Bulleid designs

See also O.V.S. Bulleid
Specific designs
Merchant Navy
West Country/Battle of Britain
Modified Lord Nelson
Q1 0-6-0
Leader
Note: the basis for this page is Jones's Steam locomotive development

with updating. The illustration shows preserved West Country at Sheringham in September 2005: sadly it is now painted in matt military green, although its magic whistle can still be heard.

Atkins, Philip. More light on the Bulleid 4-6-2s. Rlys South East, 1991, 3,. 18-24.
During last 18 months of Maunsell's tenure Percy Bollen produced alternative designs for electric locomotives in Bo-Bo, 1-Bo Bo-1, 1A-Bo-A1 and Bo-Bo-Bo configurations. Bulleid conisdered many designs for 4-6-2, 2-8-2 and even 4-8-2, and as alternatives to Q1 Austerity both 4-6-0 and 2-6-0 designs. The influence of Gresley P2 and V4 designs is considered.
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. London: RCTS. 1976.. Volume 2..
Bulleid, H.A.V. Bulleid of the Southern. 1977.
This is a vital source of information about his father's sometimes controversial designs, and it would be impossible for anyone to make any further "contribution" to the literature without a thorough knowledge of this book. The author, like his father, was a fully trained engineer/locomotive engineer (at Cambridge and Derby Works).

Clack valves

Cox (British Railways standard steam locomotives. 1966) noted that the "only mildly controversial item on this standardisation of boiler mountings was the top feed clack valve fitted at the point where the injector delivery entered the boiler. The sub-committee put forward the Swindon type which had been a standard fitting on that line since Churchward's time. This was however one of the Western specialities which did not transplant well, and, in a number of successive versions in Stanier's time and after, the LMS had failed to get satisfaction for it was super sensitive to assembly by the ham-handed, and leakage of feed water inside the boiler clothing was an all too frequent occurrence. On the other hand nobody had ever seen the very simple straightforward clack valve used by the Southern Railway leak, whether applied to boiler side or top. The sub-committee was therefore over-ridden on this item, and the Southern design adopted. It can be said at this juncture that it never gave the slightest trouble or leakage on the standard engines whether assembled by experts or run of the mill fitters.

Tender locomotives

4-6-2

Merchant Navy: 1941
Most engineers allowed design to evolve by a process of progressive modification, but Bulleid departed from this pattern and his first design, the Merchant Navy class, represented a complete break with British orthodoxy (see opening of Bulleid page). The locomotives could not be considered as experiments, because they were envisaged and built as a class. Considerable controversy has arisen on the efficacy of this design and must be evaluated in relation to Bulleid's own parameters for assessment. The designer considered his product to be successful (see his own papers and Bulleid, last giant of steam, by Day-Lewis), the locomotives were capable of hauling passenger trains at high speeds, but British Railways reconstructed the entire class

Clan Line preservation group.

An "AIR-SMOOTHED" Pacific. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 272.
Editorial comment.
BRITISH locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1941, 87, 173-6, 3 illus., 3 diagrs. (s. els.)
A DEVELOPMENT in cab comfort, Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1945, 82, 486; 498.3 illus.
DISC wheel centres for locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 552-3. 10 diagrs.
Abstract of the patent specification for B.F.B. wheels.
4-6-2 type streamlined locomotive for the Southern Railway. Engineering, 1941, 151, 230. illus., diagr.
LOCOMOTIVE coupled wheels. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 1-2.
Editorial comment.
"MERCHANT Navy" class locomotives. Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1945, 91, 210-11.3 illus. Illustrations of the cab and tender.
NEW streamlined 4-6-2 express locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1941. 74, 277-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
SOUTHERN Railway—new "Pacific engine. Engineer, 1941, 171, 181.
SOUTHERN Railway "Pacific locomotive. Rly Obsr, 1941, 13, 74-7.3 illus..
SOUTHERN Railway streamline Pacific locomotive, "Channel Packet. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 74-5. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

1948: experimental fitting of No. 35005 with a mechanical stoker
See also Rimmer's Testing times at Derby.

The BERKLEY mechanical stoker. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 121. illus.
MECHANICAL stoker fitted to Southern Region locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 753.
MECHANICAL stoker on Southern Region. Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 344-5.

Bond, R.C. Communication following (Black, R.H. The locomotive mechanical stoker. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1954, 44, 759-60. Paper No. 540)
Experience on Rhodesian Railways at Bulawayo. Bond cited the Merchant Navy experiment: the stoker-fitted locomotive used 25% more fuel (2% was attributable to powering the stoker drive).
Beresford, Bill as recorded by Paul Joyce: Post-War on the Southern. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 50-4.
Senior fireman working on Southern Railway/Southern Region during the 1940s from Nine Elms. Appeared to be happy with Bulleid Pacifics although had reservations about Canadian Pacific fitted with mechanical stoker as in spite of sorting out small lumps by the shed labourers large lumps tended to jam in the stoker mechanism. Also difficult to build up a fire before coming off at Salisbury for return working.

1953: failure of centre driving axles.

REPLACEMENT of "Merchant Navy" class. Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 498.

1948 locomotive exchanges.

Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950] .
Both classes of Bulleid Pacific performed well in the exchange trials, but at the cost of high fuel and oil consumption.

British Railways scientific tests.

British Railways Southern Region "Merchant Navy" class 3 cyl., 4-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport Commission, 1954. (2) , 12, (33) sheets. 47 diagrs., (incl. s. & f. els.), table. (Performance and efficiency tests. Bulletin No.10).

Retrospective and critical

Bulleid was the last British innovator in steam locomotive engineering. His designs departed radically from the norm and the principal changes are listed below:

