Hughes locomotives (L&YR/LMS)
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See also Hughes 4-6-0 2-6-0 4-6-4T 0-8-2T
Aspinall locomotives railmotors
Antedeluvian LYR locomotives

It is a very great pity that a Hughes railmotor is not chuffing up the Keighley & Worth Valley and that a four-cylinder 4-6-0 does not await on the mainline to whisk tourists across to Carlisle. A very late dose of chickenpox deprived KPJ from travelling behind the last one to York in 1951 with his pal Philip Normanton. Hughes's wisdom extended to retirement in Cromer. Marshall implies that he was pushed out by Fowler. The truth would seem to be that the LMS should never have been created: the Midland should have amalgamated with the Glasgow & South Western. The newly enlarged LNWR should have operated with its Caledonian subsidiary: Hughes could have worked with Beames.

General works

Cox, E.S. Chronicles of steam. 1967.
Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama. Vol. 1.
Marshall, J.: George Hughes of Horwich. British Railway Journal, 59, 47.
Marshall, John. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. Volume 3.
Mason, E. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in the twentieth century. 1954.
[Mason, E.]"Rivington", pseud. My life with locomotives: a retired locomotive engineer looks back. 1962.
The pseudonym was unveiled by E.S. Cox on p. 3 of his "Locomotive panorama" (v.1 .).
Rowledge, J.W.P. Engines of the L.M.S. built 1923-1951. Oxford: OPC, 1975. 108pp + plates (86 illus.)
A pocketbook: includes drawings (side elevations) of all types built/supplied to the LMS including the Sentinel railcars. Notes on the Company's far from standard boilers. Tenders, 8F locomotives supplied during WW2. Photographic illustrations of most types.
Rowledge, J.W.P. L.M.S. engines: names, numbers, types and classes. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1989. 160pp.
Text is typescript, but includes outline diagrams of the LMS-designed locomotives. There is a separate section of plates.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway

2-8-0 ex-ROD: 1919

28 were acquired in 1919 but according to Marshall (p. 192) "the LYR men did not take kindly to them". Fifteen went to the more gentlemanly LNER, three to China and one to Australia. Others fed the furnaces at Crewe.

0-8-0

Four-cylinder compounds
In 1906 rebuilt one of the Aspinall/Hughes 0-8-0s (No. 1452) with 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 15½ by 26in  high pressure and 22 x 26in low pressure cylinders, a total heating surface of 1914ft2 and a grate area of 23ft2. Eight-wheel tenders were fitted .Tests showed a 25% saving in coal compared with the non-compound version. Ten compound and ten non-compound locomotives were built betwen 1906/7. Marshall 3 pp. 172-3. Van Riemsdijk (pp. 76-7) considered them to be "very successful" and damned the LMS for replacing them with yet more 4Fs: this work includes a sectionalized elevation and plan and two informative illustrations.

The 1000th locomotive built at Horwich, Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1907, 13, 139. illus.
No. 1471

Larger unsuperheated boilers
These used the same boiler as the 0-8-2T. Twenty were built as Lot 66 of 1909/10, and a further twenty were constructed as Lot 74 in 1917. Eighteen of the original 0-8-0s and fourteen of the corrugated firebox locomotives were rebuilt with this larger boiler, between 1911 and 1913. Marshall 3 p. 182.

Horwich-built eight-coupled mineral engine, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 288. illustration
Hughes superheated coal engine with side-window cab: nNo. 1427 illustrated with "LM&SR" on bogie tender (works photograph)

Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 63
Text compares appearance to a circus elephant, but also deprecates early demise by LMS

4-6-0

L&YR Class 8: LMS 5P: Hughes (Dreadnoughts):
This class originated in 1908 as a four-cylinder, Joy valve gear, saturated design. According to Marshall (3 pp180-2) the original locomotives were sluggish and both poor runners and poor steamers. They were fitted with Joy valve gear, and originally had lagged smokeboxes and bogie brakes (these were removed by 1914). In 1919/1920 fifteen of these locomotives were rebuilt with Walschaerts valve gear, long travel valves and 28-element superheaters. The boilers were rebuilt within the existing shell. They now had a grate area of 27ft2. Hughes described the design in Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1909, 77, 561-653 Locomotives designed and built at Horwich with some results..

