Stanier locomotive designs
& those of Fairburn & Ivatt

Updated 2014-10-03

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Photograph: KPJ at Glasgow Central

Whereas it was desirable to separate Fowler's and Hughes' designs for the LMS: those of Stanier and his lesser successors (Fairburn and Ivatt) need to be treated together.

Princess Royal 4-6-2 Turbine locomotive Coronation 4-6-2 Jubilee 4-6-0 Class 5 4-6-0 Rebuilt Scots 8F 2-8-0
5 2-6-0 4 2-6-0 (Ivatt) 2-6-4T 2-6-2T Projected designs Lemon 0-4-4T
Rebuilt Patriots Tenders

General works

Essery, R.J. and Jenkinson, D. An illustrated history of LMS locomotives. Volume 5. The post-grouping standard designs. Peterborough: Silver Link,1989.248pp 
Locomotives constructed by, or for the LMS. Concentrates mainly on externals, although this can be highly illuminating, such as the smoke deflection experiments on the Royal Scot class. Excellent extended captions
Haresnape, Brian. Stanier locomotives; a pictorial history. London: Ian Allan, 1970. 128pp.
Rowledge, J.W.P. Engines of the L.M.S. built 1923-1951. Oxford: OPC, 1975. 108pp + plates (86 illus.)
A pocketbook: includes drawings (side elevations) of all types built/supplied to the LMS including the Sentinel railcars. Notes on the Company's far from standard boilers. Tenders, 8F locomotives supplied during WW2. Photographic illustrations of most types.
Rowledge, J.W.P. L.M.S. engines: names, numbers, types and classes. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1989. 160pp.
Text is typescript, but includes outline diagrams of the LMS-designed locomotives. There is a separate section of plates.

See also Stanier biography

Injectors

Cox (British Railways standard steam locomotives. 1966) noted that for the BR standard locomotives live steam injectors were evaluated through a series of tests on the Swindon works steam fittings test plant: both regional and proprietary instruments were tried out for range of working and for maximum delivery capacity. In this case the GWR injector showed a marked superiority over all the others, and it was adopted in three sizes to cover the proposed fleet, giving maximum water deliveries of 34.800, 25.700 and 18.500 lb. per hour respectively, a useful range of adjustment of the quantity delivered being available in each case.  Cox noted "It is interesting to recall that this injector design was one of the items which Stanier did not transplant to the LMS when he joined it in 1932, but the Derby injector which he retained for his new command was at this late hour found to be markedly inferior."


2-8-0

8F: 1935:
The 8F class was introduced for the haulage of heavy long-distance freight traffic. The design incorporated all of the G.W.R./Stanier design concepts, such as taper-boiler and long travel valves. Until the Riddles Austerity locomotives were introduced, it formed the standard War Department design during the Second World War. Many were built for military or "home-front" duties in the workshops of the other three main line companies. 849 engines were eventually built, but not all of these ran in, or were returned to, Britain.
The LMS Locomotive Profile No. 8 states in its Introduction: the LMS heavy freight 2-8-0s introduced by W.A. Stanier in 1935 shared many characteristics and details with the earlier mixed traffic Class 5 design and became equally highly regarded by railwaymen and enthusiasts alike. Although neither as numerous in LMS and BR service nor as widely travelled on the LMS system as the 4-6-0s, they were destined to become not only the most numerous examples of the company's designs built but also went further afield than any other. Fairly obviously, this statement will require amplification, which we will give in subsequent sections, but simply stated, only 331 of the 852 locomotives built were to LMS orders. Of the remainder, 208 were built by various firms for the War Department to be used overseas and the rest to orders placed on different railway company works by the wartime Railway Executive Committee and the London & North Eastern Railway for service in Britain. Thus, as well as LMS works and outside contractors building them, 8Fs were produced by three works on the Southern Railway and two LNER establishments as well as at the Great Western's Swindon Works. Many of the WD engines did go abroad and although some returned to Britain, others were either lost at sea or remained in the Middle East and Turkey, where the last survivors were still in use in the mid-1980s, whilst fifteen served in Italy. To complicate the issue further, 53 WD engines were loaned to the LMS in the early years of World War 2, some LMS locomotives were requisitioned by the War Department, and many of those built to Railway Executive orders were loaned to the LNER and GWR despite carrying LMS numbers. Eleven of the requisitioned locomotives and 31 WD engines returned to Britain after the war. A further potential confusion was caused by the fact that one of the LMS locomotives requisitioned during the war, as well as thirteen WD examples that were loaned to the LMS, were purchased by British Railways and entered that company's service with different numbers from those they had previously carried. Altogether, 751 of them carried LMS or BR (LMR) numbers at one time or another, although the maximum number to see BR service simultaneously was 666 achieved between 1957 and 1960. From the foregoing, it can be seen that the story of the 8Fs was extremely complex. Incidentally, the LMS Locomotive Profile is extremely good and a vast advance upon the first in this series. .

L.M.S. orders for 369 locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1936, 64, 20-1. 3 illus.
Orders for 69 class 8F locomotives under the Government Guaranteed Loan Scheme.
NEW heavy freight locomotives, L.M.S.R. Rly Mag., 1935, 77,121-2.2 illus.
NEW L.M.S. freight engine. Engineer, 1935, 159, 678. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW 2-8-0 locomotives, L.M.S.R. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 1222. illus. diagr. (s. el.)
2-8-0 freight locomotives, L.M. & S.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 206-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-8-0 type locomotives for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. Engineering, 1935, 139, 689. illus.

1939-1945 War:
Locomotive built under Government contracts, mainly for military service overseas.

BRITISH rolling stock for service overseas: details of the 240 locomotives and 10,000 covered wagons ordered by the Ministry of Supply for use with the British Expeditionary Force. Rly Gaz., 1940, 72, 83-5. illus. 5 diagrs. (incl. s.. el.)
[CAB and front-end illustrations of class 8F as modified for Middle Eastern conditions]. Rly Mag., 1942, 88, 114.2 illus.
[CLASS 8F: 240 constructed for service in France]. Rly Gaz., 1940, 72, 777. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
L.M.S.R.-type locomotives built in Southern Railway works. Rly Gaz., 1944, 80, 90. 5 illus.
Locomotives constructed at Brighton Works.
L.M.S.R.-type locomotives built in Southern Railway works. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 102. 3 illus.
LORD Leathers congratulates Southern Railway workers: utility locomotives built to Government order. Rly Gaz., 1944, 80, 96.
ROLLING stock for the B.E.F. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46, 144-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Modifications for French conditions.

Retrospective & critical
Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950] .
The appendix includes results of the 1948 inter-regional exchanges of freight locomotives, in which the 8F class was evaluated.
Benford, B. Why were Swindon '8Fs' singled out? Steam Wld, 2006 (224) 50.
Claims that in 1955-7 25 Swindon-built 8Fs were transferred from the LMR to the Western Region.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43,175-265.. (Paper No.520).
Includes mileage figures, between overhauls, for the class: 50,361.
Bourne, T.W. (Smokey). Back to reality. Modellers Backtrack, 1994, 4, 116-18.
Critical of the concept of Chief Mechanical Engineers, notably Webb, but Stanier is also condemned. In both cases their approach to standardisation is condemned: Webb because Crewe Works were unable to adept to change, and Stanier for the 8F type being too slow.
Chackfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland Compound to the HST. 2004.
Page 81 Jarvis was involved in the design of snowploughs for working over Settle & Carlisle line: using a desin based upon cow-catchers supplied by NBL. Jarvis was involved (Chapter 3) in assembling 8F locomotives in Turkey during WW2 and in the receipt of them at the port of Iskenderun. Chapter 6 reccounts the return of 8Fs from the Canal Zone to the LMS following WW2.
Copsey, John. Swindon's '8Fs'. Great Western Rly J., 2004, (51), 165-76.
During WW2 the LMS 8F was built as a "standard class" and eighty were constructed at Swindon and use on GWR lines until displaced by WD locomotives. Copsey states that the GWR crews found certain difficulties with the locomotives and this is confirmed in the correspondence. As usual Copsey gives details of allocations and duties. See also letter in Number 52 page 239 from R.S. Potts concerning problems with using combined steam & vacuum brake fitted to 8F class, plus the lack of a powerful handbrake. The GWR did not use steam brake and fitted powerful handbrakes: thus the GWR footplate crews had to learn how to handle the steam brake fitted to 8F and WD types. H.M. Parker (same issue & page as previous) states that 4835 sent to St Blazey in 1944 before being sent to Penzance.
Essery, Bob. LMS Garratts. Steam Wld, 2009 (263), 28-39.
Annual mileage statistics are quoted for the 8F for 1950: 24,423 miles.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Milestone: "masterpiece":
Hunt, David et al. LMS locomotive profile: No. 8 – the Class 8F 2-8-0s. Didcot: Wild Swan. 136pp.
Mel Holley (Steam World, 2006, (226), 65) notes folding diagrams which once upon a time used to be taken for granted and lack of title on spine, and lack of "precise" withdrawal dates, but otherwise overall excellence. Appendices include details of War Department locomotives.
Hunt, David et al. Pictorial Supplement to LMS locomotive profile: No. 8 – the Class 8F 2-8-0s. Wild Swan. 80pp.
Mel Holley (Steam World, 2006, (226), 65) notes "excellent book", although questions high cost.
Notes on Stanier "8F" 2-8-0 engines. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1956, 32, 84-8. illus., table.
Notes on the locomotives built in the workshops of other railways and on the W.D. locomotives.
Pollock, D.R. and White, D.E., compilers. The 2-8-0 & 2-10-0 locomotives of the War Department, 1939-1945: Stanier L.M.S. type 2-8-0; British Austerity 2-8-0; British Austerity 2-10-0; Robinson L.N.E.R. class O4 2-8-0. Rly Obsr., 1946, 16 Supplement No.5.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977.
Chapter 10: The strong pull: a footplateman's view.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp: 88-96.
Chapter entitled Class 8F-2-8-0': This includes the many, of the mainly minor, alterations which took place during the life of the locomotives, but not the vast number of modifications which took place during military service. Notes that 48169 was fitted with a full set of unbalanced driving wheels from a WD 2-8-0.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983.
Pp. 108-116:  includes information about the thirty 8F locomotives constructed at Doncaster and the same number at Darlington during WW2. They were classified as O6 whilst on the LNER, but at the end of the War were exchanged for WD 2-8-0s. .
Riley, R.C. L.M.S. type 2-8-0's built by Southern Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1946, 22, 202. illus.
Rowledge, J.W.P. Heavy goods engines of the War Department. Vol. 2. Stanier 8F 2-8-0. Poole: Springmead Books, 1977/78.3v.
Rudgard, H.  discussion on Patrick, D. Some notes on American locomotive practice 1948. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1950, 39, 86.. (Paper No. 483)
During WW2 when iron ore had to be moved from Kettering to Scotland two class 8 2-8-0 freight locomotives coupled together hauled a gross load of 2850 tons
Stanier, W.A. The position of the locomotive in mechanical engineering. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1941, 146, 50-61 + 4 plates. 13 illus., diagr., 3 tables. (Presidential Address).
Stokes, Ken. Both sides of the footplate. Truro: Bradford Barton, [1985?]. Chap. 8.
Had experience of No. 8696 converted to oil-firing in 1946/7: generally he found the locomotive highly satisfactory and he considered that the technique could have been used to postpone conversion to diesel traction.
Toms, George and  Essery, R.J.. William Stanier's Class 8F 2-8-0. Br. Rly J. LMS Special Ed., 1988, 3-17.
Bibliography includes several works which are not ywt listed herein: includes brief ddetails of War Department locomotives. Photographs show variety of tendrs and liveries.
War Department Stanier 2-8-0's. Rly Obsr., 1948, 18, 204-5. table.
Notes on locomotives returned to Britain from overseas.
Thorley, W.G.F. A breath of steam.1975.
The new Class 8F (originally classified 7F) 2-8-0 locomotives, five of which were allocated to Westhouses a few months after emerging new from Crewe Works, proved to be another stimulus to sustain interest in things mechanical. As is invariably the case with a new locomotive design, there were many minor teething troubles. I submitted several suggestions for improvement of details, illustrated by Dobson's wonderful freehand sketches for the production of which he had a remarkable gift. Ideas related to the armouring of the flexible oil pipes to the trailing coupled axleboxes to withstand the heat of the firebox; the provision of an expansion bend in the steam control pipe to the continuous blowdown valve; rearrangement of the middle ashpan damper to facilitate ashpan cleaning; provision of separate gauge frame drain taps; modification to the steam cylinders which operated the dry sanding gear; and to the layout of connections to the sand gun fitted to the boiler backplate for cleaning the tubes whilst running. Many innovations on the 2-8-0 previously unknown to Westhouses men were appreciated by them, including the bushed type connecting rod big end fitted with a fluted restrictor instead of a worsted trimming and a host of grease nipples on the brake rigging and intermediate drawgear which reduced the number of oiling points requiring the use of the traditional oil feeder.
One frequent subject of comment was the 2-8-0's apparently inferior braking performance compared with that of the standard Class 7F 0-8-0's. This is not surprising as the brake percentage (ie the ratio of the sum of the forces on the brake blocks divided by the static weight on the rail and expressed as a percentage) of the latter was 78.5 compared with only 65.8 on the new 2-8-0s. Yet as so often happens, drivers quickly adjust themselves to a new set of circumstances. The complaints quickly died as they became accustomed to what was still a good brake on the 2-8-0.
The continuous blowdown valve mentioned above was also a new innovation. It was fitted to the boiler backplate for the purpose of drawing off a portion of the water in the boiler whenever the engine regulator was open. At that time, despite the efforts of the water softening chemists, some soluble compounds often remained in suspension in the feed water after treatment and caused excessive priming when a locomotive was worked hard. The blowdown valve was controlled by steam under pressure led through a small bore pipe from the rh cylinder; the water drawn off amounted to 2-3 gpm and was led through a coil in the tender tank where some heat was recovered before the water was discharged onto the ballast. Enginemen disliked the arrangement because they considered (rightly) that they were having to shovel more coal, although the heat losses were doubtless more than counterbalanced by the cleaner water side heating surfaces which resulted from feed water treatment. The civil engineers in due course came to dislike the apparatus also and produced impressive figures of the additional costs incurred in permanent way maintenance due to the discharge of boiler water on to the ballast.
With the advantage of hindsight, the necessity to fit the contraption at all now appears to have arisen because all the possible effects of water treatment were not considered initially; or if they were, someone in the hierarchy objected to capital expenditure being earmarked to counter the harmful side effects. Not that we were overmuch concerned at the MIC with the financial results of water treatment; when stalwarts like Johnny Duroe, Albert Lee, Bill Younger, Sam Harris and 'Ferd' Whitaker got going about the new fittings, of which usually no one knew anything until a locomotive so equipped made its first appearance on the shed, their preoccupation was with problems such as whether an additional water stop would be required on a given working. Countless highly competent engineers have launched and still do launch their products and systems on to long-suffering users without a thought that any steps taken to acquaint the latter with the purpose of the equipment and invite their wholehearted co-operation in making it work, would pay handsome dividends.

Topham, W.L. The running man's ideal locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 3-29. Disc.: 29-91. (Paper No. 456)
Much based on experience of 8F during WW2 in Persia (Iran) and Egypt where oil-firing showed up several weaknesses in design, notably burning of torpedo ends of superheater elements. The superheater tubes were only 11 SWG and there had been many burst elements in Persia and Egypt with oil-firing: Plate frames were advanced: "when a Baldwin 2-8-2 and an LMS 8F collided in Persia it was easy to see who got the best of it". The solid bronze bushes with white metal inserts gave excellent service.
Tyler, Keith, John Bond and Alan Wilkinson. Stanier 8F 2-8-0: a study of the Stanier class 8F locomotive. Stanier 8F Locomotive Society,[1978]. 96pp.
Ottley 12306: cited by Toms & Essery.
Whalley, F.S. The work of their craft. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 401-29.
Mainly an account of the "Liberation" type, but the 8F design is also considered.

4-6-2

7P (later 8P) "Princess Royal": 1933:
The Princess Royal class was Stanier's first major LMS design. In many ways the design was a direct derivative of the GWR King class. The front-end dimensions were generally similar. The wheel size was identical, which was non-standard on both railways. The boiler differed considerably except for the low superheating area which was common to both designs. Both the boiler and trailing truck appear to owe much to the Fowler Pacific design. It is not surprising that this similarity exists with the former because Stanier presumably had some part in the design of the King class whilst in the employment of the GWR. In 1935 the boiler was radically altered and a much higher degree of superheating was incorporated.

Allen, C.J. The first L.M.S.R. Pacific locomotive. Rly Mag., 1933, 73, 88-90. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
BOILER for 4-6-2 express locomotive, "Princess Royal", L.M.S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 229-30.5 diagrs.
Borderer, pseud. The new L.M.S. "Pacific". Rly Obsr., 1933, 5, 87-8. illus., table.
Mainly concerned with externals.
4-6-2 type express passenger locomotive for the L.M.S. Railway. Engineering, 1933, 136, 21-2. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els)
L.M.S. "Pacific" locomotive. Engineer, 1933, 156, 16-17. illus, diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW four-cylinder 4-6-2 express locomotive, L.M.S.R. Rly Engr. 1933, 54, 230-8. 9 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW 4-6-2 "Pacific" type four-cylinder locomotive, London, Midland & Scottish Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 197-9. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW "Pacific" type locomotive, L.M. & S. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 233. illus.
Slight modifications to the original design.

1935: Modified boilers: 6203 et. seq -

L.MS. four-cylinder passenger locomotives. Engineer, 1935, 160, 74. illus.
NEW 4-6-2 express locomotives, L.MS.R. Rly Gaz, 1935, 63, 113. illus.
NEW 4-6-2 four-cylinder passenger locos., L.M.S.R.. Loco Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 236. illus.

Front end modification: 1952/4

Cylinder fixing with shear strips. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954. 60, 119. 2 illus., diagr..
No. 46203 shown in photograph. See also Forsyth, I.C. Discussion on R.C. Bond Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, Pp. 225-8 (3 illus.):

Tenders

L.M.S.R. Pacific tenders. Rly Mag., 1983, 462.
This entry from Jones is clearly incorrect. Notes on the tenders originally and subsequently fitted to Nos. 6200 and 6201.

Performance and testing:
LMS. demonstrations and testing methods tended to favour absolute endurance techniques. This was understandable on a railway where through locomotive workings from London to Carlisle were common place and in certain instances runs were extended through the 401 miles to Glasgow. Moreover normal trains were heavy and the northern part of the Anglo-Scottish route is steeply graded. The two most notable test runs were the press trip with a 505 ton train in 1933 and the 1936 high-speed run from London to Glasgow and back.

1933: press demonstration:
This run, which should have been from Euston to Crewe, unfortunately ended with the failure of No. 6200 at Lichfield. This was due to an overheated axlebox.
TEST of locomotive No. 6200, L.M.S.R., Euston-Crewe. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 267.

1938:  
The Railway Gazette published details of a Euston to Aberdeen working to show the arduous operating conditions for LMS Pacifics.
LONG engine working, L.M.S.R. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 161-2.

No. 6200 (with modified boiler):
Test runs from Liverpool to Euston and from Crewe to Glasgow and back.

HIGH-SPEED test runs of L.M.S. 4-6-2 locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 231-2.

16-17 November 1935:
High-speed test run from Euston to Glasgow (Central) and back. The maximum indicated horsepower recorded was 2448.

Allen, C.J. Four hundred miles at 70 miles an hour: Glasgow to Euston in 5 hours 44¼ minutes. Rly Mag., 1937, 80, 7-13. illus., table.
LONDON, Midland & Scottish Railway: experimental high-speed test runs between London and Glasgow. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 375-8.
L.M.S.R. six-hour schedule trial runs, London-Glasgow-London. Rly Gaz., 1936, 65, 866-7; 900-2. illus., diagr., table.

Stanier, W.A. The position of the locomotive in mechanical engineering. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1941, 146, 50-61 + 4 plates. 13 illus., diagr., 3 tables. (Presidential Address).
No. 6210: Euston to Glasgow dynamometer car test

Accidents

Weedon: 21 September 1951
Reade, Lewis. Disaster at Weedon. Backtrack, Introductory Issue, 34-7.
Derailment of Princess Royal class 46207 Princess Arthur of Cannaught on express train on 21 September 1951 which led to the deaths of 14 passengers and one member of the dining car staff. The footplate crew survived and protected their train in spite of being severely shaken. The line was reopened in 30 hours. The later recovery of the locomotive, using Kelbus apparatus, is also described. The accident enquiry, conducted by Lt. Col. G.R.S. Wilson, concluded that the derailment was caused by an excessively tight bogie axlebox. illus.: The grim sight at Weedon about two hours after the accident on 21st Sept (aerial photograph Press Association); Track diagram of accident recovery;

Retrospective and critical

Allen British Pacifics observes that not a few troubles were experienced with the 'Princesses' after they entered service. Principles of design which had been traditional at Swindon for long past, but which depended on the use of Welsh coal and the scientific handling methods in which Great Western drivers and fireman had been trained, were not automatically to achieve the same success on the L.M.S.R., whose engine-crews were to learn that their new and imposing 4-6-2s needed a good deal of 'nursing' if they were to give of their best.
There were mechanical difficulties also. It had been an error to position the outside cylinders over the trailing wheels of the bogie; there was a tendency for these cylinders to work loose, and eventually strips of metal had to be welded to the main frames in order to secure the flanges of the cylinder castings more firmly, though even then not with complete success. Again, there were fractures of the rear truck frames, which were experienced similarly with the 'Duchesses' and led to the last two of the latter being equipped with cast steel truck frames.

Another Swindon speciality, the regulator working in the superheater header (in the absence of a steam dome) was found to be troublesome, and not a few header fractures occurred. For the same reason the regulator proved to be stiff in action, so that slipping by these engines, with their relatively low ratio of adhesion, was not easy to control. In the end all the 'Princesses' were provided with steam domes, to which the regulators were transferred. All these points weighed heavily with Stanier when the designs for the 'Coronation' class were in preparation.

Powell (Living with London Midland locomotives) notes that there were mechanical weaknesses which undoubtedly lowered availability and reacted on reliability and steaming. First of all the outside cylinders, located over the trailing bogie wheels, gave a lot of trouble with loosening. The plain fact was that, because of the inside motion, the frames could have very little horizontal staying in this zone – there was only the bogie centre in front and the exhaust breeches pipe between the cylinders, the rest being simple vertical stretchers, and so a lot of racking of the frames could take place, destroying the tightness of the cylinder bolts. As soon as this happened the movement transferred itself to the exhaust channels, which loosened and often fractured – and this usually impacted on the steaming by leaking exhaust steam into the smokebox. As so often in locomotive design, the layout in this area was necessarily a compromise: one either put in a massive structure which produced a robust frame but made access to the inside motion appalling for preparation and maintenance (as on the GWR four-cylinder locomotives) or left it reasonably open for human access and suffered some flexing.

