North Eastern Railway locomotives: McDonnell, the Tennants, Worsdells and Raven

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The North Eastern Railway, like the LNWR, contained within it, the roots of the world's railway system and the Company was well aware of its rich historical heritage: Tomlinson and the National Railway Museum display this. Certainly those who may wish to deride Riddles and his absurd programme of "standard locomotives" may wish to consider why he and his associates failed to complete the sole representative collection and failed even more dismally to ensure that an adequate supply of the motive power from the only other really great railway, the LNWR, was preserved. The North Eastern Railway Association maintains an excellent website: ner.org.uk

Allen, C.J. The North Eastern railway. London, Ian Allan, 1964. 240 p.+ 48 plates. 125 illus. (incl. 4 ports.), 2 diagrs., 3 plans, 13 maps.
Bell, R. Twenty-five years of the North Eastern Railway, 1898-1922. London, Railway Gazette, [1951]. 87 p.
The accent is on commercial development and personalities. Chapter II is entitled "V.L. Raven as Chief Mechanical Engineer".
Hoole, K. The 4-4-0 classes of the North Eastern Railway. London: Ian Allan, 1979.
Ottley 12439
Hoole, K. The electric locomotives of the North Eastern Railway. Oxford: Oakwood, 1988. 40pp. (Locomotion Papers No. 167).
Noted lightness of catenary; short extract from Raven paper to North East Coast Instn Engrs Shipbuilders which compared performance of a proposed 0-8-2 tender locomotive with 0-6-6-0 electric freight locomotive.
Hoole, Ken. An illustrated history of NER locomotives. Sparkford: Oxford Publishing, 1988. 255pp.
Based on official company list of engines in 1894.Many illustrations which are clearly printed, and some diagrams. What and when rather than why. Most of the work is based on a class by class approach, but near the end there are sections on tenders (pp. 200-4); cabs (204-8); liveries (209-14); safety valves (214); regulators (214) notably Servo single beat and Lockyer; variable blast pipe invented W.R. Preston and Wilson Worsdell; brakes (214-16) which shows why T.E. Harrison adopted Westinghouse brake; reversing gear (combined lever and screw and steam reversers)(216-17), piston valves (notably W.M. Smith's contribution) (217), the Raven fog signalling apparatus (217-18); superheating (the Sisterson type was evaluated on R class in 1909) (218); sanding gear (compressed air was used on D class and Pacifics (218-19); lubrication: from 1901 Roscoe type used; then from 1908 Furness globe type; costs (1890) are given for Furness (£1 6d), Roscoe (£1 12s) and Bailey (£2), with superheating Wakefield Detroit sight feed type was used (p. 219); shunting poles (these were substantial poles fitted to the locomotives to enable shunting to take place on adjacent tracks: see H class; cab windows; water pick-up gear (Lucker troughs opened in 1897); cushioned wheels (see also H1 class); chimneys (220-1: 15 diagrams); feed water heaters 221: proposal to fit S No. 2008, S1 2111 and T1 1729 with Drummond Fuel Economisers, but Hoole questions whether modification took place, Hoole also expands on the possibly somewhat similar technique fitted to the M1 class whereby exhaust steam could be diverted into the tender; the Weir pump fitted to S2 No. 788 is also noted again; water tubes (221-2); oil fuel (pp. 226-7); locomotive headlamps, headlamp codes and train identification (including illumination) pp. 228-9; locomotive registers and diagram books (best produced edition, 1904) p. 229; effects of WW1 (229-30); sheds and works (230-5)..
Hoole, K. The North-Eastern Atlantics. Hatch End (Middlesex), Roundhouse, 1965. 64 p. + 16 plates.
Hoole, K. North Road Locomotive Works, Darlington, 1863-1966. [Hatch End]: Roundhouse, 1967. xiv, 102pp.
Established by William Bouch for the S&DR; gives little information on Fletcher (as Gateshead) or even Alexander McDonnell. Raven was really first Darlington CME. Book extends into LNER/BR period. There was much work on standardization during the 1930s, notably the replacement of the Westinghouse brake by the vacuum type and the switch to left hand-drive.
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. Cambridge: Goose, 1975. 705pp.
Ottley 10510: "A comprehensive work embodying great detail". Locomotives were constructed at Gateshead, Darlington and York, but eventually Darlington took-over from Gatehead as the primary centre of production.
MacLean, J.S. The locomotives of the North Eastern Railway, 1841-1922. Newcastle, R. Robinson & Co., [c. 1923]. [vi] , 120 p. + front. 66 illus., 53 diagrs. (s. els.), tables.
Based to some extent on an earlier work on the same subject published by the author in 1906: same title except dates covered: 1854-1905: much weaker on this later period when RCTS Locomotives of the LNER becomes major source...
Nock, O.S. Locomotives of the North Eastern Railway. London, Ian Allan, 1954. viii, 200 p. incl. 32 plates + col. front. + 3 col. plates. 81 illus., (incl. 8 ports.), 8 tables, map.
Later impressions omit the colour plates. One of the bibliographical curiosities of this book is that there is a publisher's note on page vi which apologizes for using MacLean's title in spite of using material from it..
Tomlinson, W.W. Tomlinson's North Eastern Railway: its rise and development; new edition with introduction by K. Hoole. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1967. 820pp.+40 plates.
A thorough examination of the best work on railway history is given elsewhere.
Tuplin, W.A. North Eastern steam. London: Allen & Unwin. 1970.
Ottley 12436

Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. Cambridge: Goose, 1975. 705pp.
Ottley 10510: "A comprehensive work embodying great detail". Locomotives were constructed at Gateshead, Darlington and York, but eventually Darlington took-over from Gatehead as the primary centre of production.

McDonnell designs

0-6-0

59 or 1480 class: 1883-5: LNER J22
Total 44: twelve constructed by R. Stephenson, remainder at Darlington (Hoole stated as an initial batch of eight plus three further batches of eight). Initially left-hand drive. 5ft coupled wheels; 17x26in cylinders. Boiler as per 901 class. Nos. 498 and 606 had 5ft 6in coupled wheels. Illus. No. 192. MacLean pp. 109-10. Became LNER Class J22 (RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 5. (which gives coupled wheel sizes as 5ft 1in and 5ft 7¼). The RCTS noted that the R. Stephenson locomotives (WN 2581-92) had longer frames than those built at Darlington. Furthermore, the Stephenson locomotives, whch cost £2820 each had to be modified. Originally constructed as left-hand drive, most converted to right hand drive. All entered LNER stock: last survived until 1930: RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 Hoole (p. 43) reproduces the official weight diagram for the class. Hoole (pp. 45-6) illustrated No. 78 which shows the backward sloping firebox front and double doors with hinges on either side; and No. 1102 in final condition at Ferryhill in 1923.Last withdrawn in December 1930. According to Hoole latterly most had been converted to right hand drive and the Westinghouse brake was standard. No. 1486 was acquired by the South Shields, Marsden & Whitburn Colliery Railway in 1930, Clements and McMahon page 83: An English postscript suggests that NER 59 class (LNER J22) was an enlarged version of the 101 class and included GSWR features including cab and sloping front smokebox with double doors..
59 class 0-6-0 No. 455 at Low Fell with passenger train for Consett. Brian Arman. H.L. Hopwood Collection. Rly Arch., 2009, (24) 64 lower

4-4-0

1492 class: 38 class
These controversial 4-4-0s had 6ft 8¾in coupled wheels; 17 x 24in cylinders; a grate area of 16.8ft2 and boilers set at 140psi. MacLean (pp. 66-7) noted that they had inadequate boiler power and "lacked the ease, freedom and power of Mr. Fletcher's creations". They also lacked the steam cocks favoured by Fletcher: a lucid description of these is given by Poole. Certainly, Fletcher did not appeaar to like 4-4-0s and tended to convert them to 2-4-0s and Fletcher's 901 class was as powerful as this design. Both of MacLean's illustrations: Fig. 49 (drawing of No. 180 in original condition; and photograph of No. 1496 show the beautiful lines of the class which MacLean appreciated. Tweleve were built by Hawthorn, Leslie WN 1996-2007 and 16 were constructed at Gateshead. MacLean recorded that "in spite of the early traditions of the line the reversing lever was located on the top left side of these engines, and a source of trouble at the beginning was some stiffness of movemen in the regulators." On the other hand the "swing-link bogie on these engines was a welcome addition." Wilson Worsdell renewed the class with 90-type boilers. They lasted a long time, the last not being withdrawn until 1920, and according to MacLean found a niche on the sinuous Newcastle and Carlisle line when the Coastal route was closed through severe weather in 1888. Ahrons (British steam locomotive development p. 269) noted that these were the "first in Great Britain to have pendulum link bogies". They were intended for the East Coast main line expresses, but were too small for this work. Just one locomotive remained to enter LNER stock (by which it was known as the 38 class), nevertheless, RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 4) gives an extended history of this significant design. Hoole (pp. 60-2) included a reproduction of the official weight diagram (p. 61). Hoole implied that the most notable of the men's objections to the McDonnell engines had been the change in drive position. Hoole's illus. include No. 112 with original boiler at Leeds c1890, and No. 1318 with side window cab (for working stores vans over Stainmore).

Rutherford, Michael. A Brief Survey of the Irish 4-4-0. Part 1: Genesis — or how the Irish designed a "Crewe" 4-4-0 and exported it back to England. Two (Railway Reflections No.121). Backtrack, 2006, 20, 360-9.
Centres on Alexander McDonnell and how a series of standard locomotives were evolved for the major Irish railway (the Great Southern & Western Railway at its Inchicore Works, including the dominant 101 class of 0-6-0 (designed at Beyer Peacock), and eventually the Kerry bogies (4-4-0) which evolved from McDonnell's light 2-4-0 design. McDonnell was an inspired head hunter: the brilliant engineer John Aspinall was recruited from Webb to be Works Manager at Inchicore and later Ivatt was attracted across the water in the same manner. Thus it is shown how the Kerry bogie concept was to re-emerge on the LYR and GNR. This article covers the cause celebre of McDonnell's eventual fairly rapid departure from the North Eastern Railway (following his appointment as Locomotive Superintendent at Gateshead in succession to Fletcher). Rutherford uses this as a pretext to demolish the embroidered descriptions presented by Nock and by Tuplin in contrast with the brevity in its coverage by the magisterial Tomlinson and by Irving. Those seeking more about McDonnell's Irish career should examine Chacksfield's book on the Coey brothers and for the debacle on the NER Parts 3C (pp. 56-8) and 5 (page 145) of the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. .

The Tennant designs

2-4-0

1463 (Tennants): 1885: LNER E5
It might be thought that locomotives designed by a Committee might have been unsuccessful: this was not the case and the class often known as Tennants was highly successful: see Poultney in particular. MacLean (pp. 68-70) noted that the Committee included the General Manager, Mr Henry Tennant, Wilson Worsdell (Hoole pp. 40-2 firmly credits the design to him) and the Divisional Superintendent at Darlington, George Graham. Hepper was the Chief Draughtsman. They had 7ft 1¼in coupled wheels and a grate area of 18ft2 and 18x24in cyinders. MacLean noted the improved machinery and accuracy "is said to havebeen a large factor contributing towards their success" (KPJ: presumably a legacy of McDonnell). Ten were built at Gateshead and ten at Darlington. Four were stationed at Edinburgh: the Edinburgh to Newcastle run was one of their intended spheres of operation: they enabled the night express to be operated non-stop between Newcastle and Edinburgh. They performed well in the 1888 Races. MacLean cited Scott for this: he also mentioned that No. 1505 completed the Newcastle to Edinburgh run in 127 min. in 1895. MacLean noted that a special run for Mr M. Hicks Beach, the Chancellor of the Exchequer reached Malton from York in 19 minutes. In 1895 Wilson Worsdell fitted the class with larger boilers with a total heating surface of 1136.2 ft2 and pressed to 160psi. No. 1467 was fitted with Younghusband valve gear. All twenty became LNER stock and one is preserved. Hoole (pp. 40-2) includes an official weight diagram (p. 41) and illustrates No. 1463 in original condition, No. 1465 with Worsdell boiler at York in 1894, and 1475 at Neville Hille c1922.. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 4.

Barnfield, Stephen. Locomotives designed by Committee: the North Eastern Railway 'Tennants'. Rly Arch, 1 53-69.
Mainly concerns the 2-4-0s designed by the Locomotive Committee under the Chairmanship of Henry Tennant, General Manager of the NER following the forced resignation of Alexander McDonnell. Wilson Worsdell also served on the Committee. The Class 8 0-6-0Ts were also designed under the aspices of this Committee. Fails to cite relevant section of RCTS Locomotives of the LNER (Part 4) LNER Class E5 or Part 8B (Class J75).
Nock, O.S. Historical steam locomotives. 1959. Chapter 4 2-4-0s of the decorated period
Preserved 910 and 1463
Scott, W.J. Some "racing runs" and trial trips. 1. The race to Edinburgh, 1888 on the last day. Rly Mag., 1897, 1, 39-44.
Smith, Walter M. Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1898, 55,. 605-69.
Paper included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Poultney's British express locomotive development reproduces this data which also included the 7ft 7in 4-2-2 and 4-4-0 designs, the Tennant and 901 2-4-0s..

