 23 at the Vulcan Foundry, one of six 2-4-0 built by the Vulcan Foundry for the Somerset & Dorset Railway, but only two were delivered (due to lack of finance by the railway) and received numbers 15 and 16. The remainder were sold to the Alsace-Lorraine Railways. The Somerset & Dorset pair were rebuilt at Highbridge Works in 1880 (Fig. 11)

A 1½ inch scale model saddle tank locomotive. 256. illustration
Model of Hunslet Engine Co. 0-4-0ST built by T.A. Common and presented to Science Museum

Railcar streamlining. 257-60. 7 illustrations, diagram

Number 553 15 September 1938)

Ventilation. 267
Sliding windows, fans and air conditioning; including filters to remove smoke and dust

G.W.R.. 267
Twenty diesel railcars to be constructed at Swindon with engines supplied by A.E.C. of Southall. Cotrol of electro-pneumatic type so that railcars could be coupled and provision to haul trailers including horseboxes.

Commonwealth Railways 4-6-0 passenger locos. and accelerated services. 269-70. illustration

Obituary. 270
Alexander Newlands: died Maxwell Park, Glasgow, 28 August 1938. Former Chief Civil Engineer of LMS.

Tasmanian Government Railways. "Boat Express" train and steam railcar. 270; 271. 2 illustrations

Victorian Railways, new steel cars. 271. illustration
Air-conditioned third class coach.

"The Mad Sarajevan," Jugoslav State Railways. 272-3. 3 illustrations
Belgrade, Sarajevo and Dubrovnik: reduction in journey times by Ganz three-car diesel multiple units.

Locomotives for the South African mines. 273-4. 2 illustrations
North British Locomotive Co. 4-8-4T for the East Rand Prroprietary Mines Ltd, and 4-8-2T supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. for Rand Leases (Vogelsfontein) G.M. Co. Ltd

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. VI. Edward Fletcher. 274-8. 3 illustrations (including portrait), diagram (side elevation)
See also letter from W.B. Thompson on p. 367

M. Igel. Locomotive boiler-washing plant. 280-4. 2 diagrams
A greater part of the heat of the boiler water ought to be transmitted to the filling water and can be achieved: (1) Steam and water may be discharged separately. (2) Boiler water may be blown-down by steam pressure (without recovering the steam separately). If the heat is being transmitted according to the first method it is obtainable: (a) By means of leading the boiler water through the filling water, to which the steam blown-down for the direct heating of the freshly supplied clear water is admitted; (b) By means of leading the fresh water, before its entrance into the filling tank, through the blown-down boiler water; (c) By means of leading the boiler water through a heat exchanger through which flows simultaneously the supplied fresh filling water. If the blowing-down of the boiler water is performed with steam pressure (according to the second method) the boiler water should be conducted: (a) Through a heat exchanger, to which the fresh filling water is supplied in a quan-tity dependent on the desired final temperature of the fresh water ; (b) Through the filling tank constructed as a preheater and containing at least the water quantity necessary for one filling.

World Power Conference. Vienna Sectional Meeting. 284
A paper on The Requirements and Supply of Energy for Electric Railways, was presented by Francis Lydall, from Merz and McLellan, at the 1938 Sectional Meeting of the World Power Conference in Vienna on 25 August 1938. Lydall divided his subject into four parts: the first discussed the energy requirements for electric traction, and showed that these are much lower than is usually expected, an approximate figure being 50 k.w.h. per 1,000 ton miles. Train heating during the winter adds about 10% to this, and reference was made to the relative advantages of steam and electric heating. The second section dealt with the consumption of energy for railway traction in Great Britain, which in 1937 amounted to 1,352,793,000 k.w.h. A table showed the consumption of various electrified lines for that year, with the source of supply and the half-hourly maximum demand. The third part of the paper related to the fluctuations of traction load and the ratio of the average to the maximum demand, and the author gave some interesting instances of the variations due to conditions of service. Curves were given showing the output from the power stations of the London Passenger Transport Board during a typical winter and summer week-day, also on a day of exceptionally heavy traffic. In the fourth section the factors affecting the cost of energy for electric traction were examined, and the relative advantages of purchasing energy and private generation were considered. Details of the provision of power for its electrified services were given by permission of the Southern Railway, which derives its current partly from its own power station built before 1914, partly from a power company, and partly from the Central Electricity Board, and the significance of the figures was explained.

L.M.S.R. Appointments. 284
C.R. Campbell, Assistant, Office of Divisional Supt. of Operation (Motive Power), Derby, to be District Loco. Supt., Carlisle. A.R. Ewer, Assistant, Office of Divisional Supt. (Motive Power), Derby, to be District Loco. Supt., Willesden.