In the end, when normal shop repairs were ineffective, the decision was taken to support the cylinder bolts by welding buttress strips on to the frame plates fore and aft of the outside cylinder flanges, with fitted packings between, and this was fairly successful. Crewe applied this arrangement by keeping a spare front end frame section, complete with cylinders and stretchers and extending back to the leading coupled axle horns; when a 'Princess' came in for general repair, the front of the old frames was cut off and the replacement unit welded on.

The original regulators, in the superheater header in the smokebox, were distinctly 'heavy' to handle, and lacked sensitivity (a serious design weakness on an engine with a lot of power in relation to its adhesion.) In fact, I used to watch little Laurie Earl of Camden on occasion – ; he was about as tall as six penny-worth of coppers – when he got the rightaway' at Rugby, run across the cab and positively launch himself at the regulator handle. In addition, there was a fairly heavy mortality of headers themselves, due to fractures – and that didn't do the steaming much good, either! So all the 'Princess' boilers were converted to dome regulators in the early 1950s. To pile on the agony, there was some trouble with fracturing of the rear bissel truck frames and loose rivet attachments to the radial arm – an occurrence also not unknown on the 'Duchesses' with the similar arrangement. And even the coupled wheel centres seemed to come from a poor batch of castings – ; the Crewe Steel Foundry was notorious for the porosity and sand inclusions in its products – and spoke fractures were not infrequent.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives.1962.
The section on Stanier Pacifics is based on the same author's The Stanier Pacifics of the L.M.S. (see below).
Allen, C.J. The Stanier Pacifics of the L.M.S.. 1950.
Certain of the illustrations and diagrams contained in this work are not repeated in the later British Pacific locomotives (above).
Atkins, Philip. It had already been done!. Steam Wld, 1999, (143) 54-7.
Atkins considers that J.F. Harrison's claim made in 1961 that the A1 class achieved a mileage of 202 miles per day has not withstood close scrutiny and was probably nearer 184.9, as compared with 184.7 achieved by Duchess class. In 1936 Princess Royal Pacifics 6209 achieved 101.545 miles and 6210 108,360 miles.
Bond, R.C. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive No.6202. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 182-265. (Paper No. 458).
Pp. 208-15. The author quotes results of comparative tests, undertaken in 1936/37, between the Princess Royal Pacifies and the turbine locomotive: coal and water consumption were compared for Nos. 6212 and 6210, with No. 6202 on London to Glasgow workings with a dynamometer car:

Engine 6212 6210 6202 6202 6202
Miles 1608 1608 1608 1207 1608
Coal lbs/mile 42.90 44.98 42.4 45.15 41.6
Coal lbs/dbhph 3.22 2.977 2.97 2.855 2.78
Water gallons/mile 36.1 37.26 34.2 34.96 37.1
Water lbs/dbhph 26.90 24.67 24.00 22.11 24.80

Bond used these data to show that No. 6202 achieved a lower coal consumption of over 6% except in the case of one run by No. 6212..
Brooks, Mike. Naming the first LMS Pacifics. Rly Wld, 40, 79-82.
Proposed names for Princess Royal (including names suggested by Public Relations Dept from Longfellow's Hiawatha, such as Minnehaha), and royal alternates to the ones actually used. Stanier's involvement in livery (correspondence with H.G. Ivatt at St Rollox concerning Caledonian blue) and with style of nameplate for 6220 Coronation. Also names proposed, but not used for Claughton and Prince of Wales classes: Liver and Cook were suggested for latter.
Clay, J.F.  and Cliffe, J. The West Coast Pacifics. London: Ian Allan, 1976. 208pp
Useful summary of Princess Royal  locomotive performance both on the West Coast route.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
It is probably not an exageration to state that more boilers were designed for the Princess Royal Pacifics than for all the LNER designed Pacifics, and that sucess was not achieved until the Coronation Pacifics were introduced. Cook suggests that too much reliance was placed upon the unsatisfactory boiler fitted to Churchward's Great Bear
Crosse, J. Stanier Pacific Trials. Backtrack, 2010, 24, 147-9.
Article based upon official dynamometer car records which must have beeen dated, although is not quoted for first run. This was a test non-stop from Euston to Glasgow hauled by No. 6201 Princess Elizabeth with seven carriages (including dynamometer car) which achieved a time of 5 hours 54 minutes 12 seconds (average 68.2 mile/h; maximum 95). The minima at Shap and Beattock were 57 and 56 and two firemen were pn the footplate. The driver was T. Clarke of Crewe. The return on the next day with an extra coach was slightly faster. Both runs are included in C.J. Allen's British Pacific locomotives pp. 123-5 where the dates stated are 16 and 17 November 1936. The next run considered was the press demonstration run (see Allen) of 15 August 1933 by No. 6200 The Princess Royal when fifteen carriages were taken to just beyond Tamworth where a hot box brought the demonstration to a halt (see Allen, who was on the train, for how the press party was returned to Euston). Other runs considered were those by No. 6200 on 23 July 1933 from Crewe to Carlisle and back and by No. 6201 on 17 December 1933 over the same route. Dynamometer car records from two series of runs on service trains with No. 6209 Princess Beatrice between 29 November and 9 December 1938, and 10-20 January 1939 were run over the Crewe to Carlisle section in connection with an evaluation of lagging for superheater elements. Finally there are some details of test running with No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn on 12 and 26 February 1939 between Crewe and Glasgow and return with 600 ton trains (for latter when equipped with a double chimney see also Allen pp. 140 et seq)
Dentith, T.G. The LM.S.R. Pacific locomotives 6200-6212, the "Princess Royals". J. Stephenson Loco. Soc.. 1964, 40, 78-87. 7 illus., 2 diagrs., (s. el.), table.
A history of the class.
Earnshaw, Alan. Lines to the Citadel. Backtrack, 1997, 11, 530.
page 530 Princess Royal No 46209 Princess Beatrice (caption notes that Carlisle enginemen disliked the Brunswick green used at that time).
Evans, M. Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. London, 1961.
Ewart, Brell  and Brian Radford. Princess Margaret Rose - the first production Stanier Pacific. Platform 5.
David Jenkinson reviewed this in Backtrack, 7, 166: he called it a thoroughly enjoyable book but noted that in the lay on the cusp between history and preservation
Fore, J. Footplate impressions. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1955, 45, 31 7-21. (Paper No. 546).
The experience was gained by a graduate apprentice when firing and observing driving techniques on a number of classes including the LMS Pacifics.
While the earlier engines [Princess Royal] are still capable of heavy work, the ease with which the later series tackle the heaviest duties is very impressive. The steaming of the “Coronations” is so good that almost any method of firing will produce the desired result. Greater care, however, is required to maintain boiler pressure on the “Princess Royals.” The fire must be kept thinner than is usual on the later engines. It is notable how much easier the wide grates on these engines are to fire than the narrow fireboxes of other locomotives when working hard. A feature of the wide gate is that as much as two-thirds of the coal fired needs to be placed in and around the back corners of the firebox. The riding of both series of locomotives is very good indeed at all speeds and much superior to types without a radial truck under the footplate, the contrast being particularly marked when the engines are becoming due for works repair.

Forsyth, I.C. Discussion on R.C. Bond Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, Pp. 225-8 (3 illus.):
Described a welding repair method adopted at Crewe for fitting a pre-assembled front-end onto the Princess Royal main frames, which indicated that trouble was experienced through the cylinders working loose and fracturing. See also "Cylinder fixing with shear strips" (above).
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Milestone: "were a great success":
Hunt, David and Bob Essery and Fred James. The "Princess Royal" Pacifics. LMS Locomotive Profile Number 4.
Many detailed diagrams. Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40..
Jenkins, Terry. Sir Ernest Lemon. 2011. pp. 108-10
Lemon's private papers show his response to the initial failure on the test run and adds another dimension to the Euston to Glasgow round trip (with Lemon on the footplate on some of the journeys).
Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 1 "The Mid-day scot", L.M.S.R., London to Glasgow, Engineer, 1939, 168, 232-4. illus., table.
A Princess Royal at work as observed by a North American.
L.M. Pacifics a pictorial tribute. Hatch End (Middlesex), Roundhouse Books, 1967. 120 p. incl.. front. 136 illus., table.
Reviewed Rly Wld, 1947, 28, 312.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977
Chapter 9: A trio of high-born ladies: orginally published in Trains ill., 1958, 11, 231-9: see introduction.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 70-4.
Claas 7P-four-cylinder 4-6-2 'Princess'. This is very different from the above as it catalogues the many changes introduced in this small class, whereas Living with London Midland locomotives lists the many defects encountered in working the locomotives, yet they were so powerful that they tended to perform well in service.
Sixsmith, Ian. The book of the Princess Royal Pacifics: a British Railways Illustrated special. Clophill: Irwell Press, 2000. 96pp.
The turbine locomotive (Turbomotive has its own chapter, which includes a brief reference to Priness Anne). Essentially a picture book which includes some interesting photographs, but the standard of presentation often fails to make the most of the pictorial content relating to the locomotive. The  scrappy "bibliography" includes the phrase "and various issues of all sorts of magazines" presumably compacted in Compactus shelving.
Stanier, W.A. Recent developments in locomotive design. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1936, 26, 553-94 + folding plate. 21 illus., 8 diagrs., (Presidential Address). .
Makes specific reference (with diagram) to the valve gear (outside) fitted to LMS Pacific No. 6203 with its needle pin roller bearings
Tee, D.F. Notable recent L.M.R. withdrawals. Rly Obsr, 1963, 33, 36-7.
Locomotive "Obituary"
Thorley, W.G.F.. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 698.(Paper No. 528).
"The first two" Princess" class Pacific locomotives of the former LMS Railway had 32-element superheaters fitted in place of the original 16-element apparatus after only a short period of service, and the steaming was improved thereby. Tuplin had said in the discussion that the firebox volume was increased at the same time as the additional superheating surface was provided and therefore the value of the latter could not be assessed accurately, but in this connection it was pointed out that the number of elements had been increased without increase of firebox volume in both the Classes 5 MT and 5 XP locomotives of the same railway, as compared with the original arrangement and the steaming had been improved. The superheater had the advantage that, provided the flue tubes were kept reasonably clean, its efficiency remained unimpaired as the boiler scaled up internally; also it was sometimes able to evaporate water during periods of priming, which would be carried over into the cylinders of a saturated engine..
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1937, 27, 688-725. Disc.: 726-63. (Paper No. 378).
Includes an analysis of the "Princess Royal" design of boiler.
Wheeler, Geoffrey. Fired by steam. London: John Murray, 1987.
Includes plate of an attractive side elevation coloured painting of No. 6201 Princess Elizabeth in LMS red in near original condition

Turbine locomotive ("Turbomotive") 1935:
Most experimental designs have tended to be surrounded by secrecy (e.g. the Fowler high-pressure locomotive 6170 Fury) and test results have not been published. Frequently little has published until long after the locomotive has disappeared. The LMS treated their turbine locomotive project very differently, however. Firstly, the contemporary descriptions were detailed and secondly Bond's Paper is, using Holcroft's phrases from the discussion, "a very full and frank account". Dr H.L. Guy (later Sir Henry) of Metropolitan Vickers was associated with the design of the turbines. The locomotive was based on the Princess Royal design, but two turbines (one for forward running and a smaller unit for reversing) replaced the reciprocating engine. Contrary to most turbine experiments a condenser was not fitted. Bond, in his book made it very clear that the term Turbomotive was greatly deprecated. Roller bearings were used on the locomotive.

Under British Railways the locomotive was rebuilt as a reciprocating engine and named Princess Anne.

4-6-2 turbine express locomotive, L.M. & S.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 202-4. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.).
4-6-2 type turbine locomotive; London, Midland and Scottish Railway. Engineering, 1935, 140, 10-12.5 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
The L.M.S.R. turbine locomotive: details of the roller bearing axleboxes. Rly Gaz. 1935, 63, 197-8. illus.
The L.M.S. turbine locomotive. Engineer, 1935, 160, 12; 14-16.7 illus., 4 diagr. (incl. s. & f. els.)
Erratum p. 256.
NEW turbine-driven 4-6-2 express locomotilie, L.M.S.R. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 1251-60 + folding plate. 15 illus., 9 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
A REMARKABLE L.M.S.R. locomotive: No. 6202 – a turbine propelled Pacific. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 87-8; 108. 2 illus., digar. (s. el.).

Roller bearings

TAPERED roller bearings on the L.M.S.R. Turbomotive: absence of wear after 250,000 miles in service. Rly Gaz., 1944, 81, 282. 2 illus.
TAPER-ROLLER bearings of the L.M.S.R. turbine locomotive. Engineering, 1944, 158, 128; 130.4 illus.
TIMKEN hearings on the London, Midland and Scottish Railway turbine locomotive. Engineering, 1935,140, 524-6; 552-3. 6 illus., 9 diagrs.

Retrospective and critical:
With the exception of some of the footplate commentaries the entries listed below add little to R.C. Bond's monumental account, which serves to illustrate the gap that exists between professional and amateur assessments.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives.1962.
The section on Stanier Pacifics is based on the same author's The Stanier Pacifics of the L.M.S. (see below).
Allen, C.J. The Stanier Pacifics of the L.M.S.. 1950.
Certain of the illustrations and diagrams contained in this work are not repeated in the later British Pacific locomotives (above).
Allen, C.J. Lone locomotives. Trains Ann., 1956, 67-79; 82-4. 25 illus.
Baker, Allan C. . It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 637.
The photograph captions are misleading where they refer to the casing on the left-hand footplate housing the forward turbine. It is the casings below the footplating that housed the turbines. On the left-hand side where the forward turbine was located, the circular aperture seen in the casing is the cover over the main turbine's outer bearing. The author is incorrect in claiming that the reverse turbine drove via a separate gear train – it did not. There was. however, an additional reduction gear between that turbine and the main drive chain, the latter serving both turbines. This was in view of both the smaller power output of this turbine and the lower speeds required for the locomotive in reverse. There was an interlocking arrangement to ensure that steam could not be applied to the forward turbine, once the reverse one was engaged, via the dog-clutch arrangement the author mentions. Unlike forward running, in reverse drivers were instructed to open all three of the steam valves and drive the locomotive on the main regulator. The final drive ratio for the forward turbine was 34.4 to 1 and the reverse 77 to 1. The forward turbine had sixteen stages, a combination of velocity compounding, impulse and reaction stages while the reverse one was an straight forward impluse turbine. The reverse turbine gave a lot of trouble in the engine's early days and there were several failures. Between September 1935 and May the following year several modifications were undertaken and in view of complaints about the engine's difficulty in, for example, propelling its empty train out of the platforms at Euston and up Camden bank, its power output was increased. One can hardly liken the oil provision in the turbine gear drive casing with the Bulleid Pacifies' inside chain driven Walschaerts valve gear, as any turbine driving through a gear train will have such an arrangement, as indeed will any gearbox – just like a car! Mention is made that the boiler produced steam at a maximum of 250psi and a temperature of 650° This is not strictly correct as the laws of thermodynamics are such that steam pressure and temperature are directly linked, such that at 250psi the temperature would be 402.6° F. It was the superheater that increased the temperature. The same laws tell us that it is impossible to raise the temperature of steam above a predetermined level unless it is removed from its source – water. Likewise, it is impossible to increase its pressure once it has been removed from its source. Superheaters, while raising the temperature of steam, will also see a drop in its pressure. With the later 40 element triple flow superheater, the average temperature when the engine was working hard was around 680°F.
The term rapidly whirling components in connection with the running gear is hardly a suitable engineering term and mention that the design of the engine all but eliminated hammer blow is incorrect. It is the out of balance forces in the wheel sets when balancing of the reciprocating parts that causes hammer blow on the track and with no reciprocating parts and therefore none to balance, this locomotive delivered no hammer blow on the rails at all.
Incidentally, during my apprenticeship at Crewe North MPD I worked with several fitters who had been involved with the locomotive in one way or another. I never once heard it referred to as 'The Turbomotive'; they always referred to its as either 'The Turbine' and just 'The Turbo'. This led me to believe that the term 'Turbomotive' was one used predominantly in enthusiast, rather than professional, circles. It was the practice for a fitter to travel with the engine at all times. There were several reasons for this, not least that if there were perturbations in the service for whatever reason and the crew had to be relieved, there was the possibility of untrained men having to be used. There was also the need to keep the oil circulating pump for the turbine running after the engine had arrived on the shed to allow for the oil to cool down. Fitters were not subject to such strict hours of duty as footplatemen! ,One of the fitters I worked with, Tiggy Brearton (I never did know his Christian name, but he was always known as Tiggy!), although a Crewe man where the engine was never allocated, was one of a few men trained at other depots on the engine's regular route, to be available to cover any out of course eventualities, annual leave, sickness and the like. He told me his most outstanding memory was the oil consumption of the forward turbine and gear case and the need to top it up at the end of each journey and for this reason a supply of the correct grade of oil was kept on the footplate. Photographs do exist showing this process being undertaken while the engine was standing at Euston and Liverpool Lime Street!
Incidentally, the Ljungstrom-type turbine locomotive to which the author refers operated by the LMS on the Midland main line in 1926-1927 (not 1928 as the author states), was a private venture between the Swedish manufacturer of the turbine and the Manchester-based locomotive builder Beyer, Peacock & Co. The LMS did no more than provide on-line testing facilities although the locomotive did haul revenue-earning trains.

Bond, R.C. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive, No.6202. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 182-230. Disc.: 231-65 (Paper No. 458).
Every facet is covered in detail from the basis of the design to test running including some of the difficulties experienced in operating an unconventional locomotive in service. Pp. 231-3: Sir William Stanier modestly explained how Dr. Guy of Metropolitan Vickers had approached him indicating the possible advantages of the Ljunstrom turbine and of how they had visited Sweden to inspect locomotives of this type. Coal and water consumption see above or with paper. Long abstract in Locomotive Mag. 1946, 52, 187-9 and Editorial (page 177) in same issue.
Clarke, John. West Coast engineman: Driver W.T. Starvis of Camden. Steam Wld, 1996 (110). 16-21.
Includes notes on Turbomotive (smooth riding but heavy on coal),
Clay, J.F.  and Cliffe, J. The West Coast Pacifics. London: Ian Allan, 1976. 208pp
Brief account in Chapter 5 entitled "The turbine experiment" which includes an excellent simplified diagram on page 53 of the location of the turbine and its drive.
Cliffe, Joseph. It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 637.
Writer who knew Stanier when he was chairman of Power Jets Ltd., told him that he strongly believed that the 'Turbomotive' was the way forward and he would have built 50 more of them given the chance and reorganised Crewe Works to deal with the turbine repairs. The steam turbine could take full advantage of higher pressures and temperatures without the condensation losses inherent in reciprocating drives and were superior to compounding and poppet valves in this respect. One secret of the LMS 'Turbomotive' was in having a 15 stage reaction turbine, with high efficiency over a wide speed range. Other turbine locomotives had used impulse turbines with a limited speed range, including the later PRR 6-8-6 locomotive No.6200, which proved to have a very high steam consumption at low speeds with a Westinghouse 5 stage impulse turbine.
A future 'Turbomotive' would not have had a reverse turbine, the Achilles heel of turbine locomotives; instead a reversing shaft, with synchronised splined coupling to engage reverse gear with the main turbine, would have been adopted. Thus full power in reverse would have been available. This is similar to that fitted to the later GT3 gas turbine locomotive. Much of its drive gear was otherwise based on that of No. 6202. Large diameter coupled wheels are not necessary with a geared turbine drive and no more than 5ft wheels would suffice as an eight- or ten-coupled locomotive. Additionally it would have had perfect balancing with no hammer blow.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
Understandably a considerable amount of effort was required to get the boiler right for this unusual locomotive.
Cullen, David . It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 402-6.
Includes Princess Anne and its replacement No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester
Earl, Lawrence A. Engines I have driven. Trains Ann., 1948, 81-9.
We used to get the "Turbo" on this trip [the Liverpool turn], and what a lovely engine she is! Not so much science about the driving, perhaps—turning the valves on and off one by one instead of the careful adjusting of regulator and cut-off to suit every change of the — but for continuous strength and speed there is not another engine in her class to touch her. Once in the late 1930's the "Turbo" was tried for a week between Euston and Glasgow on the "Royal Scot" and Fireman D. Wright and I were the crew chosen to man her to and from Carlisle. There can't have been much wrong with his firing, because one day we climbed the 31½ miles from Carlisle up to the top of Shap Summit, 915 feet above the sea, in no more than 36 minutes, and with a train of 530 tons behind us.
Ellison, J.H. Experimental locomotives. 4 – The L.M.S. turbine driven 4-6-2 locomotive No. 6202. Rly Obsr, 1942, 14, 46-8. illus., (line drawing: s. el.)
Evans, M. Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. London, 1961.
Flower, G.J. On the footplate of No. 46202. Rly Mag., 1949, 95, 394-6. illus.
Langridge, E.A. Under ten CMEs. 2011. pp. 175-7.
Langridge's involvement in the boiler design which introduced a combustion chamber.
Livesay, E.H. On the Turbomotive's footplate. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46, 118-21. 3 illus.
Both of the above were recorded by passive olservers. Livesay's article formed part of a series which observed British locomotives at work through North American eyes.
L.M. Pacifics: a pictorial, tribute. Hatch End (Middlesex), Roundhouse Books, 1967. 120 p. incl.. front. 136 illus., table.
Reviewed Rly Wld, 1947, 28, 312.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp: 75-9.
Chapter entitled Class 7P-turbine-driven 4-6-2: This includes 46202 Princess Anne.
Ransome-Wallis, P. Unconventional forms of motive power in:, Ransome-Wallis, P. The concise encyclopaedia of world railway locomotives. 1959.
Pp. 461-77 (Chap. 9): Includes the "Turbomotive".
Stanier, W.A. The position of the locomotive in mechanical engineering. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1941, 146, 50-61 + 4 plates. 13 illus., diagr., 3 tables. (Presidential Address).
Gives details of dynamometer car test beteen Euston and Glasgow.
Stanier, W.A. Recent developments in locomotive design. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1936, 26, 553-94 + folding plate. 21 illus., 8 diagrs., (Presidential Address). .
Uses the term Turbomotive in the paper which he was alleged "not to like".
Stanier, W.A. [Discussion on] Webber, A.F. Paper No. 378). The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. Disc.: 726-63.
"The Author [Webber] has referred to smokebox vacuum. It may be of interest to mention that the vacuum in the smokebox of the L.M.S. turbine locomotive with one nozzle open is just over 1 in. of water, and with two nozzles it is 2 in., so that with the maximum number of nozzles open it is 6 in.. The engine steams quite well on the fast trains between Liverpool and Euston of something like 500 tons weight. It seems to me that that is a comparatively low vacuum in the smokebox for a big boiler, when account is taken of the vacuum which the French engines are obtaining with the Kylchap blast pipe, and one of the investigations which I think that every locomotive superintendent within my memory has carried out is an investigation to endeavour to improve the vacuum in the smakebax withaut increasing, and in fact decreasing, the back pressure in the cylinders.
Stanier, W.A. Discussion on Dymond, A.W.J. Operating experience with two gas turbine locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 292-3. (Paper No. 521)
A point of interest was that the Western Region seemed to be able to arrange, when they had experimental units, to confine the working of them to a comparatively small number of men. On the LMS there had been a steam turbine locomotive, and, although he had asked the operating side to keep it to two or three sets of men, it had in fact been worked by twenty in turn. It was impossible to run an experimental engine in that way, and he thought that the Western Region were very fortunate in that respect.
Tufnell, Robert Prototype locomotives. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1985. 112pp.
Chapter 7: No. 6202 was thermally a sucess story.
Waterhouse, E.S.. A footplate ride on L.M.S.R. turbine engine No. 6202. . Rly. Mag., 1943, 89, 303-4.
"no sharp beat of the exhaust, just a hum to break the silence as we gilded out". Describes trip from Euston to Liverpool and a return on streamliner 6243 City of Lancaster: thought return journey much dirtier.