0-6-0T

Class 8: 1885: LNER J74
According to Hoole (pp. 15-16) eight small 0-6-0Ts were constructed for shunting. These incorporated the cylinders and boilers on order for further McDonnell 4-4-0s. The side tanks were rounded at the front. They were all absorbed by the LNER and became class J74 and were withdrawn in 1930/1. The illustrations in Part 8B of the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER are very poor: Hoole's (including an official photograph) are much better.

Thomas William Worsdell designs

0-6-0

Class C: 1886-92
These locomotives, with the two 1324 class 2-4-0s introduced the von Borries two-cylinder compound system to the NER. eventually there were 171 locomotives of this type. They shared the cylinder dimesnions of the 1324 class (a single 18x24in high pressure cylinder, and a single 26x24in low pressure cylinder). MacLean (p. 110) fails to note that they were equipped with Joy valve gear (but MacLean appeared to have little real interest in freight locomotives). MacLean gives the wheel diameter as 5ft. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 (LNER J21) states that the coupled wheel diameter was 5ft 1¼in. The RCTS also states that other than thirty built at Darlington, the remainder were built at Gateshead. The first engine in the class was No. 16. MacLean stated that the coal consumption of eleven locomotives over six months was 35¼ lbs/mile and that No. 107 fitted with piston valves (Smith patented collapsible type asccording to Ahrons, Locomotive Mag., 1909, 15, 140-1) consumed 32½ lbs/mile.

The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 noted that the saving of coal by the compounds must have proved illusory, because as early as 5th October 1893 the Locomotive Committee of the Board of Directors requested Wilson Worsdell to report on the working of the compounds, their coal consumption, failure to start and stop as required, and their loss of time when shunting. Hoole (pp. 86-91) noted that the data for the report to Sir Lothian Bell was coordinated by Vincent Raven and Ramsey Kendal.The Class C locomotives were compared with classes 398, 708 and C1  over a period of two and half years ending 30 June 1893 on workings between Newcastle and Berwick, Gateshead and York, and Hull and Normanton. Coal, oil, mileage, loads etc were monitored. The compounds were found to be more economical, but performance was poorer on gradients and the economy was lost whilst shunting. Hoole also observed that the report included photographs of twelve classes of locomotive, but in the case of the McDonnell 1492 class a picture of a GS&WR Aspinall 4-4-0 was used! This report was considered by the Locomotive Committee on 19th April 1894, when it was resolved that, before expense in maintenance was incurred, the question of conversion to simples was to be considered. Action soon followed, concentrated at first on rebuilding the passenger compound engines. Before the turn of class C came, six of them had received new compound cylinders by the end of 1901; one further engine (No. 1122) was fitted with second-hand compound cylinders in 1904. Beginning with No. 994 in 1901, all 171 compounds were converted to simples, No. 331 in 1912 and No. 668 in 1913 completing the process. As the whole class was then Cl there was no longer a need for the suffix and from June 1914 the class was described officially just as C.

Hoole's illustrations include a general arrangement of a compound which appeared in the Engineer, 1887, 18 February; official photograph of No. 16; No. 1187 with tail rods; No. 1593 (as compound) at foot of Ingleby Incline; No. 1075 at Stainmore Summit on wesrbound passenger rain (R.J. Purves); No. 570 in 1917 livery at Carlisle London Road; No. 480 in service in works grey; and No. 1808 at York in 1922 in simple livery (W.L. Good). Former 65003 is preserved at Beamish.

Four locomotives were sold by the LNER to the South Shields, Marsden & Whtburn Colliery Railway from 1929: Nos. 1816/776 and 1509.

Lucas, S.J. discussion on Selby, F.W. Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 319-21 (Paper No. 257)
Had experience of Worsdell's two-cylinder compounds on GER and NER three-cylinder compound locomotive where he noted the good balance and even torque.
Thackeray, J.R. discussion on Selby, F.W. Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 322 (Paper No. 257)
Had experience of Worsdell's locomotives fitted with Joy valve gear on NER and found them to be heavy on maitenance.

Class C1: 1886/1894-5 (LNER J21)
Similar to Class C, but with two 18x24in high pressure cylinders. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 (LNER J21) states that they were constructed at Gateshead. MacLean dismisses this class on a single page (111) whereas the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 (LNER J21) produces a virtual monograph (pp. 127-44) which includes the proposed reconstruction of 1938 which would have produced powerful locomotives for the Darlington to Tebay service using J39 frames, 19x26in cylinders with 8in piston valves and a superheated boiler partly based on that used on the V1 class with a grate area of 20.5 ft2 and pressed to 200 psi. They lasted in service until 1962, and narrowly missed preservation.

4-4-0

F class compounds/ F1 class simples: 1887-91
Simple and Von Bories-type two-cylinder compound versions of the same locomotive type were introduced: originally there were ten simples and 25 compounds (in three batches: 10 in 1887; ten in 1890 and five in 1891). The two compound 2-4-0s (No. 1324 and 340) were also modified with bogies to conform (although the compounds were in effect a bogie version of these two locomotives). The simples had 18x24in cylinders and this size was adopted for the high pressure cylinder on the compounds, but the low pressure cylinder was 26x24in. Coupled wheels were 6ft 8in diameter. The grate area was 17.25 ft2. The compounds worked at 175psi and the simples at 140psi. MacLean (pp. 72-4) gives fairly brief details and does not note when the compounds were converted to simples, but does note that Raven fitted new boilers. The locomotives lasted to become LNER Class D22 (RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3C) and this fills in the gaps in the information: conversion of the compounds to simples was completed in 1911 and the class became Class F from 1914. The RCTS publication refers to a Worsdell "professional publication" of 1886: this has still to be traced (it does not appear to have been the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers).

Hoole (pp. 98-100) draws attention to his own book on the 4-4-0 classes of the North Eastern Railway. Nevertheless, he included a general arrangement drawing (elevation & plan) of compound type from Engineering 1888, 30 March; plus further sectional drawing of front view from Engineering 1888 10 March on p. 223) official photo. of No. 684; a magnificent study of No. 779 in Edinburgh under North Bridge; No. 1 as converted to simple, and No. 808 as superheated at Hull Paragon in 1922..

Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive) noted that when Worsdell became chief locomotive superintendent of the North-Eastern Railway, he built a single two-cylinder 2-4-0 compound express engine at Gateshead works, followed in 1887 by ten similar engines, the latter with leading bogies (class F). Although the general design, including Joy's valve gear and the starting and intercepting valves, was similar to that of the Great Eastern engines, there were two important differences. The boiler pressure was raised to 170 psi., and to secure nearly as possible equality of work in the two cylinders, there was a differential adjustment of the quadrants of the Joy gear to give a later cut-off in the low-pressure than in the high-pressure cylinder. The latter was 18in. diameter, and the former 26in. diameter, the common stroke being 24in.; cylinder ratio, 1: 2.09. Von Borries estimated that to produce equal amounts of work in both cylinders with ordinary valve gear without differential adjustment, the ratio should be 1 : 2.25 to 1: 2.3, but this caused the low-pressure cylinder to be inconveniently large. The high-pressure cylinder had ports 11¾ in. by 1¾ in. and 3½in.; steam lap of Trick double ported valve, 11/8in.; maximum valve travel, 4¼in.; lead, 3/16in. The low-pressure cylinder ports were 17in. by 2in. and 3½in. ; steam lap of valve, 15/16in.; maximum travel, 5¼in.; lead, 3/8in.; and exhaust clearance, 1/8in. The cylinders were spaced at 2ft. centres. With a cut-off of 70 per cent. in the high-pressure cylinder, the cut-off in the low- pressure cylinder was 84½ per cent. ; at 50 per cent. high-pressure cut-off, the low-pressure cut-off was 73 per cent. The starting and intercepting valves were operated by one handle, instead of two, as in the earlier GER compound engines. Two spring-loaded valves were fitted on the ends of the low-pressure cylinder, pressed to 100 lb. per square inch. The coupled wheels of both engines were 6ft. 8¼in. diameter; the leading wheels of the 2-4-0, 4ft. 7¼in. diameter; and the bogie wheels of the 4-4-0, 3ft. 7¼in. diameter. The former had a wheel base of 7ft. 9in. + 8ft. 8in., that of the 4-4-0 engine being 6ft. 6in. + 6ft. 9in. + 8ft. 8in. The boilers of both classes were alike, 4ft. 6in. diameter outside, and contained 242 brass tubes, 1¾ in. diameter; fire-box heating surface, 112 square feet; total, 1323.3 square feet; grate area, 17.33 square feet. The 4-4-0 and all later express engines with bogies had low pressure piston tail rods

Pouteau photograph of No. 340 in 4-4-0 form at Bridlington, Rly Arch., 2008,19, 54 upper.

2-4-0

G class: 1887-8
MacLean (pp. 74-5) states that twenty mixed traffic loocomotives built at Darlington (Hoole in 1887-8) for Leeds to Harrogate and Hull services  Known as Waterburys from their ability to keep good time on passenger trains. 17x24in cylinders actuated by Joy valve gear. 6ft 1¼ coupled wheels. Grate area 15.18ft2 grate area, total heating surface 1082ft2, weight 40¼  tons. Subsequently rebuilt as 4-4-0s by Wilson Worsdell in 1900-04. Hoole (pp. 102-5) calling it G1 class, notes that the type was superheated in 1913-16. Illus.: as 2-4-0 No. 274 (official) and No. 557. As 4-4-0s: official weight diagram; No. 679 with Stephenson valve gear and piston valves; same locomotive at Darlington in March 1924 still in NER livery; No. 557 with MacLean's patent draught inducer at Hull Paragon in September 1909 (Hoole stated that drawings for device produced at Darlington). Nock's Locomotives of the North Eastern Railway argues that John S. Maclean (a personal friend of W.M. Smith) claimed that the authorities  looked with favour on these smart little engines, but that Ahrons claimed that they were not popular with the men and were sluggish. See also as rebuilt as 4-4-0s..

1324/340: 1886
These two locomotives, with the class C 0-6-0s, introduced the von Borries two-cylinder compound system to the NER. They were originally known as class D. Worsdell had introduced this type on the GER as a 4-4-0 (the 230 "class"), and must have reflected his experience of working under Webb at Crewe where he had been Works Manager. Van Riemsdijk suggests that their initial form as 2-4-0s may have been dictated by an unfavourable reaction of the footplate staff to MacDonnel's 4-4-0s, which had been rapidly succeeded by the Tennant 2-4-0s. They were later converted to become Class F 4-4-0s. MacLean (pp. 72-4) states that they had 6ft 8¼in coupled wheels, a single 18x24in high pressure cylinder, and a single 26x24in low pressure cylinder. Joy valve gear was used. The grate area was 17.33ft2 and the boiler pressure 175psi. MacLean (pp. 71-2) noted a claim for 15% reduction in coal consumption; that No. 1324 was displayed at the Newcastle Exhibition; that No. 340 was fitted with Smith's piston valves, but that they were unsteady at speed. They were converted to 4-4-0s. No. 1324 was an early conversion to the simple form. Hoole (pp. 98-100) includes a general arrangement drawing (side elevation and plan) from the Engineer, 1887, 3 June; an official photograph of No. 1324; and a photograph of No. 340 with W.M. Smith piston valves and more visibly tail rods..

4-2-2

I class: 1888-90
Ten von Borries-type two cylinder compounds were constructed at Gateshead: these had an 18x24in high pressure cylinder and a 26x24in low pressure cylinder actuated by Joy valve gear. They had a total heating surface of 1126 ft2, boilers pressed to 175psi and the engine in working order weighed 43¾ tons. MacLean (pp. 76-7) is less circumspect than usual on what he regarded as recent designs. He noted that they were designed for the Leeds-York-Scarborough service, but noted that passengers experienced a rather jerky journey behind the compounds. Wilson Worsdell added outside bearings to the rear axle when the locomotives were rebuilt as simples with Stephenson link motion. Hoole (pp. 139-47) is mainly interesting for the high quality illustrations including general arrangement drawing on p. 141 from Engineering, 1889, 21 June; official photograph of No. 1326; and No. 1530 at Scarborough and 1528 leaving Scarborough and of rebuilt No. 1329 in service and No. 1529 as condemned at Hull Botanic Gardens on 22 June 1920. Hoole (p. 221) describes apparatus whereby driver could divert exhaust steam into tender to provide feed water heating. Pouteau photograph of non-compound No. 1329 at York in early 20th century. Rly Arch., 2008 (19), 53. .