Tuplin painted a fairly lurid picture of the Bulleid Pacifics: The most striking three-cylinder engines on the SR were its first 'Pacifics', the air-smoothed oil-bathed 'Merchant Navy' class, not the least remarkable feature of which was that it was introduced at one of the worst periods in World War II. Sanction for expenditure at that time on what was clearly an express passenger train locomotive is thought to have been extracted on the plea that as 6 ft 2 in wheel diameter was a bit small for a high-speed 'Pacific' these were really to be mixed-traffic engines. For the 280-psi boiler pressure there was no excuse. With larger cylinders 200 psi would have sufficed; even as it was, the engines did most of their work with steam-chest pressure below 200.
The outstanding feature of the Southern 'Pacifics' was the enclosure of the mechanism associated with the inside cylinder and all the valve gear in what was intended to be an oil-tight casing. Compared with normal steam-locomotive practice, in which numerous oil-boxes were filled daily (or more often) with oil that was not recovered, the convenience and economy in lubricating a motor-car engine, simply by 'topping up' the sump, is most striking, and Bulleid made a laudable attempt to achieve the same result in a steam locomotive. But it failed, partly because of the very great and well-known difficulty of preventing oil from escaping along rotating shafts, even in the most favourable conditions, partly because of loss of oil by escape along the piston rod into the cylinder and partly because steam leakage could bring so much water into the oil-bath that parts of the mechanism suffered more corrosion than was common in the conventional exposed mechanism. the Southern 'Pacifics' did, in fact, use much more oil than did conventional three-cylinder locomotives of comparable size. Moreover, oil was plentifully absorbed by the boiler-lagging material and could catch fire to an extent that the local fire-brigade might have to be called to put it out. Each valve was worked by what was basically Walschaerts gear so laid out that a single crank on a special crankshaft both rocked the expansion link and oscillated the lower end of the combination lever. The resultant motion was not applied directly to the valve-spindle but to the end of an arm on a rocking shaft that was extended into the space between the valve-heads and there provided with an arm linked to a frame that connected them. The valves were arranged for outside admission and the only glands subjected to boiler pressure were those on the piston rods.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives.1962.
One of the strongest sections in this book surveys the Bulleid Pacifics.
Allen, C.J. and Townroe, S.C. The Bulleid Pacifics of the Southern Region. 1951.
Presumably the sections on performance were written by Allen Whilst the technical sections were produced by Townroe. There is a foreword by O.V.S. Bulleid. The material is not repeated in such great detail in the later British Pacific locomotives, nor are the many plates which clearly illustrate the problems of smoke deflection. Chapter 11 on Operating problems, where presumably Townroe was the main author comments extenaively on the work to improve visibility from the cab (improved smoke deflectors and the fitting of V-fronted cabs); the oil baths, steam reversers, and the chain driven valve gear (where it was considered that a chain tensioning mechanism as fitted to internal combustion engines might help.
Anwell, B.W. A postscript to "The Bulleid Pacifics". Trains ill., 1952, 5, 6-7.
Addenda to Allen and Townroe's book.
Anwell, B.W. Steel fireboxes. Rly Obsr, 1947, 17, 3-4.
Reflections on their use, especially by Bulleid.
Atkins, Philip. New boilers for old... Steam Wld, 2003, (194) 8-14.
Some locomotives were built with secondhand boilers, notably 35021 and 35022 in 1948.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43,175-265.. (Paper No.520).
Includes mileage figures (75,687), between overhauls, for the class.
Boocock, Colin. BR steam in colour, 1948-1968. London: Ian Allan, 1986.
Boocock had trained at Easleigh: he is highly critical of the original design with the exception of the superb boiler and the excellently designed cabs and electric lighting.
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 5.06p and boiler repair costs (0.24p) and coal consumption per train mile (50.6 lb) for 1955. Original source not quoted.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotive and rolling-stock developments in Great Britain. Mech. Engng., 1950, 72, 455-61. 14 illus, 2 diagrs., 2 tables.
This is based on a paper presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Railroad Division. It gives greater details of Bulleid's later developments than any other source.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 162 ,341-52 + 6 plates. 18 illus., 12 diagrs., 11 tables.
An unusual paper in that it selects a number of locomotive types for detailed consideration. Three are obvious (Lord Nelson modifications, Merchant Navy and Q1 classes) in that they were his own designs. The others considered were the Gresley Al, A4, 01, 02 and P2 designs, the Ivatt Atlantics and a French design. From the choice of L.N.E.R. types it appear that Bulleid agreed with much of Gresley's design policy.
Bulleid, O.V.S. and others Railway power plant in Great Britain. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1947, 157, 235-9 + 4 plates. 12 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.), 2 tables. (Centenary Lectures).
All of the above Bulleid papers consider the "Merchant Navy" design. but the next reference is the most detailed.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Some notes on the "Merchant Navy" class locomotives of the Southern Railway. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1946, 154, 316-33 + 4 plates. 13 illus., 20 digars., 2 tables.
Some notes! The paper gives a reasoned outline for the design, and experience gained from operation in service.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Discussion on Cox, E.S. Balancing of locomotive reciprocating parts. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1942, 32, 2-37. Disc.:1943, 33, 218-36. (Paper No. 432).
Pp. 222-3: Bulleid comments on how horizontal oscillations, created by the short cylinder stroke and lack of counter-balances, were prevented from being transmitted to the train by the use of rubber drawbar springs.
Bulleid, O.V.S. discussion on Cox, E.S. Locomotive axleboxes. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1944, 34, pp325-7. (Paper No. 447).
Merchant Navy lubrication.
Balmore, pseud. Locomotive on shed. Trains Ann., 1956, 58-66. 10 illus.
A former Great Eastern Section man's first impressions of the class.
Burrows, M.G. and Wallace A.L Experience with the steel fireboxes of the Southern Region Pacific locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1958/59, 48, 242-80. Disc. 281-305. (Paper No. 584).
A detailed analysis in which a general description was followed by the development of welding techniques and assembly methods; a consideration of stays including defects, and radiographic examination to detect them, thermic syphons, tube beadings, foundation rings on the West Country class. Washing out. Training of welders. Water treatment was vital. On the early boilers fitted to the Merchant Navy class corrosion was experienced prior to the introduction of TIA water treatment.
Chackfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland Compound to the HST. 2004.
Excellent biography which includes Jarvis's involvement in assessing the class and its eventual rebuilding.
Cocks, C.S. Discussion on Cox, E.S. and Johansen, F.C. Locomotive frames. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38, page 126 et seq. (Paper No. 473).
experience with the Merchant Navy class.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
Table 50 (page 217) quotes the cost of classified boiler repairs on a comparitive basis in pence per mile in 1954: 2.7 pence/mile for a Duchess as against 0.8 for an A4 and 0.6 for a Merchant Navy: this last due to the TIA water treatment system...
Dannatt, H.M. Discussion on: Cox, E.S. British standard locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1961, 41, 343-4 . (Paper No. 502).
Notes on steel fireboxes and chimney carbonization.
Dearden, J. and Roberts, J.E. Steel for railway purposes. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1958, 48, 357-419. (Paper No. 586)
Page 419: in response to question from Burley the 2% steel boiler plates used on the Southern Region Merchant Navy class boilers caused considerable trouble in welding with cracking in the heat affected zones. The use of this steel had been largely discontinued.
Ellson, George discussion on Cox, E.S. Balancing of locomotive reciprocating parts. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1943, 33, 219-220. (Paper No. 432)
Chief Engineer, Southern Railway, ommented upon the Merchant Navy class which had been designed without balance weights and to experiments conducted on the a member of the tw0-cylinder H15 class from which the balance weights had been removed.
Evans, Jim. Man of the Southern; Jim Evans looks back.1980.
"Mr Bulleid's engines were deteriorating both internally and externally. Many had burn marks on their casings, where they had caught alight due to the oil-soaked dirt that seemed to be everywhere. The valve gear oil baths leaked at every joint, evident at stations where engines came to a stand. Hydraulic reversers no longer maintained the cut-off where it was required. Some creeping back into reverse while the engine was travelling forward at speed. Some suddenly dropped forward into full gear... Even the cylinder cocks gave up the ghost on some engines... Our [Bournemouth] Kings Arthurs and Nelsons did not seem to get any worse, often working in place of Pacifics on hard duties. It even reached the stage when some top firemen preferred a Nelson on the main line: they knew that although more skill was needed they wouldn't shift half as much coal [circa 1956]".
Evans, M. Pacific steam: the British Pacific locomotive. London, Percival Marshall, 1961 . viii, 80 p. 35 illus., 5 tables.
Clear and concise
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Millstone: "took the unwise step of producing five straight off, without any trials", but the enginemen "had never had such powerful and speedy engines".
Hardy, R.H.N. A 'stranger' strolls down Stewart's Lane. Part 29. Steam Wld, 2003 (194), 42-7.
Includes brief contribution via Roy Saberton who had been a fitter at Stewart's Lane and who became shedmaster at Basingstoke. An episode included the mechanical-stoker equipped No. 35005 when he was called upon to fix the stoker feed only to find the steam-operated valves had been incorrectly fitted. H.I. Andrews was in-charge.
Haresnape, B. Bulleid locomotives. a pictorial history. 1977.
Haresnape, B. Bulleid locomotives. revised edition. 1985.
Very brief Foreword by H.A.V. Bulleid. Section 4 is an extensive account of the Leader fiasco. Appendix 1 is  devoted to electric locomotives. Appendix 2 describes the influential diesel-electric locomotives and Section 6 describes the rebuilt Pacifics which were aimed to be as near British Railway standards as possible and this was achieved by Jarvis at Brighton.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. London, Ian Allan, [1962]. Chap. 7
Holcroft (pp. 142-3) showed how a Merchant Navy class Pacific could have been modified with the Anderson compression condensing system.
Hood, A. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco Engrs, 1953, 43, p. 704.(Paper No. 528).
"Any designer of locomotive boilers must always aim at obtaining maximum output from the minimum weight of material and in one of the examples referred to by the Author, namely the "Merchant Navy" class, it may be of interest to those present to learn that there are two different designs of "Merchant Navy" boilers in existence. The first boiler was designed and built in Glasgow, and at the request of the customer a second edition of the boiler was designed and constructed which proved to be approximately 2 tons lighter than its predecessor. This was a typical example of the designer's art which reduced the weight of the boiler yet maintained its original output."
Leigh, Chris. Crisis on the Southern: behind the scenes. Steam Wld, 1993 (71), 6-9.
On 24 April 1953 the crank axle of locomotive No. 35020 Bibby Line fractured whilst approaching Crewkerne Station at speed. This article is based on the official British Transport Commission report which showed that many of the Merchant Navy class suffered from similar flaws and the crank axle had to be redesigned and replaced.
Linecar, H.W.A. The "Merchant Navy" Pacifics, Southern Railway. Trains Ann., 1948, 6-9.
Based on Bulleid's "Some notes on the "Merchant Navy" class locomotives of the Southern Railway
Livesay, E.H. The Southern Railway Pacifics. Engineer, 1944, 178, 221-2.
A counter review to Tuplin's article (below).
The "MERCHANT Navy" locomotives. Engineer, 1945, 180, 508.
Editorial comment on Bulleid's "Locomotives I have known" paper.
Nock, O.S. The remarkable Bulleid Pacifics. Rly Mag., 1966, 112, 82-7. 5 illus., 3 tables. (Locomotive practice and performance).
Analysis of the design.
Reed, Brian. 150 years of British steam locomotives. 1975. p. 103
Bulleid's productions lay entirely within the war years and the immediate aftermath, but that in no way led him to accept the national precepts for the time of simplicity and reliability. In his Merchant Navy and West Country Pacifies he endeavoured to solve age-old problems by unconventional and undeveloped means that did not bring overall success, partly because loose administration resulted in gross over-weight in the Merchant Navy class; and the performance was so erratic and the troubles so consistent as to nullify the brilliant feats of speed and haulage given on numerous occasions. The Leader engine, the last locomotive effort of the SR, showed similar methods of thought in extremis, and there was not the slightest chance of the design earning money for the owning company.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Was involved in moving the mobile test unit with the mechanical stoker fitted locomotive No. 35005 from Rugby to the Southern Region, where tests were conducted, and back.
Rogers, H.C.B. Bulleid Pacifics at work. 1980.
Mainly pictorial (over 200 illus.). Highly critical of all the Bulleid designs in their original form and wondered why it took so long to rebuild the troublesome locomotives.
Rutherford, M. O.V.S. Bulleid and his work - a bibliographic survey. (Railway Reflections No. 32). .Backtrack, 11, 445-51.
This is a useful guide to Bulleid's own publications (patents excepted of course), which includes some of Bulleid's contributions to discussions on other's work and an evaluative listing of the very considerable bibliographty relating to Bulleid and his work
Scott-Morgan, John. The original Bulleid Pacifics. Sparkford: Haynes Publishing,  2012
Reviewed by Phil Atkins in Backtrack, 2012, 26, 638. Warmly received but does note some serious omissions in the case of the Merchant Navy class, notably failure to mention mechanical stoked fitted to No. 35005 and the asbestos board fitted to 21C3 to 21C10.
Tuplin, W.A
. British steam since 1900. 1969.