7P: later (8P) "Princess Coronation": 1937-:
There seems to be some confusion as to the correct nomenclature for this class variously referred to as the Princess Coronation, Coronation, Coronation Scot, Duchess and City class. If the A4 class may be considered as the ultimate development of the steam locomotive in terms of speed, then this class marks the British apex in terms of power output. During tests with a 600-ton train a drawbar horsepower of 2,511 was recorded, or a derived figure of 3,333 horsepower at the cylinders. Further, for a brief period Coronation held the British speed record of 114 mile/h. The story of this high speed run is told with great gusto in R.A. Riddles' paper and rather more cautiously by C.J. Allen on a number of occasions.
Some of the locomotives were built with streamlined casings. The aerodynamic studies, which led up to the design used, have been described in .W. Peacock's "Railway wind tunnel work". The streamlined engines were painted in a livery of royal blue, with silver horizontal stripes which met at a point on the smokebox. Later this was changed to LMS red with gold bands (a magnificent apparition)..
Some very extensive contemporary descriptions were published, but it should be noted that a proportion of this material may refer to the special rolling stock for the Coronation Scot train.
One locomotive was shipped to the United States for the New York World's Fair. This is described by R.A. Riddles and by F.C. Bishop. The former was in charge of the arrangements, whilst the latter was the engine driver who accompanied the locomotive and caught pneumonia.

Streamlined series
The "CORONATION Scot" Express. L.M.S. Railway. Engineering, 1937, 143, 663-5. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.), plan.
The accent is on the rolling stock for the train.
The CORONATION Scot, L.M.S.R. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 1019-30 + folding plate. 19 illus., 4 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), 2 plans.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
The CORONATION Scot, L.M.S.R., Rly Mag., 1937, 81, 39-42. 4 illus.
4-6-2 stream-lined express locomotive "Coronation", L.M.S.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 168-71. - illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
4-6-2 type "Coronation" class locomotive; London, Midland and Scottish Railway. Engineering, 1937, 144, 8; 70-2 + plate (between pp.8 & 9). 5 diagrs., table, 2 plans.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
4-6-2 type locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69, 248-9. 2 illus..2 diagrs. (s.els.)
Comparison of streamlined and non-streamlined types.
MACHINING a locomotive detail : milling and boring operations on roller bearing rocker arms for valve motion of L.M.S.R. "Princess Coronation" locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69, 328-30. 4 illus., diagr.
The METALLURGY of a high-speed locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 303-11; 366-70 + folding plate. 8 illus., 11 diagrs., 4 tables, plan.
NEW 4-6-2 type express locomotives, L.M.S.R.: streamlined and non-streamlined types based on the successful "Princess Coronation" class. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 1118-19. 2 illus.
NEW L.MS. "Coronation" locomotives. Engineer, 1937, 164, 78-80 + supplement. illus., 5 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
TENDER of L.M.S. "Coronation" class locomotive. Engineer, 1939, 168, 466. 3diagrs., plan.
The steam coal-pushers fitted to this class were a unique feature in the British Isles.

1938 non-streamlined series.

4-6-2 type locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69. 248-9. 2 illus.. 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
GENERAL and front end views of new non-streamlined 4-6-2 type express locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 1203.2 illus.
NEW 4-6-2 express locos., L.M.S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 234. illus., diagr. (s. & f.els)
NEW 4-6-2 type express locomotives, L.M.S.R.: streamlined and non- streamlined types based on the successful "Princess Coronation" class. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 1118-19. 2 illus.
NEW 4-6-2 type express passenger locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1938, 83, 141-2; 101.  2 illus.
SECTIONED perspective view of locomotive front end a notable drawing of L.M.S.R. class "7P" 4-6-2 locomotive of the latest type. Rly Gaz., 1945, 82, 596 + folding plate. illus., diagr.
The type of illustrative material more usually associated with motor-cars and aircraft.

Le Fleming, H.M. International locomotives. Plate 86
Painting of No. 6230 in post-WW2 black livery

1939: Locomotive and train sent to the New York World's Fair. See also R.A. Riddles and F.C. Bishop

"The CORONATION Scot" [for the] New York World's Fair, 1939. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1939, 45, 35-9. 7 illus., plan.
DEPARTURE of the Coronation Scot train for America. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 191.
GOODWILL whistle for the Coronation Scot train. Rly Mag., 1939, 84, 232.
Model Railroader presented an engraved American whistle for use on the tour.
NEW Coronation Scot train for U.S.A. visit. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 51-8.10 illus., diagr. (s.el.), plan.

Essery, R.J. and Harris, N. LMS reflections: a collection of photographs from the Hulton Picture Company. 1986.
Contains several pictures of locomotive "6220" with bell and headlight and of Driver F.C. Bishop and Fireman J. McKinnon Carswell whilst on exhibition at Euston prior to trip (page 55). There are also several pictures of locomotive being loaded onto vessel, and some of it in USA.

Performance and testing
29 June 1937:
High speed run from London to Crewe and back:114 mile/h near Crewe. See also R.A. Riddles .

Allen, C.J. The new L.M.S. and L.N.E.speed records: trial runs of the Coronation Scot and the Coronation. Rly Mag., 1937, 81, 110-16 +. 2 illus., 2 diagrs., 6 tables.
RECORD trial run of the "Coronation Scot" train, LM. & S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 202-3. illus.
TEST runs of "Coronation trains. Engineer, 1937, 164, 39-41.4 illus., 4 tables.

Essery, R.J. and Harris, N. LMS reflections: a collection of photographs from the Hulton Picture Company. 1986.
Contains several interesting pictures: notably on page 32 of  Stanier congratulating Driver T.J. Clarke and Fireman J. Lew on their return to Euston.

1938 : The L.M.S. ran a special light train from Euston to Glasgow on 8 June 1938 for the Locomotive Engineers. The dynamometer car was attached and the whole run was analysed by Cox. The locomotive was 6225 Duchess of Gloucester.

Cox, E.S. Run to Glasgow, June 8th. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1938, 28, 574-81

6 February 1939 : 600-ton test train: Crewe to Glasgow and back in the same day with . 6234 Duchess of Abercorn.

LOCOMOTIVE tests on the L.M.S.R. remarkable power output and other results obtained with a 600 ton train between Crewe and Glasgow and return. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 615-17 + folding plate. 2 diagrs. (incl. s. els.) 2 tables.
The L.M.S.R. locomotive test runs: a comment on the coal and water consumption. Rly. Gaz., 1939, 70, 687.
The L.M.S.R. locomotive test runs : a correspondent comments on the relation ship between coal consumption lb. per d.b.h.p./hr. and train load for a given timing. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 815-16. 2 diagrs.

1948 : British Railways inter-Regional trials.
Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. . [1950].
This edition includes an analysis of the unpublished British Railways official results.

1955 : 46225 Duchess of Gloucester was tested at Rugby and on the Ais Gill route. Results do not appear to have been published except via communications from R.C. Bond to O.S. Nock.

Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1959, 105, 114-20. 6 tables.
Some very brief results and a comparison with the 1939 test run.
Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag.. 1962, 108, 556-62. 9 tables.
A table compiled from the dynamometer car diagrams of a southbound test run on the Ais Gill route with a 900-ton (equivalent) test train.

May 1955: 46237 City of Bristol was sent to the Western Region for comparative tests with the modernized King class. Nock's record is of one dynamometer run on which he was permitted to travel. Clay and Cliffe also mention these trials.

A "DUCHESS" on the W.R.. Trains ill., 1955, 8, 223.
A record of the event and nothing more.
Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1959. 105, 335-41+. 4 tables.
Nock, O.S.  The "Cornish Riviera" trials. Rly Wld, 1955, 16, 145.

7P (later 8P) "Princess Coronation" 1947: Ivatt
Ivatt modified this Stanier design by the addition of roller bearings, rocking grates, an increase in superheating surface, self cleaning smokeboxes and a new frame arrangement at the rear end. Two locomotives of this type were built: one of which No. 46256 was named Sir William Stanier, F.R.S. and thr other 46257 City of Salford. One of the more interesting aspects of these two locomotives is that they were constructed to act as comparative motive power for the two diesel electric locomotives Nos. 10000 and 10001. KPJ seemed to have failed to identify any contemporary accounts either of the initial performance of these locomotives which is mentioned by Norman Harvey in Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 309; or on the actual naming ceremonies of either locomotive. Philip Atkins (Some thoughts on the proposed LMS 4-6-4) LMS Journal, 2009 (25) 78-80. notes that No. 6257 weighed 112.5 tons.

LONDON, Midland and Scottish Railway: diesel-electric locomotive No. 10,000 and 4-6-2 locomotive No. 6256. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1948, 24, 18-19. 2 illus.
Originally the two Pacifics and the two diesel electrics No. 10000 and 10001 were perceived as being in "competition".
L.M.S.R. 4-6-2 "Coronation type locomotive "Sir William A. Stanier, F.R.S.". Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 20. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
L.M.S. 4-6-2 engine No. 6256 "Sir William Stanier, F.R.S.". Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 24. illus.
L.M.S. 4-6-2 engine No. 6256 Sir William Stanier, F.R.S. Railways, 1948, 9, 57. illus.
NEW British steam locomotive designs. Trains ill., 1948, 1, (9), 3-7. 6 illus., table.
ROLLER bearing crankaxle. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 124. diagr.
ROLLER bearings for locomotive crank axles. Rly Gaz., 1948, 89, 240-1. illus., diagr. (REA 3026)

Accidents
Several of the class experienced severe boiler explosions, mainly due to the failure of footplate crews to keep the firebox crown covered: see Bond Lifetime with locomotives, Hewison and Webb.

Performance (general)
Ransome-Wallis, P. On railways at home an abroad. London: Batchworth, 1951. 300 pp. + plates. 102 illus., maps.
Pp. 93-103: Footplate observations made on No. 6256 Sir William Stanier, F.R.S. between London Euston and Carlisle on the down Mid-Day Scot.

Retrospective and critical

Powell notes that Stanier had to produce a bigger boiler and then adapt the 'Princess' chassis to carry it. Bigger grate, bigger firebox volume, bigger free gas area, bigger barrel, bigger superheater — all these were incorporated in that delightful boiler. It was pushed upward so that the front corners of the Belpaire firebox were up to the limit of the loading gauge, just enabling 6ft 9in wheels to be accommodated underneath it. (Incidentally, what was it so magical about 6ft 9in diameter coupled wheels for express passenger engines in this country?). The cylinder layout was altered back to a conventional one, but retaining the divided drive, thus enabling rocking levers to be fitted behind the cylinders and avoiding valve setting troubles due to thermal expansion. It enabled the steam and exhaust passages to be better steamlined internally, and the crew's access for preparation between the frames to be made more congenial. The reference by Langridge in a relatively obscure publication is especially important as it outlines the way in which the class was designed.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives.1962.
Allen, C.J. The Stanier Pacifics of the L.M.S.. 1950.
The text of the later work by C.J. Allen where relating to the Stanier Pacifics is a slightly up-dated version of the earlier work. The diagrams in the earlier work are not repeated, however.
Atkins, Philip. New boilers for old... Steamwld, 2003, (194) 8-14.
Some locomotives were built with secondhand boilers and a few classes were built around secondhand boilers, Duchess Pacifics 6245/7-8 were constructed in 1943 with secondhand boilers.
Bishop, F.C. Queen Mary of the iron road, as told to M.C.D.Wilson and A.S.L. Robinson. 1946.
A "ghosted" autobiography of Driver Bishop, the driver who accompanied the Coronation Scot to the New York World's Fair.
Blakemore, Michael and Michael Rutherford. Duchess of Hamilton: ultimate in Pacific power.
Although superficially about one locomotive this work describes the whole class. Some of the illustrations are unusual: notably the poster Crewe Works by Rethi showing a streamlined (blue) locomotive under construction and an architect's impression of a maroon streamlined Pacific on the rollers at the Rugby Testing Plant and a proposed streamlined version of the Princess Royal type.
Bolton, John. The derfinitive 'Duchess' [letter]. Modellers Backtrack, 1993/4, 3, 278
Writer had worked in Crewe Works and had encountered Arthur Edleston at Derby who had sketched out a non-streamlined Duchess and called it Lady Godiva.
Bond, R.C. Lifetime with locomotives. 1975. p. 136
Comment on the state of No. 6224 following the boiler explosion on 10 September 1940 in which the streamlined doors were blown forward of the train and the tender was as if had been sandblasted.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175. 216-65. (Paper No. 520).
Includes figures for the mileage obtained between overhauls for the class: 73,188.
Bond, R.C. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive No.6202. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 182-265. (Paper No. 458).
Page 187 : the author quotes hammer blow figures for the Duchess class: at 72 mile/h 3.47 tons per rail (whole engine: .24)..
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 3.85p and boiler repair costs (1.12p) and coal consumption per train mile (43.9 lb) for 1955. Original source not quoted.
Broadbent, William Benedict as told via Edward Talbot. The road to Holyhead. Part Two. Backtrack, 2011, 25, 598-603.
Broadbent had the unpleasant task of interviewing the driver of a Duchess Pacific which had slipped so badly at Lichfield that the rails had to be replaced. Broadbent considered that priming had made the regulator impossible to close.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Railway rolling stock and tendencies in design. Engineering, 1949, 167, 68-71; 94-5; 60. 13 illus., 4 diagrs. (s. els.), 5 tables.
Includes a comparison of the 1947 design with the Peppercorn A2, Gresley Al and H.A. Ivan's Atlantics.
Cameron, K.R.M. via Rogers, H.C.B. Thompson & Peppercorn. 1979. p. 52 and 150
Although an LMS man Cameron could see little difference between the Duchess class and the A4 or Peppercorn A1 classes, but he did note that when a West Coast sleeping car train was diverted over the Waverley route the St Margaret's driver found the Duchess a wonderful locomotive to drive...
Clarke, John. West Coast engineman: Driver W.T. Starvis of Camden. Steam Wld, 1996 (110). 16-21.
Notes rough riding of No. 6257 and sparks seen coming from bogie when travelling at speed
Clay, J.F. The big red engines. J.Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1961, 37, 358-64. 4 illus.
Clay, J.F.  and Cliffe, J. The West Coast Pacifics. London: Ian Allan, 1976. 208pp
Useful summary of Duchess locomotive performance both on the West Coast route and on other routes, especially during the Locomotive exchanges of 1948. Includes brief mention of the loan of 46237 City of Bristol to the Western Region in May 1955 and very bare deetails of further loans in January 1956.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
The Duchess (Coronation) class boilers were superb producers of steam and led to some of the highest power outputs attained in Britain. Cook also notes the high number (three) of boiler explosions associated with the class which can be attributed partly to the lack of training given to those expected to handle such large locomotives and partly to detail: the water gauges were greatly inferior to those used on the LNER. KPJ suspects that the class was also prone to blow-backs, but has no statistical evidence. Table 50 (page 217) quotes the cost of classified boiler repairs on a comparitive basis in pence per mile: 2.7 pence/mile for a Duchess as against 0.8 for an A4 and 0.6 for a Merchant Navy..
Cox, E.S. Chronicles of steam. 1967.
Increased steam temperature was also proposed, a maximum of 750 F being the goal instead of the 600-620 F. then usual. It was intended to achieve this by use of the French 'Houlet' superheater, in which a special arrangement of the elements permitted twice the superheater heating surface for a given cross-sectional area for the passage of steamf and for a given total free area for the hot gases through the large tubes. A further refinement was physically to separate the superheated from the saturated parts of the superheater header in the smoke box so as to minimise heat transfer from the hotter to the cooler steam. Finally, to counter-balance any loss of capacity in the sheer ability to boil water which these arrangements might incur, and to boost the evaporative capacity of the boiler, thermic syphons in the firebox were suggested. On the basis of this study serious proposals were initiated, and actually authorised in 1939 for two experimental 'Coronation' 4-6-2 engines to be built, identical in outwards appearance with the existing engines but embodying all of the above ideas plus a working pressure of 300 psi, and even further improvement in the proportions of steam ports and passages. The four cylinders were to be 15in dia. x 28instroke, and a steel firebox was to be provided for the accommodation of the thermic syphons. It is to be noted at this stage that all of these improvements were aimed in the direction of thermal efficiency and power output, and that no changes in mechanical matters were included.
Crosse, J. Stanier Pacific Trials. Backtrack, 2010, 24, 147-9.
Mainly about dynamometer car records for Princess type, but also includes some details of test running with No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn on 12 and 26 February 1939 between Crewe and Glasgow and return with 600 ton trains (for latter when equipped with a double chimney see also Allen pp. 140 et seq)
Doherty, Douglas The LMS Duchesses. Hemel Hempstead: Model and Allied Publications, 1973. 89pp + folding diagram.
Contents: Introduction by editor; The LMS Duchesses — their design and construction by E.A. Langridge; The LMS Duchesses — a performance evaluation by John Powell; The LMS Duchesses — a driver reminisces by Peter Johnson; The LMS Duchesses — a critical appreciation by W.A. Tuplin. General arrangement diagrams, numbers, names, etc, poorly printed photographs.
The DUCHESSES—valete. Rly Obsr, 1964, 34, 340-4. table.
Dunn, J.M. Reflections of a railway career. 1966.
A few days after this I had a conversation with Daniel Drury, one of the Crewe locomotive inspectors, who told me of his experiences with the L.M.S. Pacific No. 46236 City of Bradford on the G.W.R. during the Locomotive Exchange Trials of 1948 and what he said corroborated a good deal of what my Paddington friend had told me the previous week. He said he was with No. 46236 all the time she was on the G.W. and that when he arrived at Old Oak Common from Camden on the first day of the test week, the G.W. man in charge of the dynamometer car asked how much coal he wanted put on the tender. Drury said he thought for a moment and replied 3 tons 10 cwt. whereupon "G.W." asked if he knew how far he was going and what his load was to be. Drury answered that he knew both and that he also knew what his engine would do. To this "G.W." replied "Well, you may know your engine but I know my railway and I am not going to risk you running short of coal and blocking the line"! At that Drury walked away and before they left Old Oak Common for Paddington he found that 5 tons 14 cwt. had been put on the tender. The distance from Paddington to Plymouth was 225½ miles and the load 500 tons to Newton Abbot and 375 tons forward to Plymouth. When they arrived there "G.W." came to the engine to see how much coal was left on the tender and when the bags were counted there was 1 ton 17 cwt. "G W." then held out his hand to Drury, said it was an outstanding performance and that he would take back all he had said. No. 46236 had burned 3 tons 17 cwt. of Kirkby (Yorkshire) coal. Evans, M. Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. London, 1961.
Fore, J. Footplate impressions. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1955, 45, 31 7-21. (Paper No. 546).
The experience was gained by a graduate apprentice when firing and observing driving techniques on a number of classes including the LMS Pacifics.
While the earlier engines [Princess Royal] are still capable of heavy work, the ease with which the later series tackle the heaviest duties is very impressive. The steaming of the “Coronations” is so good that almost any method of firing will produce the desired result. Greater care, however, is required to maintain boiler pressure on the “Princess Royals.” The fire must be kept thinner than is usual on the later engines. It is notable how much easier the wide grates on these engines are to fire than the narrow fireboxes of other locomotives when working hard. A feature of the wide gate is that as much as two-thirds of the coal fired needs to be placed in and around the back corners of the firebox. The riding of both series of locomotives is very good indeed at all speeds and much superior to types without a radial truck under the footplate, the contrast being particularly marked when the engines are becoming due for works repair.

Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Milestone: "the 'Duchesses' were a huge success":
Hewison, Christian H. Locomotive boiler explosions. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1983.
Noting the severe boiler explosion at Lamington on 7 March 1948 due to a defective water gauge: "On the whole the suitability of the LMS design was most questionable". Also considers serious accident on 10 September 1940 when No. 6224 suffered a collapse ofv the direbox crown due to the inexperience of the footplate crew (who died at or following the exoplosion) just beyond Craigenhill summit: J.L.M. Moore wsa the accident inspector.
Jenkins, Terry. Sir Ernest Lemon. 2011. pp. 108-10
Lemon's private papers show his response to the precipitate arrival at Crewe on the press run.
The author limited his approach to externals, especially liveries. Further he admits any uncertainties in his knowledge. A much fuller account appeared in Modellers' Backtrack (still to be indexed).
Jenkinson, D. The "Coronation" Pacifics. Rly Wld, 1966, 27, 146-51; 188-92. 21 illus., 4 tables.
Jenkinson, David. The definitive 'Duchess'. Part 1. Modellers' Backtrack, 1993, 3, 172-86.
Includes model making drawings by Russell Carter, LMS official general arrangement drawings (side elevations, sections and plan) and many photographs which depict detail from many angles (including above and from the front and there is an especially good illlustration from the rear of ther streamlined tender fitted to No. 6225 at Perth in 1939). Part 1 is devoted to the streamlined locomotives and the original non-streamlined engines without smoke deflectors and with single chimneys. Details of liveries carried, de-streamlining and fitting with double chimneys are tabulated.
Jenkinson, David. The definitive Duchess. Part Two. (drawings by Russell Carter). Modellers' Backtrack, 1993/4, 3, 243-56.
Mainly prototype: post WW2 developments. 3 side elevations (plus relevant front and rear) (3.5mm=1ft). Table lists dates when de-streamlined/or built, when fitted with double chimney; smoke deflectors; smokebox restored to normal; original livery; and date scrapped. Another tabulates the various "BR" liveries carried. There are several colour illustrations including one in BR blue and many in BR Midland red.
Johnson, Martin. An introduction to steam locomotive testing [letter]. Backtrack, 2009, 23, 702.
Response to series of articles on locomotive testing Notes that indicator diagrams taken at high speed suffer from overrun.. Considers that multiple sets of valve gear as fitted to A1 Tornado produce far more even exhaust beat than any form of derived gear whether as adopted at Swindon for Castles and Kings, by Stanier on the Duchess class, or by Gresley.
Johnson, Peter. The LMS Duchesses- a driver reminisces in Doherty.
Writer was driver at Crewe North and describes routine runs northwards as far as Glasgow, some of which were of mediocre quality due to the condition of the locomotives in the 1960s. He also describes a run from Shrewsbury to Paddington on an enthusiast special.
Langridge, E.A. The LMS Duchesses — their design and construction in Doherty.
This is a very important source as Langridge was a part of the team of draughtsman who worked under T.F. Coleman at Derby to produce the design. He gave the names of other members of the team, and the reasons why certain procedures were adopted, and the influences from other designs.
Langridge, E.A. Under ten CMEs. 2011. pp. 191 et seq
Claimed to be responsible for in-line cylinder layout (following from LSWR Drummond Paddleboxes) and for some of the detail in the boiler design.
Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No.8— The "Coronation Scot", L.M.S.R. — Glasgow to London. Engineer, 1939, 168, 467-9; 486-7.2 illus., diagr.
Observations made from the footplate, partly comparative with North American experience.
L.M. Pacifics : a pictorial tribute. Hatch End (Middlesex), Roundhouse Books, 1967. 120 p. incl. front. 136 illus., table.
Reviewed Rly Wld, 1947, 28, 312.
Page, A.H.C.  The heat treatment of metals in connection with locomotive and carriage and wagon building. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1939, 29, 199-258. (Paper No. 399)
Includes alloy steels used in the Duchess Pacifics.
Peacock, D.W. Railway wind tunnel work. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1951, 41, 606-61. (Paper No.506).
Development work on the streamlining is described, plus details of smoke deflection work on the non.streamlined series.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977
Chapter 9: A trio of high-born ladies: orginally published in Trains ill., 1958, 11, 231-9.
Powell, John. LMS Duchesses — a performance evaluation in Doherty..
Record of the official tests performed on the locomotives, and records of locomotive performane as recorded as part of his work, and by others. Also includes notes on and diagram indicating the way in which the design could have been extended to give greater power and performance.
Powell, A.J. "45671", pseud. London Midland main lines and today's locomotive performance. 2. Euston— Crewe. Trains ill., 1961, 14, 291-7.
Theoretical performance is compared with actual running.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp: 80-7.
Chapter entitled Class 7P-four-cylinder 4-6-2 'Coronation'/'Duchess': This includes the many, mainly minor, alterations which took place during the life of the locomotives: this is useful information for modellers. The most obvious was the removal of streamlining from those locomotives which were streamlined.
Riddles, R.A. "Coronation Scot" —  a railway development. J. Rec. Trans. jr lnstn Engrs, 1947/48, 58, 98-104.
This is an unusual paper in that it is a very personal account of the author's experiencesduring the 114 mile/h test run and on the North American trip. It is written in the same informal style as Cox's and Holcroft's books, but this was published long before the author retired.
Roe, F.G. I saw three Englands. Rly Mag., 1949, 95, 7-12; 81-4. 3 illus. (incl.port.), map.
A retired Canadian engine driver's footplate experiences in England.
Riemsdijk, J.T. van. The LMS, T.F. Coleman and locomotives. Backtrack, 11, 106-7 (letter)
See also Michael Rutherford's 'Provocations' in Volume 10 page 560 et seq, Only part of this letter is reproduced herein.
A look at the reports of the 1948 locomotive exchanges reminded me that the coal consumption of City of Bradford was held down by ignoring the passing times laid down and running gently uphill while racing down — which predictably brought the greatest benefit on the switchback road between Salisbury and Exeter. In the tabulated information relating to the classes I found area of the double blast nozzle to be 30.96sq in, whereas the A4 had 39.27. This was made the more extraordinary by the fact that the four beats of the LMS locomotive each exhausted two cylinder ends, while the six of the A4 each exhausted rather less (one cylinder end of slightly greater capacity). No wonder that the boiler steamed, but this surely disposes of the often-repeated assertion that a 'Duchess' could have equalled Mallard's speed record if it had had Stoke bank to race upon.
I then noted that the valve events were really rather poor. In going back to the Hughes improved four cylinder layout, Coleman (if it was he) kept the straight conjugation levers for driving the inside valves, with the inevitable result that, owing to connecting rod angularity having opposite effects inside and outside, it was impossible to arrange for similar events in the two ends of the cylinders, at normal, shortish, running cut-offs (the gear settings at which the connecting rod has the greatest influence, via the combination lever). By setting the valves for equal openings (and therefore for unequal cut-offs) a neat distribution of power was possible, but the inherent defect was only really masked by the exceptionally large 12½% clearance volume and a considerable pressure drop during admission. The A4 has 7.9% clearance and actually, in theory, better valve events, though these might not be maintained at high mileages. It is to be noted that the rebuilt 'Scot', had 10% clearance and three independent sets of valve gear. Coleman (or Stanier) deserve more credit for this engine than for the Pacific.
As for Stanier being "the best", this needs to be proved. His difficulties were not all that great; he was given the money to scrap and build, as Maunsell and Gresley were not. One can praise or blame the boards of directors for the results and nobody could say that the LMS measured up better to the conditions of wartime than the Southern or the LNER. Personally, I regret that Stanier was not obliged to make more of the fairly new 'Claughtons' and Hughes 4-6-0s and use the money saved for more big Pacifies, which after all, were splendid engines and could have been more extended. But their appetite for coal needed curbing and in this, as in other things, they were like the semi-streamlined Belgian Type I (also with simple conjugation for the inside valves). Cross shafts with short levers, or separate inside combination levers, would have allowed better valve events. Even the GWR cranked levers gave some improvement, though not enough to justify the 5.5% clearance volume claimed for the 'Kings', which resulted in some looping of the indicator diagrams when well notched up at speed.

Roden, Andrew. The Duchesses: the story of Britain's ultimate steam locomotives.
London: Arum, 2008. 248pp. + 8 col. plates (22 illus., some col.)
Mainly concerned with the "preserved"/restored Duchess of Sutherland which had languished at Butlin's Holiday Camp at Heads of Ayr for many years, and the other preserved locomotives: Duchess of Hamilton and City of Birmingham. Written in a journalistic manner with some useful information on the new railway magnates of the preservation movement such as Brell Ewart. Pictures are rather poor.
Rogers, H.C.B. Last steam locomotive engineer: R.A. Riddles, C.B.E. 1970.
On page 85 Rogers states that Riddles devised the means of hinging the doors of the streamlined locomotives, was rersponsible for the increase in driving wheel diameter and the Caledonian blue: he also stated that Riddles stated that the drivers referred to the engine as the 'Butcher's Apron'
Stanier, W.A. The position of the locomotive in mechanical engineering. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1941, 146, 50-61 + 4 plates. 13 illus., diagr., 3 tables. (Presidential Address).
Includes details of test running with dynamometer car: No. 6225 with light load Euston to Glasgow; Euston to Glasgow and back No. 6220 with Coronation Scot load and timing and No. 6234 with maximum load Crewe to Glasgow and return
Stanier, W.A. [Discussion on] Webber, A.F. Paper No. 378). The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. Disc.: 726-63.
"As you know, Dr. Wagner indicated the importance of getting in balance the areas through the small tubes and the areas through the large flue tubes. On the Pacific" Coronation" engine the area through the small tubes is 3.23 sq. ft. and through the large tubes 3.66 sq. ft., making a total of 6.89 sq., ft.
Talbot, Edward. LMS power – The 'Coronation' Class. Gnosall: author. 108pp.
Reviewed by Michael Blakemore in Backtrack, 2012, 26, 702 and given five star treatment.
Tuplin, W.A. The LMS Duchesses — a critical appreciation in Doherty.
Tuplin appears to heve been usurped by Powell in suggesting improvements to the design and in this case Tuplin adds little: it may be noted that he appeared to be allergic to streamlining.
Webb, Terry. 'Duchesses'  in distress. Steam Wld, 2005, (215), 20-7.
Accidents in which the class was involved. Notes the very high mileages achieved by the locomotives and that the majority of the accidents could not be attributed to the locomotives, although the three firebox failures might have been avoided given different design or better staff training. 6232 Duchess of Montrose collided with bombing debris at Berkhamsted on 15 May 1944; 6225 Duchess of Gloucester derailed near Mossend due to poor track maintenance; 6231 Duchess of Atholl was involved in a collision at Ecclefechan on 21 July 1945 (drifting smoke was a contributing factor); 6235 City of Birmingham was involved in another collision at Lambrigg on 18 May 1947. The three low water/firebox crown serious accidents involved 6224 Princess Alexandra at Craigenhill on 10 September 1940 and at Lamington on 7 March 1948 and 46238 City of Carlisle at Bletchley on 24 January 1962 where the design of the LMS water gauge glasses were at fault. The most serous accident (multiple collision) was that at Harrow & Wealdstone on 8 October 1952 involved 42642 City of Glasgow and appears to have been due to driver error
Webb, Terry. No. 46243 City of Lancaster was the last 'Duchess' to be 'de-frocked'. Steam Wld., 2006 (224) 48-9.
Letter: With the aid of photographs and extract from Trains Illustrated writer is able to show that 6226 Duchess of Norfolk lasted longer in its straemlined form than some commentators have suggested and that 46243 City of Lancaster was the only streamlined LMS Pacific to receive a BR number; also includes what was probably last photograph od locomotive in streamlined form
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-726. (Paper 378).
An analysis on a comparative basis.
Wheeler, Geoffrey. Fired by steam. London: John Murray, 1987.
Includes plate of an attractive side elevation coloured painting of No. 6233 Duchess of Sutherland

Names:

[Approval received from Royal family for Coronation Pacific to be named King George VI]. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 140
CITY'S gift to L.M.S. locomotive. Railways, 1947, 8, 177. illus.
No. 6254 City of Stoke-on-Trent : presentation of City's coat of arms.
L.M.S. No.6254 "City of Stoke-on-Trent". Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1946, 52, 146. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
L.M.S.R. locomotive named "City of Coventry". Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 579. illus.
L.M.S.R. "City of Leicester" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1944, 81, 366, 390
Naming ceremony.
L.M.S.R. "City of London" engine. Rly Gaz,, 1943. 79, 81; 115. illus.
Naming ceremony.
L.M.S.R. locomotive named "City of Manchester". Rly Gaz., 1943, 79, 269.
LM.S.R. locomotive named "City of Sheffield". Rly Gaz., 1944, 81. 503.
L.M.S.R. locomotive named "City of Stoke-on-Trent". Rly Gaz., 1946, 85, 398.
L.M.S.R.streamline Pacific No. 6245 City of London. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 359. 2 illus.
Naming ceremony.
NAMEPLATES in stainless steel. Rly Gaz., 1945, 82, 606. illus.
No. 6249 City of Sheffield: presentation of nameplates by Firth Vickers Stainless Steels.
[NAMING ceremony of No.6250 City of Lichfield, at Lichfield]. Rly Gaz. 1944, 80, 679.
STOKE-ON-TRENT arms for L.M.S.R. locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1947, 87, 506. illus.

Preservation

Ward, D.H. The restoration of Duchess of Hamilton. 1 – Rescue from Minehead to Swindon Works. Rly Wld, 1981, 42, 118-22.
Use was made of the Minehead branch as Somerset County Council considered the load to be heavy for its roads. Initially British Railways was unable to accept the locomotive onto the abandoned line, but a rapid inspection ensured that it could be used.

Bellwood, F.J.. The restoration of Duchess of Hamilton. 2 – Restoration to main line running condition. Rly Wld, 1981, 42, 122-6..
The display beside the sea at Butlin's Minehead had led to considerable corossion and many parts failing completely or seizing up.

6P (later 7P) Rebuilt Scot: 1943: Stanier:
In 1942 Stanier re-boilered two Jubliee class locomotives with enlarged boilers. This boiler formed the basis for rebuilding the Royal Scot type. Rebuilding continued under British Railways and the last unrebuilt Scot survived until 1955 ((Rowledge Engines of the LMS). NB Locomotive Magazine entry: class to be known as Converted Royal Scot class

L.M.S. converted "Royal Scot". Engineer, 1943, 176, 254. 2 illus.
L.M.S.R. "Royal Scot". class rebuild. Rly Mag., 1944, 90, 40-1. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.), 2 tables.
L.M.S.R. "Royal Scot" locomotives with taper boiler. Rly Gaz., 1943, 79, 361. illus., diagr. (s. el.), 2 tables.
L.M.S.R.: the rebuilt "Royal Scot" locomotive Railways, 1943, 4, 168-9. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
RE-BUILT "Royal Scot" engines, L.M.S. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Re-built "Royal Scot" engines: L.M.S. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 155. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6103 Royal Scots Fusilier illustrated: to be known as "Converted Royal Scot" class
REBUILT "Royal Scot" locomotive: L.M.S. Railway. Engineering, 1943, 156, 256. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
SECTIONALISED perspective views of L.M.S.R. 4-6-0 converted "Royal Scot" express locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1947, 87, 555-6 + folding plate. diagr.

Performance (general)
Ransome-Wallis, P. On railways at home an abroad. London: Batchworth, 1951. 300 pp. + plates. 102 illus., maps.
Pp. 107-11: Footplate observations made on No. 46111 Royal Fusilier on 14.00 Liverpool Lime Street to Euston express which ran to time.

Retrospective and critical
The monograph by Essery and Jenkinson is especially important. The majority of the references consider both the rebuilt and unrebuilt forms, but some  such as Cox and Holcroft's disagreement on the origin of the Royal Scot design. Holcroft has suggested that the type was merely a 3-cylinder version of Maunsell's Lord Nelson class. This has been refuted by Cox who has stated that the design was unique, except in that the fireboxes and cabs of the two types were-similar. The basis for the controversy was due to the LMS acquisition of a set of Lord Nelson drawings to help in the design work. This literature is covered mainly in the section on the original locomotives as are the accidents at Weaver Junction and elsewher. Similarly, the locomotive exchanges refer only to one type: the rebuilt type.

Allen, C.J. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950] .
The rebuilt Royal Scot performed exceptionally well during the locomotive exchanges
Baxter, F.L. Balancing of three-cylinder locomotives. Engineer, 1935, 160, 84-6. 5 diagrs., 8 tables.
The Royal Scot class is considered on a comparative basis.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175. 216-65. (Paper No. 520).
Includes figures for the mileage obtained between overhauls for the class:70,495
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 3.48p and boiler repair costs (0.54p) and coal consumption per train mile (42.8 lb) for 1955. Original source not quoted.
Clay, J.F. Their place in history. No. 1. The Royal Scots. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1966, 42, 5-15. 12 illus.
A history.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
The question of the boiler design and the possible influences of Swindon, and of the Maunsell Lord Nelson class is discussed at considerable length Table 50 (page 217) quotes the cost of classified boiler repairs on a comparitive basis in pence per mile: 1 pence/mile for a Duchess as against 0.8 for an A4 and 0.6 for a Merchant Navy. The Kings, Castles and Lord Nelsons were more expensive than the Scots..
Cox, E.S. and Johansen, F.C. Locomotive frames. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38, 81-115. Disc.:115-96 (Paper No.473).
On p. 175 the authors, and on p. 168 J.C. Loach, remark on the difficulties in maintaining the frames of this class.
Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama. 1965.
See p.59 for the Cox v Holcroft controversy.
Cox, E.S. Mechanical development in Doherty, Douglas: Royal Scots of the LMS. 1970.
A useful assessment of both the original design and the rebuilt version.
Diamond, E.L. Development of locomotive power at speed. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1947, 156, 404-16. Disc.: 417-43.
Theoretical analysis based upon a number of locomotive types, of which rebuilt Royal Scot and the 4P compound were the sole British examples: the remainder were either North American or Continental European (Chapelon).
Fore, J. Footplate impressions. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1955, 45, 31 7-21. (Paper No. 546).
It is very noticeable with these engines that while the draughting arrangement seems adequate for steam production when working hard, there does not seem to be the same margin of supply over demand when working lightly. The Author considered that this was largely due to the double blast arrangement which recent research has shown to be of doubtful advantage except at steaming rates of over 28,000 lb. /hour. Thus, often perfect steaming on a hard uphill stretch, difficulty is experienced in maintaining the boiler pressure over an easier section which follows, unless care is taken to ensure that the thickness of the firebed has been reduced to a minimum by the commencement of the period of lighter working.
Hunt, David with Bob Essery and Fred James. The rebuilt 'Royal Scots'. LMS Locomotive Profiles No.1.
Highly detailed drawings from NRM collections. A very significant source of information. Additional information in LMS Journal No. 19 which records locomotives fitted with roller bearings on inside big ends..
Holcroft, H. "Castles", "Lord Nelsons", and "Royal Scots". Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 13-15; 27. 3 illus.
Holcroft, H. Discussion on Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 100-41. Disc.: 141-70; 275-6. (Paper No.457).
Pp. 146-8 : Holcroft in the above references states his case for the connection between the Lord Nelson and Royal Scot classes.
Jenkinson, D. The "Royal Scots". Part 1. Rly Wld, 1967, 28, 422-7. 12 illus., 2 tables.
This historical review is mainly concerned with externals, such as liveries and smoke deflector plates. Part 2 (Rly Wld, 1967, 28, 480-3) is mostly, but not entirely, restricted to the rebuilt locomotives.
Johnnson, Peter G. Footplate impressions in Doherty, Douglas: Royal Scots of the LMS. 1970.
Most of his impressions as a fireman and driver were of the rebuilt type, but he stated that far more skill was required to fire and drive the unrebuilt locomotives which do not like a thick fire. The exhaust steam injector differed greatly between the two types. The difficulty of access to the inside cylinder was criticised and the poor riding qualities were noted, especially of those locomotives based at Polmadie.
Nock, O.S. Three generations of West Coast 4-6-0's : Claughtons — Royal Scots — converted Scots. Rly pict., 1949, 2,76-81; 98-104.8 illus., 2 tables.
Development rather than performance.
Powell, John. Performance in service in Doherty, Douglas: Royal Scots of the LMS. 1970.
An assessment mainly in terms of performance, but there is also some criticism of design faults, notably the location of the inside cylinder which made maintenance difficult, and surprisingly perhaps, the only modest gain in performance terms of the rebuilt locomotives.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 62-7.
Class 6P-three-cylinder 4-6-0 rebuilt 'Royal Scot'. This is largely restricted to the rebuilt locomotives and is a slimmer Chapter than some of the others as the rebuilt design appears to have been correct from the outset. Notes that large sand boxes were fitted between intermediate and trailing driving wheels in endeavour to alleviate severe slipping at high speed (this soes not seem to have been noted in the contemporary literature. Smoke deflectors fitted from 1947.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Pp. 55-6: was involved during 1950 in fitting experimental pyrometers to No. 46155 The Lancer: noted the extremely rough riding experienced on a Crewe to Euston return footplate trip on this llocomotive
Tuplin, W.A. A critical appreciation in Doherty, Douglas: Royal Scots of the LMS. 1970.
An assessment mainly of the original design: suggests that the poor ride might have been improved if the wheel-base of the Lord Nelson had been adopted.
Tuplin, W.A. Sir Henry Fowler's "Royal Scots": a survey to mark the conversion of the last unrebuilt "Scot", No.46137. Trains ill., 1955, 8, 244-9. 5 illus., 3 tables.
A critical survey.

Ride

By 1947 the rough riding of the locomotives combined with poor track (due to the lack of maintenance in WW2) was causing strong complaints from footplate staff, premature shopping and extra maintenance work at the sheds, without producing any improvement. A full-scale investigation was therefore started and Powell was detailed to live with the 'Scots' exclusively and find out what made them tick. The next two months were spent at Longsight, Camden and Crewe North sheds, checking lateral clearances on coupled axleboxes, axlebox top clearances, condition of bogie slides, check springs and the like, besides checking drivers' reports and riding with the engines after examination.

It was really hopeless to try to divine drivers' experiences from the repair cards they submitted. The average card just said 'engine rides rough', elaborated perhaps to 'not fit to be on passenger 'work' if the driver felt particularly aggrieved by it. But in what way was it rough? Did it roll like a ship in a cross swell? Did it have a vicious side-ways kick at the cab end? Did it just feel as though it were running on cobblestones or the sleeper ends? Was there a violent knock in the boxes? Or some dastardly combination of these faults? ... During that period there was some distinctly 'soft' track on main lines, and you knew in advance that certain spots would give a rocky ride:

Some engines would be worse than others, and some were devils incarnate. One day Powell rode on No 6121 on the 2.45pm from Euston as far as Stoke, and in a known spot in the vicinity of Polesworth the engine suddenly went into a prolonged series of violent tail-wagging oscillations allied with heavy rolling, made to sound even worse by loud grinding noises as the trailing wheel rims bore hard against the sides of the firebox expansion angles. We were doing 65-70mph at the time, and the fireman was just commencing his swing when it started. His shovel hit the outer edge of the open firehole door, the coal went on the floor near the leg guard, with his shovel lying in the corner of the cab at my feet. Many times I saw similar incidents, though not quite so violent as that one, and the drivers would shut off and make a brake application until the oscillation stopped.

The front end did its normal slight nosing rather like any other class, and there was a degree of occasional rolling which one expects, but given certain conditions of track, speed, and drawbar pull the engine would suddenly go berserk (or so it seemed). A soft spot in the track would initiate a roll which would tend to slew the front end round slightly; the bogie would try to pull it back, the soft coupled springs failed to check the roll, and the whole movement was transferred to the cab end in the form either of heavy oscillation, kept up intermittently for perhaps a mile, or vicious and unpredictable sidekicks.

One thing which influenced the picture was an act of deliberate policy on the LMS, following Stanier's experience on the Pacific Locomotive Committee in India, to stiffen up the bogie side control on most standard classes. Unlike the swing-link bogie, where the resistance to side movement only starts to build up significantly after the bogie has moved from the centre position, the spring-controlled side bolster bogie used on GWR and LMS taper-boiler engines had a substantial resistance to movement right from the start, and in the case of the 'Royal Scots' this had been deliberately increased to between 4 and 5 tons. Now there were no infallible rules for arriving at the optimum value: it was inevitably a compromise, as so often happens in locomotive engineering. On the one hand, insufficient guidance from the bogie would allow the engine to 'nose', possibly for that nosing to build up into a rhythmic swing if the motion was not damped out (and if such 'hunting' took place you were really in for trouble, as the Pacifics in India were); this led to excessive flange wear on the leading coupled wheel tyres. The other extreme was to pile on the side control to the point of almost locking the bogie: the usual outcome of this was to transfer the movement to the back end of the engine due to the bogie's inability to accommodate itself to movements initiated by track irregularities and wheel tread coning.