Cox (Locomotive panorama 1 p. 11 noted that with very little teething trouble the class achieved a "standard of achievement far higher than anything seen on the parent line up to that time." In line with the rebuilds, a new series was built in batches between 1920 and 1923. The 1923 batch was mentioned in contemporary literature, but a modified series introduced in 1924 does not. This latter series originated as parts for the 4-6-4T design of which only ten out of the order for thirty were built. The 4-6-4Ts received detailed attention. Chapter 5 of E. Mason's The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in the twentieth century should also be noted as it is entitled "Hughes' four-cylinder 4-6-0s". According to Nock (Great locomotives of the LMS) comparative tests of the rebuilt locomotives with the 4P compunds showed the 4-6-0s to have a very high fuel consumption. According to Marshall (pp, 193-4) the modernized series suffered from leakage in the piston valves, problems in the back pressure relief valves, air being drawn into the smokebox and axlebox lubrication. The five unmodified locomotives were withdrawn in the 1920s, but most of the others went in the 1930s, although No. 10455 lasted until October 1951 Atkins considers that in their final state they were "near miss"...

[Tests of rebuilt locomotives]. Engineer, 1921, 15 April.


1923 batch

NEW 4-6-0 express locomotive, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. Rly Mag., 1923, 53, 100. illus.
NEW Horwich-built express locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 226-8. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

1925 experimental equipment of a locomotive with a Vickers feed-water heater and pump.

FEED water heating on the L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1925, 56, 406-7.

Compounding experiment: 1926

4-6-0 four-cylinder compound locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 257. illus.
This rebuilding was undertaken in 1926 by Fowler in connection with the development of a compound Pacific design.

Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 9. The Hughes 'Dreadnoughts'.
Atkins describes tests conducted in 1930 between 10456 against simple locomotive 10464 between Preston and Carlisle. Fuel savings were modest: 9.8% on a lb/mile basis and 8% in dbhp/hr. But like most LMS tests: the playing field was unbalanved as the compound had run 43,000 miles, ass against the less than 4000 of the simple
Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 100-41. Disc.: 141-70; 275-6. (Paper No. 457)
Fig. 11 shows the starting valve fitted to No. 10456, a Hughes 4-cylinder 4-6-0, rebuilt as a compound in association with the Pacific project which was "the most modern but least known compound engine to run in this country" (he appeared to forget that the Gresley high-pressure locomotive was a compound)
van Riemsdijk, J.T. Compound locomotives: an International survey. 1994.

A Kylala blast-pipe was fitted experimentally to No. 10458. Un-titled notes: Rly Mag.. 1932, 71, 468.

