Locomotive Railway Carriage & Wagon Review Volume 63 (1957)
No. 773 (January-February)
The trend in diesel rail traction. 1
New B.R. rolling stock for the Southend electrification. 2-4. 5
1500 V dc rolling stock but with conversion to 25 kV planned; stuffy looking first class compartments and austere second class saloons. Slam doors.
The training of locomotive engineers. 4.
Institution of Locomotive Engineers symposium
Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton diesels for the New Haven Railroad. 5-7. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams
The standard mechanical stoker. 8-10. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Diesel shunting locomotives for Swedish State Railways. 10. illustration
B.K. Cooper. The rectifier in railway electrification. 11-14. 4 illustrations, diagram
Diesel locomotive performance in East Africa. 14. illustration
Heating of British Railways coaches. 15-16
Paper 568 Some Considerations on the Problem of the Heating of British Railways Coaches was presented to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in London. This paper, by FJ. Pepper, M.I.Loco.E., Carriage & Wagon Engineer, British Railways, Southern Region, may be said to have filled a considerable want, for in addition to containing much on recent developments it is 30 years since a paper on steam heating of trains has been given to the Institution and with the exception of the literature published by manufacturers of equipment information on the subject has been difficult to obtain.
The paper commenced by referring to the reasons for the use of steam for heating purposes in Britain. The principal factors in the type and extent of the heating arrangement provided, have been initial cost of installations, economical use of heat supplied and ease and. cost of maintenance. Since the majcnty of trains on British railways have, since their inception, been hauled by steam locomotives, it has naturally followed that the means of supplying carriage warming has been by the medium of steam supplied by the locomotive and this remains the standard method.
Over the years, the number of vehicles per train has increased, and requirements for heating to-day mu.st include trains of 15 coaches on main line express. routes, where the comfort of passengers, over extended travelling periods, becomes.a major item for consideration. The increased length of modern trains has made the effective heating of carriages by locomotive-supplied steam one of increasing difficulty, not so much from the steam demand point of view but from the difficulties asso- ciated with the satisfactory supply of steam to the rear coaches of such trains, which in very cold weather, has meant that the last two or three coaches of a 15-coach train have had inadequate heating. This problem has been occupying the attention of British Railways for two years or so, when it was decided that the question of carriage warming should be investigated by a committee.
Similar problems have also been met on the majority of railways operating throughout the world, and the widespread desire of railways to improve the standard and efficiency of carriage warming has culminated in the decision recently taken by the International Union of Railways to form a sub-committee charged with undertaking the study of heating problems which are judged important or urgent by the various railway organisations. This study by the appointed sub-committee is now being undertaken and is intended to embrace all forms of heating, steam, hot water, electric, pressure ventilation, air conditioning, and any other form considered an improvement on arrangements already in operation.
The problems of carriage heating, it was pointed out, are considerably more complex than those arising in other spheres of heating, by virtue of the relative size and rate of heat exchange with the outside air, the limited volume in relation to the number of occupants, the restriction in the space available for thermal insulation, and the necessity for equipment for the rapid control and regulation of the heating medium utilised.
When referring to the standard of heating required it was explained that it is considered that the minimum temperature against which a heating standard should be set, should be 10°F. It is also thought that to meet a comfortable standard of heating, provision should be made for a temperature "lift" in the coach of 40°F. above atmospheric temperature. This amounts to the provision of a comfortable internal temperature of 65°F. against 7° of continuous frost which in effect is almost a 20°F. margin for the country as a whole.
The problem of steam transmission down the train is intimately connected with that of pressure drop along the train pipe due to the pipe resistance to steam velocity, and two factors fundamentally concerned with this problem are the heavy steam load, which steam heating demands in the modern vehicles, the comparatively small train pipe, and the minimum pressure requirement at the rear of the train. Investigations have been made to ascertain the practical improvement that could be achieved by the use of a 2 in. i.d. main steam pipe, and standard stock of 15 coaches was modified to incorporate one of this diameter whilst retaining the same auxiliary steam pipe and radiators with their attendant connections.
Test results with this arrangement indicated that a pressure of 2 lb. sq. in. could be obtained in the rear vehicle, with a steam supply pressure at the leading vehicle of only 24 lb. sq. in. showing an overall pressure drop of 22 lb. sq. in. made up of 14 lb. sq. in. drop over coach connections, a drop over the 2 in. train pipe of 8 lb. sq. in. This represents operating at a very moderate steam pressure even over trains of 15 coaches and providing a steam loading per coach of 65 lb. of steam per hour.