Yet another factor came to light. The wheel boss faces, in time, suffered a certain amount of wear and re-machining, which made it necessary to thicken up the axlebox facing to compensate. With white metal there was a limit to the thickness which could be applied before it became unduly weak and either extruded or broke up under the awful beating it had to withstand with the engine running at speed. Crewe works, therefore, were in the habit of fitting a gunmetal liner on the axlebox face, secured by riveted studs, but it soon became apparent that these liners did not stay tight on the box for long, and in a number of cases they dropped off altogether. You could not inadvertently provide an additional ½ in or more of side clearance on the trailing wheels without the effect being distinctly noticeable on the footplate!

After weeks of riding on 'Scots' up and down the West Coast main lines, until his ribs bore the impression of every cabside beading, Powell concluded that three things were needed to cure the trouble so far as the engines were concerned (the rest was up to the permanent way people!). Firstly, stiffer coupled springs were required to minimise the rolling. Secondly, the pernicious practice of fitting gunmetal liners should cease, and a steel-plate welded on to the axlebox face should be provided. Thirdly, the bogie check springs should be made softer and friction damping introduced on the bogie slides.

To say that these recommendations met with little enthusiasm would be to exaggerate. No 1 was acceptable, but No 2 was unpopular with the workshop people; No 3 was so directly contrary to what had been done for years deliberately that it caused serious indigestion. When he read my comprehensive report, E.S. Cox was so sceptical that he borrowed a suit of overalls and went out to see for himself, riding 'Royal Scots', but when he came back he opined that there might be something in what I had said after all. The result was the lengthy trials between Derby and Buxton with No 46120, festooned in cables from recording devices fitted on the axleboxes and bogie, and the flange force recording car. As a result of these tests, it was found that the best all-round results were obtained from bogie check springs giving only 1½ tons initial control, in conjunction with unlubricated friction damping pads on the bogie side bolsters.

The coupled springs originally fitted to the rebuilds were 14-plate affairs, somewhat on the weak side, soft and quick to lose camber. This was a major contribution to rough riding. At the time of my investigation these had mostly been replaced by a 15-plate type, which were better but not the whole answer.

By the time the trials with No 46120 were coming to a conclusion, the BR standard designs were on the board, and the spring design concept of these was then tried on the 'Scots' — 16-plate springs with greater theoretical deflection per ton but seemingly an awful lot of internal hysteresis. They certainly steadied the riding, but it then became distinctly 'solid' and hard. On Nos 46146 and 46166, the two engines experimentally fitted, you could very nearly count the stones of the ballast, and this was somewhat wearing for enginemen. In the end a more acceptable compromise was adopted.

Even after all this work had been done, however, there were still the occasional black sheep. No 46131, then at Longsight, was one, and No 46120 at Crewe North became another. We tried everything, including stiffening up the intermediate buffer springs between engine and tender, to steady the back end of the engines by the weight of the tender, but with little success. It was a bug in certain engines only, and each seemed to react differently. Ultimately, it was decided to check the coupled wheel balancing on the rotating machine at Crewe, and then things began to come to light. The original wheels with solid cast balance weight had been tinkered with in early years by adding small auxiliary weights, but they had never been spun again as a check. In addition, the old fluted 'Vibrac' coupling rods had been superseded by flat-section rods on some engines, only to be replaced in turn by new fluted rods in fine-grain manganese-molydenum steel, and the weights differed somewhat. So the coupled wheels of all the 'Scots' were rebalanced as they went through the shops; and thereby that particular ghost seemed to have been laid effectively.

Smoke deflection

In 1947 there was another complaint about the rebuilt 'Scots' — the obscuring of the driver's vision by drifting steam and smoke. In my experience, if the engine was being worked on the main valve of the regulator, no matter how short the cut-off, the steam would always clear itself even in bad cross-wind conditions, but high-speed running on the first valve only at 15% cut-off was frequently a nightmare, with the driver either having to cross the cab or to shut off steam for signal sighting. As a result, No 46115 was fitted with 'blinkers' and Powell was sent to report on their effectiveness. Illustration of 6115 Scots Guardsman still with "LMS" on tender with "experimental smoke deflectors leaving Crewe (photo: W.H. Whitworth). Rly Mag,, 1948, 94, 414..

On his first trip out of London with her, the weather was tailor-made for the job — damp, with slight mist and a gentle breeze from the east. As we came down from Tring to Bletchley on first valve of the regulator and 15% cut-off at about 70mph, the breeze nicely rolled the steam from the chimney top down the driver's side of the boiler, into the vacuum created by the smokebox front, and along in front of the cab in one continuous wall. Improvement in visibility — nil! The smoke deflectors were entirely the wrong shape to function properly, which they should do by catching sufficient air in front of the smokebox and guiding it smoothly alongside the smokebox and boiler barrel. This prevented a partial vacuum being formed alongside the smokebox, caused by the bluff smokebox front, into which the exhaust was drawn down from the chimney. The deflectors fitted to No 46115 were inclined at the front, restricting their 'gathering' capacity in front of the smokebox, and were too short to guide the air stream effectively before release at the back.

Powell put in a scathing report and pointed out that at cut-offs in the vicinity of 15 per cent, on the first valve of the regulator, they were quite useless. But I was not prepared for the official reaction of the Motive Power Department, who professed entire satisfaction with them and claimed that these engines were never driven in the manner he had described. Powell promptly checked my records of the previous 20 trips from Euston to Rugby and confirmed that, on the downhill stretches, the engine in no fewer than 18 cases had been worked on the first valve with cut-offs of 15% or less, which was perfectly adequate for 'limited load' timekeeping with 15 bogies on a 1 in 330 gradient. It was all to no purpose, however — all except No 46106 were fitted with the self-same deflectors. No 46106 got a pair of BR standard type defiectors, squarer at the front and not far short of twice as long. She was a Scottish engine and Powell had no chance to ride her, but it was his guess that this design was very much more effective.

Names : See also S.P.B. Mais above.

Locomotive names from early locomotives, e.g. Novelty.

[LIST of names selected for the Royal Scot class]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 69.
"ROYAL" locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 380-1. 3 illus.
Notes on names.

Regimental names.
This section requires improvement: much must have been missed: for instance the renaming of H.L.I. to Highland Light Infantry... Photographs of No. 6121 H.L.I. in its rebuilt form are rare. but there is one on page 230 (V. 1) of Langridge's Under ten CMEs

ANOTHER L.M.S.R. engine named after county regiment naming ceremony of engine No. 6131 "Royal Warwickshire Regiment" at New Street Station, Birmingham. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 1204; 1214. illus.
CEREMONY with L.M.S.R. locomotive at Northampton. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 696.
Naming ceremony 6147 The Northamptonshire Regiment.
LOCOMOTIVE naming ceremony. Rly Mag., 1938, 83, 153.
No.6131: Royal Warwickshire Regiment.
NEW "Royal Scot" locomotive, L.M.S. Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 363.
No.6169: The Boy Scout.
PRESENTATION of plaques to L.M.S.R. engine "Black Watch". Rly Mag., 1930, 67, 502. illus.
No.6102.
REGIMENTAL plaques attached to L.M.S.R. No.6123, "Royal Irish Fusilier". Rly Mag., 1930, 67, 164. 2 illus.
REGIMENTAL plaques for L.M.S.R. locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 72.
No.6130: West Yorkshire Regiment.
REGIMENTAL plaques for L.M.S.R. locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1947, 86, 427. 3 illus.
No.6134 The Cheshire Regiment.
[REGIMENTAL plaques presented to No.6103 Royal Scots Fusilier]. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 229.
[REGIMENTAL plaques presented to No.6130 The West Yorkshire Regiment]. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 154.
[REGIMENTAL plaques presented to No.6134 The Cheshire Regiment]. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 256. illus.
Brigadier Harding unveils nameplate and plaque accompanied by Field-Marshal Montgomery and Sir Robert Burrows.
[REGIMENTAL plaques presented to No.6147 The Northamptonshire Regiment]. Rly Mag., 1935, 77, 465.

Specific locomotives

Last 'Scot' gets the taper boiler. Rly Wld, 1955, 16, 119.
No. 46137 Prince of Wales Volunteers (South Lancashire)

6P (later 7P) British Legion (No. 6170): 1935
The basis for this design was the chassis from the high pressure locomotive Fury The Schmidt experimental boiler was replaced by a new Stanier tapered design, which eventually formed the basis for the type used to rebuild the entire "Royal Scot" class.

The "BRITISH Legion" engine, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 835.2 illus.
The "BRITISH Legion" engine, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1936, 78, 68. illus.
The LONDON Midland and Scottish Railway locomotive "British Legion". Engineering, 1935, 140, 532-3. illus.
REBUILT "Royal Scot" locomotive with taper boiler, L.M. & S. Rly.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 374-5. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective & critical

Allen, C.J. Lone locomotives. Trains Ann., 1956, 67-79; 82-4. 25 illus.
Essery, R.J. and Harris, N. LMS reflections: a collection of photographs from the Hulton Picture Company. 1986.
Contains very interesting picture on page 54 of  locomotive on its initial journey on 13 May 1935 at Watford Junction being saluted by local members of the British Legion (locomotive had been named on previous day by Lord Jellicoe).
Holt, Geoff. The red Scots. Modellers Backtrack, 1993, 3, 4-13.
The author's definition extends to the unrebuilt locomotives, plus the solitary 6170 British Legion. The approach is that of the model maker who was constructing three 7mm models (two unrebuilt locomotives at different stages in their existence plus No. 6170 for David Jenkinson). This article clearly shows (1) how the smokebox extended forward from the frames and (2) the distinctive outside steam pipes from the cylinders both in their original and modified forms
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 68-9
Whilst it is well-known that 6170 was a unique locomotive, it is common for it to be treated as part of the Rebuilt Scot story, but Powell does give it separate treatment.
Tee, D.F. Notable recent L.M.R.withdrawals. Rly Obsr, 1963, 33, 36-7.
Includes No.46170.

5XP (later 6P) "Jubilee": 1934:
To some extent the class may be regarded as a taper-boiler development of the Fowler Patriot class in that it was designed to fulfil the same duties and had broadly similar dimensions. The original boilers had a very low degree of superheat and followed GWR design in its entirety. Subsequently this had to be corrected with a higher degree of superheat to suit the type of fuels used on the LMS.

NEW 4-6-0 locomotives, L.M.S.R,. Rly Engr, 1934, 55, 148-54. 8 illus., 7 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. els.)
Also includes the 3-cylinder 2-6-4T design. Includes sectionalized diagrams.
NEW 4-6-0 locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Engr. 1934, 55, 287-8. 2 illus., diagr. (s.el.)
A series built by the North British Locomotive Co. Also includes a series of class 5 locomotives built by the Vulcan Foundry.
NEW three-cylinder express locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1934. 74, 437-8. 2 illus.
THREE cylinder 4-6-0 passenger engine with tapered boiler, L.M.& S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 134-5. illus., diagr. (s.& f.els.)
THREE-CYLINDER 4-6-0 type passenger locomotive for the L.MS.R.. Engineering, 1934, 137, 487-8. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

1934 : slight modifications to the weight distribution and to the tender.
THREE-CYLINDER 4-6-0 passenger engine, L.M. & S. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 296. illus.

No 5552.
This locomotive was named Silver Jubilee and received a livery of black, relieved by chromium plated numerals and boiler bands, to celebrate the Royal Jubilee.

JUBILEE exhibition of locomotives and rolling stock at Euston Station. Loco. Rly Wagon Rev., 1935, 41,139.
No. 5348 Coronation (LNWR.4-4-0) was also exhibited. Details of No.5552's chromium plating (Adey's Process) are included.
L.M.S.R.Silver Jubilee locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 623-4.
L.M.S.R. Silver Jubilee locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 930. illus. Errata p.992.
Emphasizes the special finish.

Essery, R.J. and Harris, N. LMS reflections: a collection of photographs from the Hulton Picture Company. 1986.
Contains several of the pictures taken at Euston on 2 May 1935 including one alongside 5348 Coronation (pages 8-9). This book also contains a photograph on page 9 of 5642 fitted with a glass windshield on side of cab (KPJ appeared to have missed this). Picture dated 23 April 1934.
[Loss of raised numerals from fireman's side on 45552]. Steam Wld, 2007, correspondence
The thread of this correspondence can be followed both forward and backwards from a letter by Alan Williams in Issue 236 page 20

Webs in coupled wheels
This was a carry over from the Claughton and Patriot classes where webs wwere fitted to some, or all, of the coupled wheels. 31 Jubilee class were modified in this way: see Townsin page 174 including No. 45557 New Brunswick with all coupled wheels so-fitted.

Modified boilers with a higher degree of superheat and domes.
Cook Raising steam page 118: The most conspicuous change in the revised 3A firebox was that the throatplate now sloped by about the same amount as the G9½S; the outer plate was "stepped" by 1ft and the inner plate by 10½in. The effect of this, combined with the small increase in the firebox wall area due to the larger grate, raised the firebox heating surface from 162.5ft2 to 181.1ft2. Even more important in the eyes of Derby Drawing Office was the increase in firebox volume. As mentioned previously, the open pipe at the top front of the firebox steam space for collecting steam was replaced by a regulator valve in a dome. These changes in design were settled quickly, but the question of tube layout was more difficult. E A Langridge considered nine alternative tube layouts.

Modified passenger engines: L.M.S.R.. Loco Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 32-3. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f.els.)

Smokebox gas tests
Smokebox gas tests conducted under Percy Lewis-Dale and the LMS Advisory Committee on Scientific Research conducted tests on smokebox gases frtom 1930 through the 1930s. In part this was published in ILocoE Paper 295, but from Townsin it would seem that more data may still be available. Locomotives tested in 1935 included Nos. 5556 and 5646: locomotives were worked extremely hard between Crewe and Carlisle. See Townsin page 95..

Water treatment to reduce priming
From 30 July 1935 chemical briquettes were added to the tenders to reduce priming. See Townsin page 164

Kylchap double chimney
A Kylchap double chimney was fitted to No. 5684 Jutland and it ran 91.5k miles in this condition. Sadly, the inconclusive tests lived up to the name of the locomotive. The device was fitted in May 1957 and removed in October 1938. Faults observed included fire throwing. Meanwhile on the East Coast main line...Townsin page 99.

Tenders: Both the Midland and Stanier standard types were fitted.
[JUBILEE class tenders]. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 75.

Smokebox ash ejectors
See Townsin p.170 and Figs. 153 as fitted to 5698 Mars and Fig. 154 as fitted to 5702 Colossus. Latter was described in Rly Gaz. (1943 August) but appeared to have been missed by KPJ and cited Patent 550,411.and earlier Patent by  T.W. Royle and P. McCallum Patent: details via Espacenet below:.
550,411 An improved device for removing ash from the smoke box of a locomotive boiler. Dominic McNulty. Applied 12 January 1942. Published 6 January 1943.
518,507 Improvements in ejecting means for ashes and like materials from enclosed spaces such as smoke boxes. Thomas Wright Royle and Percy McCallum.  Applied 27 August 1938. Published 28 February 1940.

1946 tests with different types of superheater element in Jubilee 5733
In 1946 tests were made with different types of superheater element in jubilee 5733. A set of French Houlet elements (see footnote) were tested against the pre-War LMS bifurcated elements and the wartime double-return bend elements. On trains of 450 tons between Crewe and Shrewsbury, "average" temperatures were recorded with the three types as follows: Houlet 691°, bifurcated 619° and double-return 624°. The maximnum temperature with the Houlet was 742°, and with the other types 670°. The report on the tests noted that the temperature of the exhaust steam with Houlet elements was 250°, and with the others 214° to 231°, so that only a small proportion of the additional heat absorbed by the Houlet elements was converted into extra work in the cylinders. At this time, before tests on the effects of steam temperatures had been conducted at Rugby, it was concluded that the increased steam temperature with the Houlet elements was of little advantage, and as there were some steaming problems with these elements, they were soon dispensed with. Cook Raising steam page 122..

Performance and testing

1935

Jubilee performance. Locomotive Mag., 1936, 42, 30.
A Manchester to Glasgow express parcels train hauled by a Jubilee class locomotive ran the 31½ miles from Cranforth to Shap Summit in 30 minutes at an average speed of 63 mile/h thereby reducing the lateness of the train from 20 minutes to 7 minutes.

20-22 April 1937 : High speed test runs between London (St.Pancras) and Leeds via Leicester and via Nottingham.

DYNAMOMETER car trials on Midland Division, L.M.S.R. Loco.Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43,143-5.
DYNAMOMETER trials on Midland Division, L.M.S.R. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 870.

l2-15 October 1937: No.5660 Rooke was tested on high-speed schedules on the routes radiating from Leeds to Bristol and Glasgow.

Allen, C.J. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1937, 81, 404-16. tables.
Dynamometer tests on Midland & Northern Divisions, L.M.S.R. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev.,.1937, 43, 347-8.
Test runs between Bristol, Leeds and Glasgow by the Midland and Glasgow & South Western route, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 823-6 + folding plate. illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. s. el), 2 tables.

13 May 1949 : as part of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers summer meeting a demonstration run behind a Jubilee class locomotive was made to display the operation of the mobile test units.

Brown, D.C. Demonstration run with dynamometer car and mobile test units-Manchester (Central) to Derby. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1949, 39, 361-5. diagr., table.

Lickey Incline: tests without banking in 1956
Class 5 No. 44776 and Jubilee No. 45554 (the latter on 13 March 1955) were tested. Both locomotives found it possible to climb the bank from a running start, but neither type could restart on the hill. See Townsin page 176.

Rugby Testing Station 1956
The last investigation into Jubilee steaming – and the most penetrating – came in 1956, when 45722 was tested at Rugby Testing Station. As received at Rugby the engine was evidently sub-standard, for its performance was inferior to what had been achieved in pre-War tests. Modifications were made to the proportions of blastpipe and chimney in accordance with contemporary ideas (much influenced by the work of S.O. Ell at Swindon) and the maximum steam production was increased significantly. A double blastpipe, as fitted to the Scots, produced almost the same maximum output as the modified single chimney, but with a smaller back-pressure on the pistons. However, the test report was not decisive in its recommendations, and as by 1957 work on steam traction was being run down, the only sequel to the Rugby tests was the fitting of a double chimney to 45596 and of the modified single blastpipe to eight other Jubilees. A.J. Powell, having had one of the modified single-chimney engines under his care at Newton Heath shed, asserted that in everyday service it showed no improvement over the normal engines, and had the disadvantage that a carbon deposit needed to be cleaned from the blastpipe each time the boiler was washed out.: Cook Raising steam Page 121

Retrospective and critical
The huge RCTS study by Townsin is disappointing as it does not capture the character of a locomotive class which sadly dominated LMS/LMR express running where lateness was almost regarded as the norm and wasteful double heading was adopted routinely. KPJ's secondary school days began with the distinctive clanking (very similar to that of a Gresley Pacific) of a Farnley Junction Jubilee class as it descended from Greenfield to Manchester Exchange and might end with a slightly late arrival back on the 4.47 Hull semi-fast behind an Edge Hill Jubilee: perhaps Windward Islands or Howard of Effingham: latter still showed a trace of crimson livery mainly on the cabside: in fairness to Townsin this final red survival is confirmed therein.

Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 8.
Atkins shows the progression from Claughton via the Patriot class to the Jubilee class: where the Royal Scot chassis was married to what Atkins regards as the Castle 5013 series boilers, complete with Swindon low superheat. It was only when three-row superheaters were fitted that performance matched the parallel boiler locomotives (nobody ever queries why drum-head smokeboxes were not fitted to the Patriot boilers KPJ). Atkins quotes tests conducted bewteen Wolverhampton and Euston in April 1935:

Locos.