See extract in opening to this section.
Tuplin, W.A. Southern "Pacifics" at work. Engineer, 1943, 176, 506-7; 519-22. illus. 3 diagrs., 2 tables.
A mixture of design analysis and performance: see also Livesay (above).
Turner, T. Henry discussion on Dearden, J. and Roberts, J.E. Steel for railway purposes. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1958, 48, 389-92. (Paper No. 586)
Page 419: in response to question from Burley the 2% steel boiler plates used on the Southern Region Merchant Navy class boilers caused considerable trouble in welding with cracking in the heat affected zones. The use of this steel had been largely discontinued.
Williams, J.A. discussion on Hills, R.L. The origins of the Garratt locomotive. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1979,51,191
Noted that Bulleid visited Sentinel to view the Doble locomotive for the Colombian State Railway: it was then that he possibly got the idea for chain drive, because he asked how long chains lasted.
Winkworth, D.W. Bulleid's Pacifics. 1974.
Highly critical: contains a considerable amount of information about running in service.
Winkworth, D.W. Another view. Br. Rlys. ill. 1994, 4, 78-87.
"To sum up, the Southern was prepared to pay more in first cost, fuel and maintenance in order to have at its disposal a large stud of motive power units with the widest route coverage and a high tractive effort that,by the very nature of its seasonal activities, such numbers could at times be excessive. The accountants were not running the traffic." This was written mainly on the light Pacifics, but was also relevant to the larger locomotives. (KPJ: Southern trains seldom ran late in the way that the LMS took for granted, and mainline expresses had to interface with the intensive electric suburban service.)
Winkworth, DW Attempts to torpedo the Merchant Navy class. Rlys. South East, 1990/2, 2. 123-7.
Difficulties between the Ministries of Labour and Transport, the Railway Executive Committee and the Southern Railway over the construction of the Merchant Navy class during WW2 as researched through the PRO files. The Government officials were liable to describe the locomotives as "deluxe passenger classes". Attempts by the Ministry of Labour, through its inspectors notably Mr Button and Mr A.L. Mieville, to disrupt the manufacture of the "de luxe" express locomotives at Eastleigh. At one stage the Ministry of Labour produced a 27-point indictment of the design. Politicians involved included the Minister: Ernest Bevin. Missenden was involved in the responses, and Sir Alan Anderson as Chairman of the Railwa\y Exceutive Committee got caught up in the exchanges. 
Winkworth, D.W. Planning the Pacifics. Rlys South East: the album. 17-21.
In part this is the story of the Southern Railway's locomotive building programme during WW2 and thus includes the Merchany Navy class as well as the light Pacifics which were unequivocally "mixed traffic locomotives". Such orders required to be considered by the Ministry of War Transport and justification included both extra freaight (30% increase) and an increase in the transport of troops. The locomotives needed to be capable of working West of Exeter and on the Ringwood and Netley lines. Hammer blow needed to be eliminated and the axle load had to be within 18½ tons. In a memorandum to the Railway Executive Committee justifications for the new design included noting the minimum of new components: 85% of the locomotive will be the same as the Merchant Navy, thus existing jigs and tools could be used. The tender as common with the Austerity Q1.

Names

The "CUNARD White Star" locomotive: naming ceremony at Charing Cross. Rly Gaz., 1942. 76, 73. 2 illus.
No. 21C 4.
INSPECTION of new S.R. Pacific locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 284; 308. 2 illus.
No. 21C1 Channel Packet: includes the naming ceremony.
"MERCHANT Navy" class engine named. Rly Gaz., 1948, 89, 651. illus.
No. 35021 New Zealand Line.
"MERCHANT Navy" locomotive naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1943. 78, 27. illus.
No. 21C 10 Blue Star.
"MERCHANT Navy" locomotive nameplates. Rly Gaz., 1943. 78, 158; 170. 10 illus.
The NAMING ceremony, on March 27, of the fifth of Southern Railway Merchant Navy class locomotives "Canadian Pacific". Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 463; 471. 2 illus.
No. 21C 5.
NAMING of S.R. "Merchant Navy" class locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 325.
No. 21C 19 French Line C.G.T.
NAMING of Southern Railway 'Merchant Navy" class locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 577; 621. illus.
No. 21C 14 Nederland Line and 21C 15 Rotterdam Lloyd.
NAMING of S.R."Merchant Navy" locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1942, 77, 141. illus.
No. 21C 7 Aberdeen Commonwealth and 21C 9 Shaw Savill.
NAMING Southern Railway "Merchant Navy" locomotive "Belgian Marine". Rly Gaz., 1946, 83, 465. 2 illus.
No. 21C 17.
SOUTHERN engine-naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1949, 90, 110. illus.
No. 35022 Holland America Line and 35023 Holland-Afrika Line.
S.R. & "United States Lines". Rly Gaz., 1945, 82, 407. 2 illus.
No. 21C 12 naming ceremony.
SOUTHERN Railway engine named. Rly Gaz., 1942, 77, 455.
No. 21C8 Orient Line.
S.R. locomotive "Elders & Fyffes". Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 51.
No. 21C 16: naming ceremony.
SOUTHERN Railway locomotive named "P & O". Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 656; 661. illus.
No. 21C 6 Peninsular & Orient S.N. Co.
S.R. locomotive named "Royal Mail". Rly Gaz., 1941, 75, 450; 457. 2 illus.
21C 3.
S.R. locomotive named "Union Castle". Rly Gaz., 1941, 75, 46; 89. 2 illus.
21C 2.
S.R. "Merchant Navy" class locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1945, 82, 220.2 illus.
No. 21C 11 "General Steam Navigation
SOUTHERN Railway "Merchant Navy" locomotive nameplates. Rly Mag.,  1943, 89, 220-1. 11 illus.
WATERLOO engine naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1949, 91, 370. 2 illus.
No. 35025 Brocklebank Line.

