Great Eastern locomotive designs

Illustration right is a plate in Ernest F. Carter's Britain's railway
liveries
(1952)

EUR ECR Gooch Sinclair Bromley
Johnson Holden Hill Adams Worsdell S.D. Holden

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This page is under construction and may be slightly difficult to use, but it is hoped that it will be of some use. To be completed it will require examination of the excellent series of articles which appeared in The Locomotive Magaszine between 1902 and 1912, only those in Volume 16 (1910) have been seen: earlier issues of this journal do not appear to be held at St. Pancras The Great Eastern Railway Society has scanned these pages with the permission of the copyright holder and these are available for sale from XXX. !The two authorities on the Great Eastern Railway and its locomotives were in the mid-1960s C.J. Allen and P. Proud. The latter did not write a general history, but he made several minor contributions, especially to the history of the "Claud Hamilton" class. Lyn D. Brooks has taken on Peter Proud's role since. A major resource is the series of articles with drawings in relatively early issues of The Locomotive, Railway Carriage & Wagon Review. The Great Eastern Railway was formed by amalgamation in 1862: only the Eastern Counties Railway, with its locomotive works at Stratford, had built any locomotives to its own designs prior to te amalgamation.

Allen noted that: The locomotive history of the Great Eastern Railway. is one of considerable interest. Part of that interest lies in its extraordinary variety, for few railways can have absorbed and taken into their stock the locomotives from so large a number of separate constituents as did the G.E.R. Another reason for the variety is found in the fact that so many locomotive engineers took office as Locomotive Superintendents of the Great Eastern, but after relatively short reigns at Stratford were tempted by the prospect of greater influence-and, no doubt, more handsome emoluments also-to leave the G.E.R. for railways of greater importance. Among these in particular was Samuel W. Johnson, who served from 1866 until he left to become Locomotive Superintendent of the Midland Railway in 1873 Here the genesis of two Johnson of two of Johnson's "Midland" classics: the 0-4-4T and the 4-4-0 took place. W. Adams, succeeded him,. but resigned in 1878 to take up a corresponding appointment on the London & South Western Railway; and T. W. Worsdell, took office in 1881 but left for the North Eastern Railway in 1885. The founder of the well-known locomotive building firm of Kitson at Leeds, William Kitson, also was Locomotive Superintendent of the Great Eastern Railway for a year, between 1865 and 1866. Stratford Works thus functioned as a kind of nursery for a number of locomotive engineers of no small eminence; and the development of many important ideas connected with locomotive design also had their beginnings on the G.E.R.

Aldrich, C.L Great Eastern locomotives, past and present, 1862-1944 : a brief, descriptive, illustrated souvenir of types and L.N.E.R. rebuilds. Brightlingsea (Essex), Author, 1944. 80 p. 56 illus., table.
Aldrich, C.L. Great Eastern locomotives, past and present, 1862-1945 : a brief, descriptive, illustrated souvenir of types and L.N.E.R. rebuilds. London, E.V. Aldrich, Victory ed. 1945. 112 p. 64 illus., 2 tables. (Langloco series.) Aldrich, C.L. The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway, 1862-1954 : a brief, descriptive, illustrated souvenir of types and L.N.E.R. rebuilds. Wickford (Essex), Author, 6th ed., 1955, 127 p. 65 illus., 2 tables. (Langloco series: No.1).
The 6th edition has a maturity of presentation which is lacking in the earlier editions — all are well illustrated.
Aldrich, C.L. The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway, 1862-1962 : a brief, descriptive, illustrated souvenir of types and L.N.E.R. rebuilds, with detailed stock list. Wickford (Essex), Author, 7th ed., 1969, 148 p. 68 illus., table. (Langloco series: No.1).
Ottley (Supplement) 5784: although some of Langley's memories on liveries may be useful and valid, some of his technical assessments may be erroneous. For instance, on page 57 it is stated that the Beardmore batch of 1500 class 4-6-0s had a lower total heating surface than the Stratford-built locomotives: this requires verification. He made no mention of J.V. Russell calling the 1500 class "S.D. Holden's "Crowning Effort"...
Allen, C.J.  Great Eastern. London, Ian Allan, [1960?]. 64 p. 62 iIIus.
A very concise history.
Allen, C.J. The Great Eastern Railway. London, Ian Allan, 1955. [x], 222 p. incl. 32 plates + col. front. 98 illus., 10 tables, 2 maps.
A review (Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1955, 61, 184) noted a number of errors in the section on locomotives..
Allen, C.J. The Great Eastern Railway. London, Ian Allan, 3rd ed. 1961. [x], 242 p. incl.32 plates + folding plate. 95 illus., 12 tables, map.
The later edition brings the history up to the date of publication: a serious writer should check to see if the errors noted in the review were corrected..
Dow, George. The first railway in Norfolk. LNER. 2nd ed. 1947.
Hilton, H.F. The Eastern Union Railway, 1846 to 1862. LNER, 1946.
Moffat, Hugh. East Anglia's first railways: Peter Bruff and the Eastern Union Railway. Lavenham: Terence Dalton, 1987. 228pp.

The Great Eastern Railway — a critical appraisal. Geoff Pember. Br. Rly J. Special Great Eastern Rly ed., 41-6.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 3-4.
Previous part 15, 224: describes 2-4-0T of 1871/5 designed by Johnson (Nos. 81-3) and Adams 0-4-2T (Nos. 13/14). Figs. 156-8. Notes that orginally painted canary yellow with black bands lined with red and white.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 23-4.
Describes Johnson 417 class 0-6-0. Figs. 159-60. Supplied by Beyer Peacock (Fig 159); Robert Stephenson, Dubs, Naysmith Wilson, and Yorkshire Engine Co. (Fig. 160).

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 52-4.
No. 492 of 1879 fitted with Elijah Weston (US) boiler: coned with a combustion chamber. 2 diagrs. No. 498 was fitted with Ashton patent blow back valve and water preheating in tender (Adams). No. 522 (a rebuild of 1888) was painted blue.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 91-2.
On 6 May 1882 Queen Victoria visited Epping Forest and No. 189 became the first GER locomotive to be painted blue for this event. Also includes details of 0-4-0ST 200 named The Chairman and No. A for use in Stratford Works.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 113-15.
Porttrait of Johnson who was a Nottingham JP: C8 class 4-4-0s of 1874 Nos. 301/2. Livery stated to be a darker green than that employed by Sinclair. Black bands with white lines. Buffer beams were green.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 161.
0-4-0ST Nos. 209 and 210 supplied by Neilson, Nos. 228-9 supplied under Johnson.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 185.
0-4-4T supplied by Neilson, Robert Stephenson and Kitsons. Nos. 211-220 fitted with reduced boiler mountings for working to North Woolwich..

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 215-16.
0-4-4T Nos. 76, 71, 184, 66 and 80 illustrated

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 239-40.
Ironclads Nos. 265-74 supplied by Dubs (WN 893-902) and R&WH Nos. 255-64 (WN 1705-14). Includes drawings.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 261-2.
Adams K9 0-4-2T Nos. 20-5.using parts from Bromley locomotives. Kitson tram locomotive No. 230 for Millwall Extension Railway.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1911, 17, 31.
Fig. 193: Four coupled bogie tank locomotive No. 54 and Fig. 194 and as rebuilt as No. 588..

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 17, 119-20.
2-2-2 and 4-2-2 designs.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1912, 18, 10-11
Fig. 210: 2-4-0 express locomotives: No. 565; Fig. 211 No. 562 as rebuilt and Fig. 212 No. 569.

Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. Cambridge: Goose, 1975. 705pp.
Ottley 10510: "A comprehensive work embodying great detail." The section on Stratford Works, placed under the Eastern Counties Railway is an excellent resume of development thereat. Lowe noted that the "early days of the Eastern Counties Railway had a complicated locomotive history, not fully documented and it is difficult to get full totals for this period.".

The Great Eastern's locomotive legacy to the LNER: a motley collection? - Part 1. Lyn D. Brooks. BT 12 362-8.
Article demonstrates that the GER followed a strong policy of standardization, especially under James Holden. Having discussed the non-standard types, notably the tram engines and 0-4-0ST designs, the author concentrates on the 2-4-2T, 0-6-0T and the "first generation large locomotives". Part 2 on page 474. illus.: A Holden N31 prototype no 999; Ex GE J15 no 645 now BR no 65445; Ex-GE T26 now LNER E4 no 7505; GE class S44 which became LNER class G4 the example here is no 8123; An M15 rebuild no 679; Similar to the M15s were the G69 class here is no 7238 on pilot duty; A GE tram engine; Table 1; Locomotive stock of the principal railways 1923; Table 2; Locomotive classes of the principal parts of the LNER 1923; The GEs L77 class became an LNER standard design N7 this is no 987 an LNER;

Great Eastern Railway constituents

Eastern Union Railway

List from Moffat: Appendix 2 (mainly from Locomotive Magazine, 1905). Also appears as Appendix C in Hilton's Eastern Union Railway

EUR # Name ECR # Delivered Builder # type driving wheel scrapped
1 Colchester 260 1846 Sharp 346 2-2-2 5ft 0in 1879
2 Ipswich 261 1846 Sharp 347 2-2-2 5ft 0in 1874
3 City of Norwich 262 1846 Sharp 349 2-2-2 5ft 0in 1879
4 Bury St Edmunds 263 1846 Sharp 368? 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1873
5 Orwell 264 1846 Sharp 369? 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1877
6 Stour 265 1846 Sharp 370? 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1874
7 205 1846/7 Stothert & Slaughter 2-2-2 5ft 0in c1860
8 206 1846/7 Stothert & Slaughter 2-2-2 5ft 0in 1867
9 Essex? 207 1846/7 Stothert & Slaughter 0-4-2 5ft 0in before 1867
10 Suffolk? 208 1846/7 Stothert & Slaughter 0-4-2 5ft 0in before 1867
11 273 1846/7 R&W Hawthorn 471 2-2-2 6ft 0in
12 274/271 1846/7 R&W Hawthorn 472 2-2-2 6ft 0in
13 275/272 1846/7 R&W Hawthorn 473 2-2-2 6ft 0in
14 266 1846 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1875
15 267 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1880
16 268 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1874
17 269 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1874
18 270 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1875
19 271/116 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1867
20 209 Stothert & Slaughter 2-2-2 5ft 0in c1860
21 210 Stothert & Slaughter 2-2-2 5ft 0in 1868
22 211 Stothert & Slaughter 0-4-2 5ft 0in 1867
23 212 Stothert & Slaughter 0-4-2 5ft 0in before 1867
24 213 Stothert & Slaughter 0-4-2 5ft 0in before 1867
25 214/204 Stothert & Slaughter 0-4-2 5ft 0in 1867
26 272/117 Sharp 2-2-2 5ft 6in 1875
27 16 Sharp 2-2-2WT 5ft 6in 1871
28 Ariel's Girdle 17 1851 Kitson 270 2-2-0WT 5ft 0in 1879
29 13 1854 Sharp 765 2-2-2WT 5ft 0in 1871
30 14 1854 Sharp 766 2-2-2WT 5ft 0in 1871
31 15 1854 Sharp 768 2-2-2WT 5ft 0in 1871

The first three were diverted from the Blackburn & Preston Railway. Moffat notes how it was difficult to obtain lcomotives when the line from Colchester to Ipswich was almost ready and a party consisting of John Footman, Peter Bruff and James Allen Ransome (of the agricultural engineering company) were sent up north on a shopping trip and made contact with Charles Sharp. Moffat's Chapter 9 makes it clear that Sharp and the other suppliers found it difficult to receive payment. Similar locomotives were ordered from Sharp for the Ipswich & Bury Railway. The illus in Moffat include a general arrangement drawing for 2-2-2WTs Nos. 29-31; ECR long boiler 2-4-0 No. 73 at Yarmouth Southtown (phot.); EUR #1 as ECR #260; Hawthorn 2-2-2 as ECR #272; Stothert 2-4-0 EUR #7 as ECR #205;  Sharp 2-2-2 ECR #16 (EUR #27) (all line drawings) and 3 illus of  Ariel's Girdle.;

Ariel's Girdle had figured in the Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park. In 1868 Mr. S. W. Johnson altered this to a 2-4-0 tank engine of extraordinary appearance, and it finished its career on the Millwall Extension Railway, for which purpose the chimney was fitted with a spark arrester. It lasted until 1879.