5518/5525

5645/5646

5556

parallel

tapered

tapered

3-row

3-row

2-row

Coal consumption
lb/mile

38.4

37.0

43.4

lb/dbhp

3.41

3.34

3.71

Water cosumption
gal/mile

30.8

28.0

35.4

lb/lb coal

8.02

7.56

8.14

Atkins notes that from No. 5665 onwards sloping throat-plate boilers were fitted and this increased the grate area and free gas area and greatly improved performance. KPJ: did the running department make any attempt to match boiler with train services? Certainly personal experience indicated that performance varied greatly with this class, and much more so than with the more standard LNER designs, such as the B1 and K3 types. Loach (J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1948, 38) that some of the Jubilee class were fitted with Claughton type douuble radial trucks, but Atkins states that this is incorrect: Crewe used Claughton side frames and axleboxes to construct 6ft 3in bogies. Finally, Atkins noted that the valve gear and piston valves use on the Jubilee class was standard with that on the Patriot and Royal Scot classes.
Bond, R.C. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive No.6202. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 182. (Paper No.458).
On p. 187 the author quotes hammer blow statistics for the "Jubilee" class: at 72 mile/h 8.31 tons per rail (whole engine: .61).
Clay, John F. Jubilees of the LMS. 1971.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
The translation of what Cook regards as the Castle boiler into one which was capable of powering an existing satisfactory three-cylinder chassis was highly elusive and was not fully solved until a larger boiler capable of equalling that of driving a more powerful front-end (the rebuilt Fury) was developed. It is surprising that the London Midland Region accepted such an inadequate basis for many of its so-called expresses which either lost time or required assistance, and frequently both.
Cox, E.S. Chronicles of steam. London: Ian Allan, 1967.
Page 92: Table 9: alternative draughting arrangements, including double chimney. On pp. 146-7 Cox noted that improved draughting experiments had often been unsuccessful, culminating in the volcanic display of a 5X class 4-6-0 which, when fitted with a double Kylchap arrangement in 1937, had produced a continuous spray of incandescent fuel from the chimney top at anything above the lowest output, the smokebox at the same time filling up with ash up to the level of the blastpipe cap during a journey. This was, of course, due to gross unsuitability of the tube proportions, and the lesson was quickly learned that the benefits from more powerful and efficient blast was only fully to be attained by use of a larger number of smaller tubes in the boiler, the end product being increase in evaporative capacity combined with low back pressure in the cylinders.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"Initially they were a disappointment... but then became fast running and willing horses... perhaps with hindsight the second tranche of 'Jubilees' should have had larger boilers from the start". KPJ: one is tempted to wonder why it was so difficult to fit larger boilers, when the Eastern Region found it simple to fit A4 class boilers to other classes, or is this yet another standardization myth?:
Langridge, E.A. Under ten CMEs. 2011. p. 91
When you think of the two classes of the SECR, and later the SR, it seems strange that on the LMS no efforts were made to use the Horwich 2-6-0 parts as future standards. It may be mentioned - although this is another tale - that this obstinacy went right through to Stanier class '5' 4-6-0s and 'Jubilees', which had absurd little differences of detail which would never have arisen if rivalry between the design offices had been scotched at the beginning of the amalgamation.
Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 5 — L.M S.R. Glasgow-Inverness trains : "5XP" and "5P" class engines. Engineer, 1939, 168, 390-2. 3 illus., table.
The class observed (from the footplate) through North American eyes.
Loubser, M.M. and Cox, E.S. Locomotive boiler design : theory and practice. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1938, 28, 377-409. Disc.: 409-41. (Paper No. 388).
Cox's contribution consists of an analysis of the Stanier taper-boiler with particular emphasis on the four types fitted to the "Jubilee" class. Stanier (pp.410-11) adds some notes on the front-end.
Meeting current steam locomotive demands. Loco Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1958, 64, 41-3.3 illus.
Criticism of the L.M.S. small engine policy particularly the use of Stanier 4-6-0s on the Midland route.
Phillips, K.R. and Townsin, R. A key 'Jubilee' No. 45658 Keyes. Steam Wld, 2000 (160),28-32.
Always allocated to Leeds Holbeck. It achieved a mileage of 1,728,870 miles by June 1961. Includes logs of two runs in which speeds in excess of 80 mile/h were achieved between St Pancras and Leicester..
Poultney, E.C. Locomotive coal trials. Engineer, 1960, 209, 462-6. 9 diagrs., 6 tables. (REA 13258).
A review of tests carried out at the Rugby Test Plant on the affect of small coal on steaming capacity on the 5 and "Jubilee" classes.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977.
Chapter 8: 'Patriots' and 'Jubilees'
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 46-56.
Class 5XP-three-cylinder 4-6-0 'Jubilee'. Unlike Rowledge (below) Powell suggests that the earlier Crewe-built locomotives were fitted with second-hand bogies from the Claughton class, rather than bogies of Claughton-type. Like the class 5 the class was fitted with at least two boiler types (straight and sloping throat plates). The problems with draughting are noted.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Pp. 29-31 note that overheating of the inside was encountered, and some locomotives were modified (like the Gresley Pacifics) to incorporate a capsule conating butyl mercaptan, a foul smelling chemical..
Roe, F.G. I saw three Englands. Rly Mag., 1949, 95, 7-12; 81-4. 3 illus. (incl. port.), map.
A retired Canadian engine driver's footplate journey from Leeds to St. Pancras.
Rogers, H.C.B. Last steam locomotive engineer: R.A. Riddles, C.B.E. 1970.
The two-cylinder 4-6-0s gave excellent service from the start, but the three-cylinder 4-6-0s began their career with steaming trouble. They were, or should have been, the ideal engines for the Birmingham two-hour expresses. However, owing to shortage of steam there were a number of failures, and, without reference . to the CME'S department (Stanier was away) the Operating Department under D.C. Urie took them off the Birmingham expresses and transferred them to the Midland line and to duties which the Compounds, with their much lower tractive effort could manage easily. Riddles came back from leave as this transfer was taking place. His reaction was immediate: he gave instructions that jumper tops were to be removed at once and the diameter of the blast pipe orifice to be reduced from 5¼ inches to 47/8 inches. For he had spotted that, far from the jumper tops being needed to reduce the blast, there was never enough of it: in fact, an arrangement that worked well with four cylinders on the Great Western was not suited to these three-cylinder engines of the LMS. The alterations were carried out on all engines within seven days. Riddles then gave orders that two Mechanical Inspectors attached to the London Office were, between them, to ride on all Jubilee class engines leaving St Pancras until further notice. The Inspectors were jubilant: the Midland drivers had never had such fine engines! When later the boilers were fitted with a higher degree of superheat the Jubilees became as efficient as any engines that Stanier designed.
Rowledge, J.W.P. and Brian Reed. The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. (the Jubilees, class 5s and the BR Standard class 5s). Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977.
Rich source of concise information.
Stanier,W.A. [Discussion on] Bond, R.C. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non.condensing turbine locomotive No.6202. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 182-230. (Paper No.458).
Stanier confesses to the inadequacy of low degree superheating.
Stanier, W.A. [Discussion on] Webber, A.F. Paper No. 378). The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. Disc.: 726-63.
Analysis of boiler design on a comparative basis: includes SR V, N15X class and LNER P2 class. Stanier: (pp726-8) gave an indication af the free areas in use on the current L.M.S. engines. "As you know, Dr. Wagner indicated the importance of getting in balance the areas through the small tubes and the areas through the large flue tubes. On the Pacific" Coronation" engine the area through the small tubes is 3.23 sq. ft. and through the large tubes 3.66 sq. ft., making a total of 6.89 sq., ft. On the "5X" 3-cylinder engines the figures are 2.22 sq. ft. and 2.52 sq. ft., making a total of 4.74 sq. ft. You will remember that in his Paper Dr. Wagner gave particulars of a boiler which had a free area through the tubes of something like 8 sq. ft. The comment of a member of my staff was that that engine would burn brickbats! The difficulty is, of course, to obtain the free areas which you want and to maintain a balance with the grate area and the firebox volume within the load gauge from which we suffer in England. He added "In connection with the "5X" engines, it may interest yau to know that the L.M.S. have recently carried out some accelerated train trials between Glasgow and Leeds and Leeds and Bristol with "5X" engines. With a train weighing 300 tons, the coal consumption on that engine to do the work varied from 40 lb. per sq. ft. af grate area per hour to 100 lb. per sq. ft. of grate area per hour, which I think indicates what an extraordinarily flexible steamraiser a locomotive boiler is. I do not advocate an engine being used to burn l00 lb. per sq. ft. of grate area per hour; I think that if we did that with some of the bigger engines we should have to put in a mechanical stoker".
Tester, Adrian. A defence of the Midland/LMS Class 4 0-6-0, 2011.
Thorley, W.G.F. A breath of steam.1975.
Urie must have been in a particularly belligerent mood on this occasion when he drew the attention of J.G. Barr, one of the Northern Division representatives, to the fact that he had 15 jobs booked for an allocation of 17 Class 5X 'Jubilee' locomotives, whilst at the same time there were only two booked jobs for nine 'Royal Scot' engines. Mr Barr replied that he was covering Class 5X jobs with 'Royal Scot' engines because the former had been a great disappointment and from experience were only equal to a Class 4 (presumably he was referring to a standard compound). The Scottish 'Jubilees' were at that time fitted with superheaters having only 14 elements; this coupled with other dubious features of boiler design militated against production of enough steam of the right quality to feed three 17 in cylinders. The situation was not improved by the absence of locomotive coal grading systems in Scotland. Barr was requested by Urie to come into line as quickly as possible with the English divisions in this respect and to grade coal delivered to individual depots according to the work performed by the locomotives allocated. Eventually, as is now well known, boners with 24-element superheaters in conjunction with a larger number of small tubes of smaller diameter and a reduced diameter of blast pipe orifice were fitted, but the engines remained for the rest of their lives more sensitive to baleful influences than the two-cylinder Stanier 4-6-0s. At the meeting under review, Urie suggested that as many of the new Classes 5 and 5X locomotives as possible should be stored during the 1936-37 winter under cover at the main workshops, so that they would be available for Christmas and Easter traffic and would only require a preliminary run before being put into service. He added that Mr Stanier had agreed to find as much suitable accommodation as possible. One wonders if the latter supported this remarkable proposal in order to gain breathing space to find a remedy for the ills with which his early batches of locomotives were afflicted, and which he acknowledged with such great courage and honesty, rectifying them with expedition although without the help of the sophisticated testing plant available in later years. I cannot find that any Stanier engines were, in fact, stored during that winter, even though Urie made a special plea for the 'Jubilees' on the Central Division to be put aside and the ex-L&Y Class 5 4-6-0 superheated engines to be used instead. Such a move would almost certainly have been unpopular with footplate and artisan staffs and would have evoked much adverse comment in the railway and technical press.
Thorley, W.G.F.. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 698.(Paper No. 528).
"The first two" Princess" class Pacific locomotives of the former LMS Railway had 32-element superheaters fitted in place of the original 16-element apparatus after only a short period of service, and the steaming was improved thereby. Tuplin had said in the discussion that the firebox volume was increased at the same time as the additional superheating surface was provided and therefore the value of the latter could not be assessed accurately, but in this connection it was pointed out that the number of elements had been increased without increase of firebox volume in both the Classes 5 MT and 5 XP locomotives of the same railway, as compared with the original arrangement and the steaming had been improved. The superheater had the advantage that, provided the flue tubes were kept reasonably clean, its efficiency remained unimpaired as the boiler scaled up internally; also it was sometimes able to evaporate water during periods of priming, which would be carried over into the cylinders of a saturated engine..
Townsin, Ray The Jubilee 4-6-0's.. RCTS, 2006. 262pp. 197 figs. (mainly based on photographs)
This is a disappointing book in spite of its considerable physical size and weight. It lacks internal structure, and is far away from the more highly organized Locomotives of the LNER where it is possible to gain a highly accurate portrait of the comparable B17 class by examining what is in effect a single chapter, or even the earlier Locomotives of the Great Western where the Castle class is covered in comparable depth in a handful of pages. Townsin reprodues an excessive number of photographs mainly from the post-nationalization period, and recourse has been made to using photographs of other classes to illustrate specific points, mainly to show minor livery changes: this is disconcerting. The book is extremely weak on allocation and work where whole areas of activity are ignored. Michael Blackemore (Backtrack, 2007, 21, 448) took a different view: "highly recommended", although the greengrocer's apostrophe is rightly condemned" . Amongst the buried detail is Fig. 150 which shows the application of a fire iron tunnel to the right hand side of No. 5655 Keith.(seen at Kentish Town on 22 April 1945); and the application of smokebox ash ejectors (see page 170) and specific entry above Blastpipe modifications were legion and included a double blastpipe fitted to No. 45742 Connaught which proved its worth on the fast Euston to Wolverhampton expresses; a Kylchap single chimney, and various other devices. As late as 1956 No. 45722 was sent to the Rugby Test Plant in an endeavour to improve its steaming. (pp. 178-9)

Names

LOCOMOTIVE naming ceremony at Euston. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 192.
No.5564 New South Wales.
L.M.S.R. locomotive "Malta"renamed "Malta GC". Rly Gaz., 1943, 79, 495. illus.
No.5616.
L.M.R. : No.45700 "Amethyst". J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1951, 27, 320. illus.
previously Britannia.
NAMING ceremony at Euston. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 228.
No.5564 New South Wales.
NAMING of L.M.S.R. locomotive "Aden". Rly Gaz., 1946, 85, 283, 308. 2 illus.
No. 5633 renamed (previously Trans-Jordan)
OPENING of L.M.S. Research Laboratory. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 1029.
Also includes the naming ceremony of No.5665 Lord Rutherford of Nelson: see also Essery & Harris below.
PRESENTATION to L.M.S. loco. No.5739 "Ulster". Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1947, 53, 44-5.
Plaques presented by the Ulster Branch of the Overseas League unveiled at Euston on 31 January 1947 by Lady Brook, wife of Sir Basil Brook, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland in the presence of Sir William Wood, President of the LMS and several directors..
"SOUTHERN Rhodesia" locomotive naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 1040.
No.5595.

Essery, R.J. and Harris, N. LMS reflections: a collection of photographs from the Hulton Picture Company. 1986.
Contains "human interest" picture of Lord Rutherford's grandson (Pat Rutherford) being presented with model of Jubilee locomotive by Lord Stamp whilst standing on front of 5665 presumably at St Pancras prior to departure for Derby on 10 December 1935.
Williams, Sitwell D. Admirals of the fleet. Backtrack, 1996, 10, 46-9.
Some of  LMS Jubilee class were named after admirals. These tended to duplicate the names of the Southern's Lord Nelson class with the exception of Sir Richard Granville, although the LMS names were shorter. Some such as Drake and Raleigh repeated earlier LNWR names. The nameplates of 5644 Howe and 5645 Collingwood were cast at St Rollox and had less bold lettering than the others. Letter by Scowcroft (page 165) queries why Monk was not used. illus.: LMS Jubilee no 5669 Fisher passing South Kenton; 5660 Rooke at Bristol Temple Mead's; 45650 Blake at Leeds City; 45668 Madden at Edge Hill; 45642 Boscawen at Glasgow Central; 45667 Jellicoe at Mill Hill;
Williams, Sitwell.  A fleet review [Naval names applied to LMS 5XP Jubilee class]. Backtrack, 2006, 20,12-17.
Names of naval battles; admirals, ships. especially battleships, battlecruisers, aircraft carriers (Glorious, Furious and Courageous), gun cruisers, destroyers (Express and Fearless), one submarine (Seahorse), Vindictive (a training ship), Defiance (a torpedo school ship) and Nelson's Victory. The author cannot explain the connection between the LMS and the Royal Navy (but many of the names may have been recycled from those used by the LNWR). Only 5706 Express carried a badge. Bibliography.
Williams, Sitwell D. Imperial 'Jubilees'. Backtrack, 2010, 24, 70-7.
Mainly concerned with the names of LMS Jubilee Class locomotives associated with the Commonwealth or British Empire:

Rebuilt Jubilee and Patriot classes

Powell's Stanier locomotive classes groups these two classes or sub-classes together which makes sense as the Jubilee class grew from the Patriot class and once rebuilt with the larger 2A boiler, subsequently fitted to the rebuilt Scots, these two types were identical. Powell questions why further locomotives were not re-boilered, especially as the LMR was so obviously short of boiler power [with KPJ wasteful double heading and late running]

Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 57-61.
Claas 6P-threer-cylinder 4-6-0 rebuilt 'Jubilee' and rebuilt 'Patriot'. Neiher variant was originally equipped with smoke deflectors and looked far more impressive in that state.

6P (later 7P) "Jubilee" (Nos. 5735 and 5736) :1942 :
These two locomotives were rebuilt from Stanier's own 1934 design. New, larger boilers were fitted. No further locomotives of this class were modified, presumably because of the cost involved, but some of the "Patriot" type were later rebuilt to the same specifica tion. The boiler used was later employed for the reconstructed "Royal Scots". If there had been an RCTS Locomotives of the LMS we might have been informed why the two locomotives reboilered came from the final batch constructed at Crewe and not from from one of the earlier series. Sadly, Ray Townsin's monograph The Jubilee 4-6-0's. fails to provide the reason, but is otherwise excellent on these two locomotives which demonstrates that he was incapable of handling the vast amount of detail for the whole class.

L.M.S.R. express locomotive with enlarged boiler. Rly Gaz., 1942, 77, 446. illus., diagr. (s.el.)
L.M.S.R.express locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
A NOTABLE L.M.S.R. locomotive rebuild. Rly Mag., 1943, 89, 48. illus.

6P (later 7P) Patriot:1946 lvatt

Conversion of "Patriot" 5X class, L.M.S.R.. Loco Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1947, 53, 32. illus.
L.M.S.R. locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 82; 84-7. 4 illus., 4 diagrs. (s. els.)
REBUILT "Patriot" class locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1947, 86, 136-7. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)

Names:
Eight former L.N.W.R. names were selected for previously un-named locomotives, but only Planet was actually used.

[HISTORIC locomotive names for the "Patriot" class]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 193.
Historic names had been chosen for eight of the 4-6-0 Patriot class locomotives of the London Midland Region. The names would be allotted as the engines left Crewe fitted with the 2A taper boiler. The first one No. 45545, carried the name Planet. Names chosen for the other seven locomotives were Vu/can, Goliath, Courier, Velocipede, Champion, Dragon, Harlequin. All had been specially chosen for their long association with the former L.M.S. and its constituents, some going back as far as the Liverpool & Manchester and Grand Junction Railways.
L.N.W.R. names for "Patriots". Rly Mag., 1949, 95, 60.

George Stephenson Centenary exhibits. Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 391. 2 illus.
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd 0-6-0ST for NCB exhbited at Newcastle and 45229 Stephenson exhibited at Chesterfield

5: 1934-1948
This class consisted of over 800 straight forward mixed traffic locomotives which performed almost every type of service on almost any part of the LMS system. With the exception of the boiler variations more worthy of a Craven than a Stanier and development found in other classes, the design remained unchanged until lvatt produced several experimental versions in 1947/48. Powell (Stanier locomotive classes) lists no less than 33 changes introduced during production, and 15 modifications to this "standard" class and this excludes the Ivatt-modifications noted earlier. Hunt and his co-workers in LMS Locomotive Profiles Nos. 5 and LMS Profile No. 6 have produced a history of the class which will never be bettered in terms of the per se of the locomotive class, rather than how it was numbered (although this is covered) and where and when they worked Although this is not ignored. The illustrations are purposeful. Furthermore, these two publications make some earlier monographs, such as that by Clay appear superfluous. Jennison is extremely good and Volume 2 covering the less standard versions is eagerly awaited, although will not be purchased by Norfolk book-box service.
The Introduction to Part 6 confusingly refers to Part 5 as Part I, but is nevertheless useful and is reproduced herein: "Part 1" was published in December 2003 as LMS Locomotive Profile No.5 and dealt with Nos. 5000-5224 that were built in 1934 and 1935 with vertical-throatplate fireboxes. It also considered modifications to them and contained some discussion of their initial service. We originally intended that Part 2 would then cover the remaining batches built up to 1947, Nos. 5225-5499 and 4768--4999, that had the same wheelbase but were built with different boilers and fireboxes. Part 3 was envisaged as describing the remainder of the class, Nos. 4658--4767, built from 1947 to 1951 with a lengthened wheelbase and roller bearings. Since then, however, we have had a change of heart and decided that a better approach will be to cover all the Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear locomotives built with sloping throatplates in this volume. We will also complete the service history of the class with the exception of the Caprotti valve gear engines. The final part will then tell the story of the Caprotti gear locomotives as well as giving an enginemen's appreciation of the entire class and containing some details omitted from previous volumes due to space considerations. Although each part will be a 'stand alone' work to some degree, we are adopting the same policy that has been applied to the series so far and the three volumes will in large measure be a single text divided into three sections with cross-references from one to the'others.ln this way, we hope to avoid too much repetition. As regards nomenclature, when referring generically to Nos. 5000-5224 we will sometimes use the term 'vertical-throatplate locomotives' since that is how they were originally built and is a convenient way of reference, even though some engines later had sloping-throatplate fireboxes. Similarly, we will occasionally refer for convenience to the subjects of this volume as'sloping-throatplate locomotives'. Also for convenience, as well as brevity, we will refer to LMS Locomotive Profile' No.5 - The Mixed Traffic Closs 5s - Nos. 5000-5224 simply as 'Part 1.
Another departure from the established format of LMS Locomotive Profiles is the publication of a separate photographic supplement to parts 1 and 2 of this trilogy.This has come about because of the different approaches taken in the two original projects. Whereas the core of each LMS Locomotive Profile is a series of drawings and descriptions aimed not only at the modeller but also the technicallyminded locomotive enthusiast, the Jennison/Clarke idea was to concentrate more on using a large number of high-quality, detail photographs. Because of the collections John, David and Bob Essery had amassed, we therefore had a very large number of pictures available and even a three-part work would not enable us to use as many as we would like without size and cost of each again becoming an issue. In consultation with the publisher we consequently decided to accompany each of the first two volumes with its own associated pictorial supplement and hope that this combination will give satisfactory coverage of these important and admired engines.


CREWE-BUILT 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 557. 2 illus.
CYLINDER castings for 4-6-0 type locomotives, L.M.S.R. Rly Gaz., 1936, 64, 1081. illus., 3 diagrs.
GENERAL utility locomotives: the L.M.S.R.Class "5". 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines. Rly Gaz., 1939, 71, 544-51. 4 illus., 6 diagrs. (incl.. s.el.), 2 plans, 5 tables.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
NEW 4-6-0 locomotives, LM.S.R.. Rly Engr, 1934, 55, 287-8. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Vulcan Foundry series.
NEW 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1934, 75, 198. illus.
SECTIONED perspective view of cylinders and motion. Rly Gaz., 1946. 84, 568 + folding plate. diagr.
The date should be noted.
TWO-CYLINDER 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, L.M.& S. Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 266-7. illus., diagr. (s.& f.els.)

1936: Boiler modifications

MODIFIED passenger engines, L.M.S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 32-3. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

Performance and testing : (See also Carling, Cox and Poultney in the retrospective section).

20-22 April  1937 :
High speed test runs between London (St. Pancras) and Manchester (Central) via Leicester and back.

DYNAMOMETER car trials on Midland Division, L.M.S.R.. Loco.Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 143.5.
DYNAMOMETER trials on Midland Division, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 870.


1939 :
Test runs : Leeds-St. Pancras (passenger), Sheffield-Carlisle (freight)..

Stanier, W.A. The position of the locomotive in mechanical engineering. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1941, 146, 50-61 + 4 plates. 13 illus., diagr., 3 tables. (Presidential Address).
Dynamometer car tests: St Pancras to Leeds and return with No. 5067 with 14 element superheater and No. 5079 with 21 element superheater

GENERAL utility locomotives : the L.M.S.R. class "5" 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines. Rly Gaz., 1939, 71, 544-51. 4 illus., 6 diagrs. (incl. s.el.), 2 plans, 5 tables.

Smokebox ash removal

Davies & Metcalfe experiments on smokebox washing out. see Davies & Metcalfe page.
No. 5435 modified to accept this method of smokebox cleaning

1947: oil fuel
Wells, Jeffrey. The quest for alternative fuels. Part 3. Backtrack, 1999, 11, 148.
Photograph of No, 4844 in service at Crewe on 11 October 1947.

1948 :
British Railways inter-railway comparative testing.
Allen, C.J.. The locomotive exchanges, 1870-1948. [1950].