The arrival of the Atlantic Coast Express at Padstow in August 1960: locomotive off to turn. Subsequent arrivals at this point by Kevin have been by bicycle.

West Country/ Battle of Britain classes:
Introduced in 1945 The only difference between the two was the names. As a design concept they were very similar to the Merchant Navy class, but lighter, and smaller in most internal dimensions. They were light enough to work over almost the entire Southern system, but powerful enough to work all but the heaviest trains at high speed. Perhaps it is not too damning to state that in good condition they could perform all the tasks tackled by the twelve types of Riddles "Standard locomotive" other than the 9F and possibly the class 2 2-6-2Ts! At least one of these magnificent machines has been preserved in its original condition.

4-6-2 tender locomotive: Southern Railway. Engineering, 1945, 160, 66. diagr. (s. el)
NEW 4-6-2 locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 61+. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el), table.
NEW 4-6-2 locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1945, 91, 276-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
SOUTHERN Ry. "West country" class Pacific locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21, 154-6.
S.R. "West Country" Pacifics. Engineer, 1945, 180, 54-5. illus., table.
SOUTHERN Ry. "West Country" Pacifics. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1945, 51, 112-13. illus. diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Testing:
The West Country Pacifics performed in a highly satisfactory manner during the 1948 tests, but at the expense of high fuel consumption. In the case of the running between Perth and Inverness they demonstrated how wasteful double-heading could have been abolished, but this lesson was lost on the Midland-dominated management, who would sooner use four footplatemen than one powerful locomotive.
Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950] .
Hooker, A.E. (Bert). Nine Elms engineman. Truro: Bradford Barton, 124pp.
Fired West Country 34006 Bude during 1948 locomotive exchanges on Highland line

Oil burning

Blakey, George. Footplate fraternity at Fratton. Steam Wld, 2004, (207) 17-20.
Problems with oil burning on Southern Railway from 1946. The totally sealed firehole door made the cabs of the T9s bitterly cold in winter, but the West Country employed a swirling action burner which made the firedoor red hot (and the cab very hot).
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: the full story. Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1995. 123pp. + 128pp.
The second part of this book (page 57) contains a brief account of the oil firing on Nos. 21C119 and 21C139: on 21C119 steaming was not very satisfactory (the thermic syphons were blamed). 21C139 was fitted with a Swirlyflow burner: this latter appaered to be more satisfactory on test and the locomotive was even used to haul the Atlantic Coast Express..

Performance
Ransome-Wallis, P. On railways at home an abroad. London: Batchworth, 1951. 300 pp. + plates. 102 illus., maps.
Pp. 79-90: Footplate observations made on 21C167 Tangmere on 07.20 commuter express between Ramsgate and Cannon Street via Chatham, and on 21C166 Spitfire on 13.15 to Ramsgate via Folkestone Junction

Retrospective and critical:
In view of the similarity to the "Merchant Navy" class, much of the material produced on the earlier design is relevant.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives.1962.
One of the strongest sections in this book surveys the Bulleid Pacifics.
Allen, C.J. and Townroe, S.C. The Bulleid Pacifics of the Southern Region. 1951.
Presumably the sections on performance were written by Allen Whilst the technical sections were produced by Townroe. There is a foreword by O.V.S. Bulleid. The material is not repeated in such great detail in the later "British Pacific locomotives", nor are the many plates which clearly illustrate the problems of smoke deflection.
Anwell, B.W. A postscript to "The Bulleid Pacifics". Trains ill., 1952, 5, 6-7.
Addenda to Allen and Townroe's book.
Anwell, B.W. Steel fireboxes. Rly Obsr, 1947, 17, 3-4.
Reflections on their use, especially by Bulleid.
Blakey, George. Footplate fraternity at Fratton. Part 5. Steam Wld, 2004, (210) 16-19.
Includes description of catastrophic failure of thermic syphon on a West Country Pacific in 1952 when footplate crew were saved from injury by the firebox doors being closed. Also mentions the lack of dampers to control combustion and reduce risk of blowing off especially at Watreloo with its prximity to St Thomas's Hospital, and heat in enclosed cabs.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43,175-265.. (Paper No.520).
Includes average mileage figures (74,650), between overhauls, for the class.
Boocock, Colin. BR steam in colour, 1948-1968. London: Ian Allan, 1986.
Boocock had trained at Easleigh: he is highly critical of the original design with the exception of the superb boiler and the excellently designed cabs and electric lighting. He noted the outstanding performance of one of the class on the Highland line during the Locomotive Exchanges.
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 4.45p and boiler repair costs (0.19p) for 1954/5. Original source not quoted.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotive and rolling-stock developments in Great Britain. Mech. Engng., 1950, 72, 455-61. 14 illus, 2 diagrs., 2 tables.
This is based on a paper presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Railroad Division. Includes an outline of West Country design.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Railway rolling stock and tendencies in design. Engineering, 1949, 167, 68-71; 94-5. 13 illus., 4 digars., 5 tables.
Comparison of N15 and West Country designs.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Discussion on Cox, E.S. Balancing of locomotive reciprocating parts. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1942, 32, 2-37. Disc.:1943, 33, 218-36. (Paper No. 432).
Pp. 222-3: Bulleid comments on how horizontal oscillations, created by the short cylinder stroke and lack of counter-balances, were prevented from being transmitted to the train by the use of rubber drawbar springs.
Bulleid, O.V.S. discussion on Cox, E.S. Locomotive axleboxes. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1944, 34, pp325-7. (Paper No. 447).
Merchant Navy lubrication.
Balmore, pseud. Locomotive on shed. Trains Ann., 1956, 58-66. 10 illus.
A former Great Eastern Section man's first impressions of the class.
Burrows, M.G. and Wallace A.L Experience with the steel fireboxes of the Southern Region Pacific locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1958/59, 48, 242-80. Disc. 281-305. (Paper No. 584).
A detailed analysis: general description was followed by the development of welding techniques and assembly methods; a consideration of stays including defects, and radiographic examination to detect them, thermic syphons, tube beadings, foundation rings on the West Country class. Washing out. Training of welders. Water treatment was vital.
Carter, Russell and Paul Timothy. Bulleid's light Pacifics. Modellers' Backtrack, 1991, 1, 29-36.
Russell Carter drawings (4mm scale): plan and side and front elevations of air-smoothed 21C123 Blackmore Vale and No. 34073 249 Squadron; also rear eleevation of tender and detailed drawing of RAF Squadron's badge. Similar drawings of preserved rebuilt locomotives Nos. 34010 Sidmouth and 34016 Bodmin. Photographic illustrations (all unrebuilt unless stated otherwise): No. 34088 213 Squadron passing Folkestone Junction on 23 September 1956; No. 21C154 Lord Beaverbook at Folkestone Junction in 1948 and 21C152 Lord Dowding; No. 34002 Salisbury in Eastleigh Works being painted; rebuilt No. 34016 Bodmin passing Winchfield with down Bourenemouth express on 4 August 1962; rebuilt No. 34052 Lord Dowding (Southern Region official); rrebuilt No. 34050 Royal Observer Corps leaving Victoria in July 1961 with fast train for Tunbridge Wells; No. 34049 Anti-Aircraft Command with modified casing at Waterloo in 1961; Nos. 34085 501 Squadron and 34078 222 Squadron at Folkestone Junction in 1960; No. 21C165 at Ramsgate in 1948; front view of No. 21C129; and nameplate of rebuilt No. 34052 Lord Dowding
Chackfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland Compound to the HST. 2004.
Excellent biography which includes Jarvis's involvement in assessing the class and its eventual rebuilding.
Cocks, C.S. Discussion on Cox, E.S. and Johansen, F.C. Locomotive frames. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38, page 126 et seq. (Paper No. 473).
experience with the Merchant Navy class.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
Table 50 (page 217) quotes the cost of classified boiler repairs on a comparitive basis in pence per mile in 1954: 2.7 pence/mile for a Duchess as against 0.8 for an A4 and 0.4 for a West Country: this last due to the TIA water treatment system. The figure was the lowest for any in the table: only the Merchant Navy class approached it at 0.6....
Courtney, Geoff. Why was Biggin Hill at Stratford? [letter]. Steam Wld, 2000, (160), 42.
Richard Strange noted the brief loan of 34059 Sir Archibald Sinclair to Stratford in 1949, followed by 34057 Biggin Hill on 17 May 1951 which remained on the Esatern Region until 4 May 1952 due to the temporary withdrawal of the Britannia class.
Dannatt, H.M. Discussion on: Cox, E.S. British standard locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1961, 41, 343-4 . (Paper No. 502).
Notes on steel fireboxes and chimney carbonization.
Evans, M. Pacific steam: the British Pacific locomotive. London, Percival Marshall, 1961 . viii, 80 p. 35 illus., 5 tables.
Clear and concise.
Hardy, R.H.N. A 'stranger' strolls down Stewart's Lane. Part 29. Steam Wld, 2003 (194), 42-7.
Includes brief contribution via Roy Saberton who had been a fitter at Stewart's Lane and who became shedmaster at Basingstoke. One of his tasks was fitting the new nameplates to City of Wells (formerly Wells) in March 1950: this caused minor damage to the lettering on the new plate, involved drilling holes in the cladding and getting behind the cladding to fit the bolts. Taking off a side panel involved the removal of 64 bolts and erosion of the pipework was usually found next to the chicken wire used to hold the boiler lagging in place.
Haresnape, B. Bulleid locomotives. a pictorial history. 1977.
Haresnape, B. Bulleid locomotives. revised edition. 1985.
Very brief Foreword by H.A.V. Bulleid. Section 4 is an extensive account of the Leader fiasco. Appendix 1 is devoted to electric locomotives. Appendix 2 describes the influential diesel-electric locomotives and Section 6 describes the rebuilt Pacifics which were aimed to be as near British Railway standards as possible and this was achieved by Jarvis at Brighton.
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Page 153: contact with J. Pelham Maitland prior to 34059 Sir Archibald Sinclair working on the Great Eastern line in 1949 (Harvey states 1959)
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. On a "West Country" to Dover. Trains Ill., 1957, 10, 520-1. (A footplate commenmtay)
He liked the cab, the rapid acceleration and the excellent ride.
Rich, Fred. Yesterday once more: a story of Brighton steam. 1996. Chapter 14. Yesterday once more. pp. 161-3.
Reminiscence of working a special from Brighton to Wembley (for an International) with a heavy train and very poor coal: noted the lack of dampers on the ashpan.
Rogers, H.C.B. Bulleid Pacifics at work. 1980.
Mainly pictorial (over 200 illus.). Highly critical of all the Bulleid designs in their original form and wondered why it took so long to rebuild the troublesome locomotives.
Rutherford, M. O.V.S. Bulleid and his work - a bibliographic survey. (Railway Reflections No. 32). .Backtrack, 11, 445-51.
This is a useful guide to Bulleid's own publications (patents excepted of course), which includes some of Bulleid's contributions to discussions on other's work and an evaluative listing of the very considerable bibliographty relating to Bulleid and his work.
Scott-Morgan, John. The original Bulleid Pacifics. Sparkford: Haynes Publishing, 2012,
Reviewed by Phil Atkins in Backtrack, 2012, 26, 638. Warmly received.
Tatlow, Peter. The North Cornwall Line [letter]. Backtrack, 2008, 22, 252
See feature by David beginning page 148 in which was asked why only the unrebuilt 'West Country' locomatives were permitted to run to Padstow, not the rebuilt version. Examination of the axle loads (tabulated from official diagrams) may give us a clue: from these, it can be seen that the modified versions ofthe 'West Country' and 'Merchant Navy' engines were respectively over 4 and 3 tons heavier. It could be that this was due to the weight of the replacement parts, but if so, one might expect the larger class of engine to require the greater increase in weight, but no. This lends support to the suspicion that the original 'West Countries' had always been a little heavier than the Engineer's Department had been lead to believe when it approved their running an the North Cornwall liine.
Winkworth, D.W. Another view. Br. Rlys. ill. 1994, 4, 78-87.
Notes the complicated ordering procedure dictated by the Ministry of Transport and Railway Executive Committee, "To sum up, the Southern was prepared to pay more in first cost, fuel and maintenance in order to have at its disposal a large stud of motive power units with the widest route coverage and a high tractive effort that,by the very nature of its seasonal activities, such numbers could at times be excessive. The accountants were not running the traffic." This was written mainly on the light Pacifics, but was also relevant to the larger locomotives. (KPJ: Southern trains seldom ran late in the way that the LMS took for granted, and mainline expresses had to interface with the intensive electric suburban service.)
Winkworth, D.W. Bulleid's Pacifics. 1974.
Highly critical: contains a considerable amount of information about running in service.
Winkworth, D.W. Planning the Pacifics. Rlys South East: the album. 17-21.
In part this is the story of the Southern Railway's locomotive building programme during WW2 and thus includes the Merchany Navy class as well as the light Pacifics which were unequivocally "mixed traffic locomotives". Such orders required to be considered by the Ministry of War Transport and justification included both extra freaight (30% increase) and an increase in the transport of troops. The locomotives needed to be capable of working West of Exeter and on the Ringwood and Netley lines. Hammer blow needed to be eliminated and the axle load had to be within 18½ tons. In a memorandum to the Railway Executive Committee justifications for the new design included noting the minimum of new components: 85% of the locomotive will be the same as the Merchant Navy, thus existing jigs and tools could be used. The tender as common with the Austerity Q1. It was argued that the mixed traffic engines of other companies were either too wide over the cylinders, too heavy or too weak. The Battle of Britain class names receives some attention. PRO sources are quoted. Illus. include locomotives Nos. 21C154, 21C165 and 21C166 lined up at Waterloo on 16 September 1947 for naming Lord Beaverbrook, Hurricane and Spitfire.

Names

"BATTLE of Britain" class engines. Rly Gaz., 1947, 87, 333. illus.
Nos.21C 151 Winston Churchill, 21C 152 Lord Dowding and 21C 64 Fighter Command" named.
"BATTLE of Britain" class engines. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 398. illus.
As above.
NAMING ceremony at Brighton. Rly Gaz., 1948, 89, 394. illus.
No. 34071 601 Squadron.
NAMING ceremony at Waterloo. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 552; 557. illus.
Nos. 21C 149 Anti-Aircraft Command and 21C 158 Sir Frederick Pile.
NEW Southern Region locomotive named "Sir Eustace Missenden". Rly Gaz., 1949, 90, 193.
No. 34090.
"SIR Eustace Missenden". Rly Gaz., 1949, 90, 186. 4 illus.
SIR Eustace Missenden—Southern Railway. Rly Obsr, 1949,19, 241. 3 illus.
S.R. "West Country" class named "Yeovil". Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 522. illus.
No. 21C 104.
SOUTHERN Railway "West Country" locomotives Colonel Eric Gore Browne's naming ceremony tour. Rly Gaz., 1946, 84, 502. 4 illus., map.
This was a naming ceremony tour de force whereby Colonel Gore Browne visited a number of West Country towns to name locomotives. Mel Holley (Steam Wld, 2006, 232, 4-5) has produced an excellent resume of this event where he noted that locomotives named included: 21C109 Lyme Regis (named at Axminster); 21C116 Bodmin; 21C119 Bideford; 21C117 Ilfracome; 21C105 Barnstaple. The entourage returned to Clapham Junction behind a T9 class 4-4-0..
Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1947, 53, 87.
The first four 4-6-2 Battle of Britain class locomotives "will bear the names: Winston Churehill, Lord Dowding, Sir Keith Park and Lord Beaverbrook. They will be followed by three others named Fighter Pilot, Hurricane and Spitfire in honour of the men and their machines who took part in the battle over the very country through which many of these engines will run. Many of the Squadrons which engaged in the conflict will have an engine named after them, while aerodromes such as Biggin Hill, Manston and Croydon will also be included."
SOUTHERN Region locomotive naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 290. illus.
No.21C 157 Biggin Hill.
SOUTHERN Region Pacific named. Rly Gaz., 1948, 89, 27.
No. 34069 Hawkinge.
"WEST Country" class naming ceremonies. Rly Gaz., 1947, 86, 690.
Nos. 21C 111 Tavistock and 21C 113 Okehampton.
A "WEST Country" renamed. Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 207. illus.
No. 34107 change of name from Blandford to Blandford Forum
"WEYMOUTH" engine naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1950, 92, 31.
No. 34091

Retrospective on names

Hardy, R.H.N. A 'stranger' strolls down Stewart's Lane. Part 29. Steam Wld, 2003 (194), 42-7.
Includes brief contribution via Roy Saberton who had been a fitter at Stewart's Lane and who became shedmaster at Basingstoke. One of his tasks was fitting the new nameplates to City of Wells (formerly Wells) in March 1950: this caused minor damage to the lettering on the new plate, involved drilling holes in the cladding and getting behind the cladding to fit the bolts.
Pike, Jim. Locomotive names: an illustrated dictionary. Stroud: Sutton, 2000. 199pp.
Notes that 21C125 Rough Tor only carried that name between 11 April and 23 April 1948 and was renamed Whimple on 3 May 1948
Price, Jim 'BoB' nameplates still with RAF. Steam Wld, 2006, (227) 29
Collection at Bentley Priory, Stanmore, believed to be extant.
Syme, D.C. The 'Battle of Britain' 4-6-2s: origin of their names. Steam Wld, 1997 (115), 50-3.
Notes that some choices appear (possibnly in retrospect) appear to have been odd. Some omissions may be explained by geography (Hornchurch was in Essex) but Gravesend and West Malling were firmly on Southern Railway territory. Author does note the wing shape of the nameplates except to note that 34090 had a different shape, but does note sky blue background for nameplates.

In preservation

John Sagar. Just what the doctor ordered; experience with the Giesl Ejector on City of Wells. Rly Wld., 1992, 53 (629), 46-9.
Locomotive steamed better with less cinder throwing

4-6-0

"Lord Nelson": 1938
After a number of experimental alterations, Bulleid re-designed the front-end of the Lord Nelson class. The modifications included the introduction of Lemaître multiple blast-pipes. These changes improved the performance and reliability of the locomotives. Original design.

BLAST pipe and chimney experiments on the Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 50-3. 3 illus., 9 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), table.
This describes the experimental front-end layouts, including experiments with a Kylchap double blast pipe.
FREEING the exhaust. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 251.
IMPROVED exhaust arrangements, S.R. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69, 568. illus.
These references note the changes introduced.
INCIDENTAL advantages of multiple-jet blast. Rly Gaz., 1940, 73, 586-7.
Decreased carbonization in the valves, and less ash drawing.
LOCOMOTIVE blast pipe cap. Engineer, 1939, 168, 219-20. diagr.
Lemaître arrangement.
"LORD Nelson" class engines, S.R. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 121-2.
Notes on the modifications.
"LORD Nelson" class, S.R.—improved blast pipe. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev. 1940, 46, 276. illus.
MULTIPLE jet blast pipes on the Southern Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20,98-9. 3 illus., diagr.
MULTIPLE let blastpipes, S.R. Rly Mag, 1939, 85, 153. diagr.
NEW blast arrangements on Southern Railway locomotives: improving the steaming qualities of the "Lord Nelson" class engines. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 1061. diagr.
S.R. "Lord Nelson" 4-6-0s. Rly Mag., 1940, 86. 187-8.

1939: No. 852
852 was experimentally equipped with a Booth-Jones device for spraying and wiping the cab windows.

SCREEN wipers for locomotives. Rly Mag., 1939, 84, 383.
SCREEN wipers for locomotives: a mechanical device which sprays and wipes cab windows. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 467. illus., diagr.

Retrospective and critical

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43,175-265.. (Paper No.520).
Includes average annual mileages (81,611 and better than eitherr of the Bulleid Pacific types) attained between major repairs.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 341-52
Includes a consideration of the modifications.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Discussion on Sanford, D.W. The relationship between smokebox and boiler proportions. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1945, 35, 40-53. Disc. : 53-76. 5 diagrs., 2 tables. (Paper No.451).
Pp. 53.5 a description of the Lord Nelson modifications.
Clarke, Jeremy. The locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell. Part 6: the 'Sea Dogs'. Steam Wld, 2008 (251) 46-50.
Rather superficial assessment of the Lord Nelson class, although does note its reliability and the difficulties of firing the long difficultly shaped grate which was exacerbated by the small size of the class. Bulleid's significant modifications are noted, although the larger piston valves were never fitted to all locomotives.
IN memory of the "Lord Nelson". Rly Wld, 1963, 24, 90-5. 19 illus.
A photographic feature illustrating the many variations within the class.
Martin, G.P.B. The "Lord Nelson" class, Southern Railway. Rly Mag., 1946, 92, 284-8; 358-9; 378-80. 11 illus.
A history.
Tuplin, W.A. Strange story of "Lord Nelson". Rly Wld, 1959, 20, 187-93. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
An assessment.

0-6-0

Q1 :1942
Stanier's reaction to this design is supposed to have been "I don't believe it" (Bulleid : "Master builders of steam"). In actual fact, apart from the external appearance, the Q1 was a traditional 0-6-0. Maximum power for minimum weight was achieved by utilizing the "Lord Nelson" boiler and by abandoning all superfluous parts such as running boards. Sheet steel and welding also contributed to weight reduction.

An INTERESTING 0-6-0. Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 475-6.
Editorial comment
MR. Bulleid's new 0-6-0 engine. Rly Mag., 1942, 88, 181-2. table.
The MODERN 0-6-0 engine. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1942, 48, 83.
Editorial comment.
NEW 0-6-0 freight engines, Southern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev.. 1942, 48, 79-81. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW 0-6-0 freight locomotives, Southern Railway. Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 483-6. 8 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), table.
0-6-0 goods locomotive for the Southern Railway. Engineering, 1942, 153. 336-7. illus.,diagr. (s.el.)
SOUTHERN Railway: new 0-6-0 freight locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1942, 32, 59-63. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.

Retrospective and critical

Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 341-52 .
Bulleid, O.V.S. discussion on
Shields, T.H.: The evolution of locomotive valve gears. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1943, 33, 368. (Paper No. 443).
Pp. 454-6: "As a matter of interest, he had compared the valve events of the first "austerity" engine built on the Southern Railway with those of the second "austerity" locomotive, produced by the Ministry of Supply. The Southern Railway engine used the Stephenson gear; the Ministry of Supply used the Walschaerts. When one looked at the figures, one had to admit that it was quite immaterial whether one used the one or the other; the events' were both good, both engines did the work for which they were designed, and both stood up to their job. The Stephenson gear did not cause any trouble with lubrication. It was piston ring trouble rather than gear trouble which was generally experienced.
Morgan, John Scott. The story of the Q1s. Bishops Waltham: KRB, 2003. 72pp..

4-4-2

H1 :1947 :
No. 32039 (a Marsh Atlantic) was rebuilt, experimentally, with sleeve valves in preparation for the Leader design.

CONVERTED Brighton Atlantic locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1949, 90, 73. 2 illus.
SOUTHERN Region, 4-4-2 No. 2039. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 175. illus.

Evans, M. Atlantic era : the British Atlantic locomotive. 1961.
Harman, Richard. Ex-LBSCR H1 No. 2039 [letter]. Backtrack, 1994, 8, 187
See page 13 of same issue: ex La France: an explanation of the sleeve valves is based on the description in Sean Day-Lewis's Bulleid: last giant of steam. The modified locomotive was used on a passenger working between Brighton and Redhill on a Birkenhead train, but the locomotive failed outside Redhill. On a subsequent trip to Ashford with an inspection car one of the sleeves fractured at St Leonards.
Riley. R.C. The Brighton Atlantics. Trains ill., 1958, 11,183-91.10 illus., 2 tables.

4-4-0

V: 1938 :
Bulleid fitted one of the Schools class locomotives with a streamlined casing, which is believed to have been a wooden mock-up.
Burtt, G.F, photographer.
An unusual view of S.R. No. 935 Sevenoaks. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1949, 25, plate VIII (f.p. 249).
This illustration is repeated in S. Day-Lewis' Bulleid, last giant of steam.

Tank engines

0-6-6-0T

Leader: 1949:
The Leader class was intended to be as versatile as diesel motive power and it is probable that the design was influenced by the Government "policy" to ease the coal shortage by using oil fuel which was quickly abandoned. The locomotives could be driven from cabs situated at both ends. The boiler, bunker and water tanks were mounted on two six-wheel bogies. These power units incorporated three-cylinder engines, which were actuated by chain driven sleeve valves. Coupling rods were replaced by chains. Vertical movement in the axle guides was accommodated by the shear deformation of rubber units.
British Railways had been formed before experimental trials could be organized. These tests appear to have been unsuccessful as the class was withdrawn without ever entering into service. The most extensive description is; based on an address presented, by Bulleid, to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, It is published in the American journal, Mechanical Engineering. Like the Paget locomotive the "contemporary literature" is virtually non-existent. The story was continued with the Irish turf burning locomotive.

