LNER locomotive types


The P1 type was developed from the Al Pacific design for the haulage of heavy freight trains on the Great Northern main-line. The boilers and cylinders were interchangeable between the two types, but the 2-8-2s had smaller, 5 ft 2 in, driving wheels. The nominal tractive effort was 38,500 lbf, to which a further 9000 lbf could be added from a booster which acted on the trailing wheels. The class was introduced at the same time as the Ul Beyer Garratt and the types were available for the Stockton & Darlington Centenary celebration. Most contemporary references consider the designs simultaneously.
L.N.E.R. locomotive developments: Garratt 2-8-0 + 0-8-2 six-cylinder and 2-8-2 three-cylinder freight engines. Rly Engr., 1925, 46, 267-72. 9 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn. Loco. Engrs, 1925, 15, 379-81. illus.
NEW locomotives for the L. & N.E.R.. Engineer, 1925, 139, 715-17. 8 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW mikado & Garratt locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 202-5. 2 illus., 2diagrs. (incl. s. & f.els.)
NOTABLE locomotives for the London and North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1925, 142-5. 3 illus.

Retrospective & critical

Bulleid, O.V.S. The booster. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1928, 18, 239-91. (Paper No. 228).
An exhaustive study of booster development on the L.N.E.R.
Hawley, RA.The Gresley mikados. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 449-53. 6 illus., table.
Describes both the P1 and the P2 designs.
RCTS. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983. 196pp.

P2 class:
This class was introduced for the haulage of 550-ton passenger trains between Edinburgh and Aberdeen without recourse to double-heading. On the basis of tractive effort (43,462 lbf) the locomotives were the most powerful passenger engines in Britain. There has been a considerable amount of discussion on the efficacy of the design, and this aspect is considered with the retrospective material. The design was the first in Britain to incorporate many of Chapelon's ideas. Although there are colour photographs of several A4s in a variety of liveries there appears to be no colour photograph of a P2, but there is an excellent Vic Welch painting (Nock: Scottish railways).

P2/1 :1934:
No. 2001 Cock o' the North was the first of the class to be built. It differed from the five subsequent locomotives in being fitted with Lentz rotary cam valve gear. Many of the extensive contempoary references also describe a test run from London to Barkston, near Grantham, with a 650- ton train : 2090 drawbar horsepower was recorded on the climb to Stoke Summit.

Allen, C.J. Britain's first eight-coupled express engine: L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 locomotive No. 2001, "Cock o' the North". Rly Mag., 1934, 75, 33-7.3 illus., 3 diagrs., (incl. s. el.)
"COCK o' the North". Rly Engr., 1934, 55, 233-43. 17 illus., 11 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els. and sections).
A detailed account which includes the London to Barkston test run.
DYNAMOMETER tests of "Cock o' the North". Engineer, 1934, 158,16-17. diagrs,
Includes reproductions of the continuous records of speed and power output made in the dynamometer car on the London-Barkston test run.
L.N.E.R. eight-coupled locomotive. Engineer, 1934, 157, 550-3. 12 illus., 6 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 express passenger locomotive "Cock o' the North" in France. Rly Mag., 1935, 76, 263. 2 illus.
Illustrations of the locomotive on exhibition in Paris.
TEST of 2-8-2 type locomotive No. 2001, London and North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1934, 138, 20.
The Barkston test run.
TEST run with engine No.2001 "Cock o' the North", L. & N.E.R., between King's Cross and Barkston. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 205-6.
THREE-CYL. 2-8-2 express loco., L. & N.E. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 169-71. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-8-2 type express passenger locomotive, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1934, 24, 468-71 + folding plate. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
2-8-2 type three-cylinder express locomotive: L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1934, 137, 621-3; 715-6; 728-30 + plate f.p. 721. 13 illus., 9 diagrs.
Perhaps the most extensive of the several extensive accounts.

The four locomotives of this sub-class differed from No. 2001 in being built with Walschaerts-Gresley valve gear. No. 2002 was fitted with a modified form of the streamlining which clad the prototype, but Nos. 2003 et seq were built with the A4-type wedge-shaped front-end. Subsequently Nos. 2001 and 2002 were rebuilt to conform with Nos. 2003 et seq. No. 2006 (P2/3) was built with a combustion chamber, but this is not mentioned in contemporary sources.

No. 2002 Earl Marischal

L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 locomotive, "Earl Marischal". Rly Mag., 1935, 76, 112. illus.
2-8-2 type engine, "Earl Marischal". L. & N.E. Rly. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 378. illus.
2-8-2 type loco., No. 2002, "Earl Marischal", L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 32, diagr. (s. el.)

Nos. 2003-2005

L.N.E.R.-new locomotives. Engineer, 1936, 162, 20. illus., diagr.
Includes a diagram of the Kylchap blast arrangements.
NEW L.N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Mag.. 1936, 79, 110-12. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
Also includes a description of the V2 design.
2-8-2 three-cylinder engine, L. & N.E.R.: "Lord President". Loco. Rly. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 203-4. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-8-2 type three-cylinder engines, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1936, 65, 12-13. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical
A controversy has arisen about the efficiency of the design. This has partly resulted from Thompson's drastic rebuilding of the class is Pacifics (see A2/2), which implied official condemnation. McKilliop, who drove the locomotives in service and on tests, was critical of the poor riding qualities and high coal consumption. It should be noted that McKillop usually praised Gresley designs, especially the Pacifics. C.J. Allen has disagreed with McKillop, however, (see "Ponies, Pacifics and mikados") basing his argument in terms of performance and power output. O.V.S. Bulleid also had a high regard for the design and was closely associated with the tests performed at the Vitry testing station, near Paris. Geoffrey Lund gave an excellent account of the class in a special issue of Backtrack devoted to the LNER.