Retrospective and critical
Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 9. The Hughes 'Dreadnoughts'.
It is probable that Atkins attributed Hughes paper on the class to the incorrect engineering institution: Atkins states Civils (correct source cited above). Includes weight diagram for original series and a detailed diagram of the front end for the later engines. Notes that Mason did not mention the LYR dynamometer car completed in 1912 which had been based upon a Belgian design, nor the tests conducted with it in 1913 between Horwich and Hellifield using No. 1506; nor of tests conducted in 1918 between Manchester and Blackpool. At the end of WW1 the still saturated locomotives were consuming 100 lb/mile of coal on the Southport to York run. Many of the existing locomotives were rebuilt with Walschaerts long travel valve gear and tests were conducted up to Hellifield on 12 November 1920 (reported Engineer 15 April 1921). The Manchester to Blackpool trials on a Club train are also noted. Inevitably the 4-cylinder Baltic tank engines are also described and the series of 4-6-0s which had been intended to be tank engines: these had larger grates (29.6 ft2) and were sent to Carlisle Upperby where they sometimes worked to Glasgow. The work barely measured up to Claughton performance; the lubricating system was inmadequate for long runs, and there was a very high incidence of hot boxes. Atkins noted that the built up smokeboxes led to air ingress and to char reaching the cylinders, and that the piston valves caused problems. In 1925 the class participated in tests against the Prince of Wales, Claughton and compound classes (KPJ considers that these tests were statistically invalid). Dabeg feedwater heaters were fitted to some locomotives used on the Blackpool Club trains which showed a coal saving of 11% in terms of lb/dbhp and 19.5% in lb/mile.In the last part of the text in this Chapter a proposed 200 psi boiler is descibed, but work did not extend to construction.
Coates, Noel and Des Melia. Des's engines. LMS Journal, (13), 69-80.
Des Melia worked at Burnley Rose Grove from March 1941 and after the usual tasks of knocking up. acting as guard for the stores van progressed to be a fiemen. the 4-6-0s were difficult to fire, although were powerful and fast.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. 1999.
"20 4-6-0s which proved to be the most unsuccessful British locomotives of their era, with numerous mechanical problems, and indifferent performance for high coal consumption, and uncertainties of steaming."
Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 100-41. Disc.: 141-70; 275-6. (Paper No. 457)
Fig. 12 (graph) shows coal consumption within period 1927-1938: a more or less constant 60lbs/mile.
Geer, H.E. Modern locomotive superheating. Part 1. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1926, 16, 419-450. (Paper No. 196)
In Great Britain in 1925 only 7000 superheated locomotives, out of a total stock of 24,500. This part is concerned about demands placed upon piston valves and diagrams show Hughes' ball relief valves (Fig. 5); G.F. Horne (446-7) spoke about the Hughes 4-6-0 and superheated 0-6-0 designs; leakage from superheater tubes and that Hughes type piston valves were fairly satisfactory, but after 20,000 miles it was necssary to remove carbon.
Hawley, R.A. The "Dreadnoughts" and Baltics of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Rly.. Trains ill., 1952, 5, 440-4.5 illus., table.
The last "Hughes" 4-6-0 withdrawn. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1952, 28, 265-71. illus., table.
Additional information :1952, 28, 347 :1953, 29, 25; 118-19; 146; 209-10. The letter on p.146 was from E. Mason.
Mason, E. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in the twentieth century. London, Ian Allan, 1954. [viii] ,236 p. incl. 32 plates + col. front. + fold;ng plate. 103 illus.,14 diagrs., 2 plans, 10 maps.
Chapter 5 describes the class.
Mason, E. [Rivington], pseud. My life with locomotives: a retired locomotive engineer looks back. London, Ian Allan,1962. 168 p. + 22 plates (incl. 2 folding). 53 illus., 4 diagrs.
Problems associated with class. The pseudonym was unveiled by E.S. Cox on p. 3 of his Locomotive panorama (v.1.).
Tuplin, W.A. The four-cylinder 4-6-0s of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. Rly Mag., 1952, 98, 372-7. 4 illus., 2 tables.
Detailed and critical study.

2-6-0

5: 1926: Hughes + Fowler:
Cox (Locomotive panorama, v. 1, p.37)
has shown that this Hughes design owed much to the study of North American practice. This especially applied to the arrangement of the Walschaerts gear. The use of a low boiler pressure (180 lb/in2) necessitated large diameter cylinders (21 in), which had to be steeply inclined for the class to achieve high route availability. This cylinder arrangement earned, for the class, the soubriquet of Crabs. The design was slightly modified, before construction commenced, by Fowler. Marshall deals briefly with the design in V. 3 pp. 197-201. The LMS Locomotive Profile No. 2 is highly important.

NEW mixed-traffic locomotives for the London, Midland & Scottish Railway. Rly Engr, 1926, 47, 320-1 + folding plate. illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan.
Includes detailed sectionalized diagrams.
NEW mogul type locomotive, London, Midland & Scottish Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 239. illus.
No. 13000 illustrated. Design credited to Fowler: H.G. Burgess, General Manager, received initial acknowledgement for locomotive built at Horwich Works.
NEW 2-6-0 locomotive, London, Midland and Scottish Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 2. diagr. (s. el.)
NEW 2-6-0 type mixed-traffic locomotives L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1926, 59, 185 + plate f.p. 169. illus.

1931 Lemon ?:
Five locomotives were modified with Lentz R.C. poppef valves. They ran in this form until 1953, when Reidinger R.R.valve gear was used as replacement for the earlier rotary gear (see British Railways Regional Designs).

2-6-0 mixed traffic engine, L.M. & S. Ry., with rotary cam poppet valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 153-4. illus., diagr.
2-6-0 type mixed traffic locomotives, London, Midland & Scottish Railway. Rly Engr, 1932, 53, 180-3. 2 illus., 4 diagrs, 2 plans.

Retrospective and critical

Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. 1999.
Part of the complex RCTS History of LMS locomotives: the G9HS boiler is described on page 55.
Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama, v. 1, 1965. p.37)
"The cylinders and valve gear were entirely new. Their design followed a most intensive study of recent American practice as described in certain currently available publications. Piston valves of 11in diameter were selected of hollow trunk type, without pressure release valves, and the thick stiff piston rings of previous Horwich practice were replaced by much more flexible rings of smaller cross section. 1½in steam lap was selected in conjunction with a 6 3/8in valve travel. The Walschaert gear was extremely robust and was largely based upon Pennsylvania Railroad layout and details. The whole of the foregoing, owing nothing to former L. & Y. practice, gave effective, accurate, and readily maintainable steam distribution. For the first time on the L.M.S. a modern standard of performance and efficiency was maintained. This achievement was greatly strengthened by the substantial coupled axleboxes which were also provided. Yoder Locomotive valves and valve gears and McShane Modern locomotive valves and valve gears.
Essery, Terry. Steam locomotives compared. Penryn: Atlantic, 1996. 160pp.
Generally well received by footplate crews, except in terms of disposal at mpds.
James, Fred, Hunt, David and Essery, Bob. Horwich moguls. LMS Locomotive Profiles No. 2 2000  72 pp. including folding diagram
Very extensive detailed general arrangement drawings from NRM collections: currently the premier source of information about this class. Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40..
Marshall, John. The LMS 'Crabs'. Br. Rly J., 1986, 2, 173
The loss of J.R. Billington was contributory to the premature retirement of George Hughes; the correspondence between E.M. Gass, Hughes and Fowler concerning the design of the Horwich 2-6-0s, and the malign influence of E.R.C. Trench.
The 2-6-0 type locomotive. Rly Engr, 1926, 47, 334-5.
Editorial comment on the design.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977.
Chapter 7: Pony trucks to the fore: criticism of the injectors and of the sudden substantial fall in water level when the regulator was closed leading to failure of lead plugs on steeply graded routes.. Nevertheless, simple rugged machines.
Reeves, John. LMS locomotive operating costs 1933-1935. Part 1 — Freight tender engines. LMS Journal (7) 7-21.
Statistics gleaned from an official LMS typescript document covering the period 1933-1935 for repair costs (light, heavy and boiler costs) (total 2.88 3.41 p/engine mile), mileage (38022 34654), coal consumption (60.71 56.55 lb per engine mile), availability 247 233 days per annum). Figures are also given for the Lentz valve gear locomotives (in italics). The absurd precsion of the numbers should be noted.
Toms, G. and Essery, R.J. The 'Crab' 2-6-0s of the LMS. Br. Rly J., 1986, 2, 2-8.
See also highly significant letter from John Marshall on Br. Rly J., 1986 (13)page 173 wherein the loss of J.R. Billington was contributory to the premature retirement of George Hughes; the correspondence between E.M. Gass, Hughes and Fowler concerning the design of the Horwich 2-6-0s, and the malign influence of E.R.C. Trench.
Woollatt, J.S. A criticism of some aspects of locomotive design. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1949, 39, 557-71. (Paper No. 489)
Side control on pony trucks conformed to criteria established by Carter
Young, John and Tyreman, David. The Hughes and Stanier 2-6-0s: locomotives of the LMS series. 208pp.
Colour reproduction poor, especially so in case of No. 13000 (ex Locomotive Publishing Co.). Black & white photographs: many interesting especially those showing at work on Highland line.

0-6-0

Goods locomotive with superheater L&YR. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 93.
Side elevation: illus. of No. 85.

Geer, H.E. Modern locomotive superheating. Part 1. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1926, 16, 419-450. (Paper No. 196)
In Great Britain in 1925 only 7000 superheated locomotives, out of a total stock of 24,500. This part is concerned about demands placed upon piston valves and diagrams show Hughes' ball relief valves (Fig. 5); G.F. Horne (446-7) spoke about the Hughes 4-6-0 and superheated 0-6-0 designs; leakage from superheater tubes and that Hughes type piston valves were fairly satisfactory, but after 20,000 miles it was necssary to remove carbon.

4-4-0

Aspinall 7ft 3in 4-4-0s rebuilds: 1909
Nos. 1098, 1104, 1105 and 1110 were rebuilt with superheated round-top boilers, 20 x 26in cylinders, piston valves and long-travel Walschaerts valve gear, and forced lubrication. This led to a 21% fuel saving, but from 1912 the locomotives were reconstructed with Joy valve gear. Marshall 3 pp139-40.