W.H. (Joe) Hutchinson, Assistant to Clifford Cocks, stated: "one fateful day, in the absence of Cocks I was called to OVB's office and requested to produce a sketch for a double four-wheeled bogie loco.". [Leader]. On his return Cocks was not amused.

Later versions of Robertson's book are significant for the many photographs taken by the late John Click (collection housed in NRM)

Allen, C.J. Two striking new designs. Trains ill., 1949, 2, 4-6. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Bond, Roland C. A lifetime with locomotives. Cambridge: Goose, 1975. page 191 et seq
The design of the locomotive was wholly unconventional. It is probably true to say that never before had so many. innovations been assembled together in one reciprocating steam locomotive. Tlle principal features of an unusual character were:
(i) The locomotive was carried on two six-wheeled bogies;
(ii) The middle axle of each bogie was driven by a three-cylinder engine with sleeve valves, mounted in the bogie frames, all moving parts being totally enclosed and continuously lubricated;
(iii) The three axles of each bogie were coupled by chains instead of coupling rods.
(iv) The axleboxes fitted with tapered roller bearings, moved vertically on cylindrical pedestals instead of in horn blocks. Thus there was virtually no side play, the crank axle assembly being extremely rigid.
(v) The boiler, generating steam at 280 lbs per square inch, was of a novel design in that the firebox had brick walls instead of stayed water legs. The firebox heating surface consisted of a steel crownplate into which four thermic syphons were welded. The boiler barrel was welded throughout.
(vi) Driving cabs were provided at each end of the locomotive with side corridor communication between each cab. The fireman was accommodated in a separate compartment halfway down the corridor.
(vii) To provide sufficient width for the corridor, the boiler was mounted some inches off the longitudinal centre line of the locomotive.
Innovation enough in all conscience; and yet all the ten conditions could have been met to a greater or lesser extent without any of the unconventional features except the first. Only by providing that all wheels should be coupled would it be possible for the total weight of the locomotive to be available for adhesion. And in a locomotive intended for speeds up to 90 miles per hour this could scarcely have been done otherwise than by a double-bogie design which alone would ensure safe riding as a vehicle on the track.

Knowing Bulleid, the originality of the whole design was understandable and only to be expected. What it is not possible to understand is how the detailed work in the drawing office was allowed to get so far adrift that the locomotive came out 20 tons overweight and 10 tons heavier on one side than the other.

The first, and as events unfolded, the only Leader locomotive was completed in June, 1949. I went down to Eastleigh very soon afterwards to see this rather extraordinary engine in steam before its departure on a trial trip. Knowing something of the difficulties which faced shed fitters in dealing with day-to-day maintenance of the oil bath and valve gear of Merchant Navy and West Country Pacifics I felt some misgivings as to what was in store for us in shed and shop maintenance of the Leaders.

As in the case of Paget's multi-cylindered sleeve-valve 2-6-2 built at Derby forty years earlier, the Leader could not be made sufficiently reliable to go into revenue earning service notwithstanding the expenditure of much time and money. Its radius of action was in any case severely limited by its excessive weight and axle-loading. Constant trouble was experienced with breakage of the sleeve valve operating mechanism, and steaming was unreliable. So serious and persistent were the failures during the first three months of trial running that Riddles gave instructions for all work on building the next four locomotives to be stopped pending the outcome of further trials. These continued for a further twelve months. They included two series of dynamometer car tests to compare the performance of the Leader with a conventional locomotive of similar power. But it was all to no avail. The tests revealed that coal and water consumption of the Leader was about 67 per cent and 47 per cent higher than that of a Southern U Class 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive. This was due partly to steam leakage past the sleeve valves and pistons, and partly to excessive rates of combustion. The brick side walls of the firebox as originally designed were too thin to stand up to the temperature conditions. They had to be increased in thickness so much that the grate area, originally 43 square feet had to be reduced to 25 square feet. A very sharp blast was necessary to produce sufficient steam and at the high combttstion rates involved losses due to fuel discharged through the chimney unburnt were very heavy.

There were other troubles too. After only 6,000 miles the crank axle of No.1 bogie broke in half, and flaws which would soon have led to fracture were found in the corresponding axle of the other bogie. Working conditions for the fireman were quite unacceptable. The temperature in his cab was often well over 100°F. Conditions became intolerable when the locomotive was running chimney leading owing to a stream of hot air which emerged from the corridor into the fireman's compartment. Thus the engine had to run bunker first and be turned at the end of every trip.

With the best will in the world this could go on no longer. In November 1950 Riddles submitted a report to the Railway Executive which he asked me to draft. It was clear beyond doubt that only by embarking on modifications so extensive liS to amount to a complete re-design could the locomotive ever achieve success. Heavy additional expenditure would be involved - and in the end the modified locomotive would offer no sufficient advantage over one of conventional design. There were only two alternatives – to go on spending money to no good purpose, or to scrap the locomotive and the other four on which work had been suspended twelve months before. Riddles really had no alternative. He made a recommendation accepted by the Executive, that the locomotives should be scrapped.
Bond, R.C. Years of transition. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 439-63 . (Presidential Address).
Bond examined a number of experimental designs, including the Leader class, which is condemned.
Bulleid, H.A.V. Bulleid of the Southern. 1977.
This is a vital source of information about this controversial design, and it would be impossible for anyone to make any further "contribution" to the literature without a thorough knowledge of this book.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotive and rolling-stock developments in Great Britain. Mech. Engng, 1950, 72, 455-61. 14 illus., 2 diagrs., 2 tables.
Based on an address presented to A.S.M.E. This gives a complete description of the design.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Presidential Address. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1947, 156, 1-5 + 10 plates. 42 illus., diagr., 3 tables.
Includes the reason for introducing the Leader design as follows:
1 To be able to run over the majority of the Company's lines.
2 To be capable of working all classes of trains up to a speed of 90 miles per hour.
3 To have its whole weight available for braking and the highest possible percentage thereof for adhesion.
4 To be equally suitable for running in both directions without turning, with unobstructed look-out.
5 To be ready for service at short notice.
6 To be almost continuously available.
7 To be suitable for 'common use.'
8 To run not less than 100,000 miles between general overhauls with little or no attention at the running sheds.
9 To cause minimum wear and tear to the track.
10 To use substantially less fuel and water per drawbar horse-power developed.

Bulleid, O.V.S. and others. Railway power plant in Great Britain. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1947, 157, 235-9. (Centenary Lectures).
Includes an outline of the design.
Chackfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland Compound to the HST. 2004.
Excellent biography which includes Jarvis's involvement in assessing the Leader class (see Chapter 7)
Chapelon, A. La locomotive a vapeur. Tome 1. Paris, Baillière, 2eme ed., 1952. xiv, 648 p. + 15 plates. 304 illus., 183 diagrs., 73 tables.
Pp. 558-61 Chapelon reviews the design in considerable depth with special reference to the sleeve valves. In French.
Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama. v.2. 1966.
Pp.15-19: Cox outlines the tests carried out by British Railways on the design, but does not quote the results in full. On page 18 he stated that "reliable running proved unattainable" and steam leakage past the 192 piston rings associated with the sleeve valves. Further, the temperature conditions in the boiler compartment amidships were insupportable, and there was only one hero amongst the firemen on the Southern who was prepared to tolerate them even for test running only. I think that Bulleid believed to the end that with more drastic modifications success was just round the corner, but for Riddles and the R.E. enough was enough. Although regretting the outcome they could have no remorse that they had not given this novel attempt every reasonable chance to prove itself. At the end of 1950 it was decided to scrap the engine.
Day-Lewis, S. Bulleid, last giant of steam. 1964.
In addition to describing the technicalities of the design, Day-Lewis re-relates some of the furore which arose in the general press and Parliament when the locomotives proved to be unsuccessful.
Duffy, M.C. Waste heat recovery and steam locomotive design. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1989, 61, 15-30. Disc.: 30-1.
Reference 22 (page 29) notes that Bulleid had considered diverting the exhaust from one of the power bogies into an AEG type of condenser (as fitted to a Maunsell 2-6-0)
Dunn, J.M. I saw a "Leader". J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1965, 41, 290-2.
Some impressions of the design written by a former LNWR/LMS shed superintendent. Additional notes by A.F. Cook pp. 292-3.
Durrant, A.E. Should the 'Leader' have been a 'Garratt'? Steam Wld 1992, (56) 30-5.
Highly critical of many of the Leader design features, notably the boiler, the valve gear and the sleeve valves. Suggests, and reproduced as side elevation diagram a double-ended Garratt with a conventional cab in the centre. Several illustrations of Leader locomotives under construction and under test from John G. Click Collection at NRM and colour illustrations of 36001 being painted grey at Eastleigh (S.C. Townroe) and reproduction of Robin Barnes watercolour of locomotive at speed on test near Winchester.
Hall, Stanley
. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.