London & North Eastern Railway. 284
North Road Works, Darlington, had completed series of J39 0-6-0 goods engines, the last six being Nos. 1974, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1996 and 1997, and these were located to the Southern Area. The first two of the new series of V2 2-6-2 tender engines Nos. 4804 and 4805 were completed. No. 4804 differed from the earlier engines of this class in having a multiple-valve regulator fitted in the superheater header and the regulator rod was outside the boiler, with a compensating crank about half way. One of the new engines is to be named The Green Howard, the christening ceremony taking place at Richmond at the end of the month. New 2-6-2 tanks of the V1 class completed at Doncaster were Nos. 404 and 425. The first of Jas. Holden's 0-6-0 side tanks, No. 275 G.E.R., dating from 1886, had been withdrawn from service at Stratford. Engiines withdrawn in the North Eastern Area included—B13 class No. 738, J21 class Nos. 568, 1818 and 530; J24 class Nos. 1841, 1944; J25 Nos. 1724, 1727 and 2137; J71 Nos. 1835, 448 and 498, and H. &B.R. 0-6-2 tank No. 2483.

A centenary of Austrian loco. practice. 285-8.

P.C. Allen. A Canadian railway centre. 289-93.  

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 293-7.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. II. Carriage and wagon underframes. 297-9.

Number 554 15 October 1938)

A great century.  301
London & Birmingham Railway Centenary

D.S. Barrie. The London & Birmingham Railway: Centenary Exhibition at Euston.  302-4. illustration

LNER 4-6-2 No.4468 "Mallard",

C. Hamilton Ellis.  Famous locomotive engineers: VII. Patrick Stirling. 306-9.

Chosen Railway, Corea, Prairie type locomotives and combined mail and passenger car.  310-11. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2ft 6in gauge: locomotives capable of 70 km/h: built by Kisya Seizo Kaisya and Nippon Syaryo Kaisya

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 312-14. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams.
See also letter on p. 367 from W. Lubsen

E. Abel. Railcars and diesel-electric trains. Danish State Railways. 315-16. 2 illustrations

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 317-20.  2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

Miniature Garratt type locomotives. 321. illustration
Kitson & Co, Ltd. 2-6-0+0-6-2 for 10¼ gauge Surrey Border & Camberley Railway

The Raul central power locomotive. C.R.H. Simpson. 321. illustration

P.C. D[ewhurst] . L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 322-3. 3 illustrations

4-6-4 passenger locomotives. Chicago and North Western Railway. 324. illustration

LNW compounds. the three cylinder mineral engines. 325

Watchet Harbour. 327

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Harbour Line: new "Pendulum Train".  328

The free wheel on railway vehicles. 330-2. 3 diagrams.

Number 555 (15 November 1938)

Derens, L. Description of Halls's crank arrangement:
cited 1950, 56, 182

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 322-3.

Livesay, E.H. London to Edinburgh on the footplate. 337-8.
Written as a companion article to the same author's "Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate" (Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 244-8).

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 349-51:

Reviews. 265

Railways to-day. J.W. Williamson, Oxford University Press.
So many text books have appeared during recent years on the subject of railways that it is not to be expected that there would be much more to be said on the subject, and indeed, the writer of the present volume does not claim to introduce new material. It is one of a series, the Pageant of Progress, and in 160 pages Mr. Williamson has condensed most of what the average reader would require to know to obtain a general insight into the construction and working of the railway system. Beginning with a historical summary, the writer deals next with the route, gauges, tunnels, bridges and the permanent way generally. Then follow the building and repairing of locomotives and other rolling stock, with chapters on signalling and operating conditions. He concludes with a brief account of locomotives on the road, together with Diesel and electric working. Criticism may be directed against some of the statements in the historocal chapters, always a controversial subject, but on the whole the book depicts a fair and reasonable picture of the development and working of railways from the early beginnings to the present. In addition to a number of small line drawings, it is illustrated with 23 half tone plates, the reproduction of which is excellent.

Heat Engines. A.C. Walshaw, Longmans, Green & Co. 413 pp.
Intended as an introductory text-book, this is divided into three sections, dealing respectively with the essential principles of heat and heat engines, steam and steam plant, and thermo-dynamic and internal combustion engines. Generally this work is very complete and deals as fully with the subject as would appear to be possible within similar confines. It is up-to-date and owell illustrated.with diagrams and figures. In view of the extent to which the poppet valve is used in heat engines of to-day, it is rather surprising that it is not included in the, chapter on valves and valve gears. An even more inexplicable omission is the absence of a diagram or description of a locomotive type boiler. As this is one of the most rapid steam generators ever produced within the limits of its size and is also used for various stationary and small marine purposes, this is probably an over-sight. This book is undoubtedly a very useful contribution to text-books in its class and should be of considerable assist-ance to students preparing for examinations in the subject, or to those requiring a cortege work of reference.