It is considered that if the standard of heating is to be improved to meet modern requirements, then it will be necessary to increase this steam loading from 65 to 100 lb. of steam per hour. This would mean the acceptance of an increase in pressure drop over the train, of something approaching twice that for 65 lb. per hour per coach loading, but with the adoption of the 2 in. steam main, a steam pressure of 50 lb. sq. in. at the leading coach would provide a satisfactory pressure of some 6 lb. sq. in. in the rear coach of a 15-coach train.
It is therefore apparent that the 1½ in. train pipe, which has for so long been the standard equipment on British railway coaches, is quite inadequate for serving long trains, even with moderate loading, and raising the operating pressure within practical limits available, provides relief only for the moderate steam loading, and is inadequate to meet the heavier demands of modern comfort needs.
Subjects next considered were steam transmission and steam heating arrangements at present in use and their deficiencies. Some of the tests carried out were described and it is of interest to note that the all-metal inter-coach connection, as manufactured and supplied by Davies & Metcalfe Ltd. is undergoing trial. This type of connection was illustrated and described in 1955 volume (p. 172) and, as the author of the paper under consideration pointed out, is in very extensive use on the Continent, where advantage is taken of its construction to use boiler pressure through the heating system when pre-heating trains, and where, as a consequence of the high pressures and resulting high temperature, rubber hose would not be suitable.
Radiator systems were described after which a condensate control system was dealt with. It was explained that in an effort to overcome the difficulties associated with present forms of heaters, experiments have been carried out on BR. standard stock, with a system of steam heating referred to as B.R. atmospheric condensate control system. This system has been developed with the object of improving the performance in various directions of the direct form of steam heating maintaining simple operation with minimum upkeep.
In this system, steam from the train pipe is admitted to the distribution or auxiliary main through a control valve, and thence to the heaters, the condensate from these being collected through a return main and passed in bulk through a brass expansion tube, before discharge to the ballast as waste. One end of the expansion tube is rigidly anchored to the underframe but the other is designed to operate the control valve by a suitable stirrup, the control valve being spring loaded in the closing direction.
With the system cold, the expansion tube is necessarily contracted, and the valve held in the open position to admit steam, which when applied, passes freely round the system returning as condensate at gradually increasing temperature, as the radiators warm up, until the expansion tube takes control of the steam admission valve, closing it proportionately to the condensate temperature. This action operates cyclically, alternately opening and closing the valve for short regular periods, maintaining a fluctuating supply of steam at very low pressures, ranging from zero to a few inches of water, depending on the size of the heater layout. The condensate under normal working is discharged at between 150°F. and 160°F., and the adjustment provided is such as to allow the initial setting to be made without difficulty, experience in service indicating that when initially adjusted in shops, no further alteration is necessary in traffic.
Previous experience with atmospheric heating was associated with difficulties in the cooling of individual heaters at adequate rate when steam supply is cut off, and this point is one that has received dose attention during the tests carried out on the present design, and the results have not shown this difficulty to be present on this arrangement, due possibly to the fact that the B.R. layout employs for its heaters a small-bore finned tube, as distinct from the large volume heaters of earlier designs, and in consequence, only a very small quan- tity of air has to be introduced to enable the cooling of the heater to take place. The cyclic operation of the valve ensures that air is frequently being introduced through the exhaust main, and therefore assists the cooling of the heater when steam supply is shut off.
The very low pressure at which this system operates necessitates particular care in the layout of the arrangement of heaters and pipework in order to provide an equable steam distribution to the various heating units, but the low pressure aids considerably the inclusion of the maximum enclosure of valves and pipe-work within the vehicle, since the problem of leakage at valves, etc., is reduced to negligible proportions.
The B.R. atmospheric system has been in service in limited quantity for two heating seasons, and has been found to be comparatively free of mechanical defect, efficient in operation, and has a number of other advantages which were explained.
Ventilation was surveyed and in the concluding remarks on this subject it was said that in the past on British Railways it has been felt that the initial and maintenance costs of pressure ventilation systems have been excessive, and a natural ventilation system with direct heating has been preferred. It is not to be assumed that this policy will continue.
A simple form of pressure ventilation has been employed in diesel railcars and this, with combustion heaters for railcars, was described.
In concluding his paper, of which this forms but an extract, Pepper considered future trends and said that with the advent of diesel propulsion and the extension of electrification, considerable changes in the form of carriage heating must follow within a limited number of years. The transition period between the full change-over to diesel or electric traction from the steam era that is now passing, will undoubtedly provide the major problem in this connection, and considerable time and effort will be required by locomotive and carriage designs to enable the changeover to be completed without discomfort to the travelling public.
Obviously, it will be necessary for existing steam heated stock to be ultimately modified to other forms of heating, as the steam locomotive disappears, unless other means of steam supply for heating purposes are specially supplied. This can be and is being undertaken by the provision of boilers on the diesel locomotives and on electric locomotives, where circumstances require (during the transition period already mentioned) that steam-heated stock shall be electrically hauled, as may be anticipated on inter-Regional carriage working.
The use of steam heating vans can also provide a solution to the problem, but the adoption would undoubtedly provide additional difficulties for the operating department, although it may be that steam heating vans could provide the most suitable means of meeting the major requirements involved in the utilisation of existing steam fitted stock, for haulage by means of traction alternative to the steam locomotive, during the period required for the changeover.
Spanish National Railways 4-8-4 locomotives. 17-18. illustration, diagram (side elevation), table
The future motive power pattern of French Railways. 18-19.
Single-phase Swiss motor coaches. 19
New Japanese electric locomotives. 19-20. illustration
With the the electrification of the Tokaido main line it became necessary to acquire more powerful locomotives to increase the speed of freight trains. In 1954 four Bo-Bo+Bo-Bo locomotives, type EH. 10, were ordered and after extensive tests during 1955, 23 locomotives have been ordered with slight modifications.
Book Reviews. 20
World Railways 1956-37 (Fourth Edition),
Edited and compiled by Henry Sampson. Sampson Low's World Railways Ltd.
Sampson's encyclopaedia has deservedly achieved such worldwide repute and use that there is no need to recapitulate either a description of its contents or a recommendation to its purchase; suffice it to say that it is unique in the amount of detailed information it offers on the organisation, civil engineering, traffic, routes, motive power and rolling stock of the world's railways. The innovations introduced in the last edition, and notably the much more convenient upright format, have been retained in this fourth edition, wherein the information has been brought up to a very recent date. As last time, the first section of the book is devoted to the world's locomotive and rolling stock builders, and includes illustrations and brief descriptions of major items of equipment produced in the last two years. This is followed by the main section of the volume, that dealing with individual railway systems statistically and descriptively. In this there are some new developments, The major railway systems in each continent, totalling 157, are dealt with under the same sub-headings as before, although in this edition there is a useful addition listing the principal deveopments on each railway in the last two years. Some maps in this section of the book have been re-drawn, but the standard of cartography is still uneven, owing to the re-use of maps that have obviously been prepared for diverse purposes; thus the map of the German system is bare of all but a few important place names, while the various American system maps usually bristle with those of every wayside station. Sampson has secured a scoop in the collaboration of Moscow, with the result that he is able this time to extend his section on the railways of the U.S.S.R. to eight pages, contaimng a considerable amount of fact and picture hitherto unpublished in the West. One cannot quite so readily commend his decision to alter the presentation of facts concerning the world's minor railways; these have now been transferred to a series of tables by continents, each of which lists all the railways in that continent in alphabetical order with their statistics under 32 different headings. Despite the publisher's claim in the foreword, this method does not seem to make for the same ease of reference as the old style, and one hopes it will not become permanent. The book is rounded off by a section on diesel engines and special articles on radio communications in railway practice, developments in lightweight rolling stock, long welded rails and rail fastenings, and mechanised track maintenance, completing an invaluable work of reference for which the publisher has the gratitude of everyone engaged in railway business.
Rhodesian order for Gloucester. 20
Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. had been awarded a contract for the supply of 78 coaches for the Rhodesia Railways. This followed an order from Rhodesia for ten coaches, and the total value of the contract was over £1,500,000.
Hunslet diesels for steelworks. 20
The Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd., Leeds, received an order for eleven heavy-duty steelworks locomotives from the Consett Iron Company to a total value of nearly £150,000. When complete Consett will have 23 Hunslet diesel shunters in service, comprising 19 204 h.p. and four 300 h.p. units, one of the largest diesel fleets at any British steelworks. A similar order was received by Hunslet recently from John Summers and Sons Ltd.
B.R. trial of disc brakes on coaches 20
British Railways were to carry out full service trials in the Southern Region with a ten-coach electric train fitted with disc brakes. This follows experiments which have been carried out during the last few months with this type of brake on a two-car electric unit. A contract had been placed with Girling Limited, Tyseley, Birmingham, for disc brake equipment for the ten-car train. The use of disc brakes for railway vehicles was a departure from then practice in Great Britain. In suburban trains requiring frequent stops, wear on the present type of blocks is heavy, resulting in frequent renewals, and on electric trains the iron dust caused by the rubbing of the blocks is detrimental to electrical equipment on the bogie. The disc brake is operated by the normal air brake control through a brake cylinder controlling a pair of calliper levers having non-metallic thrust pads on the inner ends, which in turn grip the side surfaces of a disc mounted on the axle behind the bogie wheels. It is hoped that this method of braking will reduce considerably the renewal of brake blocks.
C.N.R. diesel orders. 20
Canadian National Railways have placed orders for 222 diesel units with a total value of $44,700,000. When delivery is completed late this year, C.N.R. lines east of Montreal and west of Edmonton will be almost fully dieselised, Since the inauguration of the C.N.R. diesel programme, 1,068 passenger, freight, yard and work units have been placed in service. Deliveries early this year will complete a five-year plan of turning over to diesel traction specific runs and services, and the plan of completely dieselising territories, starting from east and west coasts, will begin. Of the 222 units, 132 will be built by General Motors Diesel Limited, London, Onto Ten two-unit pas- senger locomotives will be assigned to the Maritime Express between Halifax and Montreal, and passenger trains between Halifax and Sidney. The order also includes 84 1,750 h.p. road switchers, 18 1,200 h.p. road switchers and ten 900 h.p. yard switchers. Montreal Locomotive Works Limited, Montreal, will supply 56 road switchers of a new design rated at 1,800 h.p., five 1,000 h.p. road switchers and 29 1,000 h.p. yard switchers,
Professor Jack Allen, D.SC., M.I.C.E., Professor of Engineering, Aberdeen University, has accepted the invitation of the British Transport Commission to become a member of the Commission's Research Advisory Council.
Resulting from the British Transport Commission's decision to establish a locomotive development unit at Derby and a carriage and wagon development unit at Faverdale, the following appointments were announced:
T. F. Clayton, Technical Inspector (Diesel), Motive Power Department, to be Assistant Development Engineer, (Diesel Power Units), Locomotive Development Unit.
E. A. Langridge, Diesel Traction Assistant (Modernisation), Chief Mechanical and Electrical Engineers Department, to be Development Engineer (Locomotive Development Unit).
T. B. Maddison, Production and Works Assistant, Chief Mechanical and Electrical and Carriage and Wagon Engineers' Departments, Doncaster, to be Carriage and Wagon Development Engineer (Carriage and Wagon Engineering Development Unit).
N. H. Booth, Draughtsman, Carriage and Wagon Engineers' Department, Doncaster, to be Assistant Carriage and Wagon Development (Design), (Carriage and Wagon Engineering Development Unit).
J. W. Wild, Jig and Tool Designer, Carriage and Wagon Engineers' Department, Derby, to be Assistant Carriage and Wagon Development Engineer (Workshop), (Carriage and Wagon Engineering Development Unit).
J. Le Cren Smith, Senior Technical Assistant, Chief Mechanical and Electrical Engineer's Department, to be Assistant Development Engineer (Diesel Locomotives), Locomotive Development Unit.
No. 774 (February-March)
On chimneys and blastpipes. Part 1. 24-6
No. 775 (March-April)
The case for mechanical stokers on B.R. 41-2. illustration.
On chimneys and blastpipes. Part 2. 54-7
No. 776 (April-May)
The diesel fuel position. 61.
The life of a diesel. 61.
The North BritishM.A.N. diesel engines. 62-4. 5 illustrations, 2 diagrams.
Diesel fuel tests on the Chicago & North Western. 64.
On chimneys and blastpipes. Part 3. 65-9. 3 illustrations,
Gas velocity; taper and to some extent chimney length. Zeuner-Strahl-Meineke formula
Wickham diesel railcars for Borneo. 70-2. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrs.
Union Pacific diesel servicing building. 72.
The performance of the Union Pacific gas turbine locomotives. 73-4.
Feed water treatment. 74
No. 778 (June-July)
New Bayer-Garratt cllass 'GMAM' locomotives for South Africa. 101-2. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
No. 779 (July-August)
The new fast Anglo-Scottish services. 121-2. illustration
The Caledonian and Morning Talisman
U.S. experiments with a coal burning gas turbine electric locomotive. 126-31
No. 780 August-September
See also Volume 64 p. 40
The B.R. class '8' 4-6-2 on test. 139.
Double-DRAUGHTING on BR. class 4 4-6-0s. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1957, 63, 202. illus.
[Experience with Bulleid turf burninng 0-6-6-0 on CIE].
Number 784 November-December