J class: 1889-90
Ten two-cylinder compounds working on the Worsdell-von Borries system with 7ft 7¼in driving wheels; 20x24in HP/28x24 LP cylinders actuated by Joy valve gear with rocking shafts. Grate area 20.75 ft2. Boiler pressure 175 psi. Adhesive weight 17 tons 15 cwt. Were intended for Newcastle to Edinburgh expresses. MacLean (pp. 78-80: illus. of No. 1526 as compound; 1524 as simple simple conversion and No. 1520 with Stephenson link motion and piston valves activating 19x24in cylinders. On test the locomotives consumed 28.5lb coal/mile. MacLean suggests that there were problems with the outside steam chests (see Ahrons Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 118), and the Joy valve gear and that this was the reason for the early conversion (completed by 1902).
Van Riemsdijk included indicator diagrams which showed the high power output of a Class J single: over 500 horsepower per cylinder at 86 mile/h.. Van Riemsdijk criticised the awkward arrangement of the valve gearing. The Joy valve drive was taken by shafts and pendulum levers from the inside to the outside of the frames. This seems to have been dictated by the typically English preoccupation with external appearance. In this single driver locomotive it would have been so much easier and better to extend the driving axle beyond the wheel faces and to fit a pair of eccentrics on the extensions, giving a robust and direct link motion. Van Riemsdijk claimed that the big singles suffered from cracking of the outside steam chests and it would not have been possible to rebuild them as compounds with inside steam chests without reducing their power. Nevertheless, in his opinion in both their states they were among the finest British express locomotives of their time.
Hoole (pp. 139-47) is good on illustrative material, including general arrangement drawings for both original state (p. 143 from, Engineer, 1890, 28 February) and as rebuilt (p. 145 from, Engineering, 1895, 1 February) and official photographs of Nos. 1526 in original state, and 1524 and 1520 rebuilt as simples, but latter also had modified trailing axle boxes. No. 1525 is shown at Bridlington in 1914 and No. 1520 awaiting cutting up at Percy Main on 16 June 1920.Hoole (p. 221) describes apparatus whereby driver could divert exhaust steam into tender to provide feed water heating..

Ellis, C.H. The splendour of steam. 1965. Plate VI. Text Chap. 11
Wilson Worsdell rebuild as portrayed on NBR territory heading north above Burnmouth
Fryer, Charles. Single wheeler locomotives. 1993. Chapter 7
The low pressure cylinder was placed slightly above the high pressure one (and was illustrated in Engineer reproduced in facsimile by Fryer, but not cited). According to Fryer Joy gear failed in this application.
Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 30
Painting of No. 1877 with a 4-2-2 (latter portrayed in simple form?)
Smith, Walter M. Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1898, 55,. 605-69.
Paper included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Poultney's British express locomotive development reproduces this data which also included the 7ft 7in 4-2-2 and 4-4-0 designs.

Tank engines

0-6-2T

Class B/B1: 1886-: LNER N8
Hoole pp. 79-83 Allen (North Eastern Railway) noted that this was to become the largest class of compound tank engines in Britain, althogh Worsdell introduced both two-cylinder compound and simple versions of this design which shared the same basic dimensions as the C class. Hoole (pp. 79-83) noted that the simple engines had two 18x24in cylinders, whilst the compound type had one 18x24in high pressure cylinder and a 26x24in low pressure cylinder. Joy's valve gear was used and the driving wheels were 5ft 1¼in diameter. They were intended for hauling forty ten-ton coal wagons or about 640 tons gross. The compounds showed a 15-20% saving. Wilson Worsdell converted the compounds to simples. The following types entered LNER ownership:

cylinders valve gear valve type boiler number
18x24 Joy slide saturated 19
19x24 Stephenson piston saturated 6
19x26 Stephenson piston saturated 5
19x24 Stephenson piston superheated 24
19x26 Stephenson piston superheated 8

Hoole's illustrations include a general arrangement drawing (side elevation & plan) on p. 81 of compound version orginally published in The Engineer, 1888, 23 November; and from official photographs of No. 855 (side and front views: latter clearly showing compound arrangement) and of 428 (simple); and of B1 No. 531 in service, and No. 864 (former compound) with coal rail on bunker and Raven fog signalling apparatus.

Extensive coverage in RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9A

0-6-0T

E class: 1886-95: LNER J71
Extremely attractive small 0-6-0T derived from T.W. Worsdell's rebuild of Fletcher saddle tanks with side tanks (Class 44). RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 8B indicates that parts or earlier locomotives were incorporated and there were two cylinder sizes and a small number with smaller (4ft 1¼in) coupled wheels: the remainder had 4ft 7¼in ones..Hoole (pp. 125-6) includes an official weight diagram and illustrations of No. 1198 with the smaller coupled wheels and Nos. 495 and 50 and the RCTS study includes the York station pilots in post-WW2 LNER green (C.C.B. Herbert colour photograph of No. 8286 graced cover of Backtrack Issue No.2) and later BR green. During WW1 (Hoole p. 230) Nos. 1789, 1834 and 1864 were fitted with Hunslet spark arresters for working in shell filling factories...

0-6-0CT

H1 class: 1888
Hoole (pp. 128-30) observed that the H class was unusual in containing both four and six coupled locomotives. The H1 class consisted of two crane tanks built at Gateshead in either 1888 or 1886. They had 3ft 6¼in coupled wheels and 13x22in cylinders. No. 995 was the Gateshead Works shunter and was made redunadnt when the Works closed in 1932 and became the property of Hartley Main Collieries via a dealer. No. 590 worked at several locations, but then was at York between 1924 and 1937 when it was withdrawn. Illus.: 590 official; 995 at Gateshead in T.W. Worsdell livery; and as lettered "NER GATESHEAD WORKS". Also official weight diagram. The cushioned wheels are clearly visible in the photographs and are mentioned by Hoole on 219.During WW1 (1918) both locomotives were at Immingham Dock and No. 590 spent some time at Woolwich Arsenal (Hoole p. 230).

2-4-2T

A class: 1886-92: LNER F8
MacLean (p. 116) gives barest details and a photograph of No. 674. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 7 notes that the NER locomotive classification began with this class, that 60 locomotives were constructed at Gateshead, and that the class was similar to Worsdell's M15 class on the GER: both employed Joy valve gear. Hoole (pp. 69-71) included an official weight diagram and noted that the demise of the class was due to the Necastle to South Shields electrification in 1938. Illustrations: No. 490 as built at Gateshead (official) and No. 1850 at Whitby in 1922 (W.L. Good of King's Norton took his holidays in Whitby)..

0-4-0T

H class: 1888/1897/1923: LNER
Hoole (pp. 136-8) noted that six were built in 1888 at Gateshead; a further ten also at Gateshead in 1897 and five in 1923 at Darlington. All of Hoole's illustrations are anonymous: two include members of staff draped on the engine; one is equipped with shunting poles for propping wagons. Hoole also included an official weight diagram. During WW1 Nos. 129, 587 and 898 spent some time at Woolwich Arsenal and No. 1799 was used by the Admiralty at Kyle of Lochalsh (Hoole p. 230). No. 1798 was used at the Ministry of Munitions factory at Barnbow. Six were sold via R. Frazer & Sons in 1931 and were sold on to collieries in the North East.  No. 945 was sold to Stockton Gasworks in 1930 where it became William Brown; No. 1302 went to Maddison's Quarry at Middleton-in-Teesdale; No. 984 went to Woolwich Arsenal in 1939; 68088 (ex 985) went to Bentinck Colliery (from Stratford in 1952 and is now preserved; 68089 (ex 986) went to Harbour & General Works Ltd where it was used at Morecambe and named Eve: it was scrapped in 1955. No. 1310 went via Frazer to the Pelaw Main Collieries and thence to the Middleton Railway.

K class: 1890: LNER
Hoole (138-9) stated that five built in 1890 with marine type boilers, replaced by locomotive type boilers in 1902-4. They had 3ft coupled wheels and 11x15in cylinders and according to reproduced official weight diagram weighed 13 tons 14 cwt in working order. No. 559 worked at Woolwich Arsenal during WW1 (hoole p. 230) and on the military railway at Spurn during WW2 and No. 560 was shed pilot at York. Official photograph of locomotive (anon) with marine type boiler and No. 559 with locomotive type boiler.

2-2-2T

Class 66/LNER class X1

This mythological beast which forms part of the National Collection originated as a Kitson locomotive (see also Aerolite as Fletcher toy), but was demolished at Otterington in 1866 and was replaced by a new 2-2-2WT in 1867. In 1886 the well tanks were replaced by side tanks and it is illustrated in this state by Hoole (pp. 192-4). In 1892 Wilson Worsdel converted it into a 4-2-2T two-cylinder compound (it is illustrated in this state at York with the Locomotive Superintendent's saloon (as six-wheel vehicle). In 1902 it was converted into a 2-2-4T and named Aerolite (an official photograph in this form is included). The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9B gives a good history and notes that it was latterly A.C. Stamer's personal motive power and that both engineer and locomotive retired at the same time.

Brewer, F.W. North Eastern Depsartmental tamk engines. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 203-6.
The 2-2-4T locomotives classified as X1, X2 and X3 by LNER: Fletcher 2-2-2WT Aerolite of 1869 illustrated as well as Aerolite in then current state.

Steel fireboxes
Hunt, David, Fred James and Bob Essery with David Jennison and David Clarke. The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225-5499 and 4658-4999 series. 128pp incl. folding diag. LMS Locomotive Profile No. 6.
Note 10 page 104 records that T.W. Worsdell considered that smaller plates led to less stress than experienced with larger ones, but it does not record whether this related to his experience on the LNWR, GER or NER.

Wilson Worsdell designs

Nock's Chapter 9 is entited "The big-engine era, 1899-1906". Although the only multiple cylinder design was the Smith four-cylinder compounds, this period was notable for some large locomotives which Nock tabulated.

Compounding

One of the earliest tasks undertaken by Wilson Worsdell was to meke an assessment of his brothers two-cylinder compounds. Everett notes how this task was tackled by Raven and Kendall: During October, as Raven's log-book attests, he set out on a. project to collect and collate the required information about what T.W's 'compounds' and other locomotives were capable of doing. He organised it like a military manoeuvre. After planning out what he wanted, he called inspectors to ensure that they were to travel on the footplate ot the engines under trial (mainline goods and mineral) which were to have the same amount of coal (the afternoon of Friday 13 October). Next day (14 October), he allocated one man to see the coal weighed at Gateshead for engine use. From next Monday (16 October) the other inspectors were to ride on the footplate of ten express passenger (most likely north-running) locomotives, ten on south running mainline goods locomotives, ten on trains from Tyne Dock (most likely mineral) and ten south-running express engines. Arthur Cowie Stamer (later to be Raven's assistant) was detailed to find out cost of repairs, while another was to compile the consumption of ten compounds from 1887 to 1892.

0-8-0

T class: 1901-
The first edition of Nock includes a colour plate from a painting by V. Welch fp. 97 of T class 2122 in its original green livery with copper-capped chimney. MacLean (pp. 113-14) also displays a photograph of No. 2119 in similar condition, just in case anyone is tempted to doubt that such a wonderful apparition ever existed in Angel of the North country. The locomotives had 4ft 7¼in coupled wheels, 20x26in cylinders actuated by piston valves (according to MacLean) or slide valves according to RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 6C: the leading dimensions in the latter tend to marginally different from those quoted by MacLean. MacLean notes that they were designed to haul 60 wagons of coal. The Engineer in 1901 reported an experiment at Tyne Dock when a T class locomotive hauled a 569yard long train weighing 1326 tons. A similar test was repeated at Blythe with locomotive No. 651 on 29 July 1903. MacLean lists the locomotives which were sent to France during WW1 and Fig. 19 of the RCTS work shows the flaming grenade and chevrons affixed to locomotives which had served in that way.
Hoole (pp. 161-5
) stated that the class was divided originally into the T with piston vlaves (forty built at Gateshead) and the T1 slide valve type (10 constructed at Gateshead, plus 40 at Darlington). Hoole confirms the fully-lined green livery applied until 1904. Steam reversers were fitted. Nos. 411, 443 and 2118 were originally fitted with Westinghouse brake; Nos. 430, 651 and 1757 were vacuum brake fitted. Early locomotives had chimneys with a brass ring.
T1 0-8-0 No. 1704 fitted with variable blastpipe and ash ejector. Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 42.
Hoole describes the grenade and stripes fitted to the former ROD locomotives: these were royal blue. From 1931 the class was fitted with 5ft 6in diameter boilers from ex-Hull & Barnsley 0-8-0s which had been withdrawn. Illustrations include an official photograph of No. 2116 without piston tail rods; No. 2122 in green livery with lever reverse, tail rods and brass capped chimney; No. 2122 then in black livery with red lining and steam reverser; No. 2118 with Westinghouse brake and steam reverse; No. 430 with vacuum brake; No. 654 with tender cab; No. 660 as ROD No. 5660; No. 781 following ROD service, and the grenade and three stripes fitted to the cab side of No. 1704..

Contemporary references
Eight-coupled mineral engine, N.E.R. Locomotive Mag., 1901, 6, 169-70. illus.
Piston valve version

4-6-0

S class: 1899-1906: LNER B13

Contemporary
N.E.R. six coupled bogie express locos. Locomotive Mag., 1900, 5, 34.
No. 2004 fitted with a larger cab with two side windows.