Correspondence. 367

Edward Fletcher. W.B. Thompson
Re article on Edward Fletcher, locomotive superintendent of the North Eastern Railway from 1854 to 1883, does not mention a rather puzzling matter which attracted some attention at the time, namely, the frequency with which his engines suffered from boiler explosions. It was not only with old and worn out engines, or engines of obsolete type, that explosions occurred. Your article rightly described the double framed goods engines built in 1870 as excellent, but two of them were wrecked by explosion after a few years' service; and of the inside framed type introduced in 1872—a very fine engine for that date—No. 787 built by Stephenson and No. 941 built by Neilson exploded when still comparatively new. The North Eastern was of course not the only company which had boiler explosions, but the Board of Trade inspector in one case reported that in a named period there had been fifteen boiler explosions on British railways all put together, and that of the fifteen nine had occurred on Fletcher engines. The following for one period of fourteen months shows the position pretty clearly:
Engine No. 787 exploded at Blaydon, Nov. 24, 1878.
Engine No. 375 exploded at Headingley, Aug. 16, 1879.
Engine No. 737 exploded at Leamside, Sept. 9, 1879.
Engine No. 746 exploded at Silksworth, Jan. 26, 1880.
And so on.
What exactly was wrong with the design or maintenance of the Fletcher boilers I do not know, but they seem to have been very susceptible to grooving. Apart from this unpleasant failing the Fletcher engines were very good, and if they had run into London instead of being visible only in their own district they would have been much more famous. Perhaps the greatest distinction between locomotive practice in the early days of railways and at the present time. lies in the fact that in spite of much higher pressures and very large boilers—expecially in America—explosions to-day; are almost unknown.

"Atlantic" Locomotive, Dutch State Railway. W. Lubsen
Re Derens' serial article describing the bad riding of the Atlantic class. Considering the construction of the leading bogie of the engine, it must be said that this form cannot have the good running qualities known of other classes of the said wheel arrangement. Tne design of the bogie makes the engine in question resemble an engine of the 2-4-2 arrangement with leading pony-truck. The bad running qualities of this class are well known, due to the short fixed wheelbase compared with the whole length of the locomotive. When running at high speeds suoh an engine has a distinct tendency to rolling. The. high percentage of counterbalancing might have enhanced the unsteadiness of the locomotive. The fact that the converted engine now running as a resistance car does not show greater unsteadiness when running backwards at a speed of 100 km. per hour, does not allow the conclusion that if the engine had the 2-4-4 arrangement it would have been a better running locomotive. On this point I cannot agree with Mr. Derens, for the running. qualities of a railway vehicle may be very different when, self-driven or being drawn.

Number 556 (15 December 1938)

Smoke. 369-70.
The pollution problem with coal burning locomotives. Coke was originally used (cites work, but not sources of inventors of coal burning grates), LBSCR patent device fitted to No. 189 and prerheated air used in water tube boilers likde that fitted to No. 10000.

4-6-0 streamlined locomotive, French National Railways. 370. illustration

Buenos Ayres Great Southern Rly. Class 12K 4-6-2 and 15A 4-8-0 locomotives. 370-2. 2 illustrations
Built at Vulcan Foundry and inspected by Livesey and Henderson, Consulting Engineers.

Some "improved" locomotive valve gears. 373-6. 6 diagrams

Automatic snifting valves. 376.

C.R.H. Simpson. An Early Baldwin locomotive. 377. illustration
2-4-0 supplied in 1875 No. 21 J.W. Bowker of Virginia & Truckee Railroad. Fitter with a fire pump to extinguish fires in timber. Locomotive to the Sierra Nevada Wood and Lumber Co. in 1896.

A.C.W. Lowe. The West Cornwall Raailway. 378-82. 8 illustrations
Incorporated 27 June 1834: first portion opened on 23 December 1837. Main line included inclined planes at Angarrack which was later abandoned. Photographs of this section are included as are of terminus at Hayle and Truro.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. VIII. Robert Sinclair. 383-6. 4 illustrations (including portrait)

Irish notes. 387-8. 2 illustrations

W.T.H. The machine efficiency of American locomotives. 389-90. diagram