Sekon, G.A. Evolution of the steam locomotive. 1899.
The mention of a powerful engine and a record train on one railway naturally suggests a better one on another line, so we have the "Essex" going" one better" than" No. 30." This time we have a load of 149 loaded wagons (probably equal to 890 tons),' and forming a train nearly half a mile long. The "Essex" is also stated to have hauled a train of 192 empty trucks. The engine in question was built for the Eastern Union Railway by Stothart,Slaughter, and Co., Bristol, in 1847, and had wheels 4ft. 9in, diameter, cylinders 15in. by 21½in. stroke, weight 22 tons.

Norfolk Railway

2-2-2WT Eagle inspection saloon, 1849

Supplied by J. & E. Headly (see Lowe pp 318/19 who cites R.H. Clark's Steam engine builders of Suffolk, Essex and Cambridgeshire)

Norwich & Yarmouth Railway

2-2-2

Hilton, H.F. Stephenson letter of 1844. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1944, 50, 104-6.
Letter from Robert Stephenson to Railway concerning a 2-2-2 with 6ft driving wheels and an 0-6-0 with 4ft 9in coupled wheels.

Northern & Eastern Railway

Planned to construct a railway from London to York via Cambridge, but struggled to advance up the Lea Valley before almost expiring at Bishops Stortford. Originally 5ft gauge.

2-2-2

Specialised in inside-cylinder six-wheelers of the 2-2-2 type: obtained 14 from four different makers: R. Stephenson & Co., Tayleur & Co., Bury, Curtis & Kennedy, and Longridge.

R. Stephenson
Long boiler type: Ahrons  (p. 59) illustrated No. 12 North Star

R.B. Longridge & Co.: 1840-2
Supplied seven: WN 140/156-60. Running numbers 29-31/35-6/23 and 25..

The slide-valves of some of these engines were worked through rocking-shafts by a very curious" gab" type of motion (Allen).

East Anglian Railway

Included some tender goods engines having the unusual 0-4-2 wheel arrangement, with inside cylinders.

Newmarket & Great Chesterford Railway
Never boasted more than six locomotives of its own, and they were 5ft 6 in 2-4-0s, with 15 in. by 22 in. outside cylinders, built in 1848 by Gilkes, Wilson & Co. of Middlesbrough. The design closely resembled that of some engines built about that time by the same firm for the Stockton & Darlington Railway. They carried the names of famous racehorses of the period: Beeswing, Queen of Trumps, Van Tromp, Flying Dutchman, Eleanor and Alice Hawthorn. After being taken over by the ECR they spent most of their brief life of 18 to 22 years in hauling coal trains between Peterborough and Stratford..Pearce's seminal work on Stockton & Darlington Railway locomotives (not in any East Anglian "library|") makes it clear that twelve locomotives were ordered by the Newmarket concern, but failed to take delivery of half of the order, and the SDR accepted the remainder (becoming the Priam class), one of which appeared to be named Newmarket for a time!.

Eastern Counties Railway

Lowe states that the original locomotive repair shops of the ECR were at Romford and with no opportunity to expand on that site it was decided to build a new factory at Stratford which was completed in 1847 and all machinery transferred from Romford. In 1848 all repair work was being carried out at the new works. The erecting shop was 348 ft long and 142 ft wide comprising four bays, and 50 locomotives couJd be accommodated at one time, it had the customary ancillary shops including boiler shop, machine shop, iron and brass foundry, wheel shop and drop hammers. It may be noted that the original gauge of the ECR was 5 ft, from 1839 to 1844 when it was decided to conform to the standard gauge. At its opening the Locomotive Superintendent was John Hunter (1846-1850); then John V. Gooch (1850-1856) followed by Robert Sinclair in September 1856.

From 1839 to 1844 the.Eastern Counties and Northern & Eastern Railways were working on the 5 ft. gauge, and a total of 44 locomotives was built for the two companies, 26 for the former, 14 for the latter, and four "ballast engines" used in line construction. The earliest of these engines were four-wheelers similar in design to the Bury engines of the period.

Early Eastern Counties Railway locomotives. Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 367-9.
All 2-4-0s Figs. 26-30 (side els.).

0-4-0: Braithwaite, Milner: 1838-
Lowe notes four locomotives (presumed to be of Bury type) with 5ft driving wheels named Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk and Suffolk: these were presumably ballast engines.

2-2-0: Braithwaite, Milner: 1839
Numbered 1 to 6 according to Lowe: according to Allen these had 6 ft. driving wheels and 4 ft. 6 in. leading wheels, with 12 in. by 18 in. cylinders. Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive p. 33) noted that these used ordinary fireboxes rather than the distinctive D-type adopted by Bury; furthermore on p. 61 Ahrons argues that these early locomotives were fitted with balance weights..Nevertheless, they obtained an unenviable notoriety for unsteady running; on the day after the formal opening of the line, No.3 ran off the road between Bow and Stratford, killing the driver and fireman, and a year later No.6 derailed when descending Brentwood bank, the engine-crew and one passenger losing their lives. As mentioned in Allen Chapter 1, this accident focused considerable attention on the railway, and resulted in the setting up of a (Allen p. 85) Government enquiry to decide the relative merits of four-wheel and six-wheel locomotives.

0-4-0: Braithwaite, Milner: 1839
According to Lowe two further 0-4-0s constructed.

2-2-0: Bury: 1842-
Allen notes that nine were purchased from Bury & Co. in 1842 in readiness for the opening to Colchester.

Four Eastern Counties 2-2-0s, Nos. 10, 12, 15 and 17, were used to work the Peterborough-Stamford line of the Midland Railway for a short time from October, 1846, onwards; this formed a part of the Midland system, but until the Stamford-Melton section was ready the Midland had no means of getting their rolling stock to the new line.

After the Eastern Counties had taken over the working of the Northern & Eastern in 1844, and the decision had been reached in 1845 to narrow the gauge of both lines to the standard 4 ft.8½in. new power had to be obtained in preparation for the opening from Bishop's Stortford to Cambridge.

2-2-2: Jones & Potts: 1845-6
Lowe states that the first order from the ECR was for ten 2-2-2s, three 2-4-0s and a 4-2-0. These had 6ft driving wheels and 15 x 22in cylinders. On page 56 Ahrons notes that Fernihough, the Locomotive Superintendent,  introduced balancing to the Stephenson long boiler type and reported on this to the Gauge Commission

2-2-2: Stothert & Slaughter: 1845-6
Ten ordered

2-4-0: Jones & Potts: 1845/6
Lowe states that the first order from the ECR was for ten 2-2-2s, three 2-4-0s and a 4-2-0. Presumably the 2-4-0s in this batch had 6ft driving wheels like the singles.

4-2-0: Jones & Potts: 1846/7
Allen: they were followed in 1846 and 1847 by ten Jones & Potts "singles" with 6 ft. driving wheels at the rear end of the engine, preceded by two rigid axles; they were thus of the 4-2-0 type, and had 6 ft. driving wheels, 15 in. by 24 in. cylinders, and boilers with barrels no less than 13 ft. 7 in. long.

2-4-0: Jones & Potts: 1846
First outside cylinder 2-4-0s, with 5 ft. driving wheels and 15 in. by 24 in. cylinders. Almost all the foregoing had the haystack type of firebox, and lengthy boiler barrels innocent of any mountings, but some of the Jones & Potts rear-driver engines were provided instead with domed boilers. At a later date two of these had a pair of wheels added at the rear end, making them the first 4-2-2 engines to run on Eastern Counties metals, though not with leading bogies.

Allen stated that in those days purchasers were very much in the hands of builders as to what they actually received; the latter were so flooded with orders as the result of the rapid extension of the railways that they might deliver any machines they had on hand which were reasonably suitable, rather than the exact types for which they had tendered. In consequence, some of the Jones & Potts batch appeared on the ECR as 2-4-0s, and differed in this respect from the 2-2-2s ordered. At this early period of railway history, the Eastern Counties had developed a remarkable taste for speed. Even so, Allen found it difficult to believe Ahrons claim  (p. 96) that Jones & Potts 2-2-2 No. 44 attained 69 m.p.h. on the level between Tottenham and Ponders End, and another engine of the same type no less than 70½ m.p.h. near Waltham Cross on an up express. Ahrons credits the long-boiler rear-driver 4-2-0s with similar speed achievements, and adds, "It is extremely probable that the old four-wheel coaches rocked about a good deal during these perforrp.ances ". So one might well imagine!

0-6-0: Stothert & Slaughter: 1846
The first six-coupled engines to appear on Eastern Counties metals were five 0-6-0s supplied by Stothert & Slaughter in 1846, with 4 ft. 6 in. driving wheels and 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders. Lowe (Fig. 533) illustrates a Stothert & Slaughter 0-6-0 supplied to the LBSCR in 1846.

Light locomotives/railcars

According to Allen in 1847 the ECR introduced the first of what at the time were termed "light locomotives"; it was designed by James Samuel, then Engineer of the ECR, and built by W. Bridges Adams, of the Fairfield Works, Bow. This curious machine was 12 ft. 6 in. long, was carried on four wheels, and weighed no more than 1¼ tons. Above the 3 ft. 4 in. driving wheels, at one end of the chassis, stood a vertical boiler, and the other end was provided with seats, the whole forming a kind of mobile inspection coach. On a "Press" trip from Shoreditch to Cambridge, the journey of 47½ miles was completed in 2¼ hours, inclusive of three stops of ten minutes each; the maximum speed attained was 43 mile/h, although on another occasion the Express, as it was called, is said to have reached 47 mile/h. During a period of six months this primitive steam car ran 5,526 miles on a total consumption of 7 tons 9 cwt. of coke, which works out at no more than 3 lb. per mile.

In 1849 Adams followed Express by building the first true railcar. On a single rigid frame he mounted at one end a 2 ft. 6 in. diameter boiler, pressed to 120 psi above a 2-2-0 chassis with 8 in. by 12 in. cylinders and 5 ft. diameter driving wheels; at the other end was a four-compartment carriage body seating 42 passengers, carried on two rigid axles. To enable this lengthy combination to traverse the curves, only the end pairs of wheels were provided with flanges. The weight of the whole was 15 tons 7 cwt. On a test trip, the railcar is said to have worked over the 126 miles from Shoreditch to Norwich in 3 hours 35 minutes. Later it was installed on the Enfield branch, which left the main line at Angel Road, and received the name Enfield. In actual working, however, it was found troublesome to have the locomotive and coach on the same frame, and the combination was therefore cut in two; the locomotive was provided with a bunker and a rear pair of wheels, and thus became a 2-2-2 tank. Similar information is obtainable from the Chapter on Bridges Adams in Ellis's Twenty locomotive men and G.A. Sekon's Evolution of the steam locomotive. 1899. Chapter 9.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Mag., 1903, 9, 368-9.
Fig. 59 Enfield; Fig. 61 Cambridge

2-2-2: E.B. Wilson: 1847

Allen states that two inside-cylinder Jenny Lind-type supplied in 1847: 6 ft driving wheels, 15 in. by 20 in. cylinders, and high working pressure of 120psi. Jack (pp. 147-8) records that these had been ordered by Leeds, Dewsbury & Manchester Railway whilst line not ready and two were sold to the Eastern Counties Railway where they became Nos. 115 and 116 (later 215 and 216). They cost £2501.25 each.