Bellwood and Jenkinson (presumably the former) summarized P2 performance: There were insufficient passenger trains loaded to over 500 tons on the Aberdeen route to utilise fully the six locomotives, with the result that many workings were 'over-engined'. The eight-coupled axleboxes did not take kindly to the numerous curves on the route, and with Pacific train loads the P2s were expensive to both operate and maintain.
It is a great pity that their prodigious haulage capacity could not have been used to assist in the working of the enormous wartime loads between Kings Cross and Newcastle. Certainly there would have been ample opportunity for them to be run under near optimum operating, if not maintenance, conditions in relation to power output and adhesion. However, it was not to be. There was no place for Gresley 'super-power~ in the strategy of the new CME and all the P2 class locomotives were rebuilt by Thompson into ungainly Pacifics. As 4-6-2s, they had a very short life on the Aberdeen. road and had all been scrapped before the end of 1961.
Whatever the merits or shortcomings of Cock o'the North, it probably represented Gresley's greatest single step forward and was certainly ahead of its time. It is significant that when, twenty years later, the last express passenger steam locomotive was built for British Railways, it had three cylinders fitted with poppet valves.

Allen, C.J.  "Ponies, Pacifics and mikados". Trains ill., 1957, 10, 120-6. illus., 6 tables.
The article was written in reply to McKillop's "Memories of the mikados (see below).
Bellwood, J. and Jenkinson, David. Gresley and Stanier, 1986.
Bellwood was the Chief Mechanical Engineer at York Railway Museum. He was responsible for bringing many of the once static exhibits back to life. Sadly his life was shortened by working with asbestos boiler lagging when working with the LNER.
Bulleid, H.A.V. Master builders of steam. 1963.
Pp.86-7 give a brief account of the Author's father's work at Vitry and elsewhere in testing the initial P2 locomotive.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 341-52
One of a select group of locomotives reviewed by the author.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Discussion on Robson, T. The counter pressure method of testing locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1943, 33, Pp. 206-7 (Paper No.441)
Comment on the Vitry tests.
Coggon, A.P. London & North Eastern Railway the "P2" class 2-8-2 locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21, 36-8. 3 illus. (drawings : s. el.)
Coster, P.J. From Cock o' the North to Saint Johnstoun. in Essays of steam; ed. John F. Clay. 1970.
"It seems to me that the influence of the French genius [Chapelon] can be seen throughout the design."
Dobson, K.S. Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 197-300; 176-7. 8 illus.
Clearly there is something very odd about this reference!
Haresnape, B. Gresley locomotives. a pictorial history. 1981.
Excellent photographs, but very concise text.
Hawley, RA. The Gresley mikados. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 449-53. 6 illus., table.
Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 3 — L.N.E.R.: Edinburgh and Dundee trains, "P2" class engines. Engineer, 1939, 168, 342-4. illus., diagr., (s. & f. els.), table.
Footplate observations (a comparison with North American practice).
Lund, Geoffrey. LNER P2 2-8-2s. Backtrack Special Issue No. 2: The London & North Eastern Railway. Pp. 55-9.
Author was a technical assistant at the Scottish Area headquarters (posthumous contribution) at the time when the P2 class was being considered for desconstruction into Pacifics. The main problem at that time was poor workmanship at Cowlairs which led to problems with the superheaters which did not disappear after the conversion into inferior Pacifics. Lund is critical of McKillop's assessment of the P2 class. He mentions that the W1 was sent to Scotland by Thompson to assess the sutability of a large-boilered six-coupled locomotive to handle the Aberdeen sleeper traffic. It appears that E.D. Trask tried to halt the rebuild. [KPJ: I can still recapture the magic of a black Cock o' the North arriving at Dundee Tay Bridge sometime prior to rebuilding during WW2: all other British passenger locomotives thereafter seemed small]
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
Describes test runs made between Edinburgh and Dundee, noting poor riding qualities and heavy coal consumption.
McKillop, N. , Toram Beg, pseud. Memories of the mikados. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 454-6.
Heavy coal consumption and poor riding qualities.
Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1960, 106, 342-50. 3 illus., 8 tables.
The author includes some of his own observations plus some details of the tests carried out at Vitry, in France, as observed by Baron Vuillet.

RCTS. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983. 196pp.
Tuplin, W.A. Cock o' the North. Rly Wld, 1958, l9, 2l7-19.2diagrs. (s.els.)
A critical assessment, plus details of the author's own proposed 4-8-0 design.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-763. (Paper No. 378).
The P2 boiler is considered on a comparative basis.
Windle, E. Discussion on Holcroft, H. Smoke defiectors for locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, Pp. 490-9 (9 illus.). (Paper No. 430)
Windle explains the development of smoke deflection for this class.


L.N.E.R. engine name competition. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 10.
Boy Scouts were asked to submit suitable names. Names suggested and used included Mons Meg and Thane of Fife.


A4 class

Introduced 1935: The A4 design was based on the earlier A3 class, but the boiler pressure was increased to 250 lb/in2 and the steam passages were redesigned ensure maximum flow. Externally this class differed considerably, as it was streamlined for hauling the high speed Silver Jubilee train, which was introduced concurrently. During the press debut on September 27th 1935, a speed of 112½ mile/h was attained. Most of the contemporary descriptions refer to this high speed run, the streamlined train-set and the locomotive, but the last sometimes receives least attention. Later No. 4468 Mallard raised the speed ceiling to 126 mile/h, a world record for steam traction.

Allen, C.J. "The Coronation" and other famous L.N.E.R.trains.
Allen, C.J The Silver Jubilee Express, L.N.E.R.: Britain's first streamlined train and its world's record run. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 352-62. 6 illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan, table.
Concentrates attention on the record run.
Bulleid, O.V.S. The "Silver Jubilee" trains, London and North Eastern Railway. Bull. int. Rly Congr. Ass., 1935, 17, 1299-1325 + 2 folding plates. 17 illus., 7 diagrs., 2 plans, 3 tables.
The most detailed account.
"CORONATION" train on the London and North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1937, 144, 40-2. 3 illus., diagr.. plan.
4-6-2 type streamline locomotive "Silver Link", L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1935, 140, 334-5. diagr. (s. & f. els.)
L.N.E.R. Shunting locomotives in unusual livery. Rly Mag., 1936, 78, 235. illus.
A Doncaster Works shunter was painted in various shades of aluminium paint to determine the shade for Silver Link.
L. and N.E.R. — "The Silver Jubilee" train. Engineer, 1935,160, 318-20. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.), 2 tables.
NEW "Coronation" trains: L. & N.E. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 203-8. 6 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW streamlined locomotive and train, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63. 450-8; 460-1.15 illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan, 2 tables.
A4 and the Silver Jubilee train.
The SILVER Jubilee streamlined train, L.N.E.R. inaugural ceremonies— world record on trial run—beginning of public service. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 544-8. 3 illus., map, table.
The "SILVER JUBILEE" train of the L.N.E.R. record trial run. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 304-8. 2 illus., table, diagr. (s. & f. els.),
Includes a technical description of the A4 design.
TEST runs of "Coronation" trains. Engineer, 1937, 164, 39-41. 4 illus., 4 tables, diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Testing and performance
C.J. Allen stated that every trip in one of the A4-hauled, streamlined trains was a special occasion and this is reflected in the many references to general performance, in terms of reliability, coal consumption etc. Further, no other class of British steam locomotive has been deliberately driven at high speed for record making purposes on so many occasiosn or at such high speeds.

Record breaking journeys.

27 September 1935 : Silver Jubilee press trip : This run, which produced a maximum speed of 112½ mile/h, is described in many of the references noted in the opening section.

27 August 1936:113 mile/h on a regular journey on the up Silver Jubilee service.

ANOTHER British speed record. Rly Gaz., 1936, 65, 381. diagr.
Allen, C.J. 113 m.p.h. on the Silver Jubilee : a new London & North Eastern Railway record. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 245-6. diagr., table.

30 June 1937 : 109½ mile/h—Coronation press trip. See also references to the Coronation train in the opening section.
Allen, C.J. The new L.M.S. and L.N.E. speed records : trial runs of the Coronation
Scot and Coronation. Rly Mag., 1937, 81, 110-16 +. 2 illus., 2 diagrs.. 6 tables.

3 July 1938 :126 mile/h: the world record for steam (see also Le Clair retrospective section).
Allen, C.J. Two miles a minute: the new L.N.E.R. record of 125 m.p.h. Rly Mag., 1938, 83, 79-81. illus., diagr., table.
A NEW L.N.E.R. speed record. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69, 78.9. diagr., table.

7 September 1948: Non-stop journey of 408½ miles:
Flood damage between Edinburgh and Berwick necessitated that the "non-stop" "Flying Scotsman" be diverted via Galashiels and Tweedsmouth. Normally stops were required, on the diversion, for banking assistance and water, but on one occasion Driver Swan decided to scorn these and make a genuine non-stop journey. This showed that the locomotives were very economical in fuel and water consumption. Others followed and this has led to more controversy and extra-information in 21st century

[Allen, C.J.] Quicksilver, pseud. The "Flying Scotsman": a new British record. Trains ill., 1949, 2, 6-7.
McKillop, N. Enginemen elite. 1958.
Farr, Keith:  Legend of the Non-Stop - Part two. Backtrack, 17, 306-13.
Part 1 began on page 275. The service was restored on 31 May 1948 with a timing of 7h 50 min. The line between Edinburgh and Berwick was breached on 12 August. The northbound service took 16 hours on that day, which put it in the Virgin class. Initially the southbound route was via Beattock, Carlisle and Leeds, but we were the first south-bound "non-stop" over the Waverley route to Carlisle and some of the progress was very slow.. The St Boswells to Tweedsmouth route was reopened on 23 August, but Lucker troughs were now 92 miles from Edinburgh, but on 24 August Bill Stevenson with 60029 Woodcock managed to lift the train to Falahill without a banker and start the non-stop run to King's Cross of 408.6 miles - a world record, repeated subsequently in both directions on each of eight occasions. See letter by A.J. Mullay (p. 474) which adds another long way round non-stop, additional info by Farr.

General performance on the high speed trains.

CORONATION reliability. Rly Mag., 1939, 85, 152.
The SILVER Jubilee, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1936, 65, 539.
First year of service surveyed.
The SILVER Jubilee in service. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 606-7. table.
A Darlington to King's Cross run.
The SILVER Jubilee, L.N.E.R.: some details of current locomotive performance on this high-speed service. Rly Gaz., 1936, 64, 1130-2. diagr., table.
SILVER Jubilee success. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 62-3.
Includes coal consumption statistics.
The SILVER Jubilee's birthday. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 374.
STREAMLINE reliability. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 927.
Notes on the continuous use of No. 4497 Golden Plover on the Coronation train for eight weeks.
STREAMLINE success. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67. 1007.
Mechanical and financial success of the "Silver Jubilee" service.
TWO years results with the Silver Jubilee. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 1036.

1948: Inter-regional trials:
Although several failures of bearings occurred, the A4 class returned the lowest fuel and water consumption figures of any locomotive tested in 1948.

Allen, C.J.. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950].

Retrospective and critical :
Gresley's papers and his comments in discussion are especially noteworthy. E. Windle's and B. Spencer's notes on the development of the streamlining are also highly significant.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
Allen, C.J. The Gresley Pacifics of the LN.E.R. 1950.
Certain diagrams (e.g. cab layouts) and illustrations from this work are not repeated in the later British Pacific locomotives (above).
Allen, C.J. World record-holder for speed with steam. Rly Wld, 25,
An appreciation of the class published to mark Mallard's installation at the Museum of Transport, Clapham.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Annual mileage figures for the class are quoted.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 341-52 + 6 plates. 18 illus., 12 diagrs., 11 tables.
Clay, J.F. How great are those A4s? J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1960, 36, 114-18. illus.
Objective review of performance.
Evans, M.  Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. 1961.
Gresley, H.N. Development of high-speed running on railways. Greenock, Greenock Philosophical Society, 1937. 24 p. table. (Papers of the Greenock Philosophical Society—Watt Anniversary Lecture).
A review of world development is followed by a description of the A4 class. The topic of streamlining is accentuated.
Gresley, H.N. [Presidential address]. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1936, 133, 251-65.3 tables.
A description of the high-speed trains, including the development of streamlining, plus results of the Silver Jubilee in service.
Gresley, H.N. Discussion on McDermid, W.F. Brakes for streamlined railway vehicles. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1935, 25, 309-68. (Paper No. 337).
Streamlined implies fast rather than a physical type of vehicle.
Harrison, J.F. (Presidential Address)
The gathering of the new crop.  J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 336-56. + plate. 16 illus. 4 diagrs.
Includes an appreciation of the Gresley Pacifics.
Holyhead, G.C. The "big green vms". Rly Wld, 1963, 24, 218-19. illus.
The class ended its service on light, high-speed trains between Glasgow and Aberdeen. The enginemen's impressions of this design are recorded in this article, hence the Glaswegian expression "big green yins".
LeClair, L.J. discussion on: Newsome, N. The development of L.N.E.R. carriage and wagon design, 1923-1941. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38, page 473
Observations on the 126 mile/h test run.
Livesay, E.H.
London to Edinburgh on the footplate. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 337-8.
Written as a companion article to the same author's "Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate" (Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 244-8).
Livesay, E.H.
Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 7 — L.N.E.R. Edinburgh-Newcastle trains, "A4" engines. Engineer, 1939, 168,438-40. 2 illus., 2 diagrs.
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
McKillop drove "Mallard" north from Newcastle for an exhibition in Dundee. He describes this high speed journey during which the Flamman speed recorder indicated 107 mile/h at one point.
Mayes, F. Firing the A4 Pacifics. Rly Wld, 1964, 25, 3-6+ 4. illus., table.
Experiences in the King's Cross "top link".
Miller, N.G. Coasting at 25% cut-off. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1956, 32, 138-9.
Reason for not coasting at the more usual 15%.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2A. Tender engines—classes A1 to A10. 1978.
Reed, Brian. Locomotives in profile. Vol. 2:
includes Gresley A4s (with Ron Scott)
Spencer, B. Discussion on: Holcroft, H. Smoke deflectors for locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, p.503-4.
Spencer depicted a diagram of a tentative form of streamlining in which the chimney cowling was projected horizontally back to meet the top of the boiler casing. The locomotives were actually built with a sloping "tail" to the chimney.
Townsend, P.N. East Coast Pacifics at work. 1982.
Trask E.D. The smokebox of streamlined engines. Rly Gaz., 1940, 72, 220-2. 2 illus., 2 diagrs.
Reprinted from the London & North Eastern Railway Magazine, 1939.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-726. (Paper 378).
An analysis of A4 on a comparative basis.
Webster, H.C. Early days with the class "A4" Pacifics : the personal experiences of an LN.E.R. locomotive man in the late 1930's. Trains A., 1963, 5-12+. 8 illus.
The author notes some of the difficulties experienced in maintaining the exacting high speed schedules and in the maintenance of locomotives equipped with streamlined casings.
Wilson, G.R.S. Report on the derailment which occurred on 1st September, 1955 at Westwood Junction near Peterborough in the Eastern Region, British Railways. Ministry of Transport & Civil Aviation: Railway accidents [monograph]. London, H.M.S.O., 1956. 10 p. + 6 plates (incl. 1 folding). 5 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els), 2 plans.
This accident (to the W1 locomotive) revealed inherent weakness in the design of the bogie side frames and stretcher bars on Gresley's larger locomotives.
Windle, E. Discussion on Holcroft, H. Smoke deflectors for locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, Pp. 490-9 (9 illus).
Windle described the smokedeflection and stream lining experiments which led to the A4 Bugatti-type front-end.

The original names were those of sea, marsh or moorland birds, e.g. Seagull, Wild Swan, etc. Later, some of these singularfy appropriate names were removed in favour of Commonwealth country, railway director or other "personality" names.

C.P.R. bell for L.N.E.R. loco. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 115. illus.
As fitted to No. 4489 Dominion of Canada.
LOCOMOTIVE naming ceremonies at King's Cross. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 44.
Dominion of Canada, Empire of India and Union of South Africa.
L.N.E.R. directors honour Sir Nigel Gresley. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 400. illus.
Naming cermeony of No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley.
L.N.E.R. Pacific named "Commonwealth of Australia". Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 1218.
L.N.E.R. Pacific named "Sir Nigel Gresley" Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 944; 991-2. 4 illus.
L.N.E.R. Pacific named "Sir Ralph Wedgwood". Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 440. illus. p. 424.
NAMING of streamlined locomotive "Dominon of Canada" at King's Cross Station. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 1184. 2 illus. p.1174.
"SIR Nigel Gresley", 4-6-2. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 965.
Editorial comment on the naming of No. 4498.

See See interesting website


V2 class

The V2 class was evolved from the A3 Pacific design, but there were several changes in the basic dimensions, other than the obvious one of wheel arrangement. The major changes were as follows (the figures for the A3 types are shown in parentheses) : coupled wheel diameter, 6 ft 2 in (6 ft 8 in); cylinder diameter, 18½ in (19 in); length of boiler barrel 17 ft (19 ft); and total length of engine and tender, 66 ft 5 in (70 ft 5 in). Although these figures show a general reduction in size, nevertheless the grate area (41 ¼ft2) was identical in the two classes and the nominal tractive effort of the V2 type was, in fact, slightly higher. The new class was, therefore, capable of hauling all, but the very fastest or heaviest, main-line trains. 184 locomotives were eventually bailt.
Later the concept of large mixed traffic locomotives was developed by Gresley's successors and by Bulleid on the Southern and by Riddles for British Railways. These later designs were Pacifics, however. There is some indication (see Watts and Wilson retrospective and critical material) that the leading pony track was inherently unstable.

The "GREEN Arrow". Engineer, 1936, 151, 676. illus.,diagr. (s. el.)
NEW L.N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 110-12. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
NEW three-cylinder 2-6-2 locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1936, 64, 1176-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
THREE-CYLINDER 2-6-2 express locomotive, L. & N.E. Rly. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 182. illus.
2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive L.N.E.R., Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 136-7 + folding plate f.p. 146. diagr., plan.
Detailed working diagrams.
2-6-2 three-cylinder locomotive, L.N.E.R. Railway; "Green Arrow". Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 204-6. diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-6-2 type locomotives for the London & North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1936, 141, 704. 5 illus.,diagr. (s.el.)


Britsh Railways. E. & N.E. Regions V2 class 3 cyl. 2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport Commission, 1953. 44 un-numbered typescript sheets. 2 illus., 32 diagrs., (incl. s. & f. els.), 3 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests with exhaust steam injector Bulletin No.8).
Results of controlled road tests.

Retrospective & critical

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Annual mileage figures for the class are quoted.
Hoole, K. 21 years of class "V2". Rly Wld, 1957, 18, 303-6. 6 illus., table.
A short, but useful history.
Livsay,E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences, No. 4—L.N.E.R. Edinburgh-Aberdeen trains, "V2" class engines. Engineer, 1939, 168, 366-8. 2 illus., table.
Footplate riding judged on a basis of North American experiences.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. The Aberdeen road. Trains ill. Ann.., 1959, 5-12. 5 illus.
Footplate work with the class on the Edinburgh-Aberdeen route.
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
The author praised the riding qualities of the V2 class.
Neve, E. The story of the Green Arrows. Rly Obsr, 1949, 19, 134-8 + 2 plates. 2 illus., 2 tables.
Lacks the depth normally associated with the Railway Observer.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society
Locomotives of the L.N.E.R.. Part 6C. Tender engines – classes Q1 to Y10
. 1984. 166pp.
Reynolds, W.J. "V2" ubiquity. Railways, 1952, 13, 138-9.6 illus.
A collection of notes rather than a history.
Watts, F.J.R. [Discussion on] J.C. Loach: Bogies and pony trucks their behaviour on the locomotive and track. J. Instn Loco. Engrs. 1948, 38, 4-79. (Paper No. 472).
Pp. 25-6 : Watts discussed the behaviour of the Cartazzi trailing trucks on curves and the question of weight.distribution.

See short monograph by Rutherford and Blakemore which mainly reflects the activities of the preserved Green Arrow which forms part of the National Collection.

Wilson, G.R.S. Report on the derailment which occurred on the 15th July, 1946, at Hatfield on the London and North Eastern Railway. Ministry of Transport Railway accidents [monograph]. London, H.M.S.O., 1946. 9 p. + folding plate. 5 diagrs., (incl. s. & f. els.), 3 tables, plan.
Wilson concluded that the leading pony trucks were sensitive to lateral instability of the track and he recommended that the side control should be improved. The V2 derailments at Newark (13/3/1 944) and Thirsk (24/2/1 946) were also considered.


ANOTHER L.N.E.R. "School" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70,1001.
No. 4831 Durham School.
L.N.E.R. "Green Arrow" class locomotive named "The Snapper". Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 490.
No. 4780.
L.NE.R. "Green Arrow" class locomotive named "The Snapper". Rly Mag., 1937, 81, 386.
L.N.E.R. locomotive named "Coldstreamer": Regimental ceremony for "Green Arrow" class engine. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 1037.
L.N.E.R. locomotive naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 880.
No. 4843 The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.

V4: 1941:
Gresley's final design was this class of two mixed-traffic locomotives. Most of the contemporary accounts compare it with the V2 type as the classes share the same wheel arrangement and wide firebox/three-cylinder design concepts. The V4 was much smaller in all dimensions, however. The maximum axle-load of 17 tons permitted a high route availability.

BRITISH locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1941, 87,173-6.3 illus., 3 diagrs. (5. els.)
Also includes three other new designs.
L.N.E.R. new 2-6-2 type engine. Engineer. 1941, 171, 144-5. illus., 3 diagrs., (mcI. 2 s. els.), table.
NEW general utility locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 220-3; 225. 6 illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. els.).
NEW 2-6-2 engine (class V4), London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 50-2. 5 illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
NEW 2-6-2 type engine L.N.E. Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, 90-6. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
OUTLINE diagram comparing the two types of 2-6-2 locomotives now running on the L.N.E.R. Railways, 1941, 2, 156-7. 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
Comparison with the V2 design.
A SMALLER "Green Arrow". Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 217.
Editorial comment.
TWO interesting new motive power units for L.N.E.R.: a 2-6-2 steam locomotive, class V4, and an 0-4-4-0 electric locomotive. Railways, 1941, 2, 127-31.3 illus.
2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive for the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1941, 151, 266-8; 270. + 2 plates. 6 illus., 4 diagrs. (incl. s. els.)
A very detailed account.

Retrospective and critical

Cliffe, J. Bantam Cock, Gresley's last design. in Essays of steam; ed. John F. Clay. 1970.
Gnerally appreciative assessment of what could have become an outstandingly useful class of locomotives, which should have been very light on the track, yet have been capable of high haulage at moderate speeds: during WW2 they were capable of operating the Norwich to Liverpool Street expresses.
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
This design was considered in favourable terms.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society
Locomotives of the L.N.E.R.. Part 6C. Tender engines – classes Q1 to Y10
. 1984. 166pp.


The bridges on the Great Eastern Section had been very lightly constructed and a severe axle-load limit was in operation. Further, the small turntables limited locomotive length. Until 1928 the largest locomotives per mitted were the Holden B12 4-6-0s, which had an adhesion weight of 44 tons. To supplement these light locomotives Gresley introduced his B17 class, in which the use of three cylinders permitted the adhesion weight to be raised to 54 tons. The nominal tractive effort of the new design was 25,280 lbf, which represented an increase of 3,411 lbf compared with the earlier 4-6-0s. The first batch was built by the North British Locomotive Co. and H.A.V. Bulleid (Master builders of steam p. 61) has stated that this Company undertook the detailed design work.

[CLASS B17 4-6-0, L.N.E.R.] . J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 2-5. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
L.and N.E. Rly. passenger locomotive. Engineer, 1929, 148, 8-9. illus., diagr., plan.
NEW 4-6-0 locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 98-100. illus.
THREE-CYLINDER 4-6-0 express locomotive, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 4-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

B17/5 :1937:
Two locomotives were rebuilt with A4-type streamlining to work the East Anglian express between London and Norwich.

The EAST Anglian express. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 646-8.3 illus., diagr. (s. el.), plan.
The "EAST Anglian" trains L. & N.E.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 339-41. 3 illus., diagr.
STREAMLINED L.N.E.R. engines. Engineer, 1937, 164, 426-7. illus.


Nock's British steam locomotives at work. 1967.).quotes a log he had made on the Marylebone to Nottinham newspaper train: "So far everything had gone swimmingly on the footplate; the engine was steaming freely; all was sweet and true at the front-end, and the long continued use of a short cut-off naturally resulted in economical working, even though the booked speeds were so high. When the regulator was full open the steam chest pressure was within 10 lb. per sq. in. of the boiler pressure. And then to conclude Gayton Hall and her crew treated me to a perfect little classic in the way of locomotive running, between Rugby and Leicester. In starting away the engine was put to it hard for the first six miles; she certainly responded in full measure, with an acceleration to 66 m.p.h. in 1« miles from the start, and in mounting the Shawell bank at 57« m.p.h. Then, with cut-off back to the 15 per cent position once more, came the climax of the whole journey. A very rapid acceleration from Ashby led up to a maximum speed of 90 m.p.h. at Whetstone. The engine developed this effort with the utmost ease, the regulator being no more than two-fifths open and steam chest pressure only 110 lb. per sq. in. Finishing in characteristic style, with top speed maintained to the very last minute, we made the run from Rugby to Leicester in a full minute under the 20 min. scheduled for this 19.9 miles.

This run afforded a perfect exposition of the functioning of the Gresley front-end. Sir Nigel Gresley designed his engines so that they could do the work on a short cut-off, and one rarely, if ever, saw one of his three-cylinder types pounded on a heavy bank. Driver Simpson took things quite easily on the climb to Amersham, and precisely the same methods were adopted when the new 'Sandringhams' of the 'Football Club' series arrived on the Great Central section. Never, I should imagine, has a group of top-link drivers taken more readily to a new class than the Leicester men did to Arsenal and her colleagues; these new engines required totally different methods of handling from those long practised on the Robinson Atlantics, but from the outset they received the right treatment. After all there cannot be a much simpler engine to drive than one which can be opened straight out to full regulator, and which will do nearly all its work on a nominal 15 per cent cut-off.
Robson, T. The counter pressure brake method of testing locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1943, 33, 171-98. Disc.: 198-217 (Paper No. 441).
Describes testing a B17 locomotive by this method.
[STREAMLINED 817 No. 2780 City of London: a record of continuous performance between Liverpool St. and Norwich, in which 100,103 miles were run in 452 days.]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 151.

Retrospective and critical

"Balmore", pseud. Farewell to the Gresley "B17'  4-6-0s. Trains Ill., 1960, 13, 266-71. 5 illus.
Gresley locomotive characteristics. Rly Mag., 1945, 91, 113-14.
Unpopularity of the types which lacked trailing axles.
Proud, P. The Sandringhams. Rly Obsr, 1960, 30, 304.
RCTS. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.
Considers most aspects of the class including its difficult genesis and its origins at the North British Locomotive Co


NAMEPLATES for football clubs. Rly Mag., 1960, 106, 50. illus.
When the locomotives were scrapped the nameplates bearing club names were presented to the relevant clubs.
NAMING of L.N.E.R. locomotive "Suffolk Regiment". Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 1272.
No. 2845.
[NAMING of No. 2848 – Arsenal]. Rly Mag., 1936, 78. 306.


Equivalent distributed loads for recent locomotives. Rly Engr. 1932. 53, 399-401. 4 diagrs, 2 tables.
Examines the C9 type in relation to axle loading.
Dobson, K.S. Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 197-200. 8 illus., (some on pp. 176-7).
Describes the C7/2 modification (Lentz RC valve gear).
Gresley, H.N. The three-cylinder high-pressure locomotive. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1925, (2), 927-67. Disc. 968-86. 9 illus., 15 diagrs., 6 tables.
Gresley arranged comparative tests between the C6 and C7 (2 and 3 cylinder types), the results of which are given in this paper. Sir Vincent Raven presided over this meeting.
Hoole, K. The North Eastern Atlantics. Rly Obsr, 1949, 19, 29-32; 52-5; 98-100
+ 3 plates. 4 illus., 4 tables.
Hoole, K. The North-Eastern Atlantics. 1965.
Hoole, K. Odd N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Wld, 1959, 20, 382-9. 7 illus., 2 tables.
Includes L.N.E.R. modifications.
Jarvis, C.C. Dynamometer car working on the L.N.E.R. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 2-33. Disc.: 34-46. (Paper No. 297).
Comparative tests of classes C6 and C7 (pp. 35-7).


D49: 1927 :
This class was introduced for working secondary express duties on the Scottish and North Eastern Sections. Three 17 in x 26 in cylinder were incorporated, but the boiler was standard with class J39. In consequence, the total heating surface was restricted to 1669 ft2 and the grate area to 26 ft2. Comparative figures for the B17 and Southern Schools classes were 2020 ft2 (2049 ft2) and 27'/2 ft2 (28.3 ft2) (the figures for the Schools class are within parentheses). The capacity of the locomotives was, therefore, limited, but O.S. Nock (The locomotives of Sir Nigel Gresley pp. 724) has described one run on which 1230 drawbar horsepower was achieved whilst hauling 435 tons.
The original design was fitted with Gresley derived valve gear and was known as the D49/1 or Shire class. In 1928, Lentz oscillating cam valve gear was experimentally fitted to six new locomotives (D49/3) and in the following year the rotary cam version was applied to two further locomotives (D49/2). This latter modification formed the basis for a series, constructed from 1932, known as the Hunt class.
Rutherford (BackTrack, 15, 292) noted that Darlington Drawing Office, under the chief locomotive draughtsman, R. J. Robson, undertook all the design work and does not seem to have been closely supervised by Gresley or Doncaster as to detail features. The derived valve gear was placed behind the cylinders and its joints were kept away from smokebox char. The valves themselves were easy to remove for inspection without dismantling the valve gear.