Retrospective and critical

Andrews, H.I. Heat losses of locomotive boilers. Engineering, 1955, 180, 209-11. illus., 6 tables. (REA 9670)
Tests of one of the class on the mobile test plant.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175. 216-65. (Paper No. 520).
Mileage figures between major overhauls for the basic design (56,969) and for locomotives with manganese steel axlebox liners (97,291) are quoted.
Bond, R.C. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive No.6202. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1946, 36, 182-265. (Paper No. 458).
Page 187 : the author quotes hammer blow figures for the class 5 at 64 mile/h 7.59 tons per rail (whole engine: 9.03) .
Bond, R.C. discussion on Burrows, M.G. and Wallace, A.L. Experience with the steel fireboxes of the Southern Region Pacific locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1958, 48, 282-3. (Paper No. 584)
Noted the importance of water quality and treatment. The Class 5 4-6-0s fitted with steel fireboxes had not been entirely satisafctory.
CAB comfort. Rly Mag., 1945, 91, 236.
Criticism of the uncomfortable cabs and rough riding characteristics.
Carling, D.R. Locomotive testing on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1950, 40, 496-591. (Paper No.497).
Tests carried out at the Rugby Test Plant with a class 5 locomotive are considered in detail.
Clay, J.F. and Cliffe, J. The Stanier 'Black Fives'. London: Ian Allan, 1972. 96pp.
Usual mixture of description of design and its variants (including the British Railways 73XXX series), locomotive performance and overall assessemnt wherein it is questionned whether the tapered boiler and Belpaire firebox were justifiable when the cheaper Doncaster/Darlington type performed as well.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS. 1999.
The less than standard Class 5 boilers are considered at length: furthermore, they were non-standard with those on the Jubilee classes, but unlike those they were successful: a sort of updated Saint.
Cox, E.S. Balancing of locomotive reciprocating parts. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1942, 32, 2-37. Disc.: (abridged) :1943, 33, 218-36. 4 illus., 11 diagrs., 3 tables. (Paper No.432).
A class 5 locomotive was deliberately slipped on greased rails at a speed equivalent to 100 mile/h to establish the effect of coupled wheel lifting at speed.
Dunn, J.M. Reflections on a railway career. 1966.
At this period considerable interest was being taken in the performance of tapered-boiler engines of all types and one of Mr. Stanier's personal staff, Mr. M. C. Burrows, used to visit in turn all the sheds at which any of these engines were stationed to see what, if any, trouble they were giving. I made it my business to collect data for him and as we got on very well together I looked forward to his visits. One of the most irritating things to a running-shed man about the 4—6—0 class 5 engines was the lack of interchangeability of details among individual engines of the same class in spite of the fact that they were labelled "Standard" engines. I remember, for example, one of these engines coming to the shed with an iron carriage-warming apparatus pipe broken. There were two other sister engines undergoing repairs at the same time and we n~turally went to take the corresponding pipe off one of these to put the first back to 'work as quickly as possible. However, the pipe on one of the former was of a different length and that on the other had the union nut at the wrong end, so neither could be used. I complained to Mr. Burrows about this and said that although the engines had been built by contractors I could not understand why they had not been constructed in conformity with the drawings. The reply was that the engines were "a bargain" as a result of which one could not complain!
The 2-cylinder 4-6-0, class 5 engines with tapered-boilers gave a good deal of trouble with piston-head wear and piston-heads were having to be renewed at, on an average, every 20,000 miles. This was eventually got over by fitting a small shoe supported by two coil springs at the bottom of the piston-head to hold it off the cylinder. The steel firebox stays on these engines also gave rise to considerable concern and in February 1937 the boilersmith at Crewe North Shed fairly put the cat among the pigeons when he examined one of these engines which was supposed to have 5 broken stays and reported that there were in fact 160! Following this, at 5.30 p.m. just when we were all going home on the ist March 1937 a telephone message was received from the Divisional Office at Crewe to the effect that none of the engines in question were to go out again until the fireboxes had been examined. This caused con siderable commotion as there were about 7 engines of this class at Llandudno Junction and no others with which to replace them. For the next few days everybody was "steel-stay mad" and all in authority were trying to check each other and the boilersmiths in the detection of broken steel stays. However no alarming cases were discovered and it was eventually decided that the Crewe boilersmith had been mistaken.

Essery, Terry. How it was done. Part 2. Disposal. LMS Journal, 2005 (10) 54-68.
Noted that most of the class 5 required the removal of some of the firebars unless equipped with rocking grates and hopper ashpans.
Essery, Terry. Steam locomotives compared. Penryn: Atlantic, 1996. 160pp. Chapter 11
Found the cab to be very easy to work in
Fore, J. Footplate impressions. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1955, 45, 31 7-21. (Paper No. 546).
A graduate apprentice's impressions of a number of LMR designs including the class 5. For an engine of nominal tractive effort of about 25,000 lb., these are indeed a most capable locomotive. Very impressive is the performance of these engines on the heavy express freight trains which link London with the industrial cities of the North West and Scotland. While this class is not so prone to rolling and swaying at speed as the express passenger 4-6-0s, the knocking and vertical vibration usually associated with two-cylinder designs is very noticeable when the engines are becoming due for shop repairs. Their ability to work hard, however, does not seem to be prejudiced to any great extent by this roughness.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Milestone: "the 'Duchesses' were a huge success":
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Milestone: "one of the most successful engines ever designed" (page 62):
Harris, Michael. The British Caprotti story. Part 2. Steam Wld, 1992 (65), 31-4.
Brief coverage of Caprotti fitted Class 5 and Bond's view that gear might have become standard,
Hunt, David and Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke. The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 1. Nos. 5000-5224. LMS Locomotive Profile No. 5.
The not quite standard class 5s: the first 225 locomotives had non-standard boilers with a vertical throat plate. These were constructed in 1934 and 1935. This covers some of the same ground as Powell's Stanier locomotive classes (below). Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40..
Hunt, David, Fred James and Bob Essery with David Jennison and David Clarke. The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225-5499 and 4658-4999 series. 128pp incl. folding diag. LMS Locomotive Profile No. 6.
A work of quite extraordinary depth which manages to make the "standard" class appear far less so: includes some modifications which do not appear to have been noted in contemporary literature, and some proposed modifications of great interest. One of the most interesting was the fitting of Nos. 44718 to 44727 withh steel inner fireboxes. These were sent to Scotland where they worked north of Glasgow and performed excellently (page 30 plus note 10 which gives more information about the use of steel fireboxes in Britain prior ro Bulleid, notably that by Webb and by T.W. Worsdell). Proposed modifications included the use of a La Mont water-tube boiler (1937/8), a Lemaitre multiple blastpipe in 1950 (Derby drawing) and a Franco-Crosti boiler (but this was for BR 73XXX type, KPJ). In the 1950s and 1960s trials of monolithic cast in situ refractory concrete fire arches were made. The illustrations are purposeful: note for instance those relating to speed recording apparatus and self-weighing tenders. Even the more decorative are indicative of something deeper (and more reliable) as with that of Nos. 44943 and 45274 hauling the Royal Train in July 1955 on page 86. This is one of the best locomotive monographs ever produced and sadly makes some of the earlier ones in the same series look somewhat impoverished..
Jenkinson, David. The 'domeless' LMS Class 5 4-6-0s. Modellers Backtrack, 1992, 2, 236-47.
The early domeless locomotives also included the four named locomotives. This is mainly about the construction of models in 4mm and 7mm scale, but includes information and some excellent illustrations about the prototypes.
Jennison, John. A detailed history of the Stanier Class Five 4-6-0s. Volume 1 - Nos.5000-5471. Railway Correspondence & Travel Society, (Locomotives of the LMS series). 288pp.
Reviewed in Backtrack, 2014, 28, 126: also seen at NRM: appears to be an excellent work. Its strengths include the prelude to the design as an "improved Prince of Wales": this was a saga of epic proportions and included both inside and outside cylinder designs fitted with Caprotti valve gear and a brief mention of the light 4-6-0 for lines like the Callander & Oban line. Pp. 92-3 cover the name Queen's Edinburgh and official references to the intended naming in 1937: photographic evidence is still lacking!.
Langridge, E.A. LMS 4-6-0s on and off the drawing board. [Part 3 ?]. Steam Wld, 1997 (123), 16-21.
It is difficult to cite this messy journal (but this appeared to be Part 3 and certainly ends on page 21. The excellent article certainly covers the Class 5 and its origins as an improved Prince of Wales. This project began under Beames and involved T.G. Lightburn, the draughtsman at Crewe. Caprotti valve gear was proposed with inside cylinders and the poppet valves outside the main frames. A 2-8-0 with outside cylinders and inside poppet valves was being develped at the same time. Some consideration was given by "JH" to alter the wheel base of the "improved Prince of Wales". The frame spacing was different from that adopted for the 5XP Jubilees and Langridge stated that neither Whale nor Drummond would have tolerated such a lack of standardization as it reduced the number of parts common to the two classes. The Vulcan Foundry lot emerged as a typical "contract shop" design in the shape of the cylinders, the high running plate and the exposed valve gear. The effect was not new: Urie had introduced it in 1913 and Finlayson was a "contract shop" man. The Kings Arthurs (N15) and  class 5 were very similar. Several Swindon features of the class 5 were unsatisfactory, notably the brake hangers and the pressed in oiling rings. The class suffered from a very high level of knock..
Langridge, E.A. Under ten CMEs. 2011. pp. 91; 170
When you think of the two classes of the SECR, and later the SR, it seems strange that on the LMS no efforts were made to use the Horwich 2-6-0 parts as future standards. It may be mentioned - although this is another tale - that this obstinacy went right through to Stanier class '5' 4-6-0s and 'Jubilees', which had absurd little differences of detail which would never have arisen if rivalry between the design offices had been scotched at the beginning of the amalgamation.
Coleman's scheme was chosen, and before all the drawings had been completed an order for 50 had been placed with VuIcan Foundry. They may have actually done some of the design themselves; much of the design bears their stamp, and it is interesting to note that Charles Finlayson, brother of J.J. at Eastleigh and uncle of TS. (then at Gorton and lastly, at Derby), was Chief draughtsman at Vulcan. The Vulcan Foundry-built engines Nos. 5020-69 started appearing first, Crewe producing Nos. 5000-19 shortly afterwards. There seems to be a likeness between the class '5' and the LSWR 'H15' in details. In general there was nothing new about these engines for Urie had introduced his two cylinder, outside gear pattern 4-6-0 back in 1913 (incidentally his chief draughtsman was contract-shop trained) and the SR had perpetuated it in the 'King Arthur' design, which had quite similar dimensions to the class '5'. Thus, even with moderate superheat, there was no reason why the 'Black Staniers' should not have got a good reputation from the first.

Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 5—L.M.S.R . Glasgow—Inverness trains "5XP" and "5P" [sic] class engines. Engineer, 1939, 168, 390-2. 3 illus., table.
A North American's? impressions of the class as judged by footplate riding.
L.M.S. class 5 4-6-0 boiler variations. Rly Obsr, 1948, 18, 138.
L.M.S. class 5 4-6-0 boiler variations. Rly Obsr, 1959, 29, 35-6.
L.M.S. class 5 4-6-0 frame changes. Rly Obsr, 1959, 29, 361-3. table.
The production line repair methods employed at Crewe and Derby led to much inter-change between boilers and frames (including nominally incompatible combinations of the two).
Meeting current steam locomotive demands. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1958, 64, 41-3. 3 illus.
Criticism of the L.M.S. small engine policy, particularly the use of the class 5 and Jubilees on Midland Division expresses.
Phillips, K.R..How fast did 'Black Fives' really go? Steam Wld, 2006, (224), 50.
Examines several earlier claims and suggests 95 mile/h at Elstow on 26 May 1960.
Poultney, E.G. Locomotive coal trials. Engineer, 1960, 209, 462-6.9 diagrs., 6 tables. (REA 13258).
A review of tests performed at the Rugby Test Plant on the effect of small coal on the steaming capacity of this and the Jubilee classes.
Poultney, E.G. Steam locomotion : the construction, working principles, and practical operation of steam locomotives, edited by C.R.H.Simpson. 1951.
The frontispiece of the second volume is a coloured, "exploded" diagram of a class 5 locomotive.
Powell, A.J. The Armstrong Whitworth 'black fives'. Rly Wld, 1987, 48 (568), 475-9.
1462 steam locomotives were built at Scotswood from 1919, One hundred locomotives (Works numbers 1166-1265) 5125-5224 cost £5375 each. A further 227 with sloping throat plates (WN 1280-1506) 5225-5451 cost £6244 each. 4500 tons of castings were manufactured in Letchworth. Frame cracking was a problem.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977.
Chapter  6: Class 5 - the engineman's friend.
Powell, A.J.: "45671", pseud. Slogging over the Peak, Rly Wld, 1964, 25, 410-14.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 30-41.
Class 5-4-6-0: This is a thorough examination of the relatively large number of modifications wrought on this supposedly standard class, one of the major of which was so substantial that the boilers were not interchangeable, except that St Rollox Works managed to fit the non-interchangeable boilers, presumably due to a shortage of suitable replacements. The Caprotti valve gear locomotives are treated separately. In the more recent book by Hunt, Essery et al (above) the first 225 locomotives (that is those with the incompatable, and inferior, vertical throat boilers) are treated separately.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Was involved in the tests on No. 44764: pp. 58-9
Rogers, H.C.B. Last steam locomotive engineer: R.A. Riddles, C.B.E. 1970.
The two-cylinder 4-6-0s gave excellent service from the start... The Class 5 Mixed Traffic 4-6-0s, or, as they were called 'Black Staniers' or 'Black Fives' (from their colour as compared with the red Jubilees), were developed from Stanier's 2-6-0s and were excellent engines from the start. But even they were not free from trouble. Whilst Stanier was in India in 1936-7, F.A. Lemon, Works Superintendent at Crewe, drew Riddles' attention to the boiler of one of the Class 5s. In order to save weight the firebox shell had been made of nickel steel plates with steel stays between the inner box and outer shell. A large number of these stays had fractured on both sides of the engine and the firebox was bulging both inside and out. Lemon said that this was the second engine of the class they had found like this. Riddles promptly gave instructions that boiler inspectors were to make a point of examining boilers in service at the first opportunity. Within 24 hours Lemon rang Riddles at Euston to say that his men had found seven more engines with this defect. Riddles immediately gave instructions that no more Class 5s were to go out of the sheds until they had been examined by boiler inspectors. He passed this information to the Motive Power Superintendent by telephone. (S. J. Symes, the Chief Stores Superintendent was actually acting CME in Stanier's absence, but he was sick.) Riddles went home to a peaceful night's rest; but when he came back to duty the next morning he found that a monumental 'flap' had developed. Two Vice-Presidents were awaiting him at Euston, Ernest Lemon and Sir Harold Hartley. The latter had heard the news whilst at Oxford and had returned hurriedly to London. He was most disturbed at Riddles' action, as he believed that taking all these engines out of traffic would stop the line. Riddles, however, explained that if he had not stopped engines in this condition from being used and if in conseqence there had been a fatal accident, he, as officiating CME, would have been criminally responsible. He could not therefore cancel his instructions. Ultimately, investigation revealed that through a design error the stays concerned had been made with a centre portion slightly less in diameter than was desirable; when this was adjusted no further trouble occurred.
Rowledge, J.W.P. and Brian Reed. The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. (the Jubilees, class 5s and the BR Standard class 5s). Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977.
Rich source of concise information.
Stokes, Ken. Both sides of the footplate. Truro: Bradford Barton, [1985?]. Chap. 8.
Was involved in fuel consumption trials with No. 4986 and a self-weighing tender on a variety of imortant workings from Millhouse mpd (Sheffield), including to St Pancras and to Manchester Sheffield.
Thomson, W.  Discussion on Burrows, M.G. and Wallace, A.L. Experience with the steel fireboxes of the Southern Region Pacific locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1958, 48, 297-8. (Paper No. 584)
Whilst the steel fireboxes fitted to the WD 2-10-0s were remarkably free from trouble and firebox stays lasted for fifteen years, the class 5s fitted with steel fireboxes experienced more problems and stay life was only nine years.. ..

Thorley, W.G.F.. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 698.(Paper No. 528).
"The first two" Princess" class Pacific locomotives of the former LMS Railway had 32-element superheaters fitted in place of the original 16-element apparatus after only a short period of service, and the steaming was improved thereby. Tuplin had said in the discussion that the firebox volume was increased at the same time as the additional superheating surface was provided and therefore the value of the latter could not be assessed accurately, but in this connection it was pointed out that the number of elements had been increased without increase of firebox volume in both the Classes 5 MT and 5 XP locomotives of the same railway, as compared with the original arrangement and the steaming had been improved. The superheater had the advantage that, provided the flue tubes were kept reasonably clean, its efficiency remained unimpaired as the boiler scaled up internally; also it was sometimes able to evaporate water during periods of priming, which would be carried over into the cylinders of a saturated engine..
Topham, W.L. The running man's ideal locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 3-29. Disc.: 29-91. (Paper No. 456)
In spite of stating need for 3-cylinder type for many duties Topham acknowledged the excellence of the LMS Class 5 design
van Riemsdijk, J.T. Compound locomotives: an International survey. 1994.
Any two-cylinder engine, then, but especially any engine with two outside cylinders only, has to have its balancing designed to some sort of compromise. If there is little balance of reciprocating masses, then the pull at the drawbar will fluctuate widely with each rotation of the wheels, once a reasonable speed has been attained. If, on the other hand, a high proportion of the reciprocating masses is balanced, then the result will be a lack of rotative balance and at high running speeds the wheels will pound the track and may even lift clear of it for some part of every revolution. This latter phenomenon was clearly demonstrated in trials of the LMS Class 5 which have been fully reported. It should also be pointed out that this phenomenon of pounding, known as 'hammer-blow, is 'a material factor to the bridge engineer. As for the fluctuation in draw bar pull produced by two small a degree of reciprocating balance, it is worth recording that a fluctuation as great as twelve tons per revolution was measured in high speed running by BR 'Britannia' Pacifics and Class 9F 2-10-0s, and by GWR Hawksworth 'County' 4-6-0s. The trouble was apparently cured by changing the coupling between engine and tender and allowing the tender to reduce the effect on the train, but it is none the less clear that large two-cylinder locomotives should not be allowed to run as fast as modern valve gear design permits.

Names
Four, possibly five, locomotives were named (see below for two). The other two were 5154 Lanarkshire Yeomanry and 5156 Ayrshire Yeomanry. No. 5155 Queens Edinburgh may have been named thus in December 1942, but lost it 1944: see Rowledge and Reed page 74.

[NAMED class 5 locomotives: Nos. 5157 The Glasgow Highlander and 5158 The Glasgow Yeomanry. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 74.

Class 5: Fairburn/lvatt modifications

c.1944 : application of manganese steel axlebox liners.

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J.Instn Loco.Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. Disc.:217-65. (Paper No.520).
Includes comparative mileage statistics for the ordinary (56,969) and manganese steel axlebox fitted locomotives (97,291).
Cox, E.S. Locomotive axleboxes. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1944, 34, 275-317. Disc.: 317-40: 1945, 35, 221-38: 1946 36, 171-6 (Paper No. 447).
Describes the original development work.
MANGANESE-STEEL axlebox liners. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 514-16. 4 diagrs.

1945- : Ivatt : Rocking grates and self cleaning fireboxes.

Anwell, B.W. Recent L.M.S. locomotive developments. Rly Obsr, 1946,16, 35-6. LOCOMOTIVE grate and smokebox improvements on the L.M.S. Rly Engng, 1946,161,103.
RECENT developments in L.M.S. locomotive practice. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1946, 52, 82-5. 3 illus., 2 diagrs.

1947-: Ivatt : Experimental locomotives:
Double chimneys, roller bearings, Caprotti valve gear, external Stephenson link motion, and combinations of some of these, were fitted to a batch of class 5 4-6-0s. This anarchic sub-class vied with the Bulleid Q1 class for ugliness and downright eccentricity (such as the use of substantial splashers coupled with American-style cabs).

LOCOMOTIVE valve gears and bearings: British Railways (London Midland Region). Engineering, 1948, 165, 272-3; 276. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (REA 2635).
LONDON Midland Region locomotive developments. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 215-19. 5 illus., 3 diagrs. (s. & f.els.)
LONDON Midland Region locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 163-5.3 illus., 2diagrs. (s. els.)
LONDON Midland Region loco. experiments. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 33-4. 2 illus.
LONDON, Midland Region locos. with Caprotti gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 51-4. illus., 5 diagrs. (incl.. s. el.)
NEW British steam locomotive designs. Trains ill., 1948, 1, (9), 3-7. 6 illus., table.

1951-: Improved Caprotti valve gear.

L.M.R. locomotive with improved British-Caprotti valve gear. Rly Gaz., 1951, 95, 632-3. 4 illus. (REA 6943).
Powell (below) notes that 44686/7 were fitted with an improved form of the valve gear nd SKF roller bearings: the valve gear demanded a very high running plate.

Retrospective and critical

Chancellor, Paul. Mr Stanier's 11 varieties! Steam Wld, 2006 (229) 22-7.
Some of the many variants of the Standard class 5 introduced mainly by Stanier's successor Ivatt: Caprotti valve gear, Stephenson link motion, double chimneys, raised running plates, roller bearings and steel fireboxes are illuustrated as some of the many variants. See letter from John Raines (No. 234 p. 23) which disputes some of information. John Raines questions some of the information presented: Steam Wld (234) 23. Illus.
Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 2. 1930-1960. 1984. page 149.
Generally this use of poppet valve gear differed from most others previously tried in this country in that the standard engine was re-designed where necessary to suit the valve gear, rather than the reverse. Thus the valve gear incorporated all those features which the wide experience of the manufacturers had shown desirable, without imposing the restrictions that were sometimes necessary when poppet valve gear had heen applied, with all the appearance of a 'last hope', to some existing locomotive of doubtful capacity. Thus the valve gear was given a real chance. The reversing gear in the cab was so arranged that the same number of turns was required to work the gear from full forward to full reverse as with the standard piston valve gear, so as to avoid any confusion on the part of the drivers.

The comparison between Class '5' engines fitted with the Walschaerts and Caprotti gear was naturally not confined solely to coal consumption and repair charges. It was possible that one or other of the afternative arrangements under investigation might show enhanced power per unit of weight, which called for special consideration. This possihility would have concerned to no less extent the third valve gear under observation, the Stephenson Link Motion on engine No 4767. From examination it seemed that the layout of the gear on that engine closely resembled that of the Great Western 'Hall', particularly on the shortness of the eccentric rods. This feature tends to accentuate the characteristic of the gear, whereby the lead increases as the cut-off is shortened. On the Great Western engines the lead, which was adequate for fast running when the cut off is 20 to 25 per cent was reduced to nothing at all at about 40 to 50 per cent, and with the gear still further forward the lead became negative. This setting had the effect of giving enhanced power at slow speeds, very rapid acceleration, and a capacity for hard slogging on heavy gradients which Walschaert engines with a constant lead of 3/16 inch to ¼ inch do not possess.

The trial of Stephenson Link Motion on so excellent an engine as the Stanier was therefore something of an event. The fitting of the gear outside the frames was decided upon for two reasons: to have it in a similar position to the Walschaerts, so that comparative costs for maintenance should be on the fairest basis; to avoid the use of the heavy eccentrics which long valve travel would otherwise require. On the score of maintenance alone the case for putting valve gear, Stephenson or Walschaerts, outside was not by any means clear cut. With outside gear if a big end was to be taken down, the motion had also to be partly dismantled, with consequent re-assembly afterwards whereas in a similar case inside motion need not be touched.