Allen noted that three examples with bigger boilers were turned out in the following year.

Crampton type: 1848

E.B. Wilson supplied three engines (Allen) of the Crampton type, with 7 ft. driving wheels at the extreme rear end, a pair of 4 ft. 6 in. wheels under the smokebox, and a pair of 3 ft. 9 in. wheels at the centre of the chassis. The outside cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in. As passenger engines these Cramptons proved anything but satisfactory, and after a brief life relegated to coal train haulage, they were broken up. (Allen). Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive p. 72) stated that five were constructed and these were the "fore-runners of the celebrated French Cramptons".

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Mag., 1903, 9, 224-5.
Fig. 57 No. 108

Continuous expansion locomotive: 1850
According to J.T. van Riemsdijk (Trans Newcomen Soc., 1970, 43, 1) Nicholson and Samuel tried out a continuos expansion locomotive on the ECR in 1850, and possibly also on the London & Brighton Railway.


John Viret Gooch designs

All Gooch designs had domeless boilers according to Lowe.The original Eastern Counties locomotive works at Romford Factory moved in 1848 to Stratford. In August 1850, John Viret Gooch became Locomotive Superintendent: he had previously been Locomotive Superintendent of'the London & South Western Railway. He arrived following a strike of enginemen during which three at least of the ECR engines had suffered serious damage through being handled by amateur crews. There was therefore much need for re-organisation and improvement. Gooch also came to the important decision that in future the works should not be used for locomotive repairs only, but that the ECR should build some of its own engines.

0-6-0

Gooch's designs included five (Rous-Marten) 0-6-0 tender freight engines, which became known as Floating Batteries (Allen)

2-4-0: 1855-

Neat little 2-4-0 tender engines, oddly christened Butterflies. Eighteen built between Brassey (Canada Works, Birkenhead Running Nos. 214-19), Sharp, Stewart & Co., and Kitson & Co. (Allen and Ahrons British steam railway locomotive)

2-2-2: 1856-

Gooch's 2-2-2 tender engines were very similar to his 2-2-2 tanks except that the cylinders had now increased to 15 in. diameter and the working pressure to 120 psi. All the engines designed by Gooch had domeless boilers. Lowe shows six built at Brassey (WN 42-7 and running numbers 274-9). Gooch resigned in 1856, and the second six of his twelve 2-2-2s actually appeared under the superintendence of his successor. Rous-Marten (Rly Mag., 1902, 11, 272) noted that 6ft 6in 2-2-2 singles were added to stock in 1856/7: these had 15 x 22in cylinders and were numbered: 27, 94, 274-83. No. 282 was illustrated.

2-2-2WT: 1851-

According to Allen Gooch's speciality (Ahrons British steam railway locomotive called the design "celebrated" and illustrated in Fig. 90 on p. 96) was the tank engine, and his first ECR designs were for 2-2-2 tanks, which incorporated features from his LSWR designs, including double frames, with the cylinders working between them, outside axleboxes to the leading and trailing wheels, and inside bearings to the 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels. David Kinnear Clark's The steam engine: a treatise on steam engines and boilers. 1890. Plate 27 illustrates one of these locomotives.

2-2-2WT: Class A: 1851
Six 2-2-2WTs built in 1851 with double frames, the 11in x 22in cylinders being fixed between them. The leading and trailing wheels had outside bearings and the driving wheels 6ft 6in diameter inside bearings. The boiler pressure was 110 psi. These small locomotives weighed 23 ton 15 cwt in working order. The cylinders were subsequently enlarged to 12in diameter. According to Allen No. 20 was notable as the first locomotive built at Stratford Works. The first six, built in 1851, were supplemented by three built by R.B. Longridge. .

2-2-2WT: Class B: 1852-4
Six more 2-2-2WTs followed from 1852 to 1854: these were built with 12in diameter cylinders, and known as Class B.

Running numbers were 20 to 25 and 7 to 12 respectively.  Second and third series of these engines, slightly enlarged, were built in 1853 and 1854, making thirty in all, of which the last ten were assigned to work the Tilbury line: in 1874 one of them, No.8, was rebuilt as a 4-2-4 locomotive, with bogies fore and aft, a 500 gallon saddle tank to supplement the tank carried under the boiler, and a small inspection saloon on the rear end of the chassis: this lasted until 1883.


Robert Sinclair designs

Gooch was replaced by Robert Sinclair in 1856: formerly, Sinclair had been Locomotive Superintendent of the Caledonian Railway. Allen states that he faced a multitude of nondescript locomotives including those acquired from various minor railways taken over by the ECR. Sinclair planned to modernise the stock and standardise on a few types to serve the various requirements of the company.

2-4-0

Class Z: Rothwell: 1858

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Locomotive, 1908, 14, 3
Six engines were in hand at Stratford Works when Sinclair took office: these were single driver express 2-2-2 engines of class C (described in 7 page 165), but of these only two were then nearly complete, numbered 27 and 94 and finished off under Sinclair, but the four remaining were not completed until 1859, and the boilers for these were constructed by Beyer, Peacock and the tenders by Kitson. Fig. 103, shows No. 281 completed in 1859 (and scrapped in 1879).
First engines designed for the ECR by Sinclair were the 2-4-0 goods engines, class Z built by Messrs. Rothwell & Co., of Bolton: Fig. 104 illustrates No. 302. They bore many points of resemblance to the Caledonian Ry. engines of the period. Great Eastern Railway Society Information Sheet L105 page 18.

Class Y: 1859-66

110 were built
Neilson & Co: first 20
R. Stephenson & Co.: 15
R. & W. Hawthorn 15
Kitson & Co.: 25
Vulcan Foundry Co.: 25
Schneider et Cie., Le Creusot: 10 (final batch).

Most had 17 in. by 24 in. outside-cylinders, 6 ft. 1 in. coupled wheels with the wide spacing apart of 9 ft. centre to centre, and 120 psi boilers; weighed from 30 to 33 tons apiece, according to builder. The first Neilson engines had domes over the firebox and domeless barrels, and no protection for the engine-crews other thim the diminutive weatherboards of the period; but the later engines had some of the most amply-roofed cabs that had been seen on any British railway up to that time. The numbers ran consecutively from 307 to 416 inclusive. Although intended originally as freight engines, the" Y" class proved so successful that many of them were drafted to passenger service, and underwent various rebuildings to adapt them better for this type of work. Adams reconstructed twenty of them as 4-4-0s, and the last survivors of the class, both of the 2-4-0 and 4-4-0 types, remained in service until 1894. .

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Locomotive, 1908, 14, 61.
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Locomotive, 1908, 14, 99-101.

Clark, D.K. Railway locomotives. 1860.
Plate 41 illustrates an outside-cylinder locomotive

2-2-2

W class: 1862-7

31 constructed (but see Rous-Marten):
Fairbairn & Co. (five),
Slaughter, Griining & Co. (ten),
Kitson & Co. (ten),
Schneider et Cie. (six)
reputed to be the best of the bunch.
Compact design, with the smokebox casing spreading out at the base to enclose 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders; 7 ft. 1 in. diameter driving wheels (upper part encased in elaborately pierced splashers), 120 psi boilers, and a modest weight in working order of 29¼ tons.

On 10 March 1863 No. 284 drew the special train carrying the Prince and Princess of Wales from London to Wolferton after their marriage. The engine was painted cream, and encircled with garlands of roses. No. 293 was loaned for some time in 1868 to the Great Northern Railway for trial running between London and Peterborough and may have influenced Patrick Stirling in the design of his 8 ft. singles. For many years these Sinclair singles were the principal express passenger type on the Great Eastern Railway, and worked all the more important trains, including the boat expresses to and from Parkeston Quay for twenty five years (Ahrons). Charles Rous-Marten recorded that one of them maintained from 60 to 65 m.p.h. for 35 miles consecutively when hauling a light seven-coach train between Spalding and Lincoln, thereby regaining 7 minutes of a late start. They had their share of mishaps, including a number of derailments at speed; No. 57 ran off the road at Bradfield, on the Harwich branch, with an up Continental express, on July 15th, 1864; No. 54 between Hethersett and Trowse with the 5 p.m. from Bishopsgate on July 1st, 1865; No. 292 at Kelvedon with an up Yarmouth express on October 17th, 1872; No. 294 south of Manningtree with an up Norwich train on December 8th, 1879; and No. 295 near Helpringham, Lincolnshire, when working the 9.5 a.m. express from Liverpool Street to Doncaster on October 25th, 1882. The worst accident to any of these engines befell No. 54, which was smashed beyond repair in the head-on collision on 10 September 1874 near Norwich.

Ahrons noted that they had many features in common with the Caledonian engines, e.g., the boiler barrels were parallel with circumferential butt strips, and Gooch's valve gear was employed. The weight on the leading axle was carried by a transverse plate spring, with the addition of a light longitudinal plate spring above each journal. Screw reversing gear was fitted. One is illustrated in Rly Mag, 1902, 11, page 274..

Rous-Marten (Rly Mag., 1902, 11, 272) notes that forty 7ft singles were constructed under Sinclair: these had 16 x 24in cylinders. Some were rebuilt by S.W. Johnson.

2-4-0T

Very small 2-4-0 tank class for the North Woolwich branch, of which five built at Stratford,

2-4-2T

Class V Scotchmen 1864-5
Twenty built by Neilson, Reid & Co. in Glasgow. These were probably the first tanks of this wheel arrangement in Great Britain; they were the last for which Sinclair was responsible.They had 5 ft. 7 in. coupled wheels, 15 in. by 22 in. cylinders; 120 psi boilers, and a weight in working order of 36 tons 6 cwt; their frames were 28 ft. 10 in. long, and their total wheelbase 17 f1. 4 in. Ahrons (p. 154) illustrates one of these in Fig. 196 and notes that the leading axle was of the Bissell type, but that the rear axle was rigid.
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev.,  1909, 15, 64-5.

Livery

During Sinclair's term of office all the G.E.R. engines were painted a pea green colour, with black bands and red lining.
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev.,  1909, 15, 64-5.


Samuel W. Johnson

Johnson took over in July, 1866: he found the Great Eastern short of motive power, and with many of the older engines in poor condition. New engines for both goods and passenger traffic were urgently needed.

2-4-0: mixed traffic: 1867-8

Cameron, Euan. Hurst: 90/341/382 class express engines. North British Rly Study Gp J., 2009 (105), 3-10. 5 col. drawings
2-4-0 Study Group classification E115. Followed Jenny Lind pattern, but fitted with progressively larger boilers:
When S.W. Johnson was demoted following the takeover of the Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway by the NBR Neilson WN 1294-6 and 1300-1 were diverted to the GER where they became Nos. 125-9. These were identical to the NBR 382 series. Three similar engines were built at Stratford in 1868.  These had 6ft couled wheels and 16 x 20in cylinders.

2-4-0: mixed traffic No. 1 class: 1867-72

Sometimes called Little Sharpies: thirty built by Sharp, Stewart. and further ten at Stratford.The 6 ft. at in. diameter of the N.B.R. engines' coupled wheels was reduced to 5ft. 7in., and 16in. by 20in. cylinders enlarged to 16in. by 22in.; the boiler pressure of 140 psi was highest used so far on GER. The weight in working order was 29 tons. The London, Tilbury & Southend Railway was still using locomotive power supplied by the Great Eastern Railway: some Little Sharpies were loaned until 1880, when the L.T. & S.R. had acquired an adequate locomotive stock of its own. In their final form many of the" No.1" class 2-4-0s had Holdcn boilers, with domes on the front instead of the rear ring of the boiler barrel, and pressure increased to 160 psi; the last two Nos. 42 (later 33) and 47 (later 01) survived until 1913. Ahrons illustrated one of these 2-4-0s on p. 171 (Fig. 218) and noted that they worked the long cross-country lines in search of swedes and bloaters.