Retrospective
The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 2B noted that this was the first British 4-6-0 passenger locomotive and MacLean (pp. 90-4) was obviously impressed pprobably by the award of a gold medal to No, 2006 when displayed at the Paris Exhibition in 1900 alongside a 4-2-2 from the Midland Railway. MacLean's illustration on page 92 shows No. 2006 with its medal reproduced on its centre splasher and Fig. 120 in the RCTS publication shows the locomotive as prepared for the Stockton & Darlington Centenary with different commemorative plaques which according to the text were placed in the York Railway Museum when the locomtive was withdrawn. In spite of the relatively small coupled wheel diameter of 6ft special precautions had to be made on the initial locomotives: the first three had shorter cabs and the centre coupled wheels were flangeless, but flanges were fitted later. The outside cylinders were 20x26in and the last five of the initial batch of twenty were fitted with Smith's patent piston valves. They were initially evaluated as express locomotives: Nos. 2009 and 2010 hauled the Royal Train conveying the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1900, but by the time of a new batch built between 1907 and 1909 they were regarded as express freight locomotives and painted black. These incorporated patent variable blast pipes and ash ejectors and the total heating surface was reduced. No. 2003 was fitted with Younghusband valve gear and according to MacLean had asbestos covering round the boiler. No. 2004 was the first to be fitted with a larger cab and ran indicator trials  between Newcastle and Edinburgh on the Flying Scotsman in 1900. No. 2006 was fitted for a time with the Holden system of oil firing (Hoole p. 226). Clay and Cliffe (The LNER 4-6-0 classes) note (p. 16) "paid the price for being pioneers of their type in England". No. 761 (better known as LNER 1699) was fitted for counter pressure testing when withdrawn from ordinary service in 1931.
Hoole (pp. 145-52) with his excellent illustrations and captions is particularly good on the details. There is a general arrangement drawing of the first three (short cab) in Hoole p. 148 from Engineer, 1900, 9 March. No. 2001 is subject of official photograph and is also shown as an extremely tight fit on the turntable at Edinburgh Haymarket. No. 2005 is also the subject for another official photograph (Hoole noted that this photograph has often been doctored to show "No. 2006": reason for this is to show "Gold Medal loco", and ro avoid 2005 which was deriled at Goswick on 28 August 1907). The final official photograph shows S/07 No. 738 with windjabber (capuchon) on chimney. In the case of the Paris gold medal there are extensive notes on the small brass, glass-fronted cases on the centre splashers which contained replicas of the medal (an illustration lacking somewhat in clarity shows the locomotive at York in this state). The locomotive also carried cast plates with the message: Paris Exhibition; gold; 1900; medal; Grand Prize). The replicas were removed in 1917 (illustrated in this state), but were restored for the Stockton & Darlington Centenary. Photograph of No. 2008 in lined black livery with polished brass cap on chimney. No. 749 is shown at Neville Hill in 1917 livery.

S1: 1900-1: LNER B14
MacLean clearly did not know how to treat this class of five locomotives and does little more than list the leading dimensions, notably the 6ft 8½in coupled wheels and the "usual" Royal Train workings on 11 October 1902 when Mr Wilson Worsdell rode on the footplates of Nos. 2111 between Berwick and Newcastle and 2112 thence to York. Nock notes that "for the year 1900 the S1 was a huge engine, and at the same time a most graceful one... and in favourable conditions... very free runners" and cites Rous-Marten when 300 tons were taken from Newcastle to Berwick in 66 min 23 sec., and 80 mile/h was reached. Although their LNER days were numbered they did receive the green livery RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 2B. Hoole (pp. 152-4) noted that they were "most impressive looking locomotives" and includes an official weight diagram. He also noted that No. 2115 was derailed at Elswick on 14 September 1909. Official photograph of No. 2221 (three-quarters view); No. 2111 in working livery and in service at York. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 2B does not say very much..

Contemporary references
Modern types of British locomotives, Rly Mag., 1901, 8, 559-64. 4 illus.
No. 2111 illustrated.

Alsop, John. Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 64 lower
S1 No. 2114 at Edinbugh Haymarket shed.
Alsop, John. Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 66
S1 No. 2115

0-6-0

P series: 1894-1923
MacLean notes that there was a total of four sub-classifications, and the RCTS Locomotoves of the LNER Part 5 is more reliable and comprehensive. All had 4ft 7¼in coupled wheels.:

P class:1894-8: LNER J24
4ft 3in boiler: Hoole pp. 91-3 include an official weight diagram; an official photograph of No. 1823; and No. 1943 in lined green livery. No. 631 sold by LNER in 1939 to South Shields, Marsden & Whitburn Colliery Railway and No. 1931 (as No. 5626) reached Whitburn via Boldon Colliery (1949) in 1956 to be scrapped.

P1 class: 1898-1902: LNER Class J25
Slightly larger firebox than original P type. 40 constructed at Darlington and 80 at Gateshead according to Hoole (pp. 93-5) include an official weight diagram; an official photograph of No. 2071; No. 1974 in lined green livery at Doncaster in June 1902; and No. 1975 (superheated with extended smokebox) at Darlington Bank Top in April 1922. Hoole mentions the loan of J25 class to GWR during WW2.

Tupper, Harold. Worcester Shrub Hill in the 1930s & 40s . 2005, Gt Western Rly J., 7 (50) 62-101.
The Author who sat the GWR Clerk's examination in 1939 observed the J25 class at work and of special interest are the pictures taken by J.E. Norris in WW2 which show the shed on 18 February 1943 with 4F 4265; LBSCR I3 2089, LNER J25 2075 and I3 2091; in another WW2 view (c1942) the following rub shoulders: 850 class 0-6-0ST 1963 and J25 1986; 3871 0-4-2T; J25 2051 (taken by L.B. Lapper) and J25 2075 and 3571 Photography during WW2 of strategic targets was a serious offence!.

P2 class: LNER J26
Hoole (pp. 95-6) noted that the heating surface was 50% greater than for P1 type. Hoole included official photographs of No. 1172 (both side view and front view (which showed number painted on smokebox door; also No. 1177 in lined black livery.

P3 class: LNER J27
Slightly modified version of P2 class: Hoole (pp. 96-8) noted that first batch of 20 was produced at Darlington from April 1906. This was followed by a further ten, by which time delivery was being received from NBL (WN 18355-74) at a cost of £3500 per locomotive; Beyer Peacock (WN 5104-23) at £3550 per loco, and R. Stephenson (WN 3352-61) at £3537: a tender made by Kitson of £4100 was rejected. A further 35 were built at Darlington 1921/3: these were superheated and the final batch entered service as LNER locomotives. RCTS Locomotyves of the LNER Part 5 gives the Works Numbers. Hoole illustrated No. 1014 (NBL Works photograph); 1006 (to show Raven fog apparatus); 2338 (Raven modified design with Ross pop safety valves, mechanical lubricator and windjabber) and No. 2342 in 1917 livery at Neville Hill in 1922.

4-4-2

V class: 1903
Ten locomotives with 6ft 10in coupled wheels, 20x26in cylinders with piston valves, grate area 27ft2 and total heating surface of 2455ft2. The boilers were the same length as those on the S1 class, but the diameter was increased to 5ft 6in. On 10 December 1903 No. 532 worked the 9.30 express from Newcastle to York, returning on the Flying Scotsman when six minuts were gained on schedule. On 12 September 1904 No. 784 worked the Royal Train from Shaftholme Junction to Newcastle and No. 742 from thence to Edinburgh.. MacLean noted that No. 649 was the first to be painted green and this locomotive is illustrated. Presumably, No. 532 ran in workshop grey for some time. MacLean (pp. 95-6) claimed that the design was prompted by US experience of the Atlatics used on Atlantic City "fliers" (Nock spelling Flyers). Worsdell had been part of a tour of the USA led by George S. Gibb, the General Manager, in 1901 (Nock p. 118). Nock also noted (p. 119) that Worsdell borrowed the GWR dynamometer car in late 1903 and that No. 532 was tested with it (presumably between Newcastle and Berwick or Edinburgh and that this led to the construction of the NER dynamometer car. It also states that Churchward and Worsdell were friends.
Hoole (pp. 170-5) noted that the first five locomotives were fitted with lever reverse, but later locomotives had steam reversers. As usual the illustrative material is particularly good: a general arrangement drawing which had appeared in Engineering, 1904, 19 February; official photographs of Nos. 532 and 649; No. 532 in service at York; and No. 1794 with superheated boiler at Cowton on 12 June 1920 (W. Rogerson); No. 696 with "V/09" on the buffer beam; and No. 697 at Neville Hille..

Allen, Cecil J. British Atlantic locomotives, revised & enlarged by G. Freeman Allan.. 1976.
Alsop, John. Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 68 upper.
No. 1794 in York station

V1 class: 1910
These were very similar to the V class (sufficiently so to share the LNER C6 classification and it is worth noting that the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3A  and Hoole (pp. 174-5) refers to this type as V/09. According to MacLean (pp. 100-1) this batch had smaller cylinders (19½in diameter), stronger frames and a lower boiler pressure (180 psi). No. 700 worked the Royal Train from Edinburgh to Newcastle on 21 July 1911.

North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 157.
No. 695 illustrated

Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 42
Painting of No. 697: but is green too light?

4CC (Smith four-cylinder compounds): 1906
van Riemsdijk's Compound locomotives: an International survey. (1994) and Part 2 of the same author's Newcomen Society papers noted that: "If we exclude the three compound Atlantics of French design imported by the Great Western Railway, the best British four-cylinder compounds were undoubtedly the two Atlantics built for the North Eastern Railway to the designs of Walter Smith. Smith had already originated the successful three-cylinder compound 4-4-0 which first appeared as NER No.1619 and subsequently was developed as the Midland compound 4-4-0. He must have been peculiarly receptive to European ideas because, when he returned from a spell of illness and was confronted with the design of Wilson Worsdell's first two-cylinder Atlantics inspired by Worsdell's North American tour, he was deeply disgusted. The Worsdell Atlantics were, of course, two-cylinder simples with very large boilers having narrow fireboxes but only 27sq ft of grate. It is a great tribute to the regard in which Smith was held by Worsdell, and also a great tribute to Worsdell's personal qualities, that he allowed his troublesome Chief Draughtsman to design his own idea of what an Atlantic express locomotive could be.
The Smith Atlantics clearly owed something to the French example. For a start the boiler was slimmer and had a Belpaire firebox (itself an unheard-of innovation for the North Eastern Railway) and a somewhat longer grate than on Worsdell's engines, offering 29sq ft of area . The boiler pressure was also higher, 225psi as against 200psi. The whole engine was slightly heavier at 73.6 tons as against 72 tons. The two engines differed slightly, the first having Stephenson's link motion and the second Walschaert's. In both cases the valve gear was inside and drove the low pressure valves directly; the outside valves being driven by rocking levers.
There were, until recently, some surviving LNER locomotive men who remembered these engines well and who maintained that they were by far the best express engines the North Eastern Railway ever had, not excluding the excellent three-cylinder Atlantics which followed them. Such subjective statements need not be taken too seriously, but it is worth recording that extensive trials with NER locomotives resulted in power ratings being allotted as follows: the Class R 4-4-0 (a two-cylinder simple, but one of the most brilliant of its type and time) was rated at 100, the large 4-6-0 at 105, Worsdell's Atlantics at 128, and the two Smith Atlantics at 145. It is a historical fact that more of these engines would have been built but for the fact that Smith died and his executors proved very difficult. These two engines were not quite 'orphans' because they were highly appreciated by Worsdell and also by his successor, Vincent Raven. But the demands of the executors led Raven eventually to produce the three-cylinder simple Atlantic which was his masterpiece. These engines owed something to the design of Smith's Atlantics and were of comparable power, though the large boiler necessitated by simple expansion, which was more or less the same as that of Worsdell's Atlantics, brought the weight of the engines to no less than 77 tons.
The two Smith Atlantics lasted until 1933 and 1936 by which time their non-standard boilers needed replacement. They had, of course, received superheaters long before. The three-cylinder compound 4-4-0, No.1619, was scrapped in similar circumstances in 1931. In 1930 all the successful compound locomotives running on British railways were in some way derived from the genius of Walter Smith. Most of these were on the Midland but there were also the four Great Central compound Atlantics. The three French engines on the Great Western had by this time been withdrawn.
Twinberrow (below) is especially interesting as he noted both the excellence of the locomotives, and the problem with patents (as a man who eventually took out many patents Twinberrow should have been aware of this.
MacLean (pp. 97-8) includes a line drawing of No. 730 and an official photograph of the same locomotive. Smith's involvement is clearly acknowledged and they were not regarded as experimental locomotives: No. 730 worked the northbound Royal Train from Newcastle to Edinburgh on 17 September 1906 reaching the Capital 15 minutes early. The locomotive was driven by Charles Gill (this event must have been recorded in the contemporary press). On 16 September 1907, the Royal Train was hauled from York to Edinburgh by No. 731 driven by Tom Blades. This was repeated in 1908. MacLean notes that No. 731 was tested on the Waverley route with heavier than usual loads. MacLean cites a run behind No. 731 between York and Darlington at an average speed of 62.1 mile/h: details were published in the Rly & Travel Monthly of January 1913. They were superheated by Raven.
Hoole (pp. 179-81) succinctly asked "How many Chief Mechanical Engineers would allow their Chief Draughtsman to design a locomotive, and then put it to their Directors for authorisation?". Illus.: No. 730 (both sides); official weight diagram (is handwriting Smith's own?); No. 731 in running order; etched glass in Darlington public house window (as on 15 June 1975). Hoole (p. 224) includes a sectional drawing of front of one of these locomotives..

Allen, Cecil J. British Atlantic locomotives, revised & enlarged by G. Freeman Allan.. 1976.
Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 1. 1900-1930. 1983.