Subsequent history seems to have shown that the results did not favour the Caprotti gear. I have never seen any official statements to this effect, but no more locomotives were built with it. My own experience travelling as a passenger behind the Caprotti Class '5' engines, and one trip from Leeds to Carlisle on the footplate suggested that those engines were singularly lacking in plain 'guts' in getting away with a load and in climbing a gradient. They ran very freely on the faster stretches of line but sometimes the loss of time on the adverse sections was more than could be recovered afterwards. My trip on the footplate, with the 'Thames– Forth Express', on one of the Caprotti engines fitted with roller hearings, was very disappointing. The engine steamed well enough hut seemed quite unable to produce any appreciable power from the cylinders, and with a not-immoderately heavy load of 300 tons gross hehind we lost quite a lot of time, particularly between Settle Junction and Blea Moor.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 42-5
Unfortunately, either the publisher or the author failed to provide Chapter numbers, but Class 5 - 4-6-0 Caprotti valve gear is treated separately and follows the main section on the class. There were many minor modifications to this sub-class, including the fitting and removal of double chimneys.

Performance
Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1962, 108, 245-74.
Includes logs of some very fast runs with Stanier Class 5 locomotives, mainly on very short trains, between Manchester Victoria and Liverpool Exchange. Two were timed in January 1939 on non-stop workings when No. 5209 reached 90 mile/h at Kirkby on a four-coach westbound express and No. 5204 maintained the 45 minute schedule with 9 coaches on the 10.40 ex-Liverpool. Under British Railways No. 44767 (fitted with Stephenson link motion) achieved 80 mile/h at Rainford; 44987 achieved 84 mile/h at Rainford: both on 14.40 ex Manchester Victoria which stopped at Wigan Wallgate. No. 44782 reached 80 mile/h at Parbold between Wigan Wallgate and Southport St Lukes.
Ransome-Wallis, P. On railways at home an abroad. London: Batchworth, 1951. 300 pp. + plates. 102 illus., maps.
Pp. 103-7: Footplate observations made on No. 45106 on 06.50 Carlisle Upperby to Crewe freight: scheduled arrival 13.45: actual arrival 18.45!

2-6-0

5:1933:
This was Stanier's first LMS design to be completed. It was a taper-boiler version of the Hughes/Folwer class 5 2-6-0 and was notable for its introduction of Churchward practice to the LMS. The first locomotive even had a typical Swindon safety valve cover, but this was quickly removed (see Cox Locomotive panorama). The cylinder layout was adjusted to normal practice (the Horwich design had steeply sloping cylinders to meet the peculiarly restricted LMS gauge).

L.M.S. Railway redesigned goods engine. Engineer, 1934, 157, 80. illus.
The designation "goods engine" is interesting: other contemporary accounts refered to "mixed traffic".
NEW L.M.S.R. 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives. Rly Engr. 1934, 55, 58-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW 2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.&S. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 32-3. illus., diagr. (s.& f.els.)
NEW 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives. Rly Mag., 1934, 74, 148-9. illus., diagr. (s.el.)
REDESIGNED 2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.S.. Rly Obsr, 1934, 6, 30-1.2 illus.
2-6-0 type two cylinder locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Engineering, 1934, 137, 76. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama. v.1. 1965.
See drawing on p. 110 and photographic illustration on plate 40 (f.p. 116) for the design as built with G.W.R. brass safety valve casing. The photograph is believed to have been taken by N.H.Whitworth.
Essery, Bob. Genesis of the Stanier 2-6-0s. Steam Wld 1992 (57) 6-12.
Author states that design was essentially that of modifying Horwich 2-6-0 with a high pressure Swindon boiler (and this enabled the cylinders to be repositioned). Original allocations and changes in boiler type (from partially conical to fully coned) and in cylinder type). Illus.: 42961 on passnger train leaving Chester (Eric Treacy); 2984 on two-coach stopping train (Eric Treacy); 13245 with GWR-style safety valve bonnet: colour: 42966 on freight at Bradley (Gavin Morrison); 42975 at Willesden (Colour-Rail) 42960 on express near Lancaster in August 1962 (Keith R. Pirt), and 42957 at Oxley on 30 January 1966 (Ken Cooper); 13245 with tapered boiler on rear section only and GWR-type safety valves (T.G. Hepburn); 13257 (as previous boiler but with pop safety valves above firebox and whistle (not hooter) clearly visible; 42954 at Derby on 10 July 1948
Fox, R. and Kinder, M. Relative values: the Hughes and Stanier 2-6-0s. Br. Rlys ill., 2002, 11, 382-91; 460-9.
Stanier type not popular when shedded at Nuneaton.
Hooper, John. The Stanier moguls. Br. Rlys ill., 1993, 2, 60-9.
Includes details of comparative tests (against Hughes/Fowler type) on freight trains between Manchester and London in July 1934 and between Sheffield and Carlisle in July 1935: in the latter a table shows between Skipton and Ais Gill. In this latter cylinders of 18in and 18½ diameter were tested. Tables show numbers (originally 13245 et seq, later 2945 et seq and allocations. The boiler was unique to the class.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991. Pp. 26-9.
 Class 5-2-6-0. The Hughes parallel boiler 2-6-0s (nicknamed 'Crabs') proved to be a highly competent and economical design, and building continued from 1926 to 1932, by which time a fleet of 245 was in service. When 40 more locomotives in this category were authorised in the 1933 Building Programme, Stanier decided to change the design to incorporate his own ideas of higher boiler pressure, modest superheat, a tapered boiler and smaller cylinders which would not need to be so steeply inclined. Much of the design work was done in the Horwich drawing office, and various details betrayed this origin. The 40 locomotives were built in the short period of five months, but were never added to, their role being taken over within months by the new Class 5.
The boiler was of a similar diameter to those subsequently used on the Jubilees and Class 5, but shorter. The barrel was in two rings, the front one cylindrical and the second tapered, and the boiler clothing reflected this shape. There was neither a dome nor the usual safety valves on the firebox top; instead, the safety valves were combined with the top-feed in a fitting on the boiler barrel, beneath a casing very similar to that on GWR classes. The circular smokebox rested on a cast saddle of much heavier appearance than Stanier's later fabricated saddles. Because the higher boiler pressure allowed smaller cylinders to be used, these could be horizontal while staying within the loading gauge. They had extended valve chests and the clothing was almost square at the top. A crosshead-driven vacuum pump was mounted below the bottom slidebar on the left-hand side. The wide gap between the cylinder top and the plat form accommodated a snifting valve.
A Horwich-style double side-window was fitted, and the class perpetuated the Horwich practice of the front platform being narrower than that over cylinders and motion, a feature which continued on the Class 5 4-6-0s and Class 8F 2-8-0s. Only a single vacuum ejector was provided, the body of which was much smaller than the two-ejector type; it was just in front of the cab on the left side with long exhaust pipe to the smokebox.
A standard Fowler 3,500 gal tender, much narrower than the cab, was attached. It had coal rails, but surprisingly no water scoop. The class appeared at a time when snap-head rivets were displacing flush counter sunk ones, and both cab and tender exhibited a positive rash of rivet heads.
Out-of-character features for the Stanier marque were the very shallow platform valance angles (a long standing Horwich practice), the fitting of steam sanding at a time when Stanier had 'imported' dry trickle sanding from Swindon, and the use of a Midland whistle rather than the Caledonian-type hooter. No. 13245 was fitted with a GWR style of safety valve bonnet but this was removed in favour of something which looked like a cross between a GWR bonnet and a dome: this was fitted to ten locomotive. Very angular cylinder casings were fitted to the initial locomotives.
Ransome-Wallis, P., photographer. [Stanier class 5 2-6-0 with safety valves on the top-feed casing]. Rly Mag., 1941, 87, 114. illus.
Published photographs showing the variant type of boiler with safety valves on the top feed casing were comparatively rare in the 1960s.
Young, John and Tyreman, David. The Hughes and Stanier 2-6-0s: locomotives of the LMS series. 208pp.
Includes photograph on No. 13245 with Swindon type bonnet around safely valves

Ivatt designs

Ivatt designs included two types of 2-6-0 and a 2-6-2T, modifications to the last two Stanier Pacifics and the diesel-electric six-axle locomotive No. 10000

2: 1946: lvatt:
Most branch line and other secondary duties were performed by a varied and ageing collection of 4-4-0s, 0-6-0s and tank engines. To replace these Ivatt introduced two basically similar classes. These were the class 2 2-6-0 and 2-6-2T designs, which incorporated many modern features to facilitate maintenance and reduce operating costs.

L.M.S.R. locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 82; 84-7. 4 illus., 4 diagrs. (s. els.)
NEW L.M.S. locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1947, 53, 5-6; 16-17 4 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW L.M.S.R. locomotives: 2-6-0 tender and 2-6-2 tank locomotives for secondary services. Rly Gaz., 1947, 86, 14-16. 5 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f.els.)

Retrospective and critical
Seems impossible to believe that restricted to so few items.

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175. 216-65. (Paper No. 520).
Includes figures for the mileage obtained between overhauls for the class; 104,304:
Durrant, A.E. Swindon apprentice. Cheltenham: Runpast, 1989. 216pp.
Page 148 for observations on Dean Goods superiority to this class (prior to its modification)
Topping, Brian. Small, but perfectly formed... Steam Wld, 2006, (228) 8-14.
LMS Ivatt light weight 2-6-0 and 2-6-2T designs, including tests performed upon 2-6-0 No. 6419 between Crewe and Holyhead during 12-26 April 1947 with 270 tons at average speed of 46 mile/h. The locomotive steamed well and was comfortable. Tests were also conducted at Swindon, both on the stationary plant and in controlled road tests of No. 46413 (and subsequently 46424) and Dean goods 0-6-0 2301 No. 2579 when a considerable amount of work on draughting was required for the 2-6-0 to exceed the performance of the 0-6-0. The colour illustrations show locomotives with the three types of chimney: orginal, Dean goods type and a sort of compromise:

4: 1947: Ivatt:
This class was designed as a replacement for the 4F type 0-6-0, but it incorporated all the features of modern design. Subsequently the type was built for regions other than the LMR and later became a BR standard class. Although some of the contemporary accounts relate to "freight locomotives" they performed a considerable amount of passenger work notably on the Midland & Great Northern lines in Norfolk and Lincolnshire..

LONDON Midland Region locomotive developments. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 215-19. 5 illus., 3 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
LONDON Midland Region locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1948, 94, 163-5. 3 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
LONDON Midland Region 2-6-0 locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1948, 54, 34-5. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW British steam locomotive designs. Trains ill., 1948,1(9), 3-7.6 illus., table.
NEW London Midland Region 2-6-0 freight locomotive. Railways, 1948, 9, 71-2.4 illus.

Testing

British Railways London Midland Region class 4 2 cylinder 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive. [London, British Transport Commission], 1951. [41,7, [50] sheets. 65 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.), 3 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests with live steam injector. Bulletin No.3).

Retrospective
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175. 216-65. (Paper No. 520).
Includes figures for the mileage obtained between overhauls for the class: 90,663
Horton, John A. LMS Ivatt 4F Moguls, 1948-52. Br. Rly J. LMS Special Ed., 1988, 61-4.
The 'Doodlebugs' were probably the ugliest locomotives to run on the home railways (Horton's words, although KPJ is in complete agreement)
Tester, Adrian. A defence of the Midland/ LMS Class 4 0-6-0. Aberystwyth: Crimson Lake, 2013. 274pp.
Reviewed in depth by Phil Atkins in Backtrack, 2013, 27, 574. Tester is highly critical of this design, especially in terms of economic value.
Topping, Brian. Pigs can fly! Steam Wld, 2007 (243) 8-14.
Design shared much of the boiler design of the later 2-6-4Ts, but had to have smaller bore cylinders to meet the requirements of the Civil Engineer. Thus a highr working pressure had to be useed. The locomotives were fitted with self-cleaning smokeboxes, rocker grates, hopper ashpans and double chimneys. The locomotives initially steamed badly and steaming tests were conducted between Crewe and Holyhead with No. 43027 and modifications were made to the size of the choke on the blastpipes. The locomotive was returned to Horwich and fitted with a single chimney, initially one of the class 5 type and subsequently with that for a type 4 2-6-4T. Further tests were conducted at and from Swindon with a Darlington-built locomotive fitted with a stovepipe chimney which was capable of rapid modification. The Swindon tests had shown that the locomotive was mechanically rough, but the writer claims that this was not so in ordinary service.

Nicknames
Charlton, Bobby. Now that fireman is identified! . Steam Wld, 2008, (254) 20.
Letter notes that Class 4 known as 'nut & bolters' at Boston.

Tank engines

2-6-4T

Stanier modifications
Stanier was responsible for three versions of this design, which originated in 1927 under Fowler. The first Stanier version was introduced in 1933 and was the Fowler design, modified with a side-window cab and doors. This type was also the subject of experiments in welding. In 1934 a three-cylinder taper-bailer class was built for the Southend line, which was followed in 1935 by a taper-boiler variant of the two-cylinder Fowler locomotives. The final version was that introduced under Fairburn which had a shorter wheelbase..

1933 : parallel-boiler/modified cab.

L.M.S. tank locomotive. Engineer, 1933, 156, 406. illus.
New 2-6-4 type tank locomotives, L.M. & S. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 317. illus.

1934: No.2424
(a parallel-bailer locomotive with modified cab) incorporated a number of welded parts, notably the cylinders and pony truck. The Stanier paper is a general review of British activity, but it, naturally reflects this particular experiment.

ELECTRICALLY-WELDED cylinders for 2-6-4 type tank locomotive L.M.S.R.. Engineering, 1934, 137, 551. 3iIlus.
FABRICATED locomotive cylinders. Engineer, 1934, 157, 477. 3 illus.
FABRICATION of locomotive components. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1934, 24, 153-6. 4 illus.
NOTES on welding in locomotive workshops. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 258-62; 283-4. 3 ilIus., 8 diagrs.
Stanier, WA. Welding in British railways (mechanical engineering) [in: IRON and Steel Institute Symposium on the welding of iron and steel. London, Iron and Steel Institute, 1935.
See v. 1 pp.349-56 + 6 plates. 36 illus. and the general discussions pp. 409-26 and 424-5.

1934 : three-cylinder design.

L.M.S. Railway-three-cylinder tank engines. Engineer, 1934, 157, 337. illus.
New locomotives for the L.M.S.R.. Rly Engr, 1934, 55, 148-54.8 illus.,
7 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. els)
Includes sectionalized diagrams and notes on the components common to the "Jubilee" class, which is also described.
New three-cylinder 2-6-4 tank engines, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1934, 74, 317; 350. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.), table.
Three-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engine, L.M. & S. Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 102-4. illus., diagr. (s.& f.els.)
Three-cylinder 2-6-4 type tank locomotive for the L.M.S.R. Engineering, 1934, 137, 386. 2 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective & critical

Broadbent, William Benedict as told via Edward Talbot. The road to Holyhead. Part Two. Backtrack, 2011, 25, 598-603.
superb Stanier three-cylinder 2-6-4 tank engines on which the "acceleration was electric"
Churcher, Colin J.
The L.T. & S. 2-6-4 tanks. Rly Wld, 1962, 23, 179.
Re L.M.S. and B.R. 2-6-4 tank engines. In summer of 1961 writer worked at Shoeburyness (L.T.S.) motive power depot and fired the Stanier three-cylinder and Fairburn two-cylinder varieties of the L.M.S. and also the standard type. The following notes may be of interest.
In general, the older L.T. & S. drivers seemed to prefer the three-cylinder engines, while the younger drivers and firemen preferred the standard engines. It is easy to see why the firemen like the standards. The rocking grates take much of the hard work out of cleaning the fire (he once put one away in 10-15min, with the driver's help) but difficulties may arise if a broken piece of brick arch gets stuck in the bars. Another advantage is that both steam and water controls for the two injectors are conveniently placed so that the fireman can set either injector without leaving his seat. On the other hand the standard engines have several disadvantages. Drivers complain that these engines are very hot. Several controls, blower, brakes, etc. are placed in between the drivtng position and the fire. The driver is further protected by a metal sheet which extends from the back-plate into the cab. It seems that these must absorb the heat from the fire to make the driver's position almost unbearable in summer, but he did not notice this from the fireman's side.
Another disadvantage was that the lookout was so placed that one had to crane one's neck all the time; this is paniculurly bad for the shorter drivers.
Perhaps the worst part of the standard 2-6-4 tanks was that there was an exposed steam pipe fixed to the boiler barrel in such a position as to appear to be a continuation of the hand railing. He had seen several nasty burns sustained by firemen when filling the tanks of these engines.
The L.M.S. engines did have their disadvantages. Only a few were fitted with rocking bars and so all the clinker has to come out through the firehole and the ash pan had to be emptied by hand, However, the general opinion seemed to be that a Starrier three-cylinder in good condition was equal, if not superior. to the other types. It seems sirmificnnt that as far as he knew the fastest train in between Southend and London, the 09.05. was never hauled by a standard. He personally preferred the Fairburn engines; the Staniers tended to throw the heat back more.

Cox, E.S.
discussion on Cocks, C.S. History of Southern Railway locomotives to 1938. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1948, 38, 831-2. (Paper No. 481)
Gave information on the 3-cylinder 2-6-4Ts versus the two-cylinder type: coal consumption 54 lb/mile as against 51.5 (1936-8); and mileage between repairs (46,465 vs 53,390 over the period 1945-7).
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991.
Class 4  three-cylinder 2-6-4T. Pp. 22-5: Powell notes that the 2-cylinder 2-6-4T was barred from Fenchurch Street, but that a 3-cylinder design wiith improved balancing and reduced hammer-blow would be acceptable to the LNER's Civil Engineer (although Powell failed to recognize the significance of this aspect). It was also considered that the 3-cylinder design would give improved acceleration and Powell considered that the design "proved ideally suited to the difficult conditions on the Tilbury section".
Riemsdijk, John van. The London suburban tank engine. . 81-93.
The author favoured speccialist locomotives foe suburban working citing the French 2-8-2Ts usd on push & pull services. Thus this class was favoured noting that the Stanier 3-cylinder 2-6-4Ts for the LTSR Section may have exploited three cyclinders to reduce hammer blow to enable them to work into Fenchurch Street
Rogers, H.C.B. Transition from steam. London: Ian Allan, 1980. 128pp.records R.G. Jarvis's comments on the rebuilt Bulleid Pacifics and observed: 'I suppose that locomotives with three cylinders, all driving on the second pair of coupled wheels, and having three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear are rare, but Stanier's 3-cylinder 2-6-4 tank for the Tilbury section is a precedent'.
Specht, John E. Steam on the misery line [London, Tilbury and Southend line]. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 588-93.
Steam working on the LTSR section with particular attention being made to the Stanier three-cylinder 2-6-4Ts. As built the locomotives had jumper blastpipes and low superheat, but three locomotives (Nos. 2505, 2513 and 2523) were modified to accept high superheat boilers from the two-cylinder type. Nos. 2500 to 2524 were originally fitted with limousine cabs (which were popular with the crews, but seven had the doors and windows removed. The last twelve were fitted with half doors. Gravity sanding was replaced by steam sanding. The three-cylinder locomotives were sent to the Midlands during WW2. 42530 and 42535 were sent to Ardrossan, then to Corkerhill and eventually to Greenock and were used as bankers to Beattock, but were eventually returnded to the LTSR. Two Fowler 2-6-4Ts were sent to the line, but were very uncomfortable for bunker-first running. The Standard 2-6-4Ts were prone to slipping when running bunker-first and the cabs were very cold. They also lacked the acceleration provided by the three-cylinder locomotives. The author considered that the Stanier tank engines were capable of very fast running with heavy loads. The Hudd automatic train control system was highly successful. Due to the hardness of the water boiler maintenance was very heavy on the line and large quantities of scale had to be removed. Afloc was eventually used from the 1950s and this led to continuous blowdown being replaced by a more rigorous system. Colour illus: 0-6-2T No 41987 at Plaistow in 1958 (E.V. Fryer); 4-4-2T No 41978 at Shoeburness shed in March 1956 (T.B. Owen); three-cylinder 2-6-4T No 42532 at Chalkwell in September 1959 (Allan Morris); 2-6-4T No 80133 at Plaistow on train in May 1959 (T.B. Owen) (all colour: remainder b&w); Stanier 2-6-4T No 2519 with Fenchurch destination board at Shoeburyness in 1939 (P. Ransome-Wallis); Stanier 2-6-4T No 2522 with Southend headboard; 2-6-4T No 42505 passing Ripple Lane marshalling yard bunker-first on 29 June 1959 (F. Church); 2-6-4T No 2517 (rear view showing Hudd ATC gear); Fairburn 2-6-4T No 42226; Fowler 2-6-4T No 42329; No 42502; Stanier 2-6-4T No 42523;
Topping, Brian. Anytime, any place, anywhere... Part 5. [LMS 2-6-4Ts: Hudd fitted three-cylinder]. Steam Wld, 2005 (212). 40-3.
The Hudd ATC (automatic train control system) was introduced on the LTSR. In connection with this the formerly domeless three-cylinder 2-6-4Ts were fitted with domed boilers with increased superheating. The cab doors were also modified. Notes on feedwater treatment using Aflock and tannin is also mentioned.

1935 : two-cylinder taper-boiler locomotives.

L.M.S. 2-6-4 passenger tank engine. Engineer, 1936, 161, 83-4. illus.
TWO-CYLINDER 2-6-4 passenger tank engines, L.M. & S. Rly.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 2-4. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-6-4 two cylinder tank locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 107. illus.
A note on welded components.

Dynamometer car tests with exhaust steam injector: 1946

Metcalfe, Richard. Davies & Metcalfe Ltd: railway engineers to the world. 1999. page 127.
Tests on Southport to Manchester Victoria route which claimed a marked improvement in steaming when working with exhaust steam injector:
lbs live steam injector exhaust steam injector saving
coal per dbhp

5.03

4.39

12.7%

water per dbhp

37.1

34.7

7.5%

water evaporated per lb coal

7.37

7.78

+5.6%

Retrospective & critical

Beavor, E.S. Steam was my calling. 1974).
Claimed (p. 139) that L1s steamed better than LMS 2-6-4Ts (at Neasden), but did not ride as well.
Cox, E.S. Memorandum to S.J. Symes. LMS Journal, 2007 (20), 20-3.
This is a facsimile reproduction of a typewritten document entitled Standard 2-6-4 tank engines and "Precursor" tank engines on Watford and Tring residential services dated 9 November 1932 from the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Office at Euston. Caption to illus. of No. 2307, a parallel boiler locomotive, notes that enginemen tended to favour the parallel boiler over the taper boiler versions of the 2-6-4Ts..NOTE: this observation was made by Bob Essery not by Cox..
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991.
Class 4 two-cylinder 2-6-4T long wheelbase. Pp. 15-18. As noted in 1927 Fowler had introduced some highly successful parallel boilered 2-6-4T locomotives to handle heavy suburban passenger trains. Clearly this was a design which Stanier could endorse, but which could not be redesigned immediately to incorporate his own ideas. The last 30 locomotives to be built (Nos 2395-2424) in the 1933 Building Programme were therefore modified from the original design as a halfway stage before the taper boiler version could be produced. The more visible changes were the provision of double side-window cabs, wheels with tri angular rims and built-up balance weights, and side bolster bