Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 47 (1941)
Key file

Number 581 (15 January 1941)

Railways and coal. 1-2
The effect of WW2 on the transport of coal for export. a market mainly lost; the difficulties of war on railway transport (notably the blackout) and the dependence on coal for locomotive power.

G.W.R. Norton Fitzwarren accident. 2
Lieut. Colonel Mount's Ministry of Transport report into 4 November 1940 accident in which driver forgot on which road he was travelling and the 21.50 Paddington to Penzance express was derailed at catch points at the end of the four track section leading to 26 deaths

L.N.E.R. 2
Driver G.W. Trower had retired after 47 years service. He accompanied Cock o' the North on the Vitry tests in France.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Footplate observations under service conditions. 4-8. illustration, 6 diagrams

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 12-14.
includes dummy crank shaft locomotives Nos. 136-143, some of which were altered to 0-4-0 and 0-4-2ST

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. 14-16.

New design of welded wagons, the Butterley Co. Ltd. 20. 3 illustrations

Obituary. 20
Viscount Wakefield founder of C.C. Wakefield & Co.

Engine depots and the Black Out. 20-1.

Pneumatic tie tamping equipment. 21-3. 3 illustrations
Broomwade compressor

Number 582 (15 February 1941)

Rolling stock in India. 25
Use of colour to distinguish classes: white for first, but others lesss standardized..

4-4-4 (A class) tank locomotives, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway. (metre gauge). 26. illustration
Built at the Ajmer Works.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working, 1934-9. Second line express passenger locomotives. 27-31. illustration, 6 diagrams
The diagrams are gradient profiles, with train speed correlated against. Locomotives considered: NBR Atlantic No. 9509 Duke of Rothesay on Dundee to Aberdeen route (high acceleration and speed) and C1 Atlantic on Queen of Scots with particular reference to Newark to Peterborough stretch where speed in excess of 90 mile/h attained.

F.C. Hambleton. Alexander Allan. 31-6. 6 illustrations (5 drawings, plan)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 37-8.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. VI. Storekeeping, distribution and consumption of fuels and lubricants. 44-7.

Correspondence. 48

Public miniature railways. G.J. Humbert.
Writer was Manager of Trentham Gardens Ltd and argued that internal combustion engined (preferably diesel) steam outline locomotives were cheaper and simpler to operate than live steam and were popular with the public. On Whit Monday 1939 over 5000 people had been conveyed on the two trains which ran from 14.00 to 21.30

Number 582 (15 March 1941)

Transport and the Spring Crisis. 49
Editorial on the demands placed upon the railways, especially to the ports, imposed by the War.

New 2-6-2 engine (class V4), London & North Eastern Railway. 50-2. 5 illustrations, 2 diagrams. (including side & front elevations.)
Photograph of No. 3401 Bantam Cock and diagram of boiler with Nicholson thermic syphon.

J.C.M. Rolland. Early Australian locomotives. 53-4. 3 illustrations
Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway 2-4-0WT with outside cylinders supplied by Stephenson WN 954-6 and 4-4-0T also supplied by Stephenson and later by Robison Bros. from the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat.

Rogers 2-6-0 tank locomotives. 54. illustration
Highly decorated aas shown in 1876 catalog

Southern Railway. 54
First Bulleid Pacific Channel Packet; other locomotives to be named after Merchant Navy fleets.

W.A. Stanier. 54
Elected Pressident Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Charles H. Luke. 54
Elected Director of the Superheater Co. Ltd.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Express goods trains working. 55-8. 4 diagrams
Such trains were limited to 60 mile/h and tended to be heavier  than passenger trains. The performance of K3 No. 2450 hauling 600 tons is compared with that of A1 Pacific No. 4476 Royal Lancer hauling a 515 ton passenger train between Peterborough and York. The performance of Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5266 hauling 390 tons between Hellifield and Blea Moor is examined; as is that of S15 4-6-0 hauling 500 tons on the 19.36 Exeter to Nine Elms express freight on the up and down stretch between Templecombe and Tisbury and V2 No. 4771 Green Arrow hauling 610 tons  was timed between Sandy and Peterborough.

New York Central System. 58
New streamlined air-conditioned trains with rubber cushioned draw gear and tight couplers were being cionstructed for the Empire State Express.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 61-4.

O.J.  M[orris]. Early cab doors, GWR 2-4-0 tank engine "Prince". 71.
No. 2137: broadc gauge 2-4-0ST at Brixham in 1891. Built by Ince Forge for South Daven Railway in 1871.

L.N.E.R. 71.
Heavy snow storms blocked East Coast main line between Darlington and Newcastle. Deputy General Manager, C.M. Jenkin Jones ordereed that all services from the south should terminate at Darlington. Traffic was halted for two days. Electric trains in the Newcastle area were replaced by steam trains.

Akron seat-in-sleeve valve. 71. diagram.
Made from stainless steel

Number 583 (15 April 1941)

Locomotive efficiency. 73
Brief summary of C.A. Cardew ILocoE  Paper  417 based on New South Wales Government Railways experience.

L.N.E.R. Cruden Bay Hotel Tramway. 73

Obituary. 73
Daeth of Sir Nigel Gresley at Watton House.

Southern Railway streamline Pacific locomotive, Channel Packet. 74-5. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Modified tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.: the standard 2-6-2 design re boilered. 76-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 77-9.
Pollok & Govan Railway and Wishaw & Coltness Railway.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 89-91. 4 illustrations
Maritime activities at Burnham. See also letter from R.B. Fellows on p.140

C.R.H. Simpson. A pole road locomotive. 94. illustration

2,000 B.H.P. diesel locomotive, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R.R. 94. illustration
American Locomotive Co.

Number 585 (15 May 1941)

Combustion turbine locomotives. 97
Report by American Railway Fuel Association that a 500 hp locomotive was being constructed and that a 6000 hp was in prospect which would incorporate four 1500 hp gas turbines. Improvements in metallurgy made this possible.

Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. 97-9. illustration

Lord Stamp of Shortlands. 99
Short obituary which mentions "tragic death by enemy action"

Guy Bakewell. 4-8-4 locomotive Victorian Railways. 99-100. 2 illustrations
Pocono type. No. 220, built at the Newport Works was exhibted at Spencer Street station in Melbourne with 0-6-0 No. 94 which had been built in 1884.

Locomotive fuels. 100

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Locomotive work on heavy gradients. 101-5. illustration, 5 diagrams
Highland Railway Castle class piloting Class 5 oon climb from Carr Bridge to Slochd Summit hauling 430 tons; Class 5 No. 5361 hauling 415 tons between Perth and Pitlochry; work of Clan class on Oban trains and on 295 ton train between Newtonmore and Druimuachdar with No. 14762 Clan Campbell. Nock noted that the Pickersgill 4-6-0s built for the Oban line rode well because of their short coupled wheelbase and long bogies. Performance on the West Highland line  considered two D34 Glen class 4-4-0s climbing from Tulloch to Corrour and from Briudge of Orchy to the Summit with 315 tons and K4 2-6-0 No. 3441 Loch Long with 305 tons from Ardlui to Tydrum and from Bridge of Orchy to Gortan

Diesel-line electric locomotive for London Transport maintenace work. 105
Using parts from two old Central Line motor cars an electro-diesel was created capable of using the 600 volt traction current or electricity generated by a diesel engine

Screw adjustable coupling. Western Australian Government Railways. 106. 2 illustrations
Adjustable coupling was being fitted to some passenger carriages of the W.A.G.R. helping to do away with the jerking and jolting so frequently the cause of complaint from passengers when a train starts fitted with chopper couplers. Slack cannot be eliminated with the ordinary chopper coupler, and if it is reduced too much engagement may be impossible. Wear of the parts adds to trouble and, what is worse, the rate of wear increases as the amount of slack increases giving rise to jerking when starting and causing a continuous rattle and clank of the loose parts when the train is running. The adjustable coupling could be used the same as a non-adjustable couplmg. F. MIlls, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the W.A.G.R.,supplied information

Eight-coupled locomotives for N.Y.C.R.R. 106
Fifty engines with the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement had been placed in service by the New York Central Railroad and employed on both heavy passenger and freight service. Although equipped with driving wheels of moderate diameter the results obtained in fast passenger service had been satisfactory, largely due, to extensive use of light-weight alloys in the design of motion, driving axles, etc. Hollow axles of vanadium steel run in roller bearings.

Southern Railway. 106
As a war-time measure all engines, were to be painted black. unlined. except the express. passenger types.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 107-9:
Wishaw and Coltness Railway (continued).
In 1844 and 1845, R. &  W. Hawthorn, delivered six similar locomotives of the 0-4-2 wheel rrangement. The cylinders were 14 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke and the diameters of the wheels 'ere 4 ft. 6 in. and 2 ft. 11 in. Unfortunately the original drawings of this class of engine cannot be found by the makers and from various odd records and sketches kindly loaned a reconstruction of the design has been attempted. The design appears to have followed the makers usual practice having double frames and outside cranks. Pressure was 60 lb. per sq. in. at first, but was ter raised to 70 lb. The names, etc., of the class were as undernoted

Name Date WN CR No. Withdrawn
Jupiter 1844 388 89 1861
Hercules 1844 389 95 1858 (a)
Vulcan 1845 421 91 1861
Venus 1845 422 87 (b) 1863
Vesta 1845 454 88 (c) 1859
Lucifer 1845 455 86 1861

Note (a). No. 95.is said to have been hired to /rn. Dixon & Co. for the haulage of their own coke traffic, in exercise of their running powers between Calder and Blantyre and the Govan Ironworks, from 1855 or earlier to 1858 in which year the engine was sold out of service. Although nothing definite can be traced it is suggested that Messrs. Dixon were the purchasers and that this locomotive was the first "Calder No. 5." The late John Smith—the last main line driver at Dixon's—always declared that the first "No. 5" was of similar wheel type to the second No. 5, 0-4-2, and that when he came to Calder some wheels and axles lying there were pointed out as belonging to the earlier engine which was "of the Coltness type" and got for working the main line trips and retained after the larger engine had been sold to the Caledonian Railway. This sale will be referred to shortly when dealing with the history of the Traders' locomotives.
Notes (b) and (c). os. 87 and 88 were renumbered 84 and 85 respectively either in 1853 or early in 1854.
Some years ago the reminiscences of John Mann were given in a Lanarkshire Club and one concerned the Wishaw and Coltness Railway. It was claimed that the line had only one mishap prior to its amalgamation with the C.R., happily without serious consequences. . On the occasion referred to, two of the locomotives, Hercules and Venus had been sent to Morningside on the previous evening to work an extra train early next morning. The leading engine was Hercules and the train engine Venus. The usual early trip from the Holytown Works, and depot, to Morningside was being hauled by Lucifer, Both trains were coming along their own set of rails near Cambusnethan (Wishaw) and had almost met when Lucifer suddenly left the rails, slewed over towards the other set and pitched in to Hercules, Luckily the driver and fireman were thrown dear of the Hercules before it fell over.
At the inquiry into the accident it was suggested by the company's superintendent that the only solution which could be advanced was that Lucifer had the idea that Venus was being led away by his rival. Referring to John Mann, it is interesting to note that he came to the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway with Mr. Dodds. He had been a driver with the Stockton and Darlington Railway previously. Later he left the M. & K.R. to become a " foreman driver" with the Wishaw and Coltness Railway and later joined the Caledonian. When the stock was taken over by the C.R. it was seemingly numbered in the rotation the engines arrived at the Holytown Shops for repainting.
Trader's locomotives
When the C.R. was formed it was understood that all the haulage required at collieries, etc., was to be performed by the Company, and this meant the removal of loaded wagons from the pithead to the nearest mineral yard on the main line for marshalling, including the setting in of empties. The C.R., however, had spent so much money in other directions that when the line was opened some of the stations were only half completed, while owing to debt all the locomotive stock necessary could not be provided; some of the singles worked on goods trains. In consequence it was arranged with the colliery people and others interested that until the time when the Company could undertake the shunting themselves the owners would acquire suitable locomotives and undertake the haulage. In consequence of this the C.R. were to give the colliery and ironworks locomotives running powers over the section of the main line adjacent to their works. Some of the running powers granted were of a limited nature while in two ,cases they were extensive. Those of Co1in Dunlop & Co. permitted that company to operate from Crossbasket, near Blantyre to Gushetfaulds (Glasgow) and over the former Drumpellier Railway. Later when the line was extended to Strathaven and the Quarter Collieries were brought into use, Dunlop ceased to use the running powers and sent the engines still retained to this district. The most extensive were those granted to Wm. Dixon & Co. who were permitted to run their own trains over the line from Calder to Glasgow (Port Dundas) traversing the route of the Glasgow, Garnkirk and Coatbridge Railway, and also from Calder to Govan Ironworks, via. Motherwell. Later the powers were exercised mainly between Calder and the ironworks, via. Langloan and an occasional trip from High Blantyre. These powers have not been used since 1937 as the trips were becoming sporadic and there was little traffic for a large locomotive of limited power.
One part of the arrangement with the various owners was that the Company would purchase the stock acquired, as soon as was practicable, but the owners would have the option of retaining the facilities for a short period after the notice to purchase had been intimated. Some of the owners parted with their facilities in whole, others in .part as soon as the C.R. indicated that they purposed taking the engines over. Some retained the locomotives for internal traffic.
A few of the owners got the C.R. to operate the engines for them when obtained and it is said that frequently locomotives were seen bearing a C.R. road number and also the inscription that the owner was a private individual (e.g., Arch. Russell). This may have given rise to the story that at one period the C.R. was so poorly off that creditors put their names on the engines to indicate ownership.

Trader's locomotives
C.R. No. Type Cyls. D.W.
80 2-4-0T 14 by 21 5 ft. 0 in.
81 2-4-0T 14 by 21 5 ft. 0 in.
83 (a) 0-4-0 15 by 18 4 ft. 6 in.
87 (b) 0-4-2 16 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
88 (c) 0-4-2 16 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
95 (d) 0-4-2 17 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
182 2-4-0 15 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
183 2-4-0 15 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
184 0-4-2 14 by 21 (i) 4 ft. 6 in.
185 0-4-2 14 by 21 (i) 4 ft. 6 in.
186 0-4-2 16 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
187 0-4-2 16 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.

For details of makers, etc., see separate list
Notes-(a) Renumbered 240 in 1862 and 1I8 in 1864.
(b) Renumbered 241 in 1862 and 255 in 1864.
(c) Renumbered 242 in 1864.
(d) Renumbered 111 in 1866, 120 in 1867, 123 in 1872, 451 in 1876 and 680 in 1877.
So far as is known some twelve locomotives came over to the C.R. The details of the numbers are somewhat confused and contradictory and the basic details are taken mainly from the notes made by the late Inspector John McInnes who joined the service of the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway in 1844 and retired from the Company's service in 1902.
R. &  W. Hawthorn are credited with the construction of at least four engines, but these makers, despite great search, are not able to trace the manufacture of any of them, therefore the makers appear to. be Hawthorns of Leith, as No. 95 has builder's number 47 of 1851 and' Hawthorns had then not long started general engineering. No. 83 is said to have been Neilson's No. 50 of 1851, but as this was the Summerlee Iron Co's. engine the maker would be Hawthorns and their No. 50. This engine bore the name Neilson, hence the possible mistake in the makers name. Nos. 80 and 81 were sold to owners in Co. Durham. The former rejoiced in the nickname The Cuddy (Horse) and 81 in The Bird. The source of the latter is said to have come from the knowledge that its first owners had named it Hawk. Both are stated to have been very efficient and powerful and were employed until their disposal in shunting the old yard at Glasgow (South Side). These two locomotives were said to have been the first two made by Hawthorns, all four previous jobs being marine.
Nos. 182 and 183 were short coupled locomotives and had the same boiler details, cylinder and wheel dimensions as those numbered 144 to 151 previously described. The wheelbase, however, was 5 ft. 11 in. plus 5 ft. 6 in., and 11 ft. 5 in. total. The piston rod had a trunk guide. These appear to have been engines from the cancelled order for Russia.
Nos. 184 and 185 seem to have been Hawthorns copy of the earlier R. & W. Hawthorn design which had been assembled at Leith, but of slightly increased dimensions.
Nos. 186 and 187 were of Neilson & Co's. standard design and had in consequence quite a number of parts which were standard with C.R. designs. They were rebuilt at Perth in 1867 and 1865 respectively. No change appears to have been made in the boiler design. No. 187 was the first " foreign" engine to be overhauled at the former Scottish Central Railway shops. The names were removed by the C.R. when the locomotives were taken over.
Sinclair was succeeded by Ben. Connor, but no alteration was made to the locomotives ordered prior to Sinclair's departure and still to be built. Sinclair did little experimental work and apart from the attempt to improve combustion by the additon of argands to the firebox, his main alterations were the fitting of chimneys of correct diameter and blast pipes of correct diameter and height as found by trial and error methods under actual conditions. He discontinued the use of stay rods in the boiler barrels, and adopted longitudinal stays between the smokebox tube plate and the firebox tube plate.

Traders' locomotives acquired by the Caledonian Railway.



Acq'r'd Maker WN Name Owner W'drawn



1855 Hawthorns ?5 Coltness Iron Co. 1860



1854 Hawthorns ?6 ?Hawk A. Russell & Co. 1861



1854 Hawthorns 50 Neilson Sumrnerlee Iron Co 1873



1854 Hawthorns Newton Kidson 1874



1854 A. Neilson & Co 46 Arch. Russell A. Russell & Co. 1872



1858 Hawthorns 47 Glencairn . J. Watson & Co 1878



1857 G. England & Co. Cuilhill C. Dunlop & Co 1870


1857 G. England & Co. Monkland C. Dunlop & Co 1872


1857 Hawthorns 83 ?Tewsgill Coltness Iron Co. 1872


1857 Hawthorns 84 ?Garrion . Coltness Iron Co. 1874
186 ?1855 1857 A. Neilson & Co Calder W. Dixon & Co. 1881
187 ?1855 1857 A. Neilson & Co Cambusnethan Thos. Barr & Co. 1882

J.L. Koffmann. Railcar radiators. 109-12.6 diagrs., table
By . T HE rapid development of railcars faced both designers and operators with several prob- . lems, among which the dimensioning of radiators presents some complexities. The action of a radiator m service appears to be very simple. for the hot water circulated through it merely g ives up heat to air passing over its hot external surface, but as soon as the sequence of events is examined in detail, and if an effort be made to forecast the performance of every type under every vanety of operatmg conditions, the complexity of the different variables affecting the performance of the rad iator concerned soon appears. It is the great number of variables, made more complicated

Argentine Ministry of Agriculture. 112
Authorized sale of government-purchased corn for use as fuel on the railways. Experiments were made which showed that unshelled corn could be used for locomotive fuel as cheaply as coal, wood or fuel oil.

Modern locomotive running shed practice. 112
Title of paper by G.M. Pargiter, presented to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers explained in a very concise and interesting manner the relationship of running shed to locomotive by sketching in detail the ordinary working day in the life of a locomotive. Each move is dealt with in chronological order cleaning—shed examination—boiler-washing—inspection and general routine. Paper 419

C.R.H. Simpson. A twin locomotive. 113. illustration.
Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works, Winterthur. Built in about 1878 during the managemnt of Charles Brown for theVilla Real & Villa Regoa Tramway in Portugal which had 1 in 12½ gradients and severe curvature.

"Southern Belle": Kansas City Southern-Louisiana and Arkensas Lines. 113-16. 2 illustrations, plan.
Streamlined diesel electric train which operated between Kansas City and New Orleans. The exterior was painted predominantly green on the exterior of the passenger cars with red on the locomotive, There was limited accommodation for "coloured" passengers and more generous areas for colourless ones (only the latter are illustrated in black & white). 

O.J. M[orris]. Four-rail mixed gauge, G.W.R. 117. illustration
W.M. Spriggs, then resident in Canada, and a very well-known authority on Canadian locomotive history, sent photograph of a "renewed" Gooch 8 ft. single, G.W.R., which he took at Newton Abbot Station in 1891, the year previous to the abolition of Brunels 7 ft. Broad Gauge. Interest centres mainly on the disposition of the narrow gauge rails, which are shewn interlaced, thus providing an example of mixed gauge on a four-rail system. It is well known that the mixed gauge was normally laid with only three rails, one rail being common to both the 7 ft. and the standard gauge tracks, and it seems that a four-rail system existed, as in this instance, to bring narrow-gauge engines centrally over the turntable (which is shewn immediately behind the engine), possibly also to bring them centrally over the inspection pits

Pennsylvania R.R. 117
Passengers from Chicago to Miami, Fla., travelled on the South Wind luxury train of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The trip took 29½ hours each way which was the fastest timing for this run. The latest design and smartest appointments have been put into the South Wind. There is an 85-foot observation-lounge buffet car, a solarium forms the semi- circular observation end. Seats number 258 and are of the individual reclining coach type; they are also adjustable to suit the comfort of the passenger. Large dressing rooms for men and women are in each coach; floor lights have been placed beneath seats for illumination at night when overhead lights are turned off. Luxury, comfort and speed are offered by this newest addition to the Pennsylvania system.

C.R.H. Simpson. Wooden rails.117
Having recently referred to a pole road locomotive (vide page 94 of the current volume) it may be of general interest to describe briefly the types of wooden rails in use in America during the closing years of the last century. There were briefly three varieties, the pole road in which timber of circular section was employed, the flat timber rail and that in which the depth either .equalled or exceeded the face width. The pole road demanded wheels with concave treads whereas in those roads utilising flat timber the treads of the wheels were flangeless and the engine was retained on the track by means of guiding wheels acting nearly horizontally in the manner outlined in Prosser's patent. It may here be recalled that the patentee mentioned envisaged the use of wooden rails although engines were constructed on this system to operate on ordinary metal rails, an example is illustrated and described in Locomotive, 1903, 8, 57. In the case of the square or edge rail wheels with tyres of orthodox contour were used and light locomotives designed for use on steel rails could be employed without alteration.
The chief advantage or wooden rails was obviously cheapness of first cost and that is about the only point which could be claimed in their favour; their most pronounced disadvantages were high rolling resistance, the difficulty of obtaining adequate adhesion in wet and freezing weather, the need for frequent attention and the necessity of very slow speeds. Pole roads were in the opinion of some unsuitable for steam traction. The best wooden rails were constructed from maple, laid heart uppermost, hard pine also found considerable favour. Lengths usually varied from 16 to 20 ft. the cross-section varying according to the wood used and the weight of the locomotives; 5 in. by 5 in. was a commonly employed size although 5 in. by 7 in. and 4 in. by 6 in. were also encountered. Sleepers were laid at 4 ft. centres with the larger section rails and at 2 or 3 ft. centres with the lighter sections, the usual section of sleepers was 6 in. by 6in. The rails were recessed some 3 in. into the sleepers and were affixed in the recesses by wooden keys. In some cases such rails were laid to serve until such time as the road earned sufficient to pay for steel rails whereas in other instances they were used by firms such as logging companies who had timber readily available and frequently required the road moving to another site.

L.M.S.R.  117
The train canteens for troops recently introduced as an experiment by the L.M.S.R. for service between London and Glasgow in co-operation with the War Office, Y.M.C.A. and Salvation Army were to become a permanent feature on certain express trains. between these two points. Third Class dining cars for members of the Forces only had been provided on the weekday 10.00 Euston to Glasgow and the 10.00 Glasgow to Euston.

L.N.E.R.  117
E. Thompson, O.B.E., appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in succession to the late Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. Thompson was a pupil with Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., and served some time with the Midland Railway. He joined the N.E.R. in 1906 and became assistant to the Divisional Locomotive Superintendent at Gateshead in 1909. In 1912 he became Carriage and Wagon Superintendent at Doncaster (G.N.R.) and in 1923 was appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager at York (L.N.E.R.). In 1930 Thompson was appointed Mechanical Engineer at Stratford having served as assistant there since 1927. In 1934 he went to the North-Eastern Area and in 1938 became Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Area, Western section
H.W.H. Richards appointed Chief Electrical Engineer and be completely responsible for the Company's electrical engineering work.

Number 586 (15 June 1941)

Aluminium alloys. 119.
Main use in valve gear components to reduce weight and hammer blow. Side rods based on material use on Alton & Southern RR.

G.W.R. Mr. C.B. Collett, O.B.E, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.. 119
Retirement and succeeded by F.W. Hawksworth

New 2-8-0 locomotives Victorian Railways. 120-1.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 122-5. 7 illustrations (including portrait)
Benjamin Connor was in charge from 1857 to 1876. At the beginning of this time double-sided bullhead steel rail was being introduced and experiments were being made to replace coke with coal as locomotive fuel. In 1858 an order was placed with A. Neilson for a coal burning 0-6-0 with outside cylinders to work on the General Terminus Railway. This had 16 x 22in cylinders, 5ft 2in coupled wheels, 895 ft2 total heating surface and operated at 95 psi. It had WN 460 and the initial running number was 180. In 1873 the locomotive was rebuilt as a 2-4-0. In 1858 Connor's own design was introducesd: a Crewe type 2-4-0 freight locomotive with outside frames and outside cylinders. Four were built at St Rollox and four at Neilson's. The latter were supplied with steam tenders, but  these were switched to a larger St. Rollox design in the following year. They were numbered 189 to 196: the WN of the Neilson enginesb were 492-5. The class was withdrawn between 1894 and 1902.
The eight foot singles were alleged to have been designed at Crewe by Alexamder Allan according to Ahrons and certainly had a high input from Neilson. The first twelve had a raised firrebox with the dome and Salter safety valves located on it. Neilson built one for the London Exhibition of 1862, but it, plus a further two, were acquired by the Viceroy of Egypt. Otherwise it would have become CR No. 83. They were very heavy locomotives and were capable of hauling substantial trains up to Beattock. Photographs: Benjamin Connor (portrait), No. 188 (outside-cylinder 0-6-0; 2-4-0 (189-96 series as built); 2-4-0 No. 192 as rebuilt; 2-2-2 Exhibition engine; 2-2-2 No. 115; 2-2-2 No. 83a as rebuilt by Drummond.

C.Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. No. XIX. James Manson. 126-31. 4 illustrations (including portrait)

The 0-8-2 tank engine. 131.
Restricted to railways in Britain: designs described Sharp Stuart WN 4182-8 for the Barry Railway; Cooke Locomotive Works products for Port Talbot Railway; the Ivatt, Doncaster design intended for suburban traffic; L&YR 1501 class and LNWR 1185 class..

Rail car for His Highness the Maharaja Saheb of Morvi. 132-3. illustration, diagram (side, front and rear elevations & plan)
Built under the supervision of C.O.B. Morgan, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent of the Morvi State Railway: streamlined luxury vehicle with six-cylinder Dodge engine

Dublin and Kingstown Railway: centenary of Irish locomotive building. 133-4.
2-2-2T Princess built at Grand Canal Street Works in 1841 and entered service on 4 April

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 134-9. 6 diagrams (facsimile forms)

Two large wagons.. 139
Two exceptionally large wagons had been produced, one on each side of the Atlantic, for the use of the steel industry.
That in the Western hemisphere was built by The Greenville Steel Car Copmany of Greenville, Pa., to the order of The Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation of Pittsburg, and was intended for the carriage of large ingot moulds. The tare weight is 140 tons with a full load capacity of 250 tons and an overall length of 90 ft.
The English wagon has been built by Head, Wrightson & Co., Ltd., of Thornaby-on-Tees for the English Steel Corporation of Sheffield and was capable of conveying loads of 300 tons, although when travelling over main line railways it was necessary to restrict the load to 200 tons. The overall length was 57 ft. 6 in. over buffers, the overall width being 8 ft. 6 in. diameter. This vehicle wa capable of traversing a curve of 80 ft. radius. An interesting feature is that the whole frame is fabricated by welding no rivets being used in this.

Madeira-Mamore Railway. 139
The last link of 500 miles between Velho (Brazil) and Guayara-Martin (Bolivia) had been completed. Work on the railway began 38 years earlier.

Southwold Railway. 139
At a meeting of tbe Southwold Town Council it was unanimously agreed to support a petition for reopening the Southwold Railway. The opinion was that the reopening of the railway would be of the utmost benefit to Southwold and the neighbouring .parishes.

British Railways train services. 139.
Referring to the paragraph which appeared on-page 116 of  the May issue the L.N.E.R. passenger service between Sheffield (Victoria) and Barnsley (Court House) via Chapeltown, has been reinstated.
The reference to Gallions Lane in this paragraph should have read Gallions.
A further interesting feature of the May time tables is the announcement that the electric services over the M.S.J.A.R. is now operating between Warwick Road and Altrincham only, [KPJ Manchester Christmas Blitz had presumably damaged viaduct and/or electric overhead system] a connecting service of steam trains being run on weekdays between Manchester {Central), Old Trafford and Warwick Road. On Sundays the electric service is replaced entirely by a through service of steam trains between Manchester (Central) and Altrincham running at half hourly intervals. The effect of these arrangements is that Oxford Road and Knott Mill and Deansgate stations are now closed for passenger traffic. The C.L.C. services between Manchester (Central) and places beyond Altrincham continue to run over the M.S.J.A. line as hitherto.

L.M.S.R. 139
R.C. Bond, A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.,  M.I.Loco.E., appointed works superintendent (locomotives}, Crewe. He served his apprenticeship on the Midland Railway at Derby and afterwards had charge of new locomotives under construction for the L.M.S.R. by outside firms. In 1928 he was appointed assistant works manager to the Vulcan Foundry. In 1931 Mr. Bond returned to the L.M.S.R., as assistant works superintendent at Horwich. In 1933 he held ,a similar post at Crewe, and from 1937 to 1939 he was superintendent engineer at the joint L.M.S. and L.N.E. locomotive testing station. From 1939 until his present appointment he was acting mechanical and electrical engineer (L.M.S. Scottish area).

Trans-Saharan Railway. 139.
Construction of the Trans- Saharan Railway had begun. Oil-engined locomotives would be used for working the line.

Correspondence. 140

Burnham-Cardiff passenger boats. Reginal B. Fellows.
In 1858 the Somerset Central Railway became involved in steamer sailings to Cardiff working in association with the SS Taliesen owned by the Cardiff Steam Navigation Company. In 1860 this service was repalced by the SCR owned SS The Ruby. In 1860 the Burnham Tidal Harbour & Railway Company extended the quay and the Act legalised the steamer sailing which took about 1½ hours for the crossing. Bradshaw for 1884 list the Sherboro performing the sailings

British locomotive working, 1934-9. John W. Smith
In 1919 he had observed No. 592 with 7ft coupled wheels attempting to start its train away from Craigendoran and the fireman was applying ballast to the slipping 7ft driving wheels to assist adhesion. Holmes West Highland No. 9695 was used to assist a B12 4-6-0 on the annual through train to Oban for the Iona cruise.

Facts about British Railways in Wartime. 140.
Issued by British Railways Press Office.

L.M.S.R. 140
Coronation Pacific to be named King George VI for which Royal approval had been obtained

U.S. gift in memory of Lord Stamp. 140
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad sent cheque to LMS to fund an RAF flying ambulance. Presentation made in New York to representative of British Railways by President of the British American Ambulance Corps.

L.N.E.R. 140
A.H. Peppercorn to become Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer and Mechanical Engineer Doncaster; F.W. Carr to be Mechanical Engineer at Stratford; T.E. Heywood designated Mechanical Engineer (Scotland), K.S. Robertson as Assistant Mechanical Engineer in Scotland; R.A. Smeddle Mechanical Engineer Darlington. with L. Reeves as Manager of the Locomotive Works at Darlington; J.F. Harrison as Mechanical Engineer at Gorton with H.J. Williams as Works Manager (formerly Chief Materials Inspector at Doncaster.

Number 587 (15 July 1941)

Locomotive fire engines. 141-2

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 143-7.

L.N.E.R. 151
Stramlined B17 No. 2780 City of London: a record of continuous performance between Liverpool St. and Norwich, in which 100,103 miles were run in 452 days.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 154-6.
The singles were originally confined to the Glasgow Buchanan Stret to Carlisle section for 7 years, but were then moved elsewhere. Some were involved in serious collisions. On 14 May 1883 Nos. 78 and 84 ran into wreckage of a previous accident due to signalman error at Kirtlebridge. In July 1886 Nos. 80 and 85 made contact with another train fouling the line at Fullwood Junction. 4-wheel tenders were fitted to some locomotives to enable them to use 35-ft turntables. Thw Westinghouse brake was fitted to all the singles. In 1859 four of the 189 series of 2-4-0 were fitted with steam tenders, but this was unsuccesssful, but the process was repeated on the larger-boilered 197 series on Nos. 197-200 and was successwful for a few minutes: the tenders also improved braking performance. They were very unpopular with the footplate crews, eespecially the task of oiling the inside motion od the steam tenders/

L.N.E.R. Medal. 156
Silver medal inscribed FOR COURAGE AND RESOURCE.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 157-60. 4 illustrations, diagram
Includes fitting E4 0-6-2T No. 517 Limpsfield with Ashton pop safety valves

C.R.H. Simpson. Handyside's steep gradient locomotive. 161. illustration
Fox, Walker & Co. locomotive. Refers to Locomotive Mag. article in Volume 39 page 207 and to Engineering, 1876, 13 October

Chicago North Shore "Electroliners". 161. illustration
100 mile/h inter-urban cars

Number 588 (15 August 1941)

Railway accidents, 1940. 163.
Restricted lighting due to WW2 was estmated to account for approximately 10% of accidents. Particular attention is paid to the collapse of the firebox crown on a Stanier streamlined Pacific between Clegham [Cleghorn?] and Carstairs

G.W.R. 163
F.C. Hall appointed as assistant to CME: Hall had been apprenticec at Swindon from 1900; in 1919 became assistant divisional locomotive superintendent at Old Oak Common, district locomotive superintendent at Bristol in 1931 and locomotive running superintendent at Swindon in 1931. Promotion of W.N. Pellow to Hall's former post.

Australia's largest locomotive. 164-5. illustration
Victorian Railways three-cylinder 4-8-4 H class

Ethiopian Rly. 165.
Partially reopened after it had been destroyed by Italy: had connected Adis Ababa with Jibuti.

The assessment of locomotive performance. 166-70. 6 tables

The Whitland and Cardigan Ry. 170. 3 illustrations
Line incorporated 12 July 1869 as Whitland and Taf Vale Railway with a line to Crymmmych Arms with an extension to a quarry. Opened to passengers on 12 July 1875. In 1877 powers were obtained for an extension to Cardigan, but this did not open until 1 September 1886, by which time had become part of the GWR. Three Fox, Walker & Co. 0-6-0ST locomotives formed the stock: WN 170/1872 No 1 John Owen (GWR No. 1385), WN 271/1875 No. 2  (GWR No. 1386); and WN 340/1877 No. 3 (GWR No. 1387). The first two had outside cylinders, but the last had inside.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 171-4. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 and 0-4-2 mineral engines.. The latter introduced in 1861 had been intended to be fitted with steam tendders, but this part of the order was cancelled.

Southern Railway. 174
Passenger service from Brockwood to Bisley Camp on Saturday afternoons

R.B. Fellows. The centenary of a business train. 175-6. table
The City Limited Brighton to London Bridge express began on 18 September 1841: outward at 08.30 arriving 10.15 and return at 16.45 and back in Brighton at 18.30. It was limited to first class passengers, but calls for stops at Croydon and elsewhere slowed the service, but in 1883 times of approaching one hour were attained and in 1912 the down train took exactly one hour.

Wagon for exceptional loads (Victorian Government Railways). 177.
Electric power station at Newport required wagon to convey 150 ton loads.

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 178-82. 9 diagrams

A broad-gauge shunting "pug". South Devon Railway. 183.  3 illustrations
7 ft.-gauge well-tank engine, Owl, built 1872 by the Avonside Engine Works, Bristol, and put to work in January, 1873, at Plymout.h Docks and thereabouts. The engine had cylinders 11in. by 16 in., coupled wheels 3 ft. diameter, and tank vents reminiscent of those used on engines of the Metropolitan and Metro-District Railways. Sanding by local-control was a noteworthy feature well shown in the illustrations.
Absorbing the S.D.R. in 1876, the G.W.R. took over Owl and its companions, Weasel and Goat, numbering them respectively 2172, 2173 and 2174. According to MacDermot, Owl and Goat were converted to standard gauge after 1892, while Weasel was withdrawn in 1882, but Ahrons, writing from personal memory in The Railway Magazine for January, 1916, p. 32, recorded that Goat lost all her "works" on turning up at Swindon in 1884 for heavy repairs, and was thereafter used as a buffer-truck. In the early 'nineties, Owl was working at Ivybridge, where W. M. Spriggs took photographs.
See also letter from A.C.W. Lowe on page 204

L.M.S.R.  183
Three fully equipped ambulances presented by employees of the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the Reading Company, U.S.A., were formally handed over on 24 July by Sir Thomas Royden to Mrs. Somerville-Smith of the British American Ambulance Corps. The ambulances are dedicated to the L.M.S.R. in recognition of their gesture of friendship by sending the Coronation Scot to America also as a tribute to British railwaymen generally for maintaining essential train services during heavy raids by the enemy.

L.N.E.R. Fenchurch Street Station, London. 183
In use for a century being opened on August. 1841.

The Brentwood accident. L.N.E.R. 183
The Ministry of \Var Transport report on the collision which took place near Brentwood on 10 February had been issued. The 10 00. passenger train from Liverpool Street to Norwich came to a stop on Brentwood Bank owing to lack of steam. Eight minutes later it was run into from the rear by the  10.04 train from Liverpool Street to Southend.
The Norwich train consisted of thirteen bogie coaches weighing 414½ tons and hauled by three-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive No. 2828, class B.I7. The Southend train, hauled by two-cylinder 4-6-0 locomotive No. 8556, class B.I2, was made up of ten older non-corridor vehicles. As a result of the collision the last coach of the Norwich train was completely destroyed, as was the first vehicle of the Southend train. The Southend engine was much damaged at the front end.
The driver of the Norwich train, Hudson, gave evidence that his locomotive No. 2828 showed nothing amiss before starting. The fire was good. The load was heavy, though quite normal for this particular train. Steaming, however, was sluggish from the start, though the climb to Bethnal Green was made without incident. After passing Gidea Park, shortly before the Brentwood Bank, pressure had dropped from the full 200 lb. to 160 lb. per sq. in. Driver Hudson, leaving Fireman Greenley on the footplate, telephoned the Brentwood signalman, Fenton, asking for an assisting engine. As only a small engine was available, Fenton and he decided that time would be saved if he stayed where he was and recovered steam, Hudson undertaking to telephone again before starting. Signalman Fenton informed the Control and the Gidea Park signalman of the decision, but it was then too late to divert the Southend train to the local line, as it had already passed him at 10.39  
Driver Burkett, of the Southend train, fully and frankly admitted responsibility for the accident. He could remember nothing between passing signal DT 15 B, showing a green light, and seeing the Norwich train "a yard or two ahead." He and his fireman, Porter, had been on duty for 5½ hours. He had not been on duty the previous day. He put forward no excuses, and said he was well rested and fit in every way. He had no personal worries. Fireman Porter stated that he was firing almost continuously for some time before the collision and was unable to watch the road. The first he knew was a sudden application of the Westinghouse brake. Major Wilson had no alternative but to conclude that having set the engine controls for the ascent after leaving Harold Wood, Burkett; must have relaxed his attention to such an extent that he became drowsy, and may even have fallen asleep in his seat. Although he applied the Westinghouse brake on the engine at the very last minute, it appears that he made no attempt to close the regulator, or to apply the vacuum brake on the train.

Canadian National Railways. 183
R.C. Vaughan succeeded S.J. Hungerford as President of the C.N.R. Vaughan began his career as a messenger with the Canadian Pacific Railway at the age of 15. He later served with the Grand Trunk Railway and Joined the Canadian Northern Railway in 1903. He held various positions with the Company and in 1920 was appointed Vice-President of the Canadian ational Railways. Upon the amalgamation of the Canadian National lines with those of the Grand Trunk Railway he became Vice-President of the newly co-ordinated Canadian National System.

Number 589 (15 September 1941)

Oil-fired Pacific locomotives. Iraqi State Railways. 186. illustration
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorms streamlines locomotives designed by A.P. Challoner, CME; inspection Crown Agents for the Colonies. Intended for Tel Kotchek to Baghdad service.

Obituary. 186
A.W. Rendell, General Manager Westinghouse Brake Co. from 1900 until retirement in 1920. Served apprenticeship under Craven at Brighton Works and became Chief Draughtsman under Stroudley Locomotive Superintendent East Indian Railway. Photograph at Lahore Locomotive Superintendent's Conference in Lahore in 1892: Locomotive Mag., 1925, 31, 133 (plate).  

Steam v. diesel electric locos. 187-8.

Light-weight wheels and axles. 188-91. 5 diagrams

F.H. Gilford. Industrial locomotives. 191-3. 6 illustrations
Conrluded from page 151. Bristol had two establishments which made a speciality of industrial engines. Of these the Avonside Engine Co., successors to the old firm of Slaughter, Gruning' & Co., and Stothert, Slaughter & Co., built an outside-cylindered saddle tank with round tank and a brass dome formerly carrying a pair of spring-balances, which gave way to the Rambottom type some thirty years ago. The four-wheeled class had the tank extended over the smokebox. The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board had a considerable number of these, also the Port of Bristol Authority and the Stanton Iron Co. The illustration of the latter's No. 15 shows the 0-6-0, maker's No. 1456 of 1902, having 16 in. by 22 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 6½ in. wheels, 5 ft. 6 in. + 6 ft. 6 in. wheelbase, 140 lb. boiler pressure, 900 gallons tank capacity and a working weight of 38½ tons. The latest design is also illustrated by Stanton No. 23, a fine, powerful engine having an all-over square tank, designed for heavy duty. It bears the maker's No. 1882, huilt 1921 and had 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 10in. wheels, 803 + 80 sq. ft. of heating surface, 12.5 sq. ft. grate area, 170 lb. pressure, 1,200 gallons tank capacity, a wheelbase of 11 ft. equally divided and weighs 42 tons in working order. The Avonside Co. was now incorporated with the Hunslet Engine Co.
The other Bristol firm was Peckett & Sons, Ltd., who succeeded the old firm of Fox, Walker & Co. in the 1880s, retaining the saddle-tank type which the latter had standardised but extending the round tank over the srnokebox. The brass dome casing and neat all-over cab survive to this day, but spring balances have given way to Ross' pop safety-valves and the brass cap to the chimney has gone since 1914. The six-coupled type were built both with outside and inside cylinders to suit customers' requirements, the four wheelers usually have them outside, although a design with inside cylinders is available. Peckett's locomotives were to be found in large numbers, most users .ippearing to have one or more examples. A few are:-
Fox, Walker & Co. 271, 1875, 0-6-0ST., o/c, Whitland & Cardigan Railway. 13½ in. by 20 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 6 in. wheels. G.W.R. 1386 and E. Kent Railway No. 1.
Fox, Walker & Co. 338, 1877, 0-6-0ST., o/c, Yarmouth & N. Norfolk Railway. 13 in. by 20 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 6½ in. wheels. M. & G.N. 16A. Scrapped 1937. Peckett 488, 1890, 0-6-0ST., o/c,, Shutt End Railway, Dudley. 14 in. by 20 in. cylinders, 3 ft. 2! in. wheels.
Peckett 564, 1897, 0-6-0ST., o/c, Shanks & McEwan, Glasgow, Liverpool. Scrapped 1940.
Peckett 874, 1900, 0-6-0ST., o/c,, Babbington Collieries, Nottingham, Admiral.
Peckett 1248, 1911, 0·4-0ST., o/c,. Ruston & Hornsby , Grantham. No. 3.
Peckett 1253, 1911, 0-6-0ST., o/c,: Gedling Colliery, Notts. Audrey
Peckett 977,1904, 0-4-0ST., o/c,; G. & S.W.R. 735 and L.Ml.S. 16043. Gleneagles Hotel, 1929.
Peckett r Syo, 1934, 0-4-0ST., o/c,, Nottingham Corporation Gas Works. 14 in. by 21 in. cylinders, 3 ft. wheels.
Peckett 1608, 1923, 0-4-0ST., o/c,, Nottingham Corporation Electricity Dept.
Peckett 1906, 1936, 0-4-0ST., o/c,, Nottingham Corporation Electricity Dept.
Peckett 1732, 1927, 0-6-0ST., i/c, Shipley Colliery Co. Coppice.
The three mile line from Kingston-on-Soar gypsum mines to the L.M.S. at Kegworth station also had a 14 in. cylinder 0-4-0 outside cylinder Peckett, No. 1690, 1926, named Lady Angela, and when she is laid up for repairs the line is worked by a little 8 in. by 12 in. cylinder saddle tank named Lady Margaret by the Falcon Engine Co., of Loughborough, No. 81 of 1885, weighing 12 tons in working trim and one of the few survivors of this once well-known make. The above will give some idea of what to expect when visiting standard gauge industrial lines, but the larger locomotive building firms also cater for these users, such as Messrs. Robt. Stephenson & Hawrthorns, Ltd., Vulcan Foundry, Ltd., the Yorkshire Engine Co., Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., and the North British Loco. Co., Ltd., etc. Messrs. W. G. Bagnall, Ltd., of Stafford, have also built a large number of industrial locomotives of various sizes and gauges.
Fayle's 3 ft. 9 in. gauge railway near Corfe Castle possesses the last surviving example of the locomotive built by S. Lewin at the old Mount Street Foundry, Poole, a four wheeled, outside cylinder side tank with 6½ in. by 9 in. cylinders and 1 ft. 9 in. wheels, having outside link motion. Such interesting survivals of the work of almost forgotten firms add considerably to the interest of visiting any industrial lines one may chance to be in the vicinity of. This Lewin engine is now seventy-one years old and the well- known George England survivor on the Wantage Tramway, 0-4-0 well tank No. 5 is eighty-four! Another class of industrial locomotive of great interest are those purchased from main line railways either directly or through dealers who specialise in their purchase and reconditioning for resale. These are usually tank engines, but there are a few cases of goods tender engines to be found in the N.E. colliery district and in either case they are a heavier and mote powerful proposition than the average industrial type in most cases. Among the most interesting of these, historically, are the following:
South Hetton Coal Co., Durham.
No. 2. Haverhill, 0-6-0T., o/c. Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2358, 1873, for the Cornwall Minerals Railway, sold to Colne Valley and Halstead Railway in 1880 and came to South Hetton in 1889. Of the eighteen engines originally built nine went to the G.W.R. in 1877, and eight to the E. & M. Railway, later M. & G.N.
No. 6. Beyer, Peacock & Co. 425, 1864, as Metropolitan Railway 14 standard 4-4-0T, o/c. Bought by colliery company 1906 and rebuilt 1908 as 0-6-0T., o/c.
No. 8. R. Stephenson & Co., 1848, as 0-6-0 tender engine for L.N.W.R (S.D.), No. 220. Converted to saddle-tank 1866 and renumbered 1807 in 1872. Sold to Alexandra Docks & Railway 1875 and to South Hetton 1898, and altered to side tank 1923. On the A.D. & Railway it was No. 2, Lord Tredegar.
No. 9. Sir George, RS. & Co. 1848 as L.N.W.R. (S.D.) 216 0-6-0 tender. Converted saddle-tank 1865. Became 1805 in 1872 and A.D. & R. No. 1, Sir George Elliot, in 1875. Sold to South Hetton 1898, and rebuilt 1911 but remained a saddle-tank.
No. 10 Whitfield, Sharp, Stewart & Co. 1677, 1866, as West Somerset Mineral Railway, Atlas. 0-6-0 long-boiler, inside cylinder, saddle-tank. Rebuilt at Ebbw Vale) 1904, and acquired by present owners 1907.
Wemyss Coal Co., Fife.
No. 6. Doncaster Works, 1875, ex G.N.R. 601, domeless 0-6-0 saddle-tank.
Hartley Main Collieries, Northumberland
No. 3. R Stephenson & Co., 1866, ex N.E.R 658, Fletcher double-framed, long-boiler 0-6-0 tender engine. Rebuilt by T.W. Worsdell and sold to its present owners in 1903, this was the last surviving long-boiler tender engine in service in Great Britain
No. 30. ex L.B. & S.C.R. 92, Brighton Works, 1883. Stroudley E class 0-6-0 tank.
Other ex L.B.S.C. Class E tanks in industrial service were N. 110 sold to the Rugeley Colliery Co. in 1927 and since rebuilt almost out of recognition, and No. 163 sold to the Ashington Coal Co., Northumberland, in 1932. The Grassmoor Colliery, near Chesterfield, had until recently a Stroudley Terrier ex L.B.S.C. 67, sold in 1920. Also there was the ex Mersey Railway double-framed 0-6-4T, Cecil Raikes, built by Beyer , Peacock & Co. in 1885 in service at the Shipley Collieries near Ilkeston, a hefty engine, indeed, weighing 67 tons 17 cwt. in working order and able to tackle forty wagons of coal with ease . . It may be mentioned that the main line railway companies sometimes hire out small locomotives, such as the M.R. 0-4-0 Johnson saddle tanks or the L. & Y. Aspinall engines of the same type, to colliery companies and others when their own engines are laid up for repairs, etc. In conclusion it is hoped that these notes may stimulate interest in a, to a certain extent, 'unexplored by-way of the locomotive world.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 194-6. diagram (facsimile form)

Modern locomotive practice, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. 196-9. 2 illustrations
Bridge strengthening between Bath and Mangotsfield enabled Stanier Class 5 4-6-0s to be used to wokl the heavy Pines Express and another heavy passenger train with its twelve wheel dining car more efficiently. Load limits are given, both northbound and southbound for Bath to Masbury, Masbury to Corfe Mulklen and Corfe Mullen to Bournemouth. The limits for the 7F 2-8-0, Class 2 4-4-0, 4F 0-6-0 and 3F 0-6-0 are also given.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 200-2.

Peat as locomotive fuel in Eire. 202
The Great Southern Railway has been conducting experiments with peat as a fuel Ifor locomotives during the past few months. A mixture of coal and peat has been tried on engines working between Dublin and Cork, with so far, not very encouraging results. On a journey using about three tons of coal, eight tons of turf and a half ton of coal were needed.

Centenary of the Seghill Railway.  202
A reminder of the days when many of the railways in the North of England were small colliery lines is afforded by the centenary on 28 August 1941, of the opening for passenger traffic of the Seghill Railway in Northumberland which, with a total length of 5¼ miles, ran from Seghill to Percy Main.
Originally laid down and constructed by the owners of the Seghill Colliery Company, this line, which was opened for mineral traffic in 1840, was later absorbed into the Blyth &Tyne Railway which in its turn was taken over by the North Eastern Railway and so remained until 1923 when the N.E.R. became part of the L.N.E.R. It was a purely mineral line designed to give easy access from the colliery at Seghill to the staithes at Percy Main. Proceeding in a general southerly direction, past the site of the present Seghill Station, it crossed the old line of the Cramlington Coal Company and further on, near the Newcastle and South Shields road, it crossed the Brunton & South Shields Railway, then down to Hay Hole—now Northumberland Dock.
There were gradients of as much as I in 25 and the line was principally worked by stationary engines, one at Prospect Hill which hauled the loaded wagons from Holywell and the empty wagons from the Newcastle and North Shields road, and the other at Percy Main for hauling the empty wagons from the staithes. From Prospect Hill to Percy Main and from Percy Main to the staithes the loaded wagons ran by gravity, unwinding from the drum of each engine a rope which was to bring back the empty ones. The remainder of the line from Seghill to Holywell was worked by locomotives, the first two in use being Samson and John, both built by Timothy Hackworth. In June, 1844, the Newcastle & North Shields Railwav took over the working of the passenger and goods traffic and had in view the extension of this line to Blyth, but this scheme was dropped as the Newcastle & North Shields Railway was itself merged into the Newcastle & Berwick Railway.

Smoke deflectors for locomotives.  202
H. Holcroft presented his paper (Paper 430) before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers at the General Meeting held in London on 3 September. It dealt with the problem of lifting smoke and exhaust steam discharged from the chimney of a locomotive clear of the cab windows, so removing any obstruction to the driver's view of the road ahead, and traces how the difficulty has been accentuated in the modern locomotive. The Paper then goes on to describe and illustrate various appliances which have been tried with the object of lifting smoke clear of the cab windows, and gives details of the satisfactory solution of the problem by means of deflectors in the form of vertical plates on each side of the smokebox. Following on this is an account of wind tunnel tests with models carried out in 1931 at the National Physical Laboratory. These were undertaken to confirm the bene- ficial results of the deflector plates, to determine their most effective outline and to explore the ground for alternative devices for smoke lifting. The question of side winds was also considered. The Paper concludes with a brief survey of the problem as it affects streamlined locomotives.

Wissington Light Railway. 202
To afford transport in connection with the reclamation of large tracts of fenland in West Norfolk about 35 years ago a short standard gauge line was constructed. It left the Stoke Ferry branch of the Great Eastern Railway near Abbey station. By degrees the line was extended to about 18 miles in length and included a number of sidings and loops. A beet sugar factory built alongside the line about 2 miles from the junction with the Stoke Ferry Line, used it for the transport of beet to the factory.
The Minister of Agriculture requisitioned the line and it will continue to serve the area with the willing co-operation of the L.N.E.R. in reconditioning and supervision.

London-Brighton Centenary  21 September 1941. 203-4
The last few years witnessed a succession of railway centenaries, but on 21 September there occured one of more than usual interest, to Londoners in particular, as that date was the centennial anniversary of the opening of the railway between London and Brighton.
The first proposal for a railway to Brighton was made in 1823 and consisted of an extension of the existing Surrey Iron Railroad, a horse-worked line, from Merstham southwards reaching Brighton by way of Shoreham. It envisaged the employment of chain-driven locomotives as used by several north country collieries at that time.
Nothing came of the first scheme but in 1825 John Rennie was employed by a company called The Surrey, Sussex, Hants, Wilts and Somerset Railway, to survey a possible route to Brighton. The prospectus stated that "the necessity of using locomotive engines is not contemplated, every calculation being made on the use of horses only, although scientific improvements when fully confirmed will be availed of." From its title, the projects of this company appear somewhat comprehensive, and it seems to have fallen into oblivion, but Rennie survived under different employers to build the railway according to his original plans, with a few variations.
Amongst a plethora of railway projects all over the country, the London-Brighton route offered great attractions and five or six railway promoters consequently put forth schemes. The Parliamentary battles were long and bitter, and a periodical of 1837 said that £300,000 had already been spent in two sessions on the various bills.
As the rivals oould not compose their differences and no decision could be arrived at, the Government, on 2 June 1837, appointed Captain Anderson to report on the various proposals. It is interesting to remember that the original schemes all proposed to use other companies' terminals in London.
Stephenson's idea utilised the Nine Elms terminus of the London and Southampton Railway, leaving that line at Wimbledon and running through Dorking, Horsham and Shoreham into Brighton.
Rennie's line started from the Greenwich Railway's terminus at London Bridge, followed the Croydon Railway as far as the place of that name and then ran in as direct course as possible to Brighton. .
Captain Anderson in a well-reasoned report said that whilst Stephensons plan was the easiest from an engineering point of view he favoured Rennie's more direct route. The other schemes were turned down for various reasons as, although there were formidable cuttings and a tunnel at Merstham and other tunnels at Balcombe and Clayton, yet the heavy cost of these works was more than balanced by the shorter mileage.
On 15 July 1837, the Royal Assent was given. The line ran from a junction with the London and Croydon Railway at The Jolly Sailor (later Norwood Junction), about a mile north of the Croydon terminus, to Brighton with two branches from the latter place, eastwards to Newhaven and westwards to Shoreham. Power was given to purchase the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Railway as the route on this earlier railway was roughly followed between Croydon and Merstham. In the previous year (1836), the South Eastern Railway had been incorporated and their line was to run over the London and Croydon Railway to the above-mentioned Jolly Sailor and thence via Croydon, Godstone Road (now Purley), Oxted and Tunbridge (now Tonbridge) to Dover. As the Brighton line would have paralleled this line between the Jolly Sailor and a point a mile east of Reigate, Parliament inserted a clause in the Brighton Act empowering the South Eastern Railway within two years to purchase the section of the Brighton line between these two points at cost price. In 1839 the act was amended and the two companies built the line jointly and, when finished, the Brighton took the northern half and the South Eastern Railway the southern half, the point of the division being just north of Coulsdon Station.
There were five tunnels, Merstham (1,831 yards), Balcombe (1,140 yards), Haywards Heaoh (249 yards), Clayton (2,259 yards) and Patcham (492 yards), the last mentioned being unnecessary, but the owner of Patcham Place compelled the company to make it as he would not allow an open cutting through his land. The ruling gradient was 1 in 264, although there was the Forest Hill bank of 1 in 100 on the Croydon Railway to be tackled.
Perhaps the most striking feature of the line is Rastrick's graceful viaduct over the Ouse Valley. This consists of 37 semi-circular arches each of 30 feet span; the overall length is 1,475 feet and the extreme height 96 feet. Rastrick built this viaduct to take engines weighing 20 to 30 tons hauling trains of perhaps 100 tons. It has since been used fer locomotives of 100 tons with 350-ton trains and nowadays stands up to the passage of 70 m.p.h. heavy electric trains without a quiver. A testimonial to Rastrick indeed.
The Brighton-Shoreham section was opened first, as mentioned in our issue of June, 1940. The line from Croydon to Haywards Heath was brought into use on July 12, 1841, and thence to Brighton in the Following September. The branch to Newhaven was built by another company a few years later.
The pioneer service between London and Brighton comprised seven down and eight up passenger trains, the express trains reaching their destination, after calling at four intermediate stations, in two hours. Just prior to. the war, there were about a hundred services in each direction, with the' Brighton Belle and other expresses making the journey in less than 60 minutes. The actual cost of the line was £37,568 per mile, or nearly 60 per cent. more than was estimated. The utmost speed claimed for the line was 30 m.p.h. Indeed, expert evidence was given in the House of Commons that it would be impossible to exceed 25 to 28 m.p.h. It was claimed also that the line would convey twice as many passengers as were then conveyed by coach, which numbered about 100,000 per annum. These numbers are insignifi- 'cent compared w:ith the enormous crowds carried over the line at holiday times in recent years.
As an instance of how railways alter the landscape, Cuckfield (which the railway avoided) remains to this day the same small country town, whilst Haywards Heath nearby, where the railway built a 'station and which was then only a "heath" is now.a town of nearly 6,000 souls. Some of the first engines of the line were 4~wheeled with 4-wheeled tenders but; following a derailment near Haywards Heath after the line had- been 'opened only a few weeks, the directors publicly stated that the trains would not run so fast and that only 6-wheeled engines would be used,
Excursion traffic has always been very important on this line and Deridy Marshall, in his History of the Southern Railway, says that the first excursion was run on Easter Monday, 1844, and consisted of six engines attached to 57 coaches, which took 4½ hours on the journey. The London and Brighton and Croydon Railways were amalgamated in 1846 under the title of The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway; and the locomotives used then and since were fully described in the early issues of THE LOCOMOTIVE.

Welsh Highland Railway. 204
After dismantling it has been suggested that the track should be giv~n to the .nation .as a: walking route for ramblers. The scenic attractions of the district are considerable and the route traversed would 'appeal 'to numbers of pedestrians.

Reviews. 204

Handbook of workshop calculations: H,M. Stationery Office, 40 pp.,
This useful little handbook contains graduated exercises and answers, diagrams and worked examples. As a beginner's guide to workshop calculations it should prove invaluable to those, who as the result of the war, are making their first" contact with the Engineering Industry.

Producer gas for road transport. Brian Reed. Railway Gazette, 72 pp.
A reprint of two series of articles, on the design and operation of producer gas vehicles, which were published in the Road Transport section of The Railway Gazette. The various systems in use are illustrated and described, space also being devoted to the regulations and taxation applying to vehicles thus propelled. The author has dealt with the subject comprehensively and the book may be confidently recommended to all considering the conversion of vehicles to this fuel. As is pointed out in the foreword, subject to encouragement by the' Government Departments concerned and by the coal industry on the question of price, it is anticipated that the operation of road transport vehicles by producer gas will prove to be practicable, not only as' a substitute when liquid fuel is scarce, but as a permanent feature when normal times return.

Correspondence. 204

S.D: locomotive Owl. A.C.W. Lowe
I think I have cleared this up definitely as 'in addition to the information obtained 'from Swindon by MacDermot I have copies of the half yearly stock alterations which were at that period got out for the Directors. The, confusion is no doubt due to the fact 'that the engines were not numbered by the G.W. in ,the same order as received by the S.D. Owl was delivered by the Avonside Eng. Co., to to the S.D.R. in January, 1873, Goat in February 1873, and Weasel in March, 1873, but when the G.W. took over the S.D. in 1876 they numbered them 2172 Owl, 2173 Weasel, 2174 Goat. 2173 (Weasel not Goat) was withdrawn half-year ending December, 1882, and the boiler used as a portable. ,2174 was withdrawn half-year ending December 1885, and 2172 half- year ending June, 1889, but appear to have been retained for hiring out to contractors and others. They were taken back into stock half-year ending June, 1893, converted to normal gauge and renumbered 1327 and 1328. 1328 was scrapped in 19I10 and 1327 in 1913. When Ahrons saw the framing of what he supposed to be Goat it was no doubt numbered 2173 and as the boiler. had been taken for use as a portable and there was' no name on the engine anywhere else. he must have assumed that it was the Goat whereas in fact it was the Weasel.

General Electric Co., Ltd. 204. illustration
Iintroduction of new fittings to comply with the BSI ARP 16 specification relating to methods of providing Iow values of iIIumination for outdoor use during the blackout. There is a standard pattern mounting hole, and a type which is, weatherproof.

Diesel electric passenger trains. 204
Two diesel electric passenger trains had been built for the Denver & Rio Grand Western by the Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Co. New features include electrically operated disc brakes, and a device for preventing the wheels from skidding, Each train consists of two cars equipped with reclining seats, sleeping bunks and private rooms, also a dining lounge.

Southern Railway. 204
Prior to the outbreak of war, construction had been started at Brighton of an electric locomotive to work the Newhaven boat train. In addition to the usual current pick-up gear, the design provided for a pantograph to take current from an overhead wire which was to be erected between Newhaven Harbour Station and the landing stage.
This locomotive had been completed and for the present is to be used experimentally on main line goods work. It is numbered CC1, the "CC" under the new numbering scheme denoting two sets of 6 wheels. all axles power-driven.

Number 590 (15 October 1941)

The balance of loco. design. 205.
How the proportions for efficient design were reached in Britain. See also letter from L.A. Fullagar on p. 266.

Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification: mixed traffic electric locomotive No. 6701 tested on the Manchester-Altringham line. 206

Government control of railways. 206

L.M.S.R. 206

Steam v. diesel electric locos. 207-8
Concluded from page 188. The development of the freight Diesel locomotive had reintroduced a method of braking, or rather of controlling speeds of freight trains on long descending gradients. Dynamic braking is essentially utilisation of the power in the locomotive to hold the train by reversing the direction of the field current, by means of which motors are converted into generators and the current generated is dissipated, through resistance grids mounted in the roof, in the form of heat, which is absorbed by an air cooling system. This is similar to the regenerative braking on electric locomotives, in which the current generated is fed back to the power source. The dynamic brakes are designed to hold at a definite speed on a descending gradient the same train weight that the locomotive could haul up the same gradient at the :same speed. In actual operation, on descending gradients, train weight is usually heavier and speeds maintained are higher than on the same gradient ascending, so that for controlling such trains some assistance for the dynamic brake is required from the train air brakes.
The possibility for reduced maintenance owing to less wheel and brake shoe wear is of sufficient importance to encourage further development of this brake for locomotives in mountain service.
In any discussion of disadvantages of the Diesel locomotive, the question of cost of initial investment is an important consideration in comparing Diesel against steam locomotives. Recent improvements in production methods and increasing numbers in production have gradually lowered the cost per horsepower of Diesel locomotives to approximately 87.50 dollars, while for steam locomotives of comparable horsepower costs are approximately 35 dollars per horsepower. The higher initial cost is partly offset by the greater utilisation of the Diesel locomotive, which helps to keep down the overhead cost per mile of operation.
The life expectancy of the Diesel engine has been estimated at a relatively lower figure than for steam locomotives. Depreciation rates are based on an assumed expectation of fifteen years of service for road Diesel locomotives and twenty years for switch Diesel locomotives, against an accepted figure of approximately twenty-eight years for steam locomotives. Experience gained from continued use of Diesel locomotives in all kinds of service may justify an upward revision of the life expectancy at some future time. Meanwhile the low assumed figure is a definite handicap, because of the resulting increased fixed charge.
The close tolerances on numerous parts, together with the complications owing to interlocking of electrical and mechanical equipment, call for a higher degree of maintenance of the Diesel locomotive. On the other hand, refinements in steam locomotives, such as roller bearings, improved counterbalancing for higher speeds, and additional auxiliary equipment that requires close maintenance for efficient operation, add to the amount of necessary maintenance on this type of motive power. The use of maintainers on Diesel locomotives has helped to keep maintenance costs to a minimum, in that prompt attention when necessary has forestalled costly breakdowns on the road and has provided an intimate knowledge of work requiring immediate attention at terminals. The actual comparative maintenance costs of the two types of motive power are nearly equal, considering that no cost records are available for general shopping of Diesel locomotives, and there is a question or necessity of general shoppings for Diesel locomotives.
As already noted, the thermal efficiency of the Diesel locomotive is approximately three to four times that of the modern steam locomotive. The lower fuel consumption is somewhat offset by a higher unit cost of fuel, but in spite of the higher unit cost, the net cost of fuel consumed per unit of power developed is approximately one-half to two-thirds that of unit fuel cost of comparable steam locomotives. In localities where unlimited quantities of good quality steam locomotive coal are available at law cost and with little transportation requirements, the foregoing comparison might not hold good. Similarly, those railways that are close to oilfields and refineries that can offer large quantities of residuum fuel oil at low cost cannot always justify use of the higher-priced Diesel fuel oil. Conversely, in some localities where there is a scarcity of fuel, the saving in transportation charges because of the much smaller quantity required will justify the use of the Diesel locomotive because of fuel saving.
The operation of Diesel locomotives requires that fuel oil specifications be held within a close range, which accounts in part for the higher unit cost of fuel. In the adoption of Diesel motive power exclusively, it must be remembered that other fuels are eliminated from competition. This is not the case with the steam locomotive, since with this prime mover the competitive condition existing between coal and fuel oil tends to keep unit costs at a reasonably low level. Any abrupt change in the price of either fuel immediately justifies a change by adapting the steam locomotive to burn the lower-priced fuel.
The overall cost of lubrication is definitely in favour of the steam locomotive. The quantity of lubricating oil required, as well as higher price, makes the net cost approximately double for the Diesel locomotive as compared with the steam locomotive. With either type of power, the lubricating cost is a relatively small percentage of the total cost of operation.
A resume of what has been accomplished by Diesel locomotive operation in main line service is as follows :-
(1) The schedule time for passenger service between important terminals has been reduced. There has been a steadily increasing number of higher-speed passenger trains placed in service by various railways, all of .which have proved to be popular with the travellmg public. Incidentally, some railways, which inaugurated higher-speed service utilising steam motive power initially have smce changed to DIesel power for this fast service. .
(2) .In freight service, it has been possible to mcrease both the tonnage hauled and the average speed between terminals. The power performance, particularly m the lower speed range, has made it possible to operate trains over most ruling gradients without need for double heading.
(3) In bad weather with adverse rail conditions the Diesel locomotive because of uniform torque on dnvmg wheels and distribution of available tractive effort over a greater number of driving wheels has demonstrated its ability to maintain schedules without reduction in weight of train handled. .
(4) The Diesel locomotive has shown the possibility of long locomotive runs, with very little service required for locomotive at intermediate division points. It has directed attention to the fact that the only economical operation is obtained from motive power that is moving. Indirectly, attention has been focused on terminal delays to freight trams and also to the need for improvement in getting trains through divisional terminals.
(5) It has stimulated the energies of the steam locomotive designers to develop steam motive power that has performance characteristics to compete with those of the Diesel locomotive. At the present time there is a need for an all-purpose DIesel locomotive that can be utilised in either freight or passenger service, and which will fit with steam locomotive helpers where such helper service is required
A table lists the main dimensions of a 4000 hp and 5400 hp diesel locomotives and 4-6-, 4-8-4 and 2-10-4 steam locomotives.

M.S.J. & A.R.  208
Commencing on 21 September the train service over this line had been resumed between Manchester (London Road) and Altrincham, and Oxford Road and Knotthill and Deansgate stations have been re-opened. The temporary service of C.L.C. trains which had been running between Manchester (Central) and Warwick Road in connection with M.S.J.A. trains between that station and Altrincham was withdrawn on the same date.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 208-10. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Continued from page 202. The Portpatrick (originally Port Patrick) Railway was opened in 1861 between Stranraer and Castle Douglas, In the following year the line was contmued through to Portpatrick. The Caledonian Railway took the line over in 1864 under an agreement whereby it would be worked by them. EIght locomotives were taken over and became Nos. 262 to 269 in the stock of the C.R. Six of the engines, P.R. Nos. 1 to 4 and 6 and 7 were designed by J. E. McConnell of the L. & N.'W.R. at Wolverton. No. 8 was designed by George Walker the locomotive supermtendent of the line. All the P.R. locomotives were painted light green .
Nos. 1 to 4 were of the 0-4-2 type with six-wheeled tenders. Four engines were ordered, three to be delivered for the opening of the line and the fourth a year later. The cylinders were inside and were 16 in. diam. by 24 in .. stroke. The driving wheels were 5 ft. 1 in. diameter and the trailing wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diam. The wheelbase was spaced 7 ft. plus 7 ft. 9 in., total 14 ft. 9 in. Boiler barrel:-centre line 6 ft. 6 in., mean outside diam. 4 ft. 1¼ in., length 10ft. 9in., 167 tubes 2 in. diam. The heating surface of the tubes was 961.72 sq. ft. and of the firebox 89.31 sq. ft., total 1,051.03 sq. ft. Pressure 130 lb. per sq. in. There is no record of the grate area. The weight of the engine in workmg order was 25 tons 18½ cwts. made up as follows :-leading axle 10 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs., dnvmg axle 10 tons 15 cwt. 2 qrs., and trailing axle 4 tons 17 cwt. 1 qr. The tender wheels were 3 ft. 9 in. diam. The water capacity was 1,500 gallons and the coal capacity 3 tons. Subsequently a four-wheeled tender was fitted to each engine with a water and coal capacity of 800 gallons and 2 tons respectively. These engines took C.R. Nos. 262 to 265 in rotation. The makers were Sharp, Stewart & Co. their Nos. 1219 to 1221 of 1861 and 1322 of 1862. No. 264 (P.R. No. 3) was wrecked at Dalbeattie in 1874 when there was a serious collision with a train drawn by a G. & S.W.R. engine. The C.R. engine was working the goods which left Dumfries at 11.30 a.m. and Dalbeattie at about noon. The train was made up of several coal wagons, a general merchandise wagon and a brake van.
The line was operated by "staff" but when the "staff" was required for a following train a "ticket" was issued to the driver who had to satisfy himself that the "staff" was retained by the station sending him forward. The driver, Robb and his fireman Adams both of Stranraer depot, were given the "ticket" and allowed to proceed. The section between Dalbeattie and Castle Douglas was at the time occupied by a ballast train of the G. & S.W.R., an engine and four wagons which had been permitted to occupy the section on a time limit arrangement. The ballast train consisted of an 0-4-2 type engine and four wagons and had gone down the section to lift ballast. Having loaded up it was returning when the C.R. train met it in the cutting at Barsoles Woods about a mile from Dalbeattie station. Both engines were badly wrecked, the C.R. locomotive being thrown to one side of the line and the tender to the other, while the wagons and the van were badly smashed up. The fireman was killed outright while the driver died three days later from his injuries. The permanent way inspector who was travelling on the G. & S.W.R. engine shouted to the surfacemen to jump when he saw what was about to happen. Four of the men received minor injuries while jumping off. The inspector and the fireman of the ballast engine escaped unhurt while the driver Gunzeon of Dumfries, was also seriously injured, and he too died three days later. The G. & S.W.R. engine was partly on its side resting against the embankrnent, while its rear wheels were dragged away by the C.R. engine. The cause of the accident was apparently due to the clerk and porter at Dalbeattie giving the "ticket" while the operational "staff" was out, and the "staff" which they saw in the office was a spare one. From a study of the withdrawal list of the G. & S.W.R. locomotives it would appear that the locomotive involved was No. 30 an 0-4-2 built by Neilson & Co., in December, 1857, and replaced by one of James Stirling's 4-4-0 type passenger engines in December, 1874. In 1890 No. 263 (P.R. No. 2) went to Perth to drive the sawmill at the Perth ·wagon shops, P.R. No. 4 took the number previously carried by an 0-6-0 engine which was returned to the L. & N.W.R.
Nos. 262, 263 and 265 were put on to the "A" list in 1885 and were withdrawn in 1888, 1890 and 1888 respectively.
In May, 1861, the P.R. obtained from the L. & N.W.R. an engine of the DX class, a six-wheeled coupled tender type. This engine appears to have been about one of the last of the class to be built without cabs and open splashers of the vent type. Tihe L. & N.W.R. had built the engine at Crewe in March, 1861, as their No. 550, and Crewe Works No. 475. It was :numbered 4 in the P.R. list and was returned to the L. & N.W.R. on 30 November 1861, but its subsequent history is not known to the author.
To replace this engine another was purchased from the L. & N.W.R. on 3 November 1862, for which £2,500 was paid. This engine was also of the DX class and had a short cab, closed splashers and a plain cast iron capped L. & N. W. R. type chimney. The Crewe No. was 575 and L. & N.W.R. No. 638. This engine became No. 5 on the P.R. list. The dimensions were:-cylinders (inside) 16 in. diam. by 24 in. stroke. Driving wheels 5 ft. 2 in. diam. Wheel centres 7 ft. 3 in. plus 8 ft. 3 in., total 15 ft. 6 in. There were 192 tubes 10 ft. 9 in. long and 17/8in. diam. The total heating surface was 1,068 sq. ft. Grate area 15 sq. ft. Working pressure 140 lb. per sq. in. but later raised to 150 lb. Weight:-Ieading axle 9 tons 14 cwt. , driving axle 10 tons, and rear axle 7 tons 6 cwt., total 27 tons.
The tender carried 1,900 gallons of water and 2¾ tons of coal. The weight in working trim was 21 tons 8 cwt. The engine was withdrawn in 1885 when it was sold to a cement maker at Dumfries, and later was sold by him to the Shap Granite Quarry Co. In both cases it acted as a portable boiler and driving unit and was not used as a locomotive.
Shortly after the order for the 0-4-2 engines had been placed a further one was given for two 2-2-2 type tender engines. These were similar in several details to the Small Bloomers of the L. & N.W.R. The cylinders were inside and were 15 in. diam. by 22 in. stroke. The driving wheels were 6 ft. diam., and the leading and trailing wheels 3 ft. 9 in. diam. The wheelbase was 7 ft. plus 7 ft. 9 in., total14 ft. 9 in. The boiler barrel was 3 ft. 103/8 in. mean outside diameter by 10 ft. 9 in. long, with 143 tubes 2 in. diam. The heating surface of the tubes was 826.0 sq. ft. and that of the firebox 81.7 sq. ft., giving a totaI heating surface of 907.7 sq. ft. The working pressure was 140 lib. The tender ran on six wheels 3 ft. 9 in. diam., and carried 1,200 gallons of water and 3 tons of coal. The .C.R. subsequently fi.tted a four-wheeled tender which reduced the water capacity to 750 gallons and the coal capacity to 2 tons when slightly piled up. The weight of the engine was :-leading axle 10 tons 6 cwt. 3 qrs., driving axle 12 tons 16 cwt., and trailing axle 11 tons, making a. total of 34 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs.
The engines were numbered 6 and 7 in the P.R. list and 267 and 268 in the C.R. The makers were Sharp, Stewart & Co. who built them in 1861 (their Nos. 1282 and 1283). Both were put on to the "A" list in 1885 and withdrawn in 1888. No. 7 lay at Stranraer sheds from the time of the formation of the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint Committee in 1885 until 1890 although it had been officially withdrawn in 1888. A story is related about one of this class which stalled on the Portpatrick branch at Dunskey. The location is on a curve and the rails are likely to be affected by spray in best of times. On this occasion the elements brought the train to a standstill and the driver was in a fix for he could not halve his train and proceed as he had only one carriage attached. In the years when the harbour at Portpatrick was used by the mail packet the "DX" class engine was most frequently used on this small section.
The last engine got by the P.R. before the C.R. took over the section was of the 2-4-0 tender type and was designed by Geo. Walker. Again inside cylinders were adopted and these were 16 in.. diam. by 22 in. stroke. The leading wheels were 3ft. 9in. diam. and the coupled wheels 6 ft. diam. The wheelbase was 7 ft. plus 7 ft. 6 in., total 14 ft. 6 in. The boiler barrel was 3 ft. 10¼ in. mean outside diam. and 10 ft. 6 in. long with 143 tubes 2 in. diam. The working pressure was 140 lb. but when the C.R. took the engine into its stock the pressure was reduced to 130 lb. as the engines which the C.R. had sent down to assist the P.R. lot were being over-shadowed by the solitary 2-4-0 of the leased line. On the occasion of a special trip from Donaghadee on July 12, 1865, the P.R. engine, unaided, took a load of 11 well filled coaches from the Town station at Portpatrick to Newton Stewart with a stop at Stranraer to set down day trippers, despite the bad climb from "the Port" to Colfin. The train should have been assisted by one of the small goods engines of the 2-4-0 type which the C.R. had sent down but owing to some misunderstanding the goods was sent away on its regular duty, and as the outcome of the brilliant piece of work the pressure of the P .R. engine was reduced. The particulars of the heating surface of the boiler are:—tubes 786.0 sq. ft., firebox 79.5 sq. ft., total 865.5 sq. ft. The engine was like the others made by Sharp, Stewart & Co., being their 1397 of 1863. The P.R. No. was 8 and C.R. No. 269. In 1885 it was put on to the duplicate list as 269A and taken from stock in 1888. The weight of the engine was:— leading axle 8 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs., driving axle 9 tons 14 cwt. 3 qrs., rear coupled axle 8 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs ., total 26 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr. The original tender was six-wheeled carrying 1,200 gallons of water and 3t tons of coal. The tender fitted later was four-wheeled and carried 800 gallons of water and 2 tons of coal.
After the C.R. had taken over the operation of the line four of their 2-4-0 goods engines were sent down and later some of the No. 1 class passenger 2-4-0 tender engines were put on the section. In 1885 the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint Committee took over the line and the workings were shared with the Glasgow & South Western Railway. For shunting the yard at Stranraer the C.R. sent an 0-4-0ST of Neilson's make, this was No. 144 formerly 239. The engine came about 1865 and was replaced by another engine of the same type in 1874. This tank was the first engine to go on to Stranraer Pier where a weight restriction was in operation for a number of years. P.R. No. 5 was nicknamed Auld Jean. (To be continued).
Illustrations (side elevation drawings): P.R. 0-4-2. Nos. 1 to 4 (C.R. 262 to 265). (Possibly the splashers were open); PR 2-2-2 Nos. 6 and 7 (CR Nos. 567 and 568);  
P.R. 2-4-0, No. 8(C.R. No. 269).

County Donegal Railways. 210
Another Diesel bogie railcar No. 18 had been put into service. Locomotive No. 1 Alice had been fitted with a new firebox.

Railcar radiators. 211-14. 6 illustrations, 3 diagrams

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XIX. Joseph H. Beattie. 218-22. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
Chapter 2 in Twenty locomotive men

Model G.\V.R. "King" class locomotive. 223. illustration
After twelve years spare time work Bert Hunt. and four friends Messrs. G. White, H. Rosenthal, H. Liebenguth, and Len Knaupp had completed a magnificent  1½ in. scale model of the G.W.R. 4-6-0 express engme King George V. The model is complete to the smallest detail from drawings supplied by the Great Western Railway, and was built in Mr. Hunt's private workshops at his home near Johannesburg. . The locomotive, operated by compressed air, is shown alongside a perfect model of a G.W.R. carriage in the showrooms of Messrs. Williams, Hunt &  Co., in Eloff Street, Johannesburg ,

L.M.S.R.  223
War-time activities of the L.M.S.R. Road Motor Engineer's Department covered a wide field representing in the aggregate an important contribution to the war effort in that they are directed to increase the efficiency of the large fleet of L.M.S. motor vehicles and at the same time to conserve to the utmost the materials necessary for their maintenance. Where supplies of any particular material are short, or could be placed to better use in directions more closely associated with national armaments, alternative materials have been sought and new methods of restoring worn out parts and materials had been devised.
The maintenance of the collection and delivery services, particularly in areas which have been subjected to air attack, was a vital part of the rail transport organisation of the country. The provision of a mobile repair column ensures that the maximum number of damaged vehicles were put back on the road in the shortest possible time. The mobile workshop, constructed at Wolverton, had been specially designed and equipped for the repair and maintenance of road motor vehicles in the event of damage to existing workshops. The equipment included an electric generating set to provide current independent of local supplies, a portable oxy-acetylene welding plant, tanks for cleaning parts, a fitter's bench with tools also accommodation for spare parts, tyres, and timber for repairs. The portable welder was a self-contained unit capable of being employed at any of the Road Motor Shops overcoming the difficulties of varying electric supply services. The equipment was obtained on the advice of the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Welding School at Derby and manufactured by Petbow Limited, Watford.
The four mobile canteens could be used either on a rail carriage truck or on a 4-wheeled road trailer. They were equipped with storage batteries for lighting, a coal burning stove, facilities for washing up, storage accommodation for food, crockery and cutlery, and the necessary urns and serving counter. The difficulties of obtaining supplies of spare parts under war-time conditions and the urgent necessity for conserving materials of all kinds has led to a special campaign being launched with some striking results. The position in regard to spares was foreseen and long before the outbreak of war, large quantities of worn material were set aside for reclamation. Worn journals had been built up by metal spraying or electro-deposition. Worn cams and worn or broken teeth had been built up by welding. For the use of gas as a propellant various types of gas producers had been thoroughly tested. Two vehicles equipped with gas producers hadbetween them run a total of 41,558 miles. Men have received training in their operation, so that should circumstances demand it, a changeover to a large number of gas driven vehicles could be made.
Vehicles  were also under test with gas bags, some mounted on the roofs of the vehicles and some on trailers. A new type of crane which has a lifting capacity of 4½ tons and a jib radius of 10 feet  was used in dock areas and in goods depots. Six of these American built cranes were in service and a further 25 will shortly bit availabe

Great Western Railway. 224.
An interesting feature of the Winter Timetable was the reopening of the Yealmpton branch for passenger traffic commencing 3 November. The passenger service over this branch was discontinued some years ago on account of road competition. The service to be provided would consist of eight trains each way on weekdays, all of which will run to and from Plymouth (Friary), instead of Plymouth (Millbay) which was the previous terminus of this service. The branch train will however be provided and worked by the G.W.R. Certain unadvertised passenger trains have been run over this line since its closing, but the restoration of the full public service is noteworthy inasmuch as apart from certain seasonal train services in other parts of the country it affords the first example of a complete restoration of facilities which it was found necessary to withdraw on account of acute road competition.

Correspondence. 224

The centenary of a business train. Reginald B. Fellows..
Since the publication of my article on the Brighton-London Bridge business train I have come across George Augustus Salas London up to. date, written in 1894 when he was living at Brighton. In a chapter headed "Eight forty-five a.m. Breakfast on board a Pullman," written in his amusing style, he asked "Could we have broiled soles, boiled eggs and buttered toast? Why [certainly. And broiled ham and eggs, or kidneys or bloaters or haddock? Assuredly. There was a bill of fare; and there was no reason why we should not breakfast in ease and comfort. The which we presently proceeded to do; and we were not charged any more for a meal than we should have had to pay had we breakfasted in the coffee-room of a well-conducted hotel. But what a simpleton the conductor may have thought me for asking him whether we could breakfast on board the Pullman . . . " From this it is clear that although a Pullman Breakfast Car was only put on some fifteen years ago substantial breakfasts were served in the ordinary Pullman close on half a century ago.
My attention has been called to the fact that for many years prior to the abolition of steam traction a special rail-car was run from Preston Park to Brighton for the convenience of passengers who lived near that station and wished to travel by the" City Limited." The rail-car left Preston Park at 8.36 a.m., due Brighton 8.40. No special arrangement was made for the down journey as an express which called at Preston Park left London Bridge a few minutes after the 5 p.m. "City Limited."

Prevention of rust and corrosion. 224
An effective method of preventing the rusting and corrosion of iron and steel by the atmosphere, as well as. acids and other deleterious influences, of particular value in connection with exposed equipment, such as signals, bridges, overhead electric transmission lines and lighting standards, conveyors, engine sheds and station buildings in general, is the use of Detel. For iron and steel and other metal plant and equipment, whether directly exposed to the atmosphere or otherwise, a variety known as " D.M.U." is available, which contains chlorinated rubber dissolved in the solvent, along with about 92 per cent. finely divided zinc. A true anodic resistance to the electrolytic action characteristic of metallic corrosion is given in addition, the zinc being attacked in preference to the steel. The action is different from galvanizing, which forms an easily decomposable alloy of iron and zinc, existing as an intermediate layer. Zinc has a remarkable and anti-corrosive action in relation to iron. For example, if zinc dust is shaken into water and the zinc removed by filtration, iron immersed in the filtrate remains free from rust for a much longer period than a similar piece of iron in ordinary untreated water. On the same lines zinc will protect polished iron when both are immersed in water without the existence of any contact (electrical or otherwise) between the two metals, and an old remedy for corrosion in marine boilers is a zinc plate. It is for this reason also that thin steel sheets protected with a coat of the chlorinated rubber product show hardly any sign of rusting and corrosion, even when deep scratches are made exposing the metal, whilst in addition there is no creep of rust under the film. One of the serious dis- advantages of most paints is that when the surface is scratched or otherwise damaged rust creeps under the adjoining paint film although the surface may show no sign of this insidious action. In applying as an undercoat to iron and steel for ordinary conditions a thin coating of say 1 gallon to 100-140 sq. yds. is given, but for more severe exposure a brushed coat is used, using say 1 gallon for 70 sq. yds. Any type of oil paint, cellulose paint or other product can then be applied on top, including mixtures of Detel with finely divided aluminium or various pigments.

Reviews. 224

The Engineer Corporal. C. Hamilton Ellis. Oxford University Press.
The appearance of the locomotive m fiction often has funny results. Mr. Ellis's book, however, whilst designed primarily for juvenile reading, deserves notice as a responsibly written railway story. His hero, as respectable and granite-headed a young Englishman as was ever pitch- forked into the crudities of war, has greatness thrust upon him by being kidnapped for service in the United States Arrnv in 1861. The story opens on the Great Western and South Western Railways in the days of Gooch and Beattie. It takes him through hair-raising adventures as a driver on the United States Military Railroads. He helps to purloin a locomotive, and at various times is sentenced to death, falls in love with a lady on the enemy side, and goes through other nerve-wracking experiences. The author has clearly taken a good deal of trouble to recapture the American railway scene of the sixties, and Terence Cuneo has contributed some excellent illustrations showing old American locomotives being used and abused according to the fortunes of war.

Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., 1923-37. K. Risdon Prentice and Peter Proud.
The introductory chapter deals with the general system of numbering adopted since the amalgamation, and a statistical summary gives the yearly totals of each wheel arrangement. Each of these wheel types is then dealt with under the 280 class headings, i.e., AI, A2, etc., and so on through the alphabet to Z5. In each case a list of the engines existing at the time of grouping is given, followed by informative notes on the engines and the particular type of traffic with which they were associated. Special attention has been given to individual engines rebuilt, subjected to experimental alterations, or allocated to special duties. A list of named locomotives revised to the date of publication is also included. Details are given of changes in naming, when an engine carried a previous name for a considerable period. The usefulness of the book is considerably enhanced by a numerical list of everyone of the 9,300 locomotives owned by the L.N.E.R. since 1923, with their appropriate classes. This enables the class of any particular locomotive to be seen at a glance, and also indicates where more than one engine has carried a given number, or been re-classified. It is fitting that the authors should have chosen for the frontispiece a photograph depicting 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley, Apart from this there are 72 illustrations.

Number 591 (15 November 1941)

Steam for fast freight. 225

The "Prospectors". Denver and Rio Grande Western R.R. 226-8. 3 illustrations

R.B. Fellows. The centenary of Bradshaw's Guide. 228. illustration

O.J. Morris, Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 229-31. 2 illustrations

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 231-4..
92 Class 2-40 built at St. Rollox with 17 x 24in outside cylinders, 6ft 8in coupled wheels, about 900ft2 total heating surface and 130 psi boiler pressure. No. 92 built in 1865; Nos. 93-7 iin 1866; Nos. 103-7 in 1867. Reboilered with flush top fireboxes from 1878 (Nos. 94, 96 and 106); Nos. 93, 103 and 105 in 1889; Nos. 92 and 104 in 1880, Nos. 95 and 97 in 1881 and No. 107 in 1883. Order placed with Dubs in 1865 for freight locomotives to work on former Scottish Central Railway lines.

London Transport car No. 14233. 234
Bomb damaged Metropolitan Railway motor car repaired by welding it to remains of District Railway trailer No. 013167.

High capacity well car. 242. diagram (side & end elevations and plan)
Wagaon built by Greenville Steel Car Co. for Carnegie Illinois Steel Co. to convey ingot moulds.

O.J. Morris. A pioneer bogie coach. 242-3. illustration
Former Midland Railway vehicle, probably supplied by Ashbury, sold to Isle of Wight Central Railway for £125 where Charles L. Conacher, manager, envisaged using it on push & pull services powered by 0-4-2ST

Southern Railway. 243
Hillsea Halt opened between Portcreek Junction and Fratton

L.M.S. 40-ton electric magnet crane. 243
Goliath crane with 38-inch diameter magnet capably of lifting 7 tons.

Tank trains in mock battle. 244

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 244.

Obituary. 244.
E.C.B. Ashford: an authority on the Somerset & Dorset Railway; died aged 40; member of Bath City Council.

Reviews. 244

The Railways of Persia. Railway Gazette..
There was no railway in Persia (other than a short link in from Russia) until 1927 and the main line from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf was not completed until 1938. This involved a summit at 6929 feet with a 3170 yard tunnel and ruling gardients southbound of 1 in 36 and northbound of 1 in 67

The welding of copper, bronze and brass by the arc process.
Murex trade literature

Correspondence. 244

Joseph Beattie. W.B. Thompson

Number 592 (15 December 1941)

The locomotive in engineering. 245-8. 3 tables
Precis of Stanier's IMechE Presidential Address.  When commencing his training in January 1892, locomotive practice on the Great Western, under the guidance of William Dean, was very much the same as that of other railways of the time. The locomotives were comparatively small, with steam pressures up to 140 psi., but very quickly another phase began; steam pressures were raised to 160 psi and a bogie became necessary in front to provide a lengthened wheelbase on which to carry the larger boilers. About the year 1902, Churchward brought out the first big departure from current practice, when he built six-wheel-coupled express passenger engines with cylinders having 30 in. stroke and fitted with valve gear having an unusually long travel and a greater lap. These characteristics made it possible to work the engine so that greater advantage was obtained from the expansion of the stcam. Churchward continued to adopt these features throughout the whole of his career as chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western. This practice has been adopted and developed gradually on all the other English railways and it is the development that has taken place on the LMS over the last ten years to which he principally refered.
Table 1 lists the approximate thermal efficiencies of various steam locomotives: representative locomotive of c1880; c1912, Coronation, Chapelon superheated 4-8-0 compound locomotive and advanced steam power station practice electric drive (the last based on particulars given in Sir Leonard Pearce’s Thomas Hawksley Lecture, Proc.I Mech.E., 1939, vol. 142, p. 305), Table 1 attempts to set out the relative thermal efficiencies for different stages in the development of steam motive power, showing first of all the basic theoretical efficiency of the cycle, then the actual engine and boiler effciencies, and finally an overall thermal efficiency for the plant as a whole on a basis of indicated horse-power. The first column represents a saturated steam engine as designed in the last century (of which many are still running); col. 2 represents a superheated design of the period 1908-12, still retaining old-fashioned cylinder and valve gear design ; col. 3 the position of representative best present-day design in this country, while col. 4 is illustrative of the work done by Chapelon in France, and represents very nearly the best which can be expected from further refinement in.the normal reciprocating locomotive. The last column gives comparative figures for an “ideal” application of the most advanced power station practice to the locomotive, leaving on one side for the moment the question of how far the various features of power station practice could in fact be applied. The record of the locomotive is not, as is sometimes thought, entirely bad, and Table 1 shows clearly where it has advanced and where it still falls short. Table. 2: particulars of representative locomotive boilers (L .M. & S. Railway and Table 3 Dynamometer car test results with various L .M. & S. Railway locomotives: No. 5917 Claughton class Euston to Carlisle and return; No. 6158 Royal Scot class Euston to Carlisle and return (low mileage and high mileage); Princess Royal No. 6210, Turbomotive No. 6202 and Coronation class No. 6225 with light load Euston to Glasgow; Euston to Glasgow and back No. 6220 with Coronation Scot load and timing and No. 6234 with maximum load Crewe to Glasgow and return; and Class 5 St Pancras to Leeds and return with No. 5067 with 14 element superheater and No. 5079 with 21 element superheater.
A review of the efficiency of the steam locomotive, based on LMS testing plus a forecast of future development: makes reference to Goss and thr Altoona test plant

Twin-coupled railcars, Great Western Railway. 248-9. illustration.
Designed to incorporate an intermediate trailer using an ordinary corridor coach.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 250-2.
The General Terminus Railway was taken over together with 3 locomotives. Two were 0-4-0 tender locomotives built by J.M. Rowan in February 1851: they became CR Nos. 116 and 117 and were scrapped in 1867..

O.S. Nock. Locomotive performance on the G.W.R. 257-60. illustration, 6 diagrams
Letter from H. Holcroft objected to comments on 43XX class

Correspondence. 266

Locomotive design. L.A. Fullagar.
The opening article in issue of 15 October criticises the Great Northern 251 class Atlantics as designed on the ground that the cylinders were too small for the boiler. The subsequent performance of the Atlantics, however, suggests a profitable enquiry why they did so distinguishingly well, and whether the proportions were not consistent with the highest locomotive development at that time.
At this distance from their date of origin in 1902 it is easy to overlook .that there was then no superheat, no modern valve or cylinder design and a heavy preponderance of D slide valves. With such engines when, as was the fashion in the 1890s, the cylinders were far too large for the boiler, the choice was soon reached between (a) running with a sufficiently short cut-off for the boiler to maintain steam when the back-pressure was excessive and ceiling speed low, or (b) obtaining freer running by working in fuller gear and saving the boiler by throttling at the regulator.
In the 251 class Atlantic Ivatt applied Richardson balanced valves which with outside cylinders introduced only· one slow 90° bend between cylinder port and blast pipe. The 180° reversal + 90° sharp bend common with .D valves were eliminated but the S shaped passages from cylinder ports to valve chest remained. Back pressure was greatly. reduced but would still be serious at short cut-offs 'with the valve travel then in force.
Ivatt appears to have recognised this and designed the engines for what we should now regard as very late cut-off and full regulator. Had they been given larger cylinders they would have been driven with the same cut-off, but partly closed regulator, an admittedly less efficient method. With saturated steam also the reduction of losses obtained through small cylinders was desirable. Ivatt in fact produced an engine which with short travel valve gear of his day could be driven with full regulator and the low back pressure at high speed now obtainable with modern cylinder and valve design, while steam losses were limited by small cylinders. There was also valuable limitations of the mechanical stresses.
The introduction of piston valves when, as the article referred to points out, it was at last realised they could be of large diameter, allowed the freedom of exhaust at short cut-offs which Ivatt alone had obtained in 1902 by 'balanced valves, small cylinders and longer cut-offs. Such piston valves are usually associated with long travel about which there still exists confused thinking. Actually the valve movement of a long travel engine at 15 per cent. cut-off may be less than an old short travel design at 30 per cent. cut-off, but the former gives reduced throttling at exhaust.
In most modern designs long travel valves are combined with cylinder ports passing directly through the cylinder casting and leading with no pronounced change of direction to the blastpipe. This was the feature which distinguished the G.W.R. two-cylinder engines from 1900 onwards and it is one of the mysteries of locomotive development that its value was not recognised when the 4-cylinder G.W.R. engines were designed. These, by placing all cylinders out of line with the smoke box introduced two right-angle bends for both steam and exhaust. The L.M.S.R. in their first two Pacifies repeated this defect but have partially remedied it in the subsequent engines by moving forward the outside cylinders. Considering in 1941 a 1902 design it may be found not to possess proportions desirable now, but only when combined with developments unknown when the type originated. Comparison with other Atlantics must be made with caution as there were various points of difference, but it should surely not be overlooked that all the five British Atlantic designs which' followed Ivatt had larger cylinders, and it will hardly be contended that anyone of them has done as well.

McConnell's single engines. C.F. Dendy Marshall.
CFDM interested in McConnell's single engines on the L. & N.W.R., namely, large Bloomers, small ditto, No. 373 Maberly, No. 300 and Mac's Mangle. Can anyone tell me where good drawings are to be found? I have searched Tredgold, Clark and Colburn in vain. The only thing I have found is a fine drawing of the firebox of No. 300 in The Permanent Way etc. of Colburn and Hollery (New York, 1858). I particularly want to know the distance between the centres of cylinders of No. 300. Ahrons (p. 95). says 1 ft. 10½ in., and then goes on to say that the inside beanngs could therefore be only 41 in. long. This must be a mistake. The drawing referred to above shows that the eccentrics were in the usual position; between the cranks. Ahrons also says the inside frames only extended from the motion-plate to the firebox, whereas his illustration (Fig. 106) shows that they passed forward behind the leading wheels Response from Henry Dearberg.

Reviews. 266

A book of trains. W.J. Bassett-Lowke and F.E. Courtney. Penguin Books Limited, London.
How does one review a Penguin, or in this case a Puffin —one of the seemingly thousand-odd red-and-white backed sixpenny's which bedeck every railway bookstall in England? This one, at least, differs from most of the others in its size, for it must have been beyond the wit even of Bassett-Lowke and his artist to illustrate and describe express trains and big stations within the usual Penguin-Puffin compass. As fitting a circulation among the mass, the text is simple in the extreme, but simplicity here does not mean crudeness as, unfortunately, it does in the illustrations. The book seeks to cover all phases of train working. and within what must have been the strict limitations imposed upon him, the author has dealt with history. locomotives, trains, bridges, stations, signals, underground lines and even miniature railways.

Some notes on zinc oxide in lubrication. 266
Interesting booklet by Alexander Duckham, The author does not deal with what may be regarded nowadays as the more or less well understood field of lubrication by oils and greases, but confines his comments to the securing of. more perfect lubrication by the incor- poration of zinc oxide. It. has been found that the. presence of zinc oxide in lubricants neutralises acidity and forms inert zinc com- pounds which in no way interfere with the stability or functioning of the lubricants. Electrolytic decomposition of the zinc compounds. results in the deposition of zinc on the bearings thus giving increased protection of the ferrous surface.

Trade note. 266

Portable axlebox press.
For the mounting and withdrawal of axle boxes, a new portable hydraulic concentric press has been developed by British Timken Limited. It is particularly useful in emergency and in inconvenient situations.  Timken axlebox bearings always have their inner races press fitted on to the axle; this is standard practice, as in wheel fitting, but it has been open to the objection that the use of a wheel press is involved. The objection is now removed by the advent of the new press. The purpose of the design was to -evolve a tool capable of a pressure of 75 tons, and at the same time portable. Two men can lift the press. There are two models, one hand operated and the other power operated. Using either of these, an axlebox can be mounted or removed in 10 minutes, including time for setting up. In case of. power failure, the power unit may be used for hand operation; a handle is provided for this emergency. A safety device prevents the handle being attached while the Power is available.