0-6-0

417 class: 1867-
Neilson: 20: 1867/8
Worcester Engine Co.: 40: 1867-9; WN 17-26 (running numbers 437-446) and WN 40-69 (447-476) 
The Worcester Engine Co. batch represented a substantial proportion of the output from that firm which at the time was associated with the involvement of Alexander Allan (Lowe). This neat design had 16½ by 24in. cylinders, 5ft 3in driving wheels, 140 psi boiler pressure, and a.weight of 31¾ tons. They were fitted with four-wheel tenders. All the Johnson engines had the characteristic outline which he later transferred, almost unchanged, to the Midland Railway — a massive cast chimney, tapering from a broad base to a narrower top crowned with a substantial flare; spring balance safety-valves on the dome and additional safety-valves over the firebox covered by a tapered brass casing; and (the only defect) wretchedly inadequate protection for the enginemen, the upper sidesheets and roof of the cab offering little more shelter than tthe old weatherboards. In the rebuildings of his engines by his successors this deficiency was corrected. Later some engines were modified to enable them to work over the Woolwich branch, which had only a limited headroom through the Silvertown tunnel. They were provided with hinged chimneys, the two halves coming together at the centre on a pair of flanges. Scrapping of the class began in 1888; the year 1891 saw 23 of them transferred to the duplicate list; and the last survivor was broken up in 1899.

477 class: 1871-
The 417 class 0-6-0s were soon succeeded by the more powerful " 477 " class:
Beyer, Peacock: 20: 1871/2
R. Stephenson: 5: 1872
Dübs: 5
Nasmyth, Wilson: 5
Yorkshire Engine Co.: 15: 1873;
four of the firms mentioned were supplying the Great Eastern Railway for the first time. Locomotives had 5ft. 1in. driving wheels, 17in. by 24in. cylinders, 140 psi boiler pressure, and weighed 32¾ tons. Six-wheel tenders were specified. After various rebuildings, duplicate numbering began in 1898 and the last survivors disappeared in 1902.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 23-4.
Describes what was stated to be Johnson 417 class 0-6-0, but appears to have been 477 type. Figs. 159-60. Supplied by Beyer Peacock (Fig 159); Robert Stephenson, Dubs, Nasmyth Wilson, and Yorkshire Engine Co. (Fig. 160).

4-4-0

C8 class: 1874
The final Johnson design for the GER was for two inside cylinder 4-4-0 passenger engines. In 1874 the use of a leading bogie was still unusual. Ahrons (British steam locomotive) notes that this was of the Adams type. The locomotives had 17 by 24in cylinders, 6ft 6 in driving wheels, and 140 psi boiler pressure.  The original fireboxes were made from iron, but copper was later substituted (Ahrons). They were the first inside-cylinder 4-4-0s to be built for any English railway (Ahrons' italics!). Over the coupled wheels the framing was raised, anticipating a practice of much later date. Johnson did not fit these engines with any brakes, reliance having to be placed on the tender handbrakes until some years later, when continuous brakes were fitted. Moreover, new tenders were not constructed for them, and for years they ran with any available tender. These 4-4-0s were used all over the system, occasionally on Royal trains, and finished their careers in 1897 and 1898: On page 197 of Ahrons Fig. 254 shows a drawing of No. 301 with a standard Sinclair tender. No. 306 as pilot at St. Pancras and No. 305 at Liverpool Street. Note the discrpancy in running numbers between Allen and the accounts in the Locomotive and by Ahrons..

Braithwaite, Jack. The Butterflies: some notes on S.W. Johnson's original bogie single-wheeler and 4-4-0 designs for the GER,  Midland Record (14), 45-8.
These locomotives may have been painted in yellow ochre livery for a time.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 34. Steam Wld, 2007 (244) 22-6..
Illustration and long captions: Johnson GER 4-4-0 No. 305 at Liverpool Street as station pilot prior to 1898 (the caption notes that some of these Johnson 4-4-0s may have worked into St Pancras on trains from King's Lynn!).
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 113-15.
Porttrait of Johnson when Nottingham JP: C8 class 4-4-0s of 1874 Nos. 301/2. Livery stated to be a darker green than that employed by Sinclair. Black bands with white lines. Buffer beams were green.

Tank engine evolution

Allen noted that the opening of the group of suburban lines from Bethnal Green to Edmonton, and from Hackney Downs to Walthamstow, created a demand for more capable suburban passenger power. This was partly met by borrowing six 4-4-0 tanks from the Metropolitan Railway, but in overall terms of British locomotive development the Johnson 0-4-4T was a significant event (which culminated in the Lemon design noted for its ability to withstand long years of storage).

0-6-0T

204 class: 1868
Lowe (p. 561) noted that Ruston Proctor supplied five 0-6-0Ts (Nos. 204-8) to Samuel Johnson's design: three were converted to crane tanks in 1891/3. In latter form lasted into British Railways ownership: see RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 10A.

0-4-2T

T7 class: 1871-5
Fifteen small 0-4-2 side tanks built at Stratford

Braithwaite, Jack. The Butterflies: some notes on S.W. Johnson's original bogie single-wheeler and 4-4-0 designs for the GER,  Midland Record (14), 45-8.
Locomotives Nos. 81, 82, 83, 13 and 14 were painted painted in yellow ochre livery for a time: cites following reference.
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 3-4.
Describes 2-4-0T of 1871/5 designed by Johnson (Nos. 81-3) Notes that orginally painted canary yellow with black bands lined with red and white. Braithwaite (ibid) stated that anonymous articles were by Arthur Willoughby Lowe and H. Thornton Buckle..

4-4-0T: Metropolitan type
Metropolitan-type 4-4-0T borrowed from MDR (District Railway) for four months.
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 68-70.

0-4-4T

Johnson designed some powerful 0-4-4 tanks. Fifteen which were built by Neilson and fifteen by Avonside in 1872 and 1873. They were not the first tank engines of this wheel arrangement to appear in Great Britain, as sometimes claimed: both the South Eastern and LBSCR introduced tank engines of this wheel arrangement in 1866, but Ahrons argued that the combination of inside cylinder with inside frames as on the subsequent C8 4-4-0 was innovative. At first Johnson's 0-4-4 tanks had nothing more than weatherboards to protect their crews; but small cabs were added later, although these lacked protection when running bunker first. They had 17 by 24 in cylinders, 5ft 3in coupled wheels, and 140psi boiler pressure. They weighed 42¾ or 44¾ tons in working order, depending whether fitted with short tanks holding 960 gallons of water, or long tanks accommodating 1,080 gallons. No. 189 of this series on 6 May 1882 worked a special train carrying Queen Victoria from Victoria Park to Chingford to declare Epping Forest open to the public, and was the first Great Eastern engine to be painted Royal blue.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 68-70.
Johnson 0-4-4T Nos. 1707-40 supplied by Neilson and Nos. 917-26 supplied by Avonside..
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 91-2.
On 6 May 1882 Queen Victoria visited Epping Forest and No. 189 became the first GER locomotive to be painted blue for this event

Johnson modifications to earlier designs

4-2-2

Johnson rebuilt some of the Sinclair W class 2-2-2s with 140 psi boilers, enlarged cylinders of 17 in. diameter, thicker tyres which increased the driving wheel diameter to 7 ft. 3 in., and firegrate area increased from 15.7 to 16.6ft2. Two of them, Nos. 51 (later 275) and 291, had their leading wheels replaced by a bogie, and were converted to 4-2-2s of quite handsome appearance. According to Allen these two rebuilds, with No. 60 of the 2-2-2 type, were painted by Johnson in bright canary yellow, somewhat similar to the gamboge of the LBSCR, but other than the application of the same colour to two of the Sharp singles and a few tank engines, this experiment was not carried further.

Braithwaite, Jack. The Butterflies: some notes on S.W. Johnson's original bogie single-wheeler and 4-4-0 designs for the GER,  Midland Record (14), 45-8.
These locomotives were painted in yellow ochre livery
The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 17, 119-20.
2-2-2 and 4-2-2 designs.

Ordinary livery

Until experimenting with yellow Johnson's engine colours had been an olive green, darker than that used by Sinclair, with black bands and white lining, chocolate framing and green buffer-beams.


William Adams designs

William Adams took over in July 1873, but his reign was brief, as it lasted only until the beginning of 1878, but it was sufficiently long for him also to leave his impress on Great Eastern locomotive stock, including the external lines which later he made so familiar on the LSWR. These included, an immediate reversion from Johnson's cast chimney with flare, narrower at the top than at the bottom, to Sinclair's stovepipe, tapered outward from bottom to top, which was now to remain the Great Eastern standard until the late 1890s.

2-6-0

Mogul: 1878

This introduced the 2-6-0 wheel arrangement to Great Britain. Allen noted the "quite exceptional power of the engines", with their 19 x 26in. cylinders, 4ft. 10in. driving wheels, 1393 ft2 heating surface, 17.8 ft2 grate area, 140 psi boiler pressure, and 46¾ ton engine weight. The first of the class, No. 527, received the name Mogul, after the Great Moguls of Delhi, who at that time were much in the public eye. The name was painted on the large sandboxes which stood on the running plate above the middle pair of driving wheels, on which the outside cylinders drove. Neilson & Co. were the builders and the fifteen engines of the class were delivered in 1878 and 1879. The large Adams side-window cab appeared on these engines also, and an unusual addition to the skyline was a large sandbox for the leading pair of coupled wheels, perched on the boiler barrel between the chimney and the dome, though this was soon removed. Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive) covers this design at length and argues that Massey Bromley incorporated modifications which reflected American practice. The complex pony trucks were described in Engineering, 1880, 23 January; and refected Pennsylvania Railroad practice. The centre driving wheels were originally flangeless. The single slide bars originated at Dübs.

These engines did not actually appear until Bromley had taken over at Stratford. Both Ahrons and Allen noted that Adams had not achieved success, and his Moguls, which spent their working lives on heavy mineral traffic between Peterborough and London, were not even reboilered. The boilers, could not supply enough steam to fill cylinders of as large a diameter as 19 in., and the engines were uneconomically heavy on coal and oil. Between 1885 and 1887 the whole fifteen went to the scrapheap after a life of no more than seven or eight years.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1911, 17, 15-16.
Fig. 192: Mogul goods locomotive No. 527: portrait of William Adams.
Wilson, E.H. William Adams (1823-1904). Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1985, 57, 125-46. Disc.: 147-8.
Considered that grate area was too small; also notes that D.H. Neale contributed to design.

4-4-0

Ahrons British steam railway locomotive Fig. 281 (p. 217) shows a far from elegant outside-cylinder 4-4-0. In his text (p. 281) notes that the design was not very successful and was due to an "epededmic of large cylinders and small boilers". The permissible weight was taken up by the frames, the outside cylinders demanded thick frames made from Yorkshire iron, to the detriment of the boiler. Cylinders were 18 by 26in.; coupled wheels 6ft 1in., 140 psi boiler pressure, and an engine weight of 45 tons. Ten were built by Dübs in 1876, and ten by R. &. W. Hawthorn in 1877. A cab of unusual magnificence was provided, with wide side-sheets adorned with glass windows. In spite of the success of subsequent Adams 4-4-0 designs on the LSWR the Ironclads, as the GER 4-4-0s were dubbed, had little success in passenger work, and for most of their existence were relegated to fast freight service.