0-8-2T

Banking engines: 1908
These five locomotives were constructed for banking at Accrington and at Fazakerley. They were very large locomotives with 21½in diameter cylinders and 180psi boiler pressure. The wheels on the driving and third axles were flangeless. They carried 3 tons of coal and 2000 gallons of water. Marshall (3) pp. 178/80. Mason (pp. 181 and 189) noted that they were called "Little Egberts" and were "uniformly successful at work. Nevertheless, they did not outlast 1929.

The 0-8-2 tank engine. Loco. Mag., 1941, 47, 131.
Originally mentioned in Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 85

4-6-4T

5P: 1924: Hughes
This class was the final British express tank engine design. In all the LMS inherited three classes of this type and Hughes added the fourth. The design was based on the rebuilt L&YR 4-6-0s and incorporated four cylinders. It was a most impressive looking locomotive, but performance, especially fuel consumption, was poor. Marshall deals briefly with them in V3. pp. 194-7..

"BALTIC" type tank locomotive, LM.&S.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30. 105-6. 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els), plan.
"BALTIC" type tank locomotive, L.M.&S. Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 142-4 + folding plate. diagr. (s. el.), plan.
Sectionalized diagrams included.
FOUR-CYLINDER "Baltic" tank engine, London, Midland & Scottish Railway. Rly Engr, 1924, 45, 281-2. 2 illus., diagr. (s.el.)
FOUR-CYLINDER 4-6-4 express tank locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1924, 54, 396-8. illus.
L.M.S. Railway-Baltic tank locomotive. Engineer, 1924, 138, 582-3. illus., 3 diagrs., 2 plans.
Sectionalized diagrams included.
LM.S. Railway 4-6-4 "Baltic" tank engines. Engineer, 1924, 137, 454. diagr. (s. & r. els.), plan.
Marshall notes that an editorial in The Engineer of 1924 (May) p. 602 was critical of the type.
NEW four-cylinder "Baltic" 4-6-4 type tank engine; London, Midland & Scottish Railway. Rly Engr. 1924, 45, 166-7; 207-9 + folding plate. 3 illus., 4 diagrs. (md. sel.), plan.
Includes a sectionalized diagram.

Retrospective and critical
Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 9. The Hughes 'Dreadnoughts'.
Mentions tests conducted in 1930 in the Manchester area between this type and a Fowler 2-6-4T: the latter consumed 19% less fuel.
Hawley, R.A  The "Dreadnoughts" and Baltics of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Rly.. Trains ill., 1952, 5, 440-4. 5 illus., table.
A detailed history
Middlemass, Tom. The 'Baltic' tanks. Backtrack, 1991, 5, 281-7..
Whitelegg, RM. Glasgow and South Western Railway notes. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1951, 27, 267-71; 257-8; 283. 5 illus.
Whitelegg justified his use of the 4-6-4T on the L.T. & S.R . and asserted that the Hughes design was based upon his G.& S.W.R. design.

Livery
Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 9. The Hughes 'Dreadnoughts'.
Although Atkins is somewhat unclear as to which livery was applied to the class, it is clear that No. 11112 was painted in crimson lake for the Stockton & Darlington Railway Centenary celebration.

Steam railcars (railmotors)

Marshall (3 170-1) notes that contact between Hughes and Hurry Riches of the TVR led to the purchase of two Kerr Stuart/Bristol Carriage & Wagon railmotors in 1905. Theses were used on the Bury to Holcombe Brook branch and on Burnley to Colne services. They were withdrawn in 1909. Neverthess, Hughes designed his own type which was introduced in 1906 and eighteen of these were built up to 1911. One just lasted long enough to become part of the British Railways fleet. This success stemmed from the locomotive portion which was essentially just that: a small conventional tank engine with outside cylinders and Walschaerts valve gear. The coach portion was relatively simple to remove. The total heating surface was 509ft2.

Jenkinson, David and Barry C. Lane. British railcars: 1900 to 1950. 1996.
Includes a drawing by Lane on page 24 of the railcars and the special gangwayed trailers designed to be operated with them. This is probably the best account of this excellent type.

Proposed 2-10-0

Hughes became interested in the Belgian Flamme four-cylinder 2-10-0s and a design for similar giant was sketched out in 1913/14. Marshall (3) pp. 188-91. Robin Barnes (Locomotives that never were pp. 24-5) breathes life into this design as LMS No. 12650 crosses Lydgate Viaduct near Todmorden — virtually dirtying the clean wahing.

2014-03-04