Dynamometer car tests

Class R S1 V 4cc
Type 4-4-0 4-6-0 4-4-2 4-4-2
Relative capacity 100 109 128 145
Drawbar pull at 55 mile/h 1.3 1.38 1.68 1.88

Twinberrow. J.D.  discussion on Selby, F.W.  Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1931, 21, 108-9. (Paper No. 257)
Noted the excellent performance achieved by the Smith NER 4-cylinder compounds Nos. 730 and 731 and the problem with patents.
Schlegel, C.  discussion on Selby, F.W.  Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1931, 21, 113-14. (Paper No. 257)
"Mr. Selby has undoubtedly made out a very strong case for the compound locomotive. I do not agree with everything he has said, as I have had experience with the four-cylinder compound engines of the Atlantic type which are in my district (Gateshead). I am very glad I only have two, as they are definitely much heavier in repairs compared with the simple " Atlantic " engines doing a similar class of work. It appears to me that however excellent the design may be in the drawing office, when the engines are handed over to the running shed, unless they fulfil certain things, they cannot be classed as a success. The engine must be able to maintain a full head of steam and keep time working trains of maximum loads under the most adverse weather conditions, and most important of all is the availability of the engines for traffic. If, owing to defects booked by drivers, the engines are frequently out of traffic, they cannot be classed as a success.

4-4-0

G class rebuilds: 1901-4: LNER D23.
See also as 2-4-0s. MacLean (pp. 74-5) states that Waterburys (named after a cheap but reliable watch) were rebuilt from 2-4-0 form with bogies, 18x24in cylinders, Smith's piston valves and Stephenson link motion. In this form they weighed 44tons 7cwt. No. 1107 was rebuilt under Ravenwith an extended smokebox in 1913. They all entered LNER ownership as class D23, the last was withdrawn in May 1935. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C pp. 110-14 completes the story, but it should be noted that MacLean shows No. 274 as 2-4-0 and  No. 223 as 4-4-0. Hoole (pp. 102-5) calling it G1 class, notes that the type was superheated in 1913-16. Illus.: As 4-4-0s: official weight diagram; No. 679 with Stephenson valve gear and piston valves; same locomotive at Darlington in March 1924 still in NER livery; No. 557 with MacLean's patent draught inducer at Hull Paragon in September 1909 (Hoole stated that drawings for device produced at Darlington).

M1 class: 1893
The layout of the Class J singles was repeated in the unique 4-4-0 of Class M, No.1619, designed by Worsdell's younger brother, Wilson. The other members of Class M (originally Class Ml) were simples, Van Riemsdijk noted: "it is worth pointing out that they had their steam chests outside as originally built, and that it was when they were in this condition that Nos.1620 and 1621 showed their astonishing turns of speed during the race to Aberdeen in 1895. The engine preserved in the National Railway Museum at York (No.1621) is, of course, in later condition with inside piston valves and superheater, but it is still possible to discern the filled-in slots where the steam chests used to come through the frame." MacLean (pp. 81-3) noted that engines "created records in high, sustained speed not surpassed by any other locomotive in this country". The original dimensions were: 19x26in inside cylinders, 7ft 0½in coupled wheels; grate area 19½ft2, total heating surface 1220 ft2 and boilers pressed to 180 psi. MacLean includes a log of the running made by Nos. 1620 and 1621 between York and Edinburgh during the night of 21/22 August 1895 during ther Races between London and Aberdeen. Between Newcastle and Edinburgh the average speed was 66 mile/h.. From 1903 the outside steam chests were replaced with ones in the traditional position and the extended smokeboxes were .removed. W.M. Smith described the performance of the locomotives in their original condition in Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1898, 55, 605. The class became LNER D17 and RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C gives an extensive historical account. Ellis Some classic locomotives calls them the 1620 class (p. 105)..

Smith, Walter M. Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1898, 55,. 605-69.
Paper included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Poultney's British express locomotive development reproduces this data which also included the 7ft 7in 4-2-2 and 4-4-0 designs.

Hoole (pp. 105-13) notes that No. 1621 is preserved and contains two general arrangement drawings: on p. 111 (with slide valves) from Engineer, 1893, 22 September, and with piston valves on p. 113 from Engineer, 1895, 20 September. Photographic illus.: No. 1623 (front view, official); No. 1630 at St Margarets depot, Edinburgh in WW1 livery; No. 1639 with outside piston valves at Edinburgh; No. 1621 at Bridlington with Caledonian Railway carriages in background (on loan for holiday traffic); No. 1621 at Darlington prepared for York Railway Museum. Hoole (p. 221) describes apparatus whereby driver could divert exhaust steam into tender to provide feed water heating.

Barnfield, Stephen. The 'M' and 'Q' Class 4-4-0s of the North Eastern Railway. Br. Rly J., 1994, 6, (50) 3-16.
The M1 class was Wilson Worsdell's first 4-4-0 design for the NER. Illus.: Q class No. 1904 (with copper-capped chimney) with J class 2-2-2 near York c1897; Q class No. 1902 (also with copper-capped chimney) approaching York on down express in 1896/7,

Class M/3CC/LNER D19/ No. 1619: 1893
This originated as Wilson Worsdell's sole effort with compounding on the two-cylinder Von Borries principle in 1893, as part of an order for twenty 4-4-0s: the remainder were simples, and originally classified as Class M1.  It differed from T.W. Worsdell's compounds by not employing Joy valve gear, but Stephenson link motion instead. The sole locomotive was No. 1619. The cylinders were similar to those on the J class, but the high pressure cylinder had a smaller (19in diameter). The boiler pressure was 200 psi. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C suggests that Wilson Worsdell was railroaded into this action by his elder brother, who was still acting as a consultant. There are otherwise clear indications that Wilson was determined to get rid of the Von Borries compounds (see class J).
In 1898 this locomotive was rebuilt as a three-cylinder compound on the W.M. Smith principle, and in this general form it lasted until October 1930. The single high pressure 19x26in cylinder was within the frames and actuated by Smith's piston valves, whilst the two 20x24in low pressure cylinders were outwith the frames.  Hoole (p. 224 includes a front view sectional drawing taken from Engineering, 1901 5 July). A new boiler with seventeen water tubes within the the firebox was provided and initially was pressed to 225 psi, later reduced to 200 psi. A diagram on p. 222 of Hoole (taken from Engineering, 1902 5 July) shows the arrangement (a photograph on page 222 amplifies the information. This boiler was replaced in 1913 with a standard boiler which was running at 180psi when the locomotive was withdrawn. MacLean (pp. 84-5) includes photographs of in as built and as rebuilt, and a drawing of the locomotive in the latter state. W.M. Smith described the performance of this locomotive in its original condition in Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1898, 55, 605..

Smith, Walter M. Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1898, 55,. 605-69.
Paper included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Poultney's British express locomotive development reproduces this data which also included the 7ft 7in 4-2-2 and 4-4-0 designs.

Lucas, S.J. discussion on Selby, F.W. Compound locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 319-21 (Paper No. 257)
Had experience of Worsdell's two-cylinder compounds on GER and NER three-cylinder compound locomotive where he noted the good balance and even torque.

Ahrons, E.L. Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. Locomotive Mag., 1909, 15, 159-61. 4 diagrs.
Piston valves: Fig. 25 is taken from W.M. Smith's IMechE paper of 1902 (63, 515) and shows piston valves fitted to NER three-cylinder compound No. 1619 and to No. 2011.

Hoole (105-13) is an especially good source for including two general arrangement diagrams (both elevations and plans): as two cylinder compound on p. 107 (from Engineering, 1995, 5 July) and as 3-cylinder compound on p. 109 (from Engineering, 1901, 5 July). Hoole encountered this locomotive as he travelled to school non-stop from Bridlington to Hull, There is an official photograph of No. 1619 in its two-cylinder compound form, but not in its 3-cylinder state (there are "merely" photographs of it in this state at York and at Neville Hill). The caption to the 2-cylinder version notes the additional "chimney" on the tender for exhaust steam. No. 1619 is shown at work on 22 July 1892 (computed date) on what Hoole believed to be the return working of new ECJS demonstration special from London to Edinburgh and back when it was photographed at Stannington on the Edinburgh to Newcastle leg.

Barnfield, Stephen. The 'M' and 'Q' Class 4-4-0s of the North Eastern Railway. Br. Rly J., 1994, 6, (50) 3-16.
The M1 class was Wilson Worsdell's first 4-4-0 design for the NER,

Q class: 1896-7
Thirty constructed: 7ft 1¼in coupled wheels, 19½x26in cylinders, grate area 19¾ft2, total heating surface 1089ft2. weight of locomotive in working order 49 tons 9 cwt. Built with slide valves above cylinders with rocking shafts connected to Stephenson link motion. Later most converted to piston valves, and fitted with superheaters. They had cabs with a clerestory roof and brass-capped chimneys. The piston valve fitted locomotives returned a coal consumption of 38lb/mile according to MacLean (86-7). No. 1929 was fitted with patented water tubes in the firebox and this led to a coal consumption of only 35.5lb/mile (Hoole page 221 includes a diagram taken from Engineering, 1902 24 January). No. 1872 was recorded by Rous-Marten in performing the Darlington to York journey in 40min. No. 1875 worked a troop special through to King's Cross on 2 June 1900  (illustrated at Ferme Park see Rly Arch., (10), p. 11 upper). No. 1904 performed the York to Scarborough run in 41min (42 miles). Illus. No. 1902. The last Q (as LNER class D17/2) just managed to join British Railways stock, See RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C. Nock includes several notable runs with the class. Hoole (pp. 114-17) called them very fine looking engines, although little improvement on the engines they were designed to replace. Cylinders were only ½in in diameter than M class. They had slide valves below the smokebox. The clerestory to the cab was due to American influence. Hoole included an official weight diagram and photographic illus. of No. 1928 at York in 1908; No. 1876 at Carlisle London Road shed with superheater, extended smokebox and mechanical lubricator, c1922..

Alsop, John. Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 69 lower
No. 1903 (probably) possibly on Wiske troughs
Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 30
Painting of No. 1877 with a 4-2-2

Q1 class: 1896
MacLean (pp. 87-8) states that these two locomotives (Nos. 1869/1870) were constructed as racing engines (his italics), and as such were the only British locomotives constructed for this purpose. They had the largest coupled wheels in the world (7ft 7¼). 20x26in cylinders, a grate area of 20¾ft2 and a total heating surface of 1216ft2. They weighed 47 tons 7 cwt. The Q and Q1 types shared the clerestory cab and brass chimney tops. On test an average speed of 60 mile/h was achieved between Newcastle and Tweedmouth. No. 1869 ran from Darlington to York in 42min 7 sec. and ran from York to Malton 22½ miles in 22½ min. The races of 1895 were not repeated and the two locomotives gradually became more like the Q class (receiving Q class boilers from 1910. No. 1870 was superheated from 1914, and No. 1869 from 1920. Piston valves were also fitted and smaller (19x26in) cylinders were also fitted. Withdrawn in 1930 as LNER class D18: see RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C. Hoole (pp. 114-17) reproduced an official weight diagram on p. 116; an official photograph of No. 1869, and one of No. 1870 in service at York.

Smith, Walter M. Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1898, 55,. 605-69.
Paper included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Poultney's British express locomotive development reproduces this data which also included the 7ft 7in 4-2-2 and 4-4-0 designs.

Barnfield, Stephen. The 'M' and 'Q' Class 4-4-0s of the North Eastern Railway. Br. Rly J., 1994, 6, (50) 3-16.
The M1 class was Wilson Worsdell's first 4-4-0 design for the NER,

R class (2011 class): 1899-1907
One of the great joys of KPJ's youth was the good fortune to travel behind D20/2 No. 62360 from Sunderland to Middlesbrough on 23 August 1954 when the sun shone on the sands of the Tees estuary and the locomotive seemed to advance with effortless ease. By that time pregrouping express engines were extremely rare. Sixty had been built between 1899 and 1907 (MacLean 89-90). They had 6ft 10in coupled wheels, 19 x 26in inside cylinders, a grate area of 20ft2 and a total heating surface of 1527ft2. This represented a 20% increase in boiler power over previous NER 4-4-0s. The boilers were pressed to 200psi, but this was reduced to 170psi when superheating was applied. They had 8¾in piston valves. They were capable of hauling 350 ton trains between Edinburgh and Newcastle. Allocated between two crews, No. 2011 achieved 139,543 miles between 28 August 1899 and 31 December 1901. On 11 May 1903 the Royal Train was hauled from York to Newcastle by No. 2019, and from Newcastle to Edinburgh by No. 2033. In 1901 No. 2020 performed the Darlington to York run in 41min 25sec at an average of 66 mile/h. On 30 November 1903 No. 2026 completed the Darlington to York journey in 40min. No. 2028 was fitted with the Holden oil firing system (Hoole p. 226). LNER class D20: see RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C.

Contemporary references
Express passenger engine, North Eastern Railway. Engineer, 1900, 139, 114.
Full dimensions: ten in service; further 20 to follow.
Four-coupled bogie express engine, N.E.R. Locomotive Mag., 1900, 5, 9. illus.
Ahrons, E.L. Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. Locomotive Mag., 1909, 15, 159-61. 4 diagrs.
Piston valves: Fig. 25 is taken from W.M. Smith's IMechE paper of 1902 (63, 515) and shows piston valves fitted to NER three-cylinder compound No. 1619 and to No. 2011.

Retospective & appreciative
Atkins, Philip
. It had already been done!. Steam Wld, 1999, (143) 54-7.
Atkins considers that J.F. Harrison's claim made in 1961 that the A1 class achieved a mileage of 202 miles per day has not withstood close scrutiny and was probably nearer 184.9, as compared with 184.7 achieved by Duchess class. The R class 4-4-0 No. 202 achieved 220 miles per day on the Newxastle to Edinburgh run.
Alsop, John.
Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 64 lower.
Haymarket shed, Edinburgh with R class Nos. 1665 and 1672
Alsop, John. Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 65 lower
No. 1235 fitted with Sisterton superheater and extended smokebox
Hoole, K. The 4-4-0 classes of the North Eastern Railway. London: Ian Allan, 1979. 112pp.
Ottley 12439
Hoole, Ken. An illustrated history of NER locomotives. 1988.
Includes (p. 119) general arrangement drawing (side elevation and plan) taken from Engineer, 1901, 15 February; an official photograph of No. 2015 and illus. of 2027 with deep "Raven" frames at Darlington in July 1911; No. 1235 with extended smokebox and superheater on trials with indicator shelter and dynamometer car on train at Newcastle Central; No. 2013 with extended smokebox and superheater at Scarboroughin 1923; No. 1026 at Neville Hill c1922 and No. 2018 at York coaling stage c1922. On page 218 Hoole observed that a Sisterson superheater was evaluated on No. 1078 in 1909.
Hoole, K. Last of the L.N.E.R. 4-4-0 locomotives. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 95-9. 10 illus.
Misprinted title for "N.E.R. 4-4-0".
Hoole, K. Odd N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Wld, 1959, 20, 382-9. 7 illus., 2 tables.
Includes the D20/2 type.
Hoole, K. The R class 4-4-0 engines of the North Eastern Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1957, 33, 18-23. illus., 2 tables.
Hoole, K. The Worsdell 4-4-0s of the N.E.R. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 277-81; 313-17. 14 illus., 2 tables.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3C. Tender engines—classes D13 to D24. 1981. 119pp.
According to this source the offence which Thompson committed was to inform the press of this modification.

R1 class: 1908-9: LNER D21
Single batch built at Darlington. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3C notes the greater boiler power as compared with the R class: 225 psi boiler pressure; 27 ft2 grate area, plus 10in piston valves. Hoole (pp. 112-4) noted that they were "large and impressive, but the performance warranted no further engines after the initial ten". Hoole included a general arrangement drawing on p. 123 taken from Engineer 1909, 24 April. Illus. included a three-quarter view of No. 1238; Nos 1242 and 1243 at Neville Hill (showing pre- and post-superheater states RCTS notes the final fate of No. 1241, namely being painted white and used for target practice on North Pembroke and Fishguard Railway near Maenglochog Tunnel and between New Inn and Rosebush during WW2.

New express locomotive, N. E. R. Locomotive Mag., 1909, 15, 73 + folding diagr. illus.
Includes a sectionalized cross section. Notes on intended York to Edinburgh workings (non-stop from Newcastle), also notes that fitted with patented variable blast pipes coupled with a device to reuce accumulation of ash in the smokebox..

Atkins, C.P. Biggest but not best: new light on Class R1, North Eastern Express, 1986 (August), 58-60.

901 class modifications: 1907
Two members of the venerable Fletcher 901 class 2-4-0s were subjected to major alterations: No. 933 was rebuilt as a 4-4-0 and given a double window cab, whilst No. 167 remained a 2-4-0, but was fitted with an enlarged boiler (4ft 8¾ diameter) and a Kendal-style cab, in this form it looked remarkably similar to the GER Humpty Dumpty 2-4-0s. The former was withdrawn in 1914 and the latter in 1920. Hoole (pp. 198-200) reproduces official weight diagrams for both and illustrates both and two further official (three-quarters views) in Hoole's North Road Locomotive Works following p. 50).

The "901 class", NER. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 71-2.
Includes modified locomotives.

Tank engines

4-8-0T

X class: 1909: LNER T1 class
Last locomotives to be constructed at Gateshead: only four noted by MacLean (p. 119). Three 18x26in cylinders. Grate area 23ft2 and total heating surface of 1310ft2. Weighed 84 tons 13 cwt. Seros regulators. Variable blast pipes and ash ejectors. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9B noted that ten had been constructed in 1909/1910 plus a further five (at Darlington) in 1925 (not noted in Jones which may imply no official announcement at time): thus MacLean clearly failed to keep his records up-todate. KPJ: it would seem highly probable that this was a Raven design: see Y class.. Hoole (pp. 182-4) notes mainly apply to LNER modifications (addition of steam reversers off K3 and fitment of Downs steam dried sanding). The illus. are of No. 1352 (Gateshead official); 1354 in working livery and reproduction of official weight diagram.

Barker, Oswald J. Better by yards – the T1 4-8-0Ts. Rly Bylines, 2006, 11, 366-75.
Includes repair histories (LNER/BR), but weak on NER period.

4-6-0T

W class (Whitby tanks) (Whitby Willies): 1907-8
MacLean (pp. 118-19) notes that these were initially too heavy for the Whitby route and were used between Leeds and Harrogate. They were rebuilt by Raven as 4-6-2Ts with enlarged bunkers. The first five had extended smokeboxes. The ten locomotives had two 19x26in cylinders and 5ft 1¼in coupled wheels. They were equipped with variable blast pipes and ash ejectors, and the first five had extended smokeboxes. A table on p. 13 of RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 7 gives details of the remarkable variety of boilers fitted to a class of only ten locomotives. It is not clear whether the weak bridges were replaced, or the conversion to 4-6-2Ts enabled the class to work on the Coast route to Whitby where Nock stated that had a monopoly of the passenger service northwards from Scarborough for many years, but recorded that a Darlington driver thought they were "more like dredgers than engines.". Hoole (pp. 74-7) reproduced a general arrangement diagram (side elevation & plan) which had appeared in The Engineer, 1908, 2 October. He stated that numerous drawings were prepared at Darlington in 1915 for fitting some locomotives with condensing apparatus for hauling large rail-mounted guns. Bogie brakes were fitted in 1917, but removed during the 1930s. Between 1937 and 1944 seven were fitted with superheated boilers and Downs sanding apparatus was fitted in 1945. Illus.: No. 626 as 4-6-0 with extended smokebox; No. 688 with short smokebox, and No. 688 as 4-6-2T  (all official NER); No. 688 at Whitby with Ross pap safety valves (W.L. Good, 1922). See also Rutherford: Backtrack, 2008, 22, 686 who noted that boilers were relatively standard with Raven 4-8-0T and 4-4-4T types and that LNER introduced stndard boilers for all three classes.. ..

0-6-2T

N class: 1893: LNER N9
Twenty slightly larger (19x26in cylinders) than T.W. Worsdell B/B1 class 0-6-2Ts constructed at Darlington. Hoole (pp. 83-4) included an official weight diagram with main dimensions, and only poor quality (acknowledged by author) official photograph of No. 1655 in original state, also includes one of No. 1655 with enlarged tanks and bunker The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9A. covers this class..

U class: 1900: LNER N10
MacLean (p. 117) merely illustrates No. 1667, noting that the class of 20 was introduced in 1900. Hoole (pp. 84-5) included an official weight diagram with main dimensions (smaller cylinder diameter and smaller coupled wheels than N class. Official photograph of No. 1667. No. 1112 in lined green livery in 1904, and No. 1317 in 1917 livery "NE"" at Neville Hille, but with unofficial decoration to smokebox door. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9A. devotes four pages to this class.

0-6-0T

290 class; 1899-: LNER J77
The BTP class 0-4-4Ts gradually became redundant with the arrival of the more modern Class O and sixty were rebuilt as 0-6-0Ts: 40 at York between 1899 and 1904; and two batches of ten at Darlington in 1907/8 and 1921/2. The last were rebuilt with Worsdell cabs. Hoole (pp. 196-8) illustrated No. 614 outside York Works in green livery in 1899; No. 290 (with new cab) at same location and date as previous; No. 71 at Neville Hill coaling stage c1920; No. 37 with Westinghouse brake fitted to enable it to haul late running Kelso branch trains across Royal Border Bridge into Berwick from Tweedmouth; and No. 954 with lengthened frames and new cab (1921 batch)..

E1 class: 1898-1951: LNER J72
Hoole (pp. 125-8) notes that closely followed earlier E class but had smaller (4ft 1¼in) coupled wheels and different wheel spacing. They were built in batches of 20 at Darlington in 1898, further batches from Darlington in 1914 and 1920; 25 from Armstrong Whitworth delivered in 1922; ten from Doncaster in 1925 and a final 28 from Darlington in 1949-51. Illus.: No. 1715 official; No. 1746 in green livery shunting at York; No. 2173 (official 1914 batch with organ-type whistle) and No. 2319 with Armstrong Whitworth builder's plate at Darlington on 4 June 1922. Hoole (p. 230) notes that during WW1 Nos. 1715, 1721 and 2179 were fitted with Hunslet spark arresters for working in shell filling factories. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 8B is extremely detailed, especially on post-grpouping development. There were two post-1923· batches, one being introduced in 1925 and the other in 1949.

Atkins, Philip Dropping the fire. 1999
Records the cost of construction in 1898 (£1456); 1920 (£4075); 1922 (£6950) and 1951 (£5314)
Fleming, J.M. Two notable tank locomotive classes : classes "E" and "El" of the North Eastern Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1952, 28, 14-18.4 illus. (line drawings: s. els.)
Hoole, K. North Eastern Railway 0-6-0T locomotives. Rly Obsr, 1952, 22, 4-10; 32-3 + 4 plates. 12 illus., 8 tables.
Hoole, K. Odd N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Wld, 1995, 20, 382-9. 7 illus., 2 tables.
Describes the experimental installation of a mechanical stoker on one locomotive in 1939.

H2: 1897/1907/LNER J79
Hoole (pp. 131-3) did not know why these three very small 0-6-0Ts were constructed. The official weight diagram shows that they weighed only 25 tons in working order and the weight on the centre coupled axle was less than 10 tons. One of the official photographs of one of them (probably No. 1787) being lifted by a steam crane is indicative of their lightness. As the first two were fitted with the Westinghouse brake they were probably intended for use on light railways. Robin Barnes (Locomotives that never were Chap. 15) shows a narrow gauge locomotive intended for the North Holderness Light Railway. No. 407 worked on the Cawood branch and deputised for Bamburgh on the North Sunderland Railway. No. 1787 was withdrawn in 1936 and then worked on the Bowes Railway for ten years. Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 78 stated that No. 1662 (of 1907) weighed 25 tons, had a domeless boiler, 14in x 20in cylinders, 3ft 5in coupled wheels and only 505 ft2 total heating surface. It carried the wording Gateshead Works on the side tanks. Nos 407 and 1662 were withdrawn in 1937 and the former then worked at the Whitwood Chemical Co. and then at the Middleton Colliery before being scrapped by the NCB. No. 1662 went to the Cantley (Norfolk) factory of the British Sugar Corporation and was not scrapped until 1957: a sweet little engine?. Illus.: No. 407 with very small tanks; 1787 at Middlesbrough shed in May 1927 still lettered "N.E.R."

L class: 1891/2: LNER J73
The RCTS Locomotives of  the LNER Part 8B states that this was a Wilson Worsdell design, but as only ten locomotives were built and they were fitted with Joy's gear it is difficult not to credit the class to the elder Worsdell. Hoole (pp. 133-5) remained silent, but noted that they were intended as banking engines, on the Kelloe Bank (Hoole)/Redheugh and Quayside inclines (RCTS). The RCTS mentions large dumb buffers for hauling chauldron wagons, but these are not visible in Hoole's illustrations, but No. 544 is shown as modified (with No. 545) for hauling large rail-mounted guns during WW1 when fitted with condensing apparatus and an extra Westinghouse pump for lifting water from streams. According to the RCTS No. 544 protected the entrance to the Tees from the Middlesbrough side and No. 545 was at Hartley in Northumberland. Other Hoole illus: No. 553 Gateshead official; No. 551 in green livery; and No. 544 at Ferryhill on 23 March 1923 after removal of condensing apparatus and one Westinghouse pump.

0-4-4T

O class (LNER G5): 1894-1901: LNER G5
MacLean's contribution was a photograph of No. 2083 on p. 116. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 7 is main source. Hoole (pp. 71-4)noted hpw the cost of the locomotives changed:

original £2019
two years later £1870
final £2244

The early locomomotives were fitted with lever reverse, but later batches were fitted with a combined lever and screw reverse. The class wa employed on some lengthy workings: York to Scarborough and Newcastle to Miiddlesbrough. Modifications were made to the bunkers to increase coal capacity: cages of iron bars were fitted from 1917 and from 1921 coal rails were fitted above the cages on Nos. 1096, 1884 and 1914. Hoole (p. 75) included a general arrangement drawing (side elvation and plan) from Engineering, 1895, 6 September. Illus. No. 1783 (Works official); No. 441 (with cab doors: in green livery, official); No. 1779; No. 2089 (with cage on top of bunker) at Richmond in 1922; and No. 1884 with coal rails above cage.

Coleford, I.C. North Eastern ubiquity in the G5 0-4-4Ts. Part 1. Rly Bylines, 2002, 7 (11), 468-77.
Quite good but less comprehensive than RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 7 which notes that the Younghusband's valve gear fitted to five locomotives was a developmentof Gooch's valve gear. Considerable development of boiler design took place under the LNER culminating in the 69A boiler which incorporated a considerable amount of Doncaster practice which reflects the LNER's eagerness to standardize. Coleford is good on brakes, push & pull gear and the special hoppers fitted to meet the needs of mechanical coaling plants.

2-2-4T
See also Class 66

Class 190/LNER X3
Hoole (pp. 194-5) stated that this was constructed from a renewed Class 190 2-2-2 in 1894 and from No. 1679 which at the time of the 2-2-4T conversion was similar to No. 190 but had originated as an experimental three-cylinder 2-4-0 (R Stephenson WN 618/ then reconstructed  as 2-2-2 WN 717, becoming NER No. 77) (RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9B). Hoole illustrates both locomotives.

Brewer, F.W. North Eastern Depsartmental tamk engines. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 203-6.
The 2-2-4T locomotives classified as X1, X2 and X3 by LNER: No. 190 occasionally worked hunters' specials .
X3 2-2-4T No. 190 (lettered LNER) with Directors' Saloon c1932 (H. Gordon Tidey, phot.). Br. Rly J., 7 (62) 192.
Leaving York with directors' saloon: clearly shows green livery (including lining on bunker), and burnished chimney cap and band around smokebox

Class 957: 1903/LNER X2
Hoole (pp. 195-6) notes that converted from Fletcher BTP 0-4-4BT for personal motive power for NER Docks Engineer, T.M. Newell who was based at Hull but also needed transport to the Hartlepools and Middlesbrough (today he would have a Mondeo). In the mid-1930s it was used to deputise for the Armstrong Whiworth diesel electric railcar Lady Hamilton, and was thus the last single locomotive to be used in routine service. According to RCTS (Locomotives of the LNER Part 9B) these journeys were between Hull and York non-stop. Hoole illustrates it with original small tanks and with later larger tanks, presumably fitted for trans Humber/Tees journeys.

Alsop, John. Pouteau listings Part 19. The North Eastern Railway. Rly Arch., 2008 (19) 65 upper
Atr York station Brewer, F.W. North Eastern Depsartmental tamk engines. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 203-6.
The 2-2-4T locomotives classified as X1, X2 and X3 by LNER: noted that No. 957 deputized for Lady Hamilton.

Raven designs

Everett, Andrew. Visionary pragmatist: Sir Vincent Raven: North Eastern Railway, Locomotive Engineer. Stroud: Tempus, 2006. 223pp.
Grafton, Peter
. Sir Vincent Raven and the North Eastern Railway. Usk: Oakwood, 2005.

0-8-0

T2  class: 1913-: LNER Q6

Hoole (pp. 166-8) notes that developed from smaller Worsdell T/T1 class with larger, superheated boiler and 8¾in piston valves. 120 were constructed including fifty from Armstrong whitworth in 1919. Seventeen lasted until the end of steam and Hoole considered the class to be "one of Raven's best designs.". Illus.: No. 1247 with steam circulating valve on smokebox, pyrometer and Ross pop safety valves; No. 1250 at York in 1917 livery; official weight diagram and Armstrong Whitworth No. 2259 at Carlisle London Road with rectangular builder's plate.
Nock's British locomotives of the twentieth century (1) p. 105 notes that the T2 class was designed to be driven "all-out". The boilers were the same as those as fitted to superheated Z class Atlantics. Produced 1000 dbhp at 19 mile/h. The ruggedly built locomotives achieved "almost unfailing reliability".

Atkins, Philip. New boilers for old... Steam Wld, 2003, (194) 8-14.
At Darlington ten new boilers were construced for the Q6 class in 1960 and Table 5 shows the locomotives to which these were allocated.
Weatherburn, J.  The North Eastern Railway dynamometer car. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1921, 11,443-71. Disc.: 471-7. (Paper No. 102)
Very detailed account of the car and its instrumentation. Includes tests performed  on superheated T2 on 1 in 200 Simpasture branch where the aim was establish maximum haulage capacity and average drawbar horse power of 690 was achieved.

T3 class: 1919: LNER class Q7
Hoole (pp. 168-9) noted that this was an A.C. Stamer/Raven design and that the initial batch was limited to five. These very large three-cylinder (18½x26 with 8¼in piston valves) 0-8-0s used the successful Z class  5ft 6in diameter boiler. Ten followed in 1924 having been authorized on 4 October 1923. The class was subject to trials between Newcastle and Carlisle and between Newport and Shildon. MacLean (p. 114) noted the performance of No. 903 on Glenfarg bank on 28 August 1921. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 6C noted that like the two Gresley P1 2-8-2s the class was more powerful than required, although a niche was eventually found in hauling iron ore from Tyne Dock to Consett: Nock (179-80) describes the flat-out effort demanded for working these loads over the very steeply graded line.
Hoole's illustrations include a general arrangement drawing which had appeared in Engineering in 1920 (9 January); an official photograph of No. 901 and No. 903 with test train "under the wires" at Newport in October 1921.

Atkins, Philip. The origin of the NER Class T3 3 cylinder 0-8-0, North Eastern Express, 1993, (November) 91
Grassick, J.P. The locomotive from a footplate point of view. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1922, 12, 51-67. Disc. 67-104; 311- (Paper 114)
A.C. Stamer (discussion page 99 et seq) was present at the Glenfarg tests and explains why the T3 out-performed the GWR 28XX due to its more even torque and its greater adhesive weight
Weatherburn, J.  The North Eastern Railway dynamometer car. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1921, 11,443-71. Disc.: 471-7. (Paper No. 102)
Very detailed account of the car and its instrumentation. Includes tests performed  on 3-cylinder T3 between Hexham and Gillsland where there was an average gradient of 1 in 312 against the train. Later tests were performed between Bishop Auckland and Barnard Castle. There was no slipping and a drawbar pull of 11.67 tons was achieved.

1922: Raven Pacifics (LNER class A2)
These were, by general agreement (see Allen or Smeddle), unsuccessful locomotives. Obviously, MacLean (pp. 105-6) did not share this view, and he appeared to be impressed by the great length (72ft 43/8in, the great length of the boiler (26ft) and the three 19x26in cylinders, the grate area of 41.5ft2, the total heating surface of 2874.6ft2 and the high boiler pressure 200psi. Events were sufficiently contemporary as recorded by MacLean to note that No. 2400 was "now" running in LNER livery (there are two illustrations of it in NER livery), whilst No. 2401 was in NER livery. The series constructed in 1924 were equipped with Cartazzi trailing trucks. "City" names were added at the same time. Finally in 1929, one locomotive was rebuilt with a Gresley Pacific boiler and standard cab. .

Original (Raven) design.

NEW three-cylinder express locomotive, North Eastern Railway. Rly Engr. 1923, 44, 13. illus.
THREE.CYLINDER 4-6-2 express locomotive, North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1923, 52, 56.7. illus.
THREE.CYLINDER "Pacific" type express locomotive, North Eastern Railway. Rly Engr. 1922, 43, 219. 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

1924: Cartazzi trailing truck.

NEW Pacific type locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry. (North Division). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30,112. illus.

1929 : Gresley Pacific boiler fitted to No. 2404.

NEW boiler for "Pacific" locomotive, L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 400-1. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.), table.
RE-BOILERED 4-6-2 express locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1930, 66, 94. illus.

Retrospective and critical.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
See Chapter 2.
Baxter, F.L. Balancing of three-cylinder locomotives. Engineer, 1935, 160, 84-6. 5 diagrs., 8 tables.
The A2 class is considered on a comparative basis.
Cook, A.F. The Raven Pacifics of the North Eastern. Trains ill., 1950, 3, 202-6. 5 illus.
Everett, Andrew
. Visionary pragmatist: Sir Vincent Raven: North Eastern Railway, Locomotive Engineer. Stroud: Tempus, 2006. 223pp.
"Like many of the more recent NER fleet, the new engine had to have three cylinders. They lay in line with the piston valve chests. They would drive on to the leading pair of coupled wheels. The locomotive needed a massive frame to support the longer boiler and smoke box. Raven, according to the diary of Charles Innes, one of the draughtsmen, did not like it being pointed out that this made a long engine have an even longer wheelbase (37ft 2in long when compared with 35ft 9in of GNR Pacific). Raven lost his temper, banged the table and shouted that he had always driven on to the leading coupled axle and that he was going to do this with the Pacific. He failed to appreciate that like his Atlantics six eccentrics and the middle big end had to be accmmnodated on the crank axle – a difficult arrangement, known locally as 'fitter's nightmare'. This, coupled with a comparatively narrow fIrebox for the size of boiler, meant that steaming as a result was not to be so efficient." Normally, Everett supported his statements, but there is no other reference to Charles Innes, or his Diary. It would appear that Everett lifted this statement from Grafton (below) who makes the same attribution to Dick Innes (or Inness) via an article in North Eastern Express (2002, November) by George Hearse.
Grafton, Peter. Sir Vincent Raven and the North Eastern Railway. Usk: Oakwood, 2005.
Hoole, Ken. An illustrated history of NER locomotives. 1988. pp. 187-9.
Actually ordered on 26 January 1921 (not quite so hurried as previously thought). Tests on No. 2400: maximum pull at Dunston; maximum evaporative, pull and speed between Newcastle and Carlisle; then between Newcastle and Edinburgh and then to King's Cross (see illus.). Illus.: No. 2400 in photographic grey outside paint shop Darlington, with the men who built it (school photograph type); still with original buffer beam at Darlington ready for tests; still in workshop grey at York in December 1922 but with cut back buffer beams; in NER green at King's Cross in 1923 with Driver T. Blades and Fireman Fisher. No. 2401 front view with "Class 4.6.2" on buffer beam, and at Edinburgh Haymarket. Compressed air sanding was fitted: (Hoole pp. 218-19)..
Lines, John A. The Raven Pacifics of the NER: Locomotive Portraits—14. Rly Wld, 1975, 36,. 371. illus.
Illustration of locomotive in photographic grey; leading dimensions, detail differences (final three had Cartazzi trailing axleboxes); main tests on locomotives and general performance and duties; sole rebuilding (No. 2404 with Gresley boiler) and withdrawal dates.
Nock, O.S. The Great Northern Railway. London, Ian Allan, 1958, [viii], 192 p. incl.. 32 plates. 4- col. front. 71 illus., 60 tables, 11 maps.
Includes results of the tests made between the Al and A2 classes in 1923.
Smeddle, R.A. The North Eastern Railway and recent railway developments. J.Instn Loco. Engrs, 1959/60, 605-21. 7 illus., 4 diagrs., table. (Presidential Address).
Part of the address criticises the A2 design.
Weight, R.A.H. A short-lived Pacific class. Rly Mag., 1949, 95, 195-6. illus.
Young, JA. The Raven Pacifics. Rly Obsr, 1936,8, 245.

4-6-0

S2: 1911: LNER B15
Twenty of these Worsdell/Raven locomotives were constructed. They were similar to the S class but had larger boilers with a total heating surface of 1821ft2. MacLean (pp. 101-2) states that the first six were painted green, and the remainder were black, and black was later substituted on the earlier locomotives. No. 825 (illustrated) was fitted with Stumpf Uniflow cylinders, but is shown as being painted green in a plate facing page 141 in Nock: this is an F. Moore "painting". Everett's Visionary paragmatist (pp. 98-9) notes that the Uniflow engine could be difficult to start. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 2B notes that the class was not very successful and would have been withdrawn before the end of 1930s, but for the preparations for WW2. The same source gives an extensive account of the Uniflow locomotive, although it received standard cylinders in 1924. Reed (150 years of British steam locomotives) p. 93 noted that No. 825 "had a record for bursting cylinder covers". Hoole (pp. 154-8) noted that originally classified as S/11, and that the first seven were built as saturated. No. 797 was superheated and given an elaborare black livery. This locomotive and Nos. 786 and 788 were the subject of extensive trials to assess superheating.; ordinary injectors, exhaust steam injectors and a Weir feed pump (fitted to No. 788). Hoole noted that the Uniflow engine produced a "terrific blast from the chimney" and an "ear splitting exhaust".Hoole illustrated Nos 825 (Uniflow); 797 (superheater); 788 (feed pump) and an official weight diagrram..

Atkins, Philip. Cast in a unique mould. Backtrack, 2011, 25, 442-5.
Casting cylinders for unique (and unusual) locomotives. The North Eastern Railway built two locomotives with Stumpf Uniflow cylinders: the first was similar to the S2 class of 4-6-0s, but had steply inclined cylinders and outside Walschaerts valve gear. It was completed in March 1913 and numbered 825 and dynamometer car tests were performed against standard S2 Nos. 797 (superheated) and Nos. 786 and 788 (saturated) between Newcastle and York. The locomotive had a highly explosive exhaust which could be heard over a long distance.

S3: 1921: LNER B16
These could be regarded as Stamer locomotives as he signed the order in the absence of Raven. Other than their introduction they were essentially LNER locomotives and both Gresley (B16/2) and Thompson (B16/3) wrought considerable improvements to a small number of locomotives. Thus the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 2B is the main source (but the description of this class is blow par). Hoole (pp. 158-61) does include enough illustrative material to demonstrate that these were North Eastern Railway products: notably a general arrangement drawing published in Engineering, 1921 28 February; an official photograph of No. 846, and two in service: No. 932 at Carlisle London Road shed, and No. 937 at Neville Hill. Furthermore, Hoole notes that the class was fitted with the Lockyer regulator. The RCTS notes that the unrebuilt locomotives, with but one exception, retained steam reversers..