4-4-0s rebuilt from Sinclair 2-4-0s

Adams rebuilt twenty of the Sinclair 6ft. 1in. 2-4-0s, originally designed for goods work, with leading bogies: they did quite well on express passenger trains. For some years No. 342 worked the 12.3 p.m. express from St. Pancras to Ely, and E. L. Ahrons has left a record of a run with this engine and nine coaches when, after initial delays to Tottenham, the 49¾ miles on to Cambridge, including the slowing for Bishop's Stortford curve and the subsequent climb to Elsenham, were covered in one hour ¾min., making 78½ minutes in all from St. Pancras. On another occasion, No. 415. with a 16-coach up express, covered 16 miles between mileposts 24 and 8 in 1.7¾ minutes, averaging 55 to 58 mile/h. for five miles, and passing Tottenham 24.35 miles from Bishop's Stortford, in 30 minutes 20 seconds.

0-4-4T

Class 61: 1875-8

Similar to Johnson design, except that driving wheel diameter was reduced to 4ft 10in, and a better cab was provided, although stilll lacking protection for bunker-first running, and it was not until some years later that all-over cabs were fitted to the class. In 1875 and 1876 Neilson & Co. built twenty-five of these; in 1877 ten came from R. Stephenson & Co.; and the last fifteen, making a total of fifty, were turned out by Kitson & Co. in 1878. In 1893 fourteen of the Adams 0-4-4 tanks were fitted with oil-firing.

0-4-2T

Class K9: 1877

Adams also designed and built at Stratford in 1877 and 1879 ten light 0-4-2 tanks (class K9), with 4ft. 10in. coupled wheels, 15 x 22in. cylinders, 140 psi boiler. pressure, and a weight in working order of 38 tons, which did useful service until the last of them was broken up in 1907. These were the only locomotives built at Stratford under the superintendence of Adams.

Adams' livery

For the third time the colour scheme of Great Eastern engines had been changed during the Adams regime; he favoured plain black, with vermilion lining and buffer-beams.


Massey Bromley designs

Massey Bromley's tenure was from February 1878 until August 1881, when he resigned. An important decision made by Bromley was that Stratford Works, which in a little over thirty years from its opening had built no more than eighty locomotives (all others being purchased outside), should in future take a greater share in the building work. The mighty, slightly disappointing Mogul design is considered with Adams..

0-6-0

0-6-0 tender engine for freight service, in which the outside framing and running-plate curved upwards from the buffer-beam to clear the 5ft. 2in. coupled wheels along the whole length of the engine, curving downwards again past the cab to the ordinary footplate level. Ten of these 0-6-0s were built by Kitson & Co. in 1882; their cylinders were 17 x 24in., and their working pressure 140 psi. This small class led a normal life, and was broken up between 1904 and 1906. Ahrons British steam railway locomotive illustrates (line drawing) No. 552 in Fig 352 on p. 280. Ahrons noted that they were fitted with compensating levers and considered that the running plate arrangement probably made it difficult to lubricate the motion.

4-2-2

Allen considered that Bromley made his mark with this fine series of 4-2-2 express engines built to his designs: ten by Dübs in 1879 and ten by Kitson in 1881/2. They strongly resembled Patrick Stirling's famous eight-footers, although their driving wheels were not quite so large, (7ft 6in), but still the largest seen on the GER. The cylinders were 18 x 24in., and the working pressure remained at 140 psi. Four were stationed at Yarmouth, four at Norwich, and the remainder were concentrated on Stratford. Among my [CJA's] earliest memories is that of being hoisted up to the parapet of one of the tunnels between Hackney Downs and Clapton, and seeing below me one pf the Bromley 4-2-2s, on an up Cambridge express, held up at Queen's Road signals. The late E. L. Ahrons, who travelled behind them, has written appreciatively of their performances, which gave him speeds up to 70 m.p.h., and particularly of the way in which engines of such moderate cylinder power and no more than 15 tons adhesion-out of a total engine weight of 41½ tons-climbed the 1 in 70 of Bethnal Green bank immediately after their departure from Liverpool Street. No. 251 was the first Great Eastern express engine to be fitted for burning oil with Holden's patent apparatus; and No. 254 was the first on the line to be equipped for steam sanding. But these engines were soon outclassed by the increasing severity of the traffic demands, and between 1890 and 1893 they all went to the scrapheap. Lowe commented when writing about Kitson's that "an interesting order from the Great Eastern Railway was for ten 4-2-2s In 1881-2. All wheels had inside frames, the outside cylinders were 18in x 24in and the driving wheels 7ft 6in diameter which were the largest wheels ever used on the GER. The locomotives were designed by Massey Bromley. An unusual feature was the bogie which had large wheels.. The crosshead was of the single slide bar type".

Rous-Marten (Rly Mag., 1902, 11, 272) noted twenty 7ft 6in singles with 18 x 24in cylinders were constructed: 245-254 and 600-609. These were rebuilt by Holden

0-4-4T

E10 class: 1878-83
The E10 class, sixty in all, were built at Stratford between 1878 and 1883, the last appearing well after his resignation. Although these engines generally resembled the previous Adams and Johnson 0-4-4 tanks, they differed in having smaller cylinders: 16 x 22in. Some had shortened chimneys for operating the Woolwich line, and five were fitted with condensing apparatus to work through the East London Line tunnels to New Cross and East Croydon. Three in 1892, received oil-burning equipment.

140 class: Hawthorn: 1880-1
For working branches which could not accept the E10 there was a smaller 0-4-4 design, of which ten were built by R. & W. Hawthorn in 1880 and 1881; these were later converted to the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement.

0-6-0T

M12 class: 1880
Bromley was responsible for ten 0-6-0 shunting tanks, a form of power of which the Great Eastern Railway at that time was almost completely devoid, so that the most unsuitable types of engine were having to be drafted to shunting yard duties.

Livery

During the reign of Massey Bromley the letters "G E R" were first painted on tank sides, an arrangement which made it necessary to remove the number-plates to the bunkers. As to colour, he maintained the black paint tradition of his predecessor, though with a bolder red lining.


After Bromley's resignation in August, 1881, there was an interregnum of six months during which the Works Manager at Stratford, M. Gillies, was in charge, during which time ten 2-4-0s similar to the well-tried Sinclair Y class, and ten 0-4-4 tanks of the Bromley E10 type were constructed.

Worsdell designs

T.W. Worsdell, came to Stratford in February, 1882 from being Works Manager at Crewe under Webb, and following working in the USA. Even though Stratford Works, under Massey Bromley's superintendence, had been building a larger proportion of the GER locomotives than previously, the total Stratford production over thirty-five years still had reached no more than 160 locomotives. Worsdell required that in future all the motive power requirements of the company should be met from its own production; and apart from a small number of goods engines needed urgently for the opening of the Great Northern & Great Eastern Joint Railway in 1882, this was achieved.

Allen noted that once more the lineaments of Great Eastern locomotives were to change; the external lines which had been introduced on the GER by Johnson and Adams, and which later were to become far more familiar on the Midland and LSWR, now were to be succeeded by those which presently would become the hall-mark of the North Eastern Railway. This refers more particularly to the long splashers, covering both pairs of coupled wheels, which gave Worsdell's express passenger engines so distinctive an outline. While retaining the tapered stovepipe chimney of his predecessors, Worsdell initiated the capacious and comfortable cab with curved side-sheets, and the neat casing for the Ramsbottom safety-valves, which were a characteristic feature of Great Eastern locomotives for many years afterwards.

0-6-0

Y14: 1883-

These extremely simple, robust little locomotives were constructed over a long period and survived until the end of steam in East Anglia pottering around on freight to places like Snape and even on passenger trains: LNER classification: J15. One fortunately still survives and is just as successful at climbing into the mountains of North Norfolk as the 2-10-0 which is apt for in their day they hauled long coal trains over the GNR/GER Joint Line into London (a task for which the 2-10-0s might also have been envisaged). Amongst their many attributes was one was constructed in record time at Stratford. Allen notes that between 1883 and 1885 Stratford built fifty of these engines, and Sharp, Stewart another twenty, and many of them underwent two successive rebuildings during their lengthy lives. Their cylinders were 17½ by 24in. and the coupled wheels 4ft 10in diameter; the boilers were 2 in. greater in diameter than those of the G14 2-4-0s, and had 1,161ft2 total heating surface and 17.9 ft2. grate area as compared with 1,200 and 17.3 sq. ft. respectively; but the working pressure still remained 140 lb. RCTS Loocomotives of the LNER (Part 5) page 84 et seq gives a very extensive history of the class which was subject to a very large number of minor experiments, such as Macallan blstpipes, several types of soot blower and serve tubes (in 1891). Steel fireboxes were fitted to some locomotives during WW1..

World record for rapid assembly

On 10 December 1891 No.  930 was completed at Stratford in 9 hours fgifty seven minutes. This included one coat of paint and after completion it was steamed. Marshall: The Guinness book of rail facts and feats. 1971.

www.nnrailway.co.uk/locos/65462.htm is the website for this remarkable locomotive

4-4-0

Two-cylinder compounds (230/700-709): 1884/5

Neither Allen nor Ahrons gives this a class designation: therefore, it is assumed that they must be the 230 class. Allen states that these locomotives were identical to the G14 2-4-0s except for the substitution of a leading bogie and the employment of compounding, on the two-cylinder Von Borries system: a higher boiler pressure (160 psi) was also applied. The left-hand inside high pressure  cylinder was 18in. diameter with 24in. stroke and the right-hand low pressure was 26in. by 24in. The weight in working order was 44¾ tons. Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive p. 253-4 and Fig. 315 that the locomotives failed to start about once in ten times and that intercepting flap valve was fitted to improve this. Holden found that a 14% fuel saving could be achieved, but this vanished when the boiler pressure was lowered to 150 psi. The locomotives steamed well..

They put up some tolerable performances; Ahrons records a run in 1887 on which No. 230 ran from Bishop's Stortford to Cambridge with 9 six-wheelers in 30 min. 45 sec. for the 25.35 miles, covering 9 miles between mileposts 44 and 53 in 9 min. 9 sec. with a top speed of 63 mile/h. Rous-Marten timed No. 701 to bring an 18-coach train from Colchester to passing Stratford, 47.7 miles, in 58 minutes, with a maximum of 64 mile/h. on Brentwood bank-no mean performance with a load that probably totalled from 250 to 270 tons behind the tender.

Early in 1892 all eleven engines were transferred to .the duplicate list and rebuilt as simples with two 18 in. cylinders, but sti1l with the Joy motion. In 1901 Holden rebuilt No. 0706 with an extended smokebox, which he crowned with a cast iron chimney having a flared top, similar to that being used on his new 0-6-0 goods engines. The last of the Worsdell 4-4-0s went to the scrapheap in 1904.

Lucas, S.J. discussion on Selby, F.W. Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 319-21 (Paper No. 257)
Had experience of Worsdell's two-cylinder compounds on GER.

2-4-0

G14 (562 class): 1882/3
First Worsdell design: 18 x 24in. cylinders, 7 ft. coupled wheels, working pressure 140 psi, and weight in working order of 41¼ tons. Twenty built at Stratford in 1882 and 1883. They were fitted with Joy valve-gear (reflecting his Crewe background see Lowe p. 146), and with the Westinghouse brake, the donkeypump for which was concealed behind the continuous coupled-wheel splashers, and made partially accessible by lifting the hinged engine number-plate. Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive p. 266 and Fig 331 (line drawing)) was critical of the use of Webb's radial axial boxes: "a somewhat unsteady arrangement". Later James Holden rebuilt two of the G14s: in one he provided separate coupled wheel splashers, with the Westinghouse pump mounted between them, and Stephenson link motion in place of the Joy gear, and in another he replaced the radial leading axle, with its inside axleboxes, by outside axleboxes with side-play. Did Worsdell or Bromley introduce Westinghouse brake on GER?