4-4-0 type locomotive on the London and North-Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1927. 124, 722-3. illus., 6 diagrs. (incl.. s. & f. els.)
NEW 4-4-0 type express locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Engr, 1928, 49, 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW three.cylinder 4-4-0 type locomotive, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1927, 17, 574-7 + plate illus.,diagr. (s. el.).
THREE-CYLlNDER 4-4-0 express locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1928, 62, 14-16. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
A more detailed account than usual for the Railway Magazine at that time.
THREE-CYLlNDER 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 378-9. illus.,diagr. (s. el.).
THREE-CYLlNDER 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 1 + folding plate. illus.

D49/3:1928 : Oscillating cam poppet valve gear.

THREE-CYLlNDER express engine with Lentz valves, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 278-9. illus.,diagr. (s. & f. els.)

D49/2 :1929 : Rotary cam poppet valve gear.

4-4-0 passenger engines, L. & N.E. Ry. with rotary cam poppet valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 380-1. illus.
LENTZ locomotive valve gear. Engineer, 1930, 149, 132. illus., 2 diagrs.
LONDON and North Eastern Railway 4-4-0 locomotive fitted with poppet valves. Rly Mag., 1930, 66, 58. illus.
NEW 4-4-0 three-cylinder passenger locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 156. illus.

A modified version for new construction: "Hunt" class.

THREE.CYLINDER locomotive with rotary cam poppet valve gear. Engineering, 1930, 129, 39-41. illus., 4 diagrs.
A very complete account.

D49 : 1931 : Improvements to the main drive using the "Woodard" arrangement.

IMPROVEMENTS in the main drive on crank pins. Loco. Rly Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 295. 2 diagrs.

Retrospective & critical

Bulleid, O.V.S. Poppet valves on locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 569-605. Disc. 605-23 + 9 folding plates. 9 illus., 29 diagrs., 3 tables. (Paper No. 248).
Examination of LNER experiments with special reference to the D49 class.
Carling, D.R. Locomotive testing on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1950, 40, 496-530. Disc.: 530-91 . (Paper No. 497).
The discussion includes consideration of tests performed on the D49 class.
[D49 class prediction of compound version]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 32.
This may refer to Gresley's abortive design for a V six-cylinder Uniflow engine (see B. Spencer The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941.J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 164-210), or to Gresley proposal. for a Smith type of compound (Hughes Sir Nigel Gresley p. 107).
Dobson, K.S. Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 197-200. 8 illus., (some on pp. 176-7).
Partly based on Bulleid's paper (see above).
Hoole, K. The class "D49" 4-4-0s of the L.N.E.R. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 97-102. 9 illus., 2 tables.
Jarvis, C.C. Dynamometer car working on the L.N.E.R. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 2-33. Disc.: 34-46. (Paper No. 297).
The discussion elucidates comparative tests performed on the Walschaerts and Lentz valve gear locomotives.
Poultney, E.G. Poppet valves as applied to locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 704-6. Disc. : 706-15. (Abstract of a lecture).
The lecture was associated with a visit to Neville Hill Depot (Leeds) where Lentz O.C. and R.C. D49 class locomotives and Sentinel locomotives were inspected.

Dl1/2: 1924:
There was a motive power shortage in Scotland and to meet this demand quickly, Gresley constructed a further series of the Robinson "large Director" class. The boiler mountings were reduced to meet the Scottish loading gauge.

Allen, C.J. Salute to the "Claud Hamiltons" & "Directors". Trains ill., 1961, 14, 113-17. 10 illus.
Amac, pseud. The "Director" class, L. & N.E.R. in Soctland. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 82.
The difficulties experienced by Scottish drivers with a strange design of cab, especially with the right-hand drive.
4-4-0 passenger engines: "Director" class L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 1-2. illus., table.
Mainly the Scottish series.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. Driving the "Directors". Rly Wld, 1963, 24, 110-13. illus. (Enginemens lobby).
Similar to Amac's contribution.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. Talking of "Directors": a footplate commentary. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 502-4.
Comment on good steaming and riding qualities.
Modern L.N.E.R. locomotives in Scotland. Rly Mag., 1928, 63,11-18. 10 illus.
Reviews the more modern N.B.R.designs plus the L.N.E.R. introductions.
Tuplin, W.A. Swan song of the Great Central "Directors". Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 88-90. 2 illus.
An appreciation.

Great Eastern Railway

D15 and D16:
The original D15 design dated to 1903 and was the subject of several modifications which culminated in the Hill "Super Claud" design introduced in 1923.The major Gresley modification was the modernization of several locomotives with round top fireboxes and modern front-ends, from 1933.

D16:1923: Hill "Super Clauds

REBUILT 4-4-0 express locomotive, London & North-Eastern Railway, Great Eastern Section. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 125. illus.
REBUILT 4-4-0 locomotive, Great Eastern Section, London and North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1923, 52, 492. illus.

D16/2 :1926 : Gresley rebuilds of Holden 4-4-Os in line with the Hill "Super Clauds", but with extended smokeboxes.

REBUILT 4-coupled express engine, London & North Eastern Ry., G.E. Section. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 138. illus.

See interesting website which forms part of LNER "Encyclopedia"

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