Contemporary
Three-cylinder fast goods locomotive, North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1920, 26, 119 + plate fp. 117. diagr. (s. el.).
Broscombe, H. Discussion on paper by Geer. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1926, 16, 442-6
Noted that No. 931 was fitted with patent piston rings supplied by ABC Coupler & Engineering Co. and these were claimed to lower friction.

Retrospective & critical
Bertram, D. The "B16" 4-6-0s of the N.E.R. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 139-41.
Surveys the duties performed by the class in c1953.
Hoole, K. The 4-6-0 locomotives of the N.E.R. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 181-3; 204-6. 9 illus.
Very detailed survey especially in relation to modifications.
Webster, V.R. The B16 class 4-6-0's of the North Eastern Region. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34, 124-6. 2 illus.

4-4-2

Z/Z1: 1911-
According to MacLean (pp. 103-5) the Z classification related to the non-superheated version of the first batch built by the North British Locomotive Co.: that is the second ten of a batch of twenty: the first ten (Schmidt-type) superheated locomotives being class Z1. It would seem that the Z1 classification must have rapidly disappeared as it is not mentioned in the extensive history of the class in RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 3A (some major developments took place and further were contemplated after the Grouping). MacLean noted that the three (16½x26in) cylinders and the crank setting selected gave a very even blast on the fire and that slipping was almost absent. MacLean also noted rapid acceleration. The longer wheelbase contributed to greater steadiness (than the earlier Atlantics). The original batch had a total heating surface of 2509ft2. The three cylinders and piston valves were cast in one piece. From 1914 thirty further (slightly modified) superheated locomotives were built at Darlington. These had a reduced total heating surface (2005.9ft2) making the locomotives more economical to maintain: MacLean's text (p. 103) is somewhat garbled where it might be implied that the original batch had a lower total heating surface. The Darlington batches had a new design of self-trimming tender, Ross pop safety valves, Stone's forced feed lubricators (the earlier ones had Wakefield mechanical lubricators) and by implication Lockyer regulators.
MacLean noted that No. 732 hauled the Flying Scotsman weighing 545 tons (during a strike in 1911) from York to Darlington in 50¼ minutes start to stop (Rly Mag 1912). He also noted that C.J. Allen had recorded No. 2195 at 79 mile/h on the level. No. 709 was used as the Royal Train engine on 21 July 1911 between Newcastle and York. Reed (150 years of British steam locomotives) p 89 noted that the locomotives were built like a watch and rode beautifully
Hoole (pp. 175-9) records that the NBL locomotives cost £4485 each and considered the class to be Raven's best express engine both from appearance and performance. The illustrations include an official NBL photograph of No. 717; No. 714 at Edinburgh Waverley on 7 August 1911 (G.M. Shoults); No. 2163 (Darlington official); general arrangement drawing (side elevation only) from Locomotive, 1912, 15 January; No. 2164 in service; No. 2212 (the Stumpf Uniflow version), and No. 2202 with oil-firing (Hoole pp. 226-7 gives quite extensive information about oil consumption and costs of this Scarab installation). Hoole's mentions the LNER modifications with boosters: see LNER C9..

Nock's British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 1. 1900-1930 gives extensive details (with broad original sources) for the original (i.e. mainly North Eastern Railway) devlopment of the Atlantic classes on the NER:.

comparative cylinder dimensions of the four classes of non-compound Atlantics on the NER were:

Class V V1 Z Z1
Cylinders
Number 2 2 3 3
Diameter (inches) 20 19½ 15½ 16½
Stroke (inches) 28 28 26 26
Boiler pressure (psi) 200 180 180 160
Tractive effort (lb) 23,250 19,900 17,550 17,650

In view of the developing trends of the day it was rather surprising that in its issue of January 1912 The Locomotive Magazine published as a supplement a fully detailed general arrangement drawing. of the non-superheated version of the new NER three-cylinder 'Atlantics'. Perhaps it was because of the considerable uncertainty shown in the boiler proportions of the superheated version. The first details that I [Nock] can trace were contained in an apparently fully authoritative article in The Railway Magazine in February 1915 from the pen of the Editor himself, J.F. Gairns, in which it appears that by that time all the engines originally built as 'saturators' had been converted. It also revealed that, in a new batch of these engines built in 1914, there had been a remarkable change in the heating surface proportions. In the original 'Zl' Class, in which a superheat temperature of around 650 degrees had been aimed at, the tubes appear to have been unduly crowded. In the discussion following Henry Fowler's paper to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1914, Raven said that they had not been getting the superheat they hoped for, and that things had been much improved by blocking up a number of the small flue tubes. Furthermore, the crowding of the small tubes had led to the cracking of the tube plates, due to the narrowness of the bridges between the tubes. The result was seen in the reduction of the tube heating surface in the 1914 batch of 'Z' Atlantics from 1,798.9 square feet to 1,295.8 entirely by reducing the number of small tubes from 149 to 90.
The Schmidt superheaters in these engines were always of 24 elements, in 514 inch flue tubes. Originally the elements were carried almost to the rearmost limit because a superheating surface of 530.1 square feet was very large for a 24-element apparatus. After some years of experience, and trouble with burning of the elements at the forward end, the length was reduced. On some engines of the class the heating surface was cut back to 392 square feet. While on others it was 437 square feet. In later engines of the class the boiler pressure was raised to 175 lb per square inch, bringing the tractive effort up to 19,300 lb. When the North Eastern Railway became part of the LNER in 1923 it was evident that changes in the boiler design of the 'Zs' was even yet not finished. On the official diagram published in a series of articles in The Railway Gazette in 1935 showed that the number of small tubes was 134; so that the four stages of boiler development on these engines can be shown thus:

Boilers: Class 'Z' 4-4-2s

Approximate date 1911 1916 1922 1935
Large tubes 24 24 24 24
Small tubes 149 90 90 134
Heating surfaces (square feet)
Small tubes 1,267 764 764 1,140.6
Large tubes 531.9 531.9 531.9 531.9
Superheater elements 530.1 530.1 392 437

Allen, Cecil J. British Atlantic locomotives, revised & enlarged by G. Freeman Allan.. 1976.
Toram Beg. The antics of the North British Atlantics. Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 475-6.
Friend Jock Todd, latterly a motive power inspector, fired for Driver Tom Henderson who was involved in the dynamometer trials with Hazeldean. McKillop considered the NBR Atlantics rough riding in comparison with the "beautifully balaanced" Z class and at "speed seemed to hug the road like a greyhound at full stretch, while the N.B. Atlatic carried on like a terrier worrying a rat.".

No. 2212 (Stumpf Uniflow locomotive)
Atkins, Philip. Cast in a unique mould. Backtrack, 2011, 25, 442-5.
Casting cylinders for unique (and unusual) locomotives. The North Eastern Railway built two locomotives with Stumpf Uniflow cylinders: the first was similar to the S2 class of 4-6-0s, The other Uniflow (or "Unaflow") engine was a Z class three-cylinder Atlantic No. 2212: the monobloc cylinders, draughted by a man called Spencer, were cast at Kitson & Co.. It emerged in June 1918, but only rreceived desultory tests, but lasted until late 1934 when it was rebuilt with rotary cam poppet valves..
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Page 15: noted  that sounded like a motorcycle at speed with an open exhaust.

4-6-2T

Y class: 1911: LNER class A7
MacLean credits this as a Raven design, but the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 7 suggests that this may have been a Wilson Worsdell design, as was the X class (KPJ: or was it a also a Raven design). Hoole (pp. 184-7) adds greater clarity noting that they were authorised on 10 February 1910, but this order was cancelled, but re-authorised on 17 November 1910, but was not clear if Raven introduced any changes.. Both heavy duty tank engines might have been linked. MacLean called these "mineral tanks" and they were intended to haul 1000 ton coal trains at 20 mile/h. According to MacLean they had a special flexible wheelbase: this is not mentioned in the RCTS publication, nor by Hoole, nor by Nock (who does emphasise the differences between the two classes). The Y class had three 16½x26 cylinders actuated by piston valves and 4ft 7¼in coupled wheels (the same as the 0-8-0 tender locomotives). The grate area was 23ft2 and the bunker held 5 tons. These locomotives weighed 87 tons 8 cwt. Nock noted that the adhesion weight was 55½ tons and the class could sustain drawbar pulls in excess of 10 tons with efficient sanding, but No. 1126 slipped to a standstill when hauling 864 tons up a gradient of 1 in 185 near Shildon due to defective sanding apparatus. Earlier the same locomotive had started the same load from rest on a gradient of 1 in 148 and accelerated to 10 mile/h in just over half a mile.Hoole noted that most were superheated from 1917, but not Nos 1176 nor 1192. From 1943 fifteen were fitted with 4ft 9in boilers. They were withdrawn between 1951 and 1957. Illus.: No. 1113 (official); No. 1175 in working livery; No. 1129 in 1917 livery and close-up of L-shaped sandbox (whilst locomotive under overhaul) and official weight diagram..

4-6-2 mineral tank engine. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1911, 17, 4. illus.
No. 1173 illustrated

4-4-4T

D class: 1913-4: LNER H1
MacLean (pp. 117-18) used the words "symmetry" and "handsome" in his description of what to him must have seemed a very impressive locomotive and even in their rebuilt state as 4-6-2Ts the word "handsome" was still highly appropriate. They had 5ft 9in coupled wheels and three 16½x26in cylinders;; a grate area of 23ft2 and a total heating surface of 1331.8ft2 and a boiler pressure of 160 psi. They had steam reversers. MacLean illustrated No. 2143 in its original state. MacLean noted with some surprise that C.J. Allen had recorded 71 mile/h from No. 2145 running between Northallerton and Stockton.
Hoole (pp. 77-9) ; considered it to be the "most handsome tank engine built by the NER". Ten were ordered in April 1914, but this was cancelled in favour of ten T2 class. Compressed air sanding was fitted (Hoole pp. 218-19). A further 25 were ordered in September 1919. Osccillation tests were conducted between Saltburn and Darlington in 1920 using No. 2150 with the dynamometer car, but the results were not known to Hoole. In April 1929 No. 1499 was fitted with modified bogies in an attempt to improve the ride. In 1919 No. 2143 was fitted with experimental collector shoes for high speed tests on dummy third rail at Strensall in preparation for mainline electrification. (illus).
Raven in his paper on electric locomotives
stated: The North Eastern Railway have a 4-4-4 symmetrical type which has run up to 70 miles per hour without finding any ill effects.
Cages were fitted to many of the bunkers, but many later removed. Illus.: No. 2143 showing two whistles, sandboxes, Westinghouse pump, steam reverse cylinder and mecanical lubricator (NER official); No. 2146 at West Cliff on Saltburn to Scarborough train. Nock (p. 142) noted that they were "free-running engines, although rather prone to roll at times." They were rebuilt as 4-6-2Ts (becoming class A8) during the 1930s.

Drawing of three-cylinder tank engine. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1913, 20, 134.
Drawing repeated in (but with loss of detail) in Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 1. 1900-1930. 1983.

Crank axles

Stamer, A.C. discussion on Fowler, Sir Henry. Solid crank axles. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1925, 15, 145-6.
Data for crank axle failures on the NER. Between 1901 and 1903, when 28-30 ton steel was used there were 35 failures. Between 1921 and 1923 when 35-40 ton steel was being used 26 failures were recorded. Some crank axles achieved 980,000 miles.

Works

Russell, J. Darlington North Road Works (North-Eastern Railway). Rly Mag., 1903, 13, 89-100.
At that time Darlington was still just one of NER's locomotive works. Also includes description of the former locomotive works at Shildon. Notes that company tended to buy in components for locomotive construction. Mainly a description of the Works on a shop-by-shop basis. Plan. Illustrations of some of locomotives built at Works.

Locomotives taken over from minor railways, etc

Londonderry Railway
Taken over from 6 October 1900. See contemporary reference in Railway Magazine (1901, 8, 70) which includes a list, with leading dimensions of locomotives taken over. George Hardy remained with the Seaham Harbour part of the organization owned by the Marquis of Londonderrt which was not taken ove.

ex-Haswell Coal Co.
In 1883 two Manning Wardle 0-6-0STs (WN 242/1867 and 479/1874) named Haswell and Shotton (collieries in County Durham) were taken over and were allocated NER Nos 1723 and 1724, but were withdrawn fairly soon. Hoole p. 227.

Merrybent & Darlington Railway
Railway taken over in 1900, but sole locomotive Merrybent (0-6-0ST built 1870), but not taken into NER stock but sold to Frazer of Hebburn who sold it to contractor building Ponteland branch. Hoole p. 227. Baxter (p. 84) states Merrybent built by John Hopper & Co. of Fencehouses, Co. Durham in 1870, (see Lowe Fig. 274) rebuilt by NER in 1890 and sold to W&I (contractors) and was scrapped in 1905. Also suggest another locomotive: 0-4-0ST Barton supplied by Henry Hughes..

2012-12-30