Ahrons (Locomotive and Train Working 1 p. 113) is sharp about their performance: although he agreed that they could haul heavy trains that "when it came to fast running there was an indefinable something about them, which may be expressed that they usually seemed to travel after the manner of a stout lady in a hobble skirt".

2-4-2T

M15 Worsdell Gobblers (LNER F4): 1884-6
The normally cautious RCTS Loocomotives of the LNER (Part 7) page 65 et seq on page 66 attributes their lack of success (notably high fuel consumption) to the Joy valve gear: nevertheless, the design did set the pattern for Holden's series of 2-4-2Ts. Allen notes that for their period they were powerful engines, with 18 x 24in. cylinders; and 5ft. 4in. coupled wheels, although the working pressure remained low figure at 140psi until Holden later rebuilt the class with 160psi boilers. The weight in running order was 52 tons. The Westinghouse brake was fitted, and the designer, who seemed to have a curious reluctance to permit the general public ever to see the donkey-pump used for air compression, this time tucked it away inside the cab, behind the tank casing. His successor, however, brought it out into the open, and mounted it in a much more accessible position, on the front end of the right-hand side-tank. Worsdell took the design to the NER where it was the A class..

0-4-0T

G15 (later LNER Y6) tram locomotives
RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 9B page 90 et seq) makes it clear that these were constructed for the opening of the Wisbech & Upwell Tramway in 1883. Two further locomotives were constructed for the Yarmouth Union street tramway in 1885. Five further engines were built for the Upwell line in 1891-7. Two were used on the Wissington Light Railway during WW2 and No. 7134 was loaned to the United States Army Transportation Corps and used at Burton-on-Trent in 1943. The last was not scrapped until 1953. They were very small: 11 x 15in cylinders; great area 9.7 ft2 and 3ft 1in coupled wheels.

Middlemass, Tom. Tram traction from Wisbech. Rly Mag., 1983, 129, (988) 315
Includes both the four- and six-coupled Great Eastern tram locomotives, the Sentinel Y10 and the diesel replacements. Written at the end of the Wisbech & Upwell Tramway.

Livery

Worsdell was responsible for reintroducing the Royal blue livery for GER locomotives, applied at first to freight and tank engines as well as those for express passenger duty. This was a distinctive feature of Great Eastern motive power up to the time of austerity forced on the Company by the First World War. With this colour there came vermilion lining, bufferbeams and coupling rods, gold lettering, and cast brass numberplates with the figures in relief against a red background.


Holden designs

With the notable exception of the Decapod and the singles (2-2-2 and 4-2-2), the majority of Holden's designs survived into LNER days, thus the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER supported by Yeadon, etc lessens the need for Allen, although he does add colour to the exploits of the tiny Holden 0-6-0Ts which thrashed their way reliably to the densely populated East London suburbs carrying the proletariat on workmen's tickets into the great Metropolis. The Whyte arrangement adopted causes some absurd anomalies, but the output under Holden had some absurd characteristics: the political 0-10-0T and the Humpty Dumpties typify this anarchic quality.

0-6-0

F48 and G48 (LNER J16 and J17): 1900-

The F48 class were built between 1900 and 1903 and had round-top boilers: there were sixty of them. The G48 had Belpaire boilers, like those fitted to the T19 class and the initial 0-6-0 to be fitted was a F48 No. 1189. A further thirty of the Belpaire boiler type followed to form class G48. The G48 class was superheated between 1915 and 1932. From 1921 all the round-top boilers were replaced by the Belpaire type and the majority were of the superheated type. The J16 category ceased to exist in 1932. |At first Macallan blast pipes were fitted, but later the Stone's variable blastpipe was substituted. Plain blastpipes were substituted beteen 1924 and 1929.

RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 5 page 99 et seq)

4-4-0

D13 (LNER): 1905-

Rebuilt from sixty T19 class 2-4-0s with boiler similar to that used on Humpty Dumpties. The bogies came from Bromley 0-4-4Ts and Worsdell 4-4-0s. Most had been fitted with superheaters by 1926. The last survivor (8039) was withdrawn in 1944. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C is the premier source of information: Harvey (Bill Harvey's sixty years in steam p. 15) noted that they received the nickname Dolly Grays.

S46 Claud Hamilton dynasty; 1900-
RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C  contains a diagram which is in effect the taxonomy of a class which evolved into three GER and three LNER classes. It may be noted that Allen devotes a whole Chapter to the class, which is one of the classic locomotive designs, and like the absence of the LNWR 4-4-0s in the National Collection is a serious gap. F.V. Russell is generally accepted as the actual designer of this famous class. Hamilton Ellis's Some classic locomotives notes: "Mr Holden, by then a valetudinarian was making a long recuperative stay in Egypt": this was related to Ellis by Russell See also LNER Class D16 for LNER modifications.

Poultney was highly succinct: "In 1900 the large Claud Hamilton 4-4-0 engine was built at Stratford for the Great Eastern to James Holden's design. The cylinders of this class had flat valves placed below, operated by Stephenson's motion. They were 19in. by 26 in. and the coupled wheels were 7 ft. diameter. The boiler heating surfaces were 1,630 sq. ft.; supported by a grate area of 21.3 sq. ft., so that the boiler dimensions were very similar to those designed later by McIntosh for the Caledonian 140 class." Poultney then wanders off to consider the Great Western City class of 1903

Allen noted that "of all the locomotive designs that emerged from Stratford Works during the reign of James Holden, the one destined to achieve the greatest fame, beyond question, was his "Claud Hamilton" type 4-4-0, of which the pioneer example, No. 1900 Claud Hamilton, took the rails in 1900. The Locomotive Magazine signalised its appearance in the following almost lyrical terms: " St. Patrick's Day, 1900, will be memorable at Stratford, as witnessing the completion of the magnificent four-coupled bogie express locomotive which has been designed by Mr. James Holden to meet the demands of the heavy and increasing main line passenger traffic of the G.E.R., and will represent the company at the forthcoming Paris Exhibition. From the accompanying photograph its splendid proportions will be plainly seen." In those days, however, we could always be moved to very considerable enthusiasm by the appearance of a new and handsome engine. Well do I remember the impression made on my own mind on one afternoon in March, 1900, when Claud Hamilton himself drew into Hackney Downs Junction at the head of the 4.10 p.m. "slow" from Liverpool Street to Cambridge, always the" running-in" turn for new Stratford express engines, and which in my school days conveyed me daily over the one-mile journey from Hackney Downs to Clapton.

Holden had spared no pains to beautify his masterpiece. The dignified Royal blue of the Great Eastern livery, with its scarlet lining out, was embellished with a copper chimney cap, and brass beadings round the rim of the safety-valve casing, the front and side cab windows, the top and bottom of both cylinders of the Westinghouse brake compressor, the coupled wheel splashers, and the four openings that had been cut in subsidiary coupling rod splashers—in London & North Western style—to give access to the coupling rod pins when the rods were up. In contrast with the blue livery was the vermilion with which the buffer-beam and coupling rods were painted. Another feature of great distinction, begun by James Holden with the "Claud Hamilton" 4-4-0s, was the broad steel ring, polished bright, that encircled the smokebox door, and made it possible to dispense with the usual straps across the door. In those days engines really were looked after, and the total effect was most striking. Before very long the painted representation of the G.E.R. coat-of-arms on the driving splashers was replaced by a replica cast in relief, and picked out in colour." He also noted that the number "1900" came as a surprise, but reflected the new century and anticipated exhibition in Paris.

Performance

Tuplin (British steam since 1900 p. 24) was rather damning about the North Walsham non-stops: "this job was a specially 'starry turn'". Both men and machines were specially selected. On the other hand Allen really comes into his own when describing the amazing Norfolk Coast Express when Claud Hamiltons in their original state were capable of taking around 350 tons from Liverpool Street up the 1 in 70 Bethnall Green bank, up Brentwood Bank, and with some laxity of speed through Chelmsford, Cromer and over Whitlingham Junction to ascend the 1 in 80 towards Salhouse reach North Walsham in under the booked time. No. 1882 with round-top boiler ran the 130.2 miles in 156 min. 60 secs. Even heavier trains were managed in the up direction: No. 1809 (Belpaire boiler) took 400 tons up (with CJA on the footplate) in 157 min. 24 seconds. Harry Nudd, a Norwich driver, was one of the skilled elite. Allen noted that a Stratford pupil was normally on the footplate to monitor progress..

Illustrations

Ellis, C.H. The splendour of steam. 1965. page 61.
The original 1900 crossing the frozen tundra of Norfolk with pheasant with cold feet not giving a jot about the passing express.

Liveries

W.J. Reynolds. Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 231 notes that No. 1830 was painted black as a proposed economy measure whilst No. 1831 (illustrated) was specially painted in the blue livery.

W.J. Reynolds. Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 171 p. 175 shows No. 1813 in grey livery with white lining: caption notes that locomotive involved in severe collison at Ilford on New Year's Eve 1915 when working up Clacton breakfast car express.

Aldrich, C.L. The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway, 1862-1962. 1969. p. 47
Noted that in pre-1914 days members of the class based at Cambridge were painted in a lighter blue with what Aldrich termed a Cambride Blue Tint.

2-4-0

T19 (710 class): 1886-97

Allen: Similar to the Worsdell G14, but with a slightly larger boiler. 110 locomotives constructed. They had 18 x 24in cylinders and the last ten had 160psi boilers, but the remainder were gradually fitted with two-ring boilers. No. 758 was fitted with an extended smokebox in 1900. Oil burning apparatus was fitted to No. 712 and 759-767. No. 760 was named Petrolea. Tenders with water scoops were fitted to Nos 762-7 and 1030-9 to enable the Cromer expresses to run non-stop from Liverpool Street to North Walsham from 1 July 1897. Water troughs were installed at Halifax Junction, Ipswich and at Tivetshall. No. 755 hauled the funeral train for the Duke of Clarence from King's Lynn to Windsor on 28 January 1892. No. 761 hauled the honeymoon train for the Duke and Duchess of York from Liverpool Street to King's Lynn on 6 July 1893. In spite of all this Royal patronage 29 were scrapped between 1908 and 1913. Although none of the 2-4-0s survived into LNER ownership, some in their rebuilt as 4-4-0 form did and this provided the authors of RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C with an excuse to disentangle the complex variations within the 110 locomotives as built.

Contemporary
Great Eastern. Rly Mag., 1899, 4, 188
No. 760 Petrolea fitted with new crank axle which increased its cylinder stroke to 25 inches; No. 759 fitted with cylindrical oil tanks.

Ahrons, E.L. Locomotive and train working in the nineteenth century. 1. p. 118.
Refers to the frame type as being "Leeds" or "Yorkshire" framing as supplied by E.B. Wilson, although probably developed by John Gray of the Hull & Selby Railway. Refers to type as 710 class.
Brooks, L.D. 'Itntermediates' [letter]. Br. Rly J., 1985, (6), 219-20.
See article by J.E. Kite page 105 where it was stated that the 'Intermediates' had shorter exhaust passages, smaller cylinders and steam chests beneath the cylinders which made them livelier performers than the 7 ft T19 class 2-4-0s from which they were developed. That the cylinders were ½ inch smaller was true, but the length of the exhaust passages and position of the steam chests was the same as the T19s. The T19 class 2-4-0s were James Holden's first large locomotive design, and they were built between 1886 and 1897. Inside cylinders with the valves beneath had been tried very early in locomotive history. They were revived and used with great success by William Stroudley in the 1870s on his 'C' class 0-6-0s on the LB & SCR and later on his immortal 'Gladstones'. It was some ten years before any other locomotive designer took the idea up, when three Locomotive Superintendents produced engines with their valves beneath the cylinders, all in the same year. James Holden of the GER in his T19 2-4-0s, William Dean on the Great Western (Holden had been his Principal Assistant until 1885), and William Adams on the LSWR, who had been Locomotive Superintendent of the GER from 1874-8, and he maintained close links with Stratford for many years afterwards. Who was copying who in 1886 has not been established, but Holden used this cylinder design in all of his larger locomotive types. From the T19 2-4-0s he developed the 027 2-2-2s, the T26 'Intermediate' 2-4-0s, the C32 2-4-2Ts, the N31 0-6-0s and the S44 0-4-4Ts. The P43 class 4-2-2s were a 'one-off' design, but nonetheless had the same cylinder arrangement, as did the 'Claud Hamilton' 4-4-0s and their 0-6-0 derivatives. The T19 2-4-0s did at first have a reputation for being sluggish when getting away, but later engines incorporated some modifications to the cylinder design with respect to the steam passages. The 027 2-2-2s were identical to the T19s except in having a rear trailing axle, and provided the only direct comparison in British locomotive history between coupled and single-driver locomotives.
Kite, J.E. GER 'Intermediate' 2-4-0s. Br. Rly J. 1 (4) 105-8.
Class 417 with 5ft 8in diameter driving wheels was derived from T19 type which had 7ft driving wheels. Class was used on branch lines and on secondary traffic, such as horebox specials. There were 100 of these useful locomotives which became LNER E4 class. Under the E4 they were used beyond the bounds of the former Great Eastern Railway although they worked to Doncaster and to Aintree in GER days with horsebox specials.prior to 1914. Records the head-on crash at Fakenham which led to the scrapping of Nos. 7457 and 7486 and notes their employment between Kirkby Stephen and Tebay when the last of the NER 2-4-0s were withdrawn. Personal reminiscences include seeing a Zeppelin being shot down over Billericay in 1916 and being taken by train in GER six-wheel carriage in a compartment with red plush upholstery and a map above the luggage rrack with a colour vignette of a Claud Hamilton behind an Intermediate with red side rods.. Illus.: No. 443 at Norwich Thorpe c1900; No. 498 piloting rebuilt T19 at St Pancras c1900 (Pouteau photograph); No. 1256 (later 413) running light near Rochford (Pouteau); LNER 7490 at Cambridge in 1935; 7412 at Boston in 1926; 7409 and 7417 at Bishops Stortford in 1928 and 7499 and G4 8124 at Peterborough coaling stage. See also important letter from Lynn D. Brooks on page 219. Further article on class by R.C. Riley in Issue 9 (page 322).
Smith, Martin. The Great Eastern Holden 2-4-0s. Steam Days, 1994 (62) 621-7.
T19 class including modification for oil firing. No. 760 Petrolea, the Cromer Express and the excursion run for Bass & Co. (brewers) from St. Pancras to Scarborough and back hauled by No. 761 on little more than a tender full of oil fuel. Rebuilt with larger Belpaire boilers they became known as Humpty Dumpties. Eventually most were rebuilt as 4-4-0s.
Nunn, K.A.C.R. A famous locomotive class: Holden's "T19" express engines of the Great Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1938, 83, 417-22.
Tabulates building, rebuilding with Belpaire boilers and as 4-4-0s, and withdrawal dates. Notes major exploits, including through workings between Windsor and King's Lynn and the reverse.
Riley, R.C. Latter years of the GER Intermediate 2-4-0s. Br Rly J., 1 (9). 322-7.
Cites earlier article by Kite in Issue 4 page 105. Mainly post-war activities of the LNER E4 class, including their use by the Cambridge University Railway Club for amateur attempts at firing.and driving between Linton and Haverhill. At that time their premier duty was the Cambridge to Colchester service, but Riley also encountered them on the Saffon Walden branch, and on the Thetford to Swaffham line where locomotives with tender cabs were favoured. They were also used on the Mildenhall branch. Illus.: 62789 at Haverhill on 29 August 1956; 62785 on CURC special at Cambridge on 6 March 1958; 62788 on Saffron Walden branch on 8 September 1956; 62785 at Mildenhall on 3 May 1958; 62780 at Mildenhall in December 1953 (Ian C. Allen); 62792 at Sudbury on 9 June 1956; 62797 at Halesworth shunting milk tank wagons on 10 October 1956; 62787, 62789 and 62788 in store at Norwich Trowse in December 1955 (Ian C. Allen); 62790 (in lined BR livery) at Marks Tey on 3 June 1950 (G.W. Powell). Photos by R.C. Riley unless otherwise indicated.

Humpty Dumpties: 1902-

No 769 and twenty others were fitted with 4ft 9in diameter Belpaire boilers. This increased the grate area from 18 to 21.6 ft2; the total heating surface from 1230 to 1476 ft2 and the boiler pressure was raised to 180psi. The ungainly appearance led to the nickname, but no official name has yet been found. All had been withdrawn by 1920. From 1905 sixty were rebuilt as 4-4-0s.

T26 (LNER E4): 1891-1902

Derived from T19 class but with much smaller (5ft 8in) driving wheels and intended for mixed traffic work. One survived to form a part of the National Collection and there are happy Transacord recordings of their gentle chuffing through the byways of East Anglia.

Coe, Reginald H. The Holden 2-4-0 lcomotives of the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 365-6; 374.. 3 illus.
Very brief history and account of journey behind one from Long Melford to Bury St Edmunds
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's sixty years in steam. p. 116-119.
Notes that problems were encountered with steaming. These had been fitted with McCallan's "blast softener" which had been removed long before Harvey's involvement. Harvey modified the blastpipe by reducing its height and its diameter by inserting a ring.  The firehole doors had also been modified in the Norwich District to restrict the intake of cold air.
Smith, Martin. The Great Eastern Holden 2-4-0s. Steam Days, 1994 (62) 621-7.
Mixed traffic design, the T26 class, was introduced in 1891 and and many with fitted with the vacuum brake for "foreign" working, even reaching Holyhead with horeseboxes from Newmarket. The LNER designated the type as the E4 class and one lasted in service until November 1959. In 1935 some of the class took over passenger workings on the Stainmore route from Darlington to Penrith and during WW2 some were at Tweedsmouth shed where duties included the Burnmouth to Eyemouth branch until April 1942

4-2-2

P43: Holden 1898

Constructed with oil-burning apparatus to speed the elite from the City of London to Cromer, West Runton & Sheringham and capable of reaching North Walsham non-stop in just over two and a half hours. They had 18 x 24in outside cylinders and 7ft 6in driving wheels. Nos. 245-254 and 600-609..

Fryer, Charles. Single wheeler locomotives. 1993. Chapter 10.
Quotes run timed by Rous-Marten in Engineer (1898 2 December)

Rous-Marten (Rly Mag., 1902, 11, 272) notes that Nos. 10-19 were introduced for working premier expresses to Cromer, Yarmouth, etc

2-2-2

Allen noted (p. 114) that Holden experimented in 1888 by removing the side-rods of T19 No. 721 to form a 2-2-2. In 1889 the first of new class appeared: initially No. 740 (later 789 and 780) and this was followed by two batches of ten: 770-779 in 1891 and 1000-1009 in 1893. One of their main spheres was on the Joint Line working expresses to York. In 1896 the class inaugurated the epic making non-stop run to North Walsham using oil-firing. Rous-Marten (Rly Mag., 1902, 11, 272)  was rather vague about No. 780 (illustrated) These had inside cylinders (18 x 24in). Rous-Marten found that the singles climbed Brentwood Bank more rapidly than the 2-4-0s.

Contemporary
Great Eastern. Rly Mag., 1899, 4, 188
No. 1007 (7ft single) fitted with new crank axle which increased its cylinder stroke to 25 inches

Ahrons, E.L. Locomotive and train working in the nineteenth century. 1. p. 119.
Refers to the frame type as being "Leeds" or "Yorkshire" framing as supplied by E.B. Wilson, although probably developed by John Gray of the Hull & Selby Railway. Refers to type as 710 class.
Rous-Marten, C. British express engines. Int. Rly Congress, 1898.
Cited by Ahrons (ibid pp. 120-1): gives details of working of Cromer express (non-stop to North Walsham) with 170 tons.

0-10-0T

Decapod: three-cylinder experimental locomotive designed to demonstrate that steam locomotives could accelerate as rapidly as electric trains.

R.H. Mann. Odd man out! Part 1: 1903-1926. Rly Wld, 1957, 18, 105-8.
Single-purpose locomotives: 0-10-0 for Lickey Incline; Holden 0-10-0T Decapod (not illustrated), Churchward Great Bear (not illustrated here), U1 2-8-8-2 Beyer Garratt for Worsborough Incline and P1 2-8-2 with Booster
Skeat, W.O. The Decapod locomotive of the Great Eastern Railway. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1951, 28, 169-84. Disc. 184-5.
Includes a folding general arrangement drawing. This is a highly detailed examination of a very unusual design and its performance under test. It was developed by J. Holden and the great draughtsman V.R. Russell. Includes notes of the patents involved: see also 29 page 263.
Skeat, W.O. The Decapod locomotive of the Great Eastern Railway: supplementary notes. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1954, 29, 263-4.
Cited Barnard M. Jenkin's contribution to the discussion on W.E. Dalby's paper (inadequately cited in the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (1912 2). He had noted that the data recorded in Diagram 9 related to the Decapod (Dalby had anonymous data). Original 28, p. 169)
W.A. Tuplin. The Great Eastern "Decapod". Rly Wld, 1964, 25, 293-5.
Called it "an extremely expensive experiment", but did not cite Skeat above

0-6-0T

Hill, A.J. Questions affecting the cost of repairs and renewals of rolling stock. 1-14. Trans Instn Loco. Engrs., 1914, 4, (Paper No. 23)
Soon aftcr Mr. James HoIden came to the Great Eastern Railway as Locomotive Superintendent he found it was the custom for the bulk of the shunting work to be done by tender engines which were not in good enough state of repair for train work and were almost due for shops. By putting suitable shunting tank engines to do the work it mas done both more efficiently and much more economically.

Proud, P. The Great Eastern Railway 0-6-0Ts. RCTS, [1945], 12pp.
RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 8A page 90 et seq)
Proud contained a very useful diagram of the relationship between the various later 0-6-0T classes and this figure is features on page 80. It should be noted that the compliers of the RCTS dispute earlier information, includsing some of that published by Ahrons. Nevertheless, the magic of these small locomotives is best captured by Allen's personal memories:
[In 1889 one of Holden's shunting tanks engines was fitted with the Westinghouse brake and evaluated on passenger working]. So the 1889 experiment resulted in eighty of these handy tanks, slightly larger than Class TI8 and classified as G.E.R. Class R24 being turned out from 1890 to 1896 inclusive, and taking over the whole of the suburban working between Liverpool Street and Chingford, Enfield Town, and Palace Gates; twenty shunters of the same type emerged in 1890 and 1891; and, in addition, in 1889 and 1893 Holden built twenty smaller 0-6-0 tanks (Class" E22 ") with 14 in. by 20 in. cylinders and a weight of 36½ tons, for light branch work. Some of the latter worked for years between Fenchurch Street and Blackwall with part of their side-rods removed, so converting them to the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement.