Millstone: overweight and temperature in fireman's compartment was unacceptable.
Haresnape, B. Bulleid locomotives. revised edition. 1985.
Very brief Foreword by H.A.V. Bulleid. Section 4 is an extensive account of the Leader fiasco. Appendix 1 is  devoted to electric locomotives. Appendix 2 describes the influential diesel-electric locomotives and Section 6 describes the rebuilt Pacifics which were aimed to be as near British Railway standards as possible and this was achieved by Jarvis at Brighton
Harris, Michael. Firing Bulleid's 'Leader'. Steam Days, (66) 115-18.
Based on conversation with Ron Manley who had fired the locomotive when under test at Eastleigh. He described the driver's cabs and the stokehole for the fireman which was cramped and hot and required an assistant to bring the coal forward – the locomotive had intended to be oil-fired. Other difficulties were the failure of the brick arch which ended up being far thicker than designed, thus reducing the heating surface and grate area.
"LEADER" class engine scrapped. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 427.
Brief notes : including notes on test runs.
"LEADER" class, Southern Region. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 162-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Ransome-Wallis, P. Unconventional forms of motive power [in :] Ransome-Wallis, P., editor.
The concise encyclopaedia of world railway locomotives. 1959.

Pp. 461-77 (Chap. 9): Includes notes on the "Leader" design.
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: steam's last chance. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1988. 123pp.
Many illustration but see below
Robertson, Kevin. Leader: the full story. Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1995. 123pp. + 128pp.
This book has convoluted origins: see Ottley supplement 18948. The later versions include many of John Click's photographs taken whilst the locomotive was on test. Latest version: The Leader Project: fiasco or triumph (OPC 2007): reviewd in Steam Wld (240) p. 65.
Rogers, H.C.B. Bulleid Pacifics at work. 1980.
Mainly pictorial (over 200 illus.). Highly critical of all the Bulleid designs in their original form and wondered why it took so long to rebuild the troublesome locomotives. Also condemns the Leader project..
Rutherford, Michael. The experimental spirit. Railway Relections No. 91. Backtrack, 2002, 16, 515
Shows how Clayton (SR), Bulleid (LNER), Hall (GWR) and Hornbuckle (LMS) were in 1934 involved in a design for proposed Sentinel-type one-man operated coal-fired shunting locomotive. A sketch is shown; also about this time Bulleid inspected the bogie Sentinel locomotive for Colombia on test in Belgium. Thus Bulleid and Clayton had plenty of opportunities to discuss bogie locomotives, sleeve valves and non-traditional boilers...
"Shedmaster", pseud. New light on the "Leaders". Trains ill., 1953, 6, 311-12.
Account of some of the difficulties experienced during trial running.
Simpson, C.R.H. The experimental spirit. Engineering, 1956, 182, 610-14; 674-6; 808-10:
1957, 183, 81-4; 114-15; 290-2; 338-41. 36 illus., diagr. Bibliog.
Includes the Leader design.
Skeat, W.O. The 'Leader" class, Southern Region. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1949, 25, 201-3 + plate f.p. 192. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Notes from personal observations.
Southern Region "Leader" class. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 90.
Note on termination of experimental running and withdrawal of the class.
Townroe, S.C. . More light on the Leader class. Rly Wld, 1971, 32, 436-8.
Tufnell, Robert Prototype locomotives. 1985.
Includes Bulleid Leaders
Tuplin, W.A. The ill-fated "Leader". Rly Wld, 1965, 26, 413-15. 4 illus.
A very detailed critical analysis which mentions many facets of the design neglected elsewhere (other than in Bulleid's Mechanical Engineering article).
Tuplin, W.A. The steam locomotive. 1974. Chapter 6. Unconventional steam locomotives.
Under the sub-heading: "COMPLICATED GARRATT" Tuplin wrote: Some 40 years after the trials of the Paget locomotive, O. V. S. Bulleid on the Southern Railway built a Garratt-style locomotive with a number of unconventional features. Each of these was well worth trying but the combination of so many of them in a single locomotive (even an experimental one) was asking for trouble and plenty was experienced. The conventional place for the men on a steam locomotive is immediately to the rear of the boiler, where the fireman is properly placed for doing his work and the driver is near to him. This proximity is desirable in the interests of safety even though it may place the driver 40 ft behind the leading end of the locomotive. This naturally imposes some restriction on his view of the landscape ahead of the engine, but it need not make much difference to his viewing of the signals that he must observe. Moreover the men do have some degree of protection in the rare event of collision of the engine with something ahead of it.
Bulleid was, however, a member of the staff of the Southern Railway, running large numbers of multiple-unit electric trains on each of which the driver is at the leading end of the leading coach with an unobstructed view through glass. Regarding this as something that might be claimed as an advantage of electric traction, and preferring not to offer a steam locomotive that should be different in this respect from what was common with electric traction, Bulleid provided his super-Garratt with a driving compartment at each end and a full-length corridor so that the fireman, normally working in the middle of the engine, should be able to reach the driver when special circumstances might demand close communication between the two men. So the boiler was set 'off-centre' and it and everything else on the engine were enclosed in a casing of maximum size and uniform cross section to give the aspect of an electric locomotive. The fireman's working-space was badly restricted and the atmospheric temperature in it was about 120°F, so hot that although one or two heroes accepted it for a few trial runs, no one could be expected to work regularly in it. Without the all-enclosing casing the fireman's quarters need not have been any hotter than in a conventional steam locomotive.
Each power-bogie had three axles, the middle one with three cranks driven by pistons in three double-acting inside cylinders fed with steam through sleeve valves. The valves had combined longitudinal movement and rotation and like Paget's rotary valves gave a great deal of trouble. Again one must ask what advantage the special valves were expected to have over conventional piston valves.
Driving connection between the axles in each power-bogie was affected by multiple-strand chains enclosed in steel casings. One chain connected the right-hand end of the middle axle to one of the outer axles and another chain connected the left end of the middle axle to the other of the outer axles. No one ever explained what advantage this complicated arrangement was expected to have over the simple, tested and proved coupling-rod readily available for examination and removal in the exceedingly rare event of any trouble.
A feature worth trying was horizontal location of each axle-box by a rubber mounting that permitted vertical movement by deformation of of the rubber and had no sliding surface corresponding to those OF conventional hornblocks.
The boiler had no fire-box in the ordinary sense but it had two thermic syphons with nearly as many stays in them as an ordinary fire-box would have had. The fire was confined between firebrick walls that allowed far too much heat to escape and that were subsequently thickened on that account, with a marked consequent reduction in grate area.
The 'Leader' underwent a substantial amount of testing but its performance never equalled that of a conventional locomotive of the same weight and every one of its special features gave a great deal of trouble. This was not unusual with novelties, but there did not seem to be any prospect that even with everything going well the 'Leader' could ever justify its expensive departures from normality in design and construction. Three of these locomotives had been 'laid down' before British Railways took over, but only one was brought into running condition and its development was not deemed to be financially justifiable.

0-8-0T

Hecate:
This 0-8-0T was built for the Kent & East Sussex Railway, but was exchanged for a Beattie 0-6-0ST from the Southern Railway. In 1940 it was re-boilered with an LBSCR. D1-type boiler. This is noted in an un-titled paragraph which incorrectly attributes "Hecate" as being an 0-6-2T. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46, 84.

Updated: 2013-08-21
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