The feats of the diminutive R24 0-6-0s with their packed trains of 15 four-wheelers verged on the incredible. Between 1900 and 1912 my [Allen's] parents lived in a house in Upper Clapton which overlooked the whole sweep of the Hackney Marshes from Lea Bridge to Tottenham, with the stretch of the Chingford branch from Clapton Junction to St. James Street, Walthamstow, in view across the River Lea almost immediately opposite. Some of the up morning workmen's trains were non-stop from Hoe Street, and had the advantage of a start down at 1 in 125 and 1 in 80 to Hall Farm Junction; and I am prepared to take an affidavit that their speed across the marshes, with the coupling-rods of their 4 ft. wheels loudly ringing as they lashed round at terrific speed, was nearer sixty miles an hour than fifty.

When the intensive suburban service of 1920 was introduced, reliance was still placed largely on these cheerful little 0-6-0s to maintain the new split-second timings, and they were quite equal to the task. By then their numbers had been further reinforced by the twenty built in 1900 and 1901 with 160 lb. boilers, and by a further twenty turned out in 1904, the latter with 180 lb. pressure, larger boilers giving 988 sq. ft. heating surface and 14.5 sq. ft. grate area, and side-tanks holding 1,200 gallons, which increased the weight to 42½ tons. Those built from 1912 onwards were decorated with flared-top chimneys, in place of stovepipes, and the high-roofed cab with side-windows which was now the Holden standard. In spite of this lengthy quotation from Allen it must be emphasised that the RCTS work is probasbly definitive.

Reed, Brian. 150 years of British steam locomotives. p. 76.
For hard slogging work on a much higher load factor the Terriers were surpassed by the GER 0-6-0Ts that for 30 years from 1890 handled much of the intensive suburban service centred on Liverpool Street station, particularly on the 11-mile route to Enfield with 15 stops on an overall schedule of 40 min. After trials in 1889 with an 0-6-0 shunting tank, a new design specifically for Enfield services was produced, similar to the shunters but with air-brake equipment, crescent-balanced cast steel wheel centres in place of unbalanced cast iron, screw reverse in place of lever, tanks put further forward, and wheelbase increased by 6in. The 16½in by 22in cylinders, 4ft wheels and 140psi boiler pressure of the shunters were retained. One hundred were built from 1890 to 1901, but the last 20 had 160psi pressure, and from 1894 most of the engines were given simple condensing arrangements in the tanks. In 1904 another 20 were built with 180psi boilers and 1200gal tanks, and though heating surface went up only 2 per cent the grate area was increased by 17 per cent to 14.5sq ft. These 120 engines worked the greater part of the GER London suburban services until the 0-6-2Ts began to appear in numbers after World War I.

T18 (LNER J66): 1886-88

RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 8A (pp. 73-7) describe these small locomotives: they had 16¾ x 22in cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels and a grate area of 12.4ft2. They were rebuilt between 1898 and 1908. One was sold to the Mersey Electric Railway.

E22 (J65): 1889-93

These had 4ft 2in coupled wheels, 14 x 20in cylinders and were lighter than the T18 class. Tey were reboilered between 1889 and 1912. The Macallan variable blastpipe was removed from 1924. They ran as 2-4-0Ts on the Fenchurch Street to Blackwall service and were sometimes known as Blackwall tanks. They operated on the Stoke Ferry, Eye and Mid-Suffolk branches. They became extinct in 1956. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 8A (pp. 70-3.)

C53 (J70): 1906-21
Larger version of four-wheel tram locomotive: latterly associated with Wisbech & Upwell Tramway.

Great Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 169.
Three six-coupled tram engines with Walschaerts valve gear had left the shops at Stratford bearing Nos. 137-139. The two first were stationed at Yarmouth (Vauxhall) for working on the Quay Tramway, and No. 139 had gone to Ipswich.

Middlemass, Tom. Tram traction from Wisbech. Rly Mag., 1983, 129, (988) 315
Includes both the four- and six-coupled Great Eastern tram locomotives, the Sentinel Y10 and the diesel replacements. Written at the end of the Wisbech & Upwell Tramway.

White, Malcolm. The Yarmouth train. 2005.
Some interesting photographs of the J70 locomotives working on the Yarmouth Quayside tramway system, including No. 68219 passing one of the many public houses.

0-6-0CT (LNER J92/Z4) (204 class): 1891/3
GER 205 and 204/6 (built Ruston & Proctor) were rebuilt (see also 204 class) as crane tanks and letter "renumbered" as B, C and D. In 1946 they received numbers and ended as 68667-9. They spent their lives at Stratford Works where the air seemed to suit aged crane tanks: Nearby Bow Works housed an ancient NLR crane tank. For GER type see RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 10A.

2-4-2T

M15 LNER F4 and F5: 1884-1909.
See RCTS Loocomotives of the LNER (Part 7) page 65 et seq. As the Locomotive Mag. reference shows new locomotives continued to emerge from Stratford. Furthermore, earlier locomotives continued to be modified.

Great Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 169.
Six new double-end radial tanks with condensing apparatus were out, Nos. 170-175. Four of this class, Nos. 145, 661, 666 and 674 had been fitted with the Whitaker tablet exchanging apparatus for running over the M. & G. N.line in Norfolk.

0-4-4T

S44 (LNER G4): 1898-1901
See RCTS Loocomotives of the LNER (Part 7) page 90-2

Suburban tank locomotives, G.E. Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1899, 4, 57.
No. 1105 illustrated


S.D. Holden

4-6-0

1500 class (S69): 1911-1921

Normally considered to be the work of J.V. Russell, who had been responsible for much of the work on the Decapod. Clay and Cliffe The LNER 4-6-0 classes observe (p. 27) that S69 sometimes used to describe the class relates only to the batch number and that 1500 class is more appropriate.  Clay and Cliffe also postulate that the design was in effect that of an enlarged 4-4-0. Few 4-4-0s had 20 x 28in cylinders, and the grate area of 26.5ft2 would also have been high for most 4-4-0s. The locomotives combined short length to enable them to be turned on 50ft turntables and light weight with excellent performance. In 1927 one locomotive was fitted with poppet valves: see B12/2. From 1932 the majority of the class were rebuilt with larger round-top boilers to become B12/3, and one of these is preserved on the North Norfolk Railway

Jackson, David  and Owen Russell. 'North Country Continental' 1927-39. Rly Wld, 1978, 39, 483-7.
Through working with lodging turns was instigated between Ipswich and Manchester using B12 class and then B17 class locomotives. Includes photographs of B12 No. 8577 at Worksop, Driver Pinkney in cab of No. 8535.
Phillipson, E.A. discussion on O'Brien: Main line electrification. J.Instn Loco. Engrs., 1925, 15, 74-5.
Amazed that O'Brien should suggest that a 4-6-0 could burn in excess of 45lb/mile of coal, but then L&YR was on a coalfield, and the GER was rather ffar from one.
Skeat, W.O., The Great Eastern Railways "1500 Class" locomotives. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1969, 42, 75-97. Disc.: 97-106.
Extremely detailed history of the class; experiments with ACFI feed-water heating, superheating, compressed air operated reversing gear, performance and liveries. Also contributes to information about Claud Hamilton 4-4-0s. In the discussion Cantlie (page 98) noted that "with an inside-cylinder engine, everything tended to stay fairly tight; with outside cylinders there was always something that needed to be tightened up at the end of a run" (presumably the remarks were based on LNWR experience).. In the discussion D.R. Carling noted the comfort of the ride.
RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 2B pages 50-66)
The 1975 publication date does not imply that the authors were aware at the time of writing of Skeat's masterly contribution. Considering that the class was the subject of considerable development under the LNER this part of the RCTS survey can only be regarded as meagre.

Performance
Allen, C.J. The Great Eastern Railway. London, Ian Allan, 1955.
Somewhat disappointing in its coverage: Allen had to rely upon other's descriptions rather than upon personal observations which are limited to a single log involving a down Hook Continental.

Liveries

Aldrich, C.L. The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway, 1862-1962. 1969.
Page 57 Beardmore locomotives delivered with white lining and black panelling, annd in caption to illus. on p. 56 greenish-grey livery and shaded gold lettering.

2-4-2T

G69 LNER F6: 1911-12
Very similar to the earler M15 (F4/F5). Class remained intact for a long time

Y65 (LNER F7): 1300 class: 1909-10

Allen noted that they were intended for working minor branch lines. They were numbered from 1300 to 1311 inclusive. "Overshadowing the whole machine was a cab of immense size, with high arched roof, windows in both sides, and huge windows fore and aft that extended from the roof down to the side tank and bunker level. Not surprisingly, this vast area of glass quickly earned for these engines the soubriquet of the "Crystal Palace" class. Perched above their diminutive boiler was a chimney which, for the first time since the earlier stovepipes, tapered outwards to the top; this was crowned by a brass cap. The "1300" class tanks had 15in. by 22in. cylinders, 4 ft. 10 in. driving wheels, 873 ft2. heating surface, 12.2ft2. grate area, 160psi boilers, and a weight in working order of 45¾ tons. Some were fitted for push-and-pull working, but they were not a particularly successful class. Note Allen refers to the class as the 1300 class (vide the 1500 class).

Great Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1910, 16, 42.
2-4-2T called 1300 class intended for branch line work: Saffron Walden, Mildenhall, Ramsey and Stoke Fery branches listed.

RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 7 pages 76-81)
This notes that the class was known as Tomato-houses at St Margaret's.


Hill designs

0-6-0

E72 and T77 (LNER J18/J19)

Large 0-6-0s using Claud Hamilton boiler, but with 20 x 28in cylinders. The boilers were eventually replaced by round-top boilers as designed by the LNER for the 4-4-0s.

RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 5 pages 107-112)
The 1966  publication date should be noted.. Furthermore although the class shared the Belpaire boiler fitted to the 1500 class, when these were rebuilt with larger non-Belpaire boilers, the J20 class was not so-fitted but was eventually fitted with a new type of round-top boiler (25A) which was also fitted to B12 locomotives on the Great North of Scotland section..

D81 (LNER J20): 1920-2

RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 5 pages 112-16)
The 1966  publication date should be noted.. Furthermore although the class shared the Belpaire boiler fitted to the 1500 class, when these were rebuilt with larger non-Belpaire boilers, the J20 class was not so-fitted but was eventually fitted with a new type of round-top boiler (25A) which was also fitted to B12 locomotives on the Great North of Scotland section..

Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 62
Painting of No. 1271 in grey livery with red coupling rods

4-4-0

H88 (Super Clauds)
Final GER development: the fitting of a 1500-type boiler on to the 4-4-0: initially No. 1805 was rebuilt from the ealier series and entered service in March 1923 and this was followed by ten new engines. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 3C).

0-6-2T

L77 (LNER N7): 1915-21

Only twelve were constructed by the GER, but Gresley showed considerable wisdom in making the N7 the standard type for Great Eastern Liverpool Street services after the Grouping and even exploiting the class on other parts of the LNER, even on Great Northern services: see N7..

0-4-0T

B74 (LNER Y4)

Very powerful 0-4-0T with outside cylinders (17 x 20in) and Walschaerts valve gear and a grate area of 13.9 ft2. Short chimneys enhanced their massive appearance. Four built. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 9B pages 83-6)

Allen noted that class "must rank among the heaviest and most powerful ever imposed in Great Britain on no more than four wheels. The tanks in question were designed for use at Canning Town and Devonshire Street Goods Depots and Blackwall Docks, where considerable tractive power is needed, but sharp curves demand the shortest wheelbase possible. So this Hill design packed a tractive effort of 19,225 lb., and an engine weight of 28 tons, on to a wheelbase of no more than 6 ft." At this point it is probably better to leave Allen as the RCTS publication quotes 38 tons for the engine weight and a much large grate area than Allen, although it is worth noting from him that "Their outside Walschaerts valve-motion was another novelty." The class features in Tuplin's British steam since 1900 (with the RCTS grate area!)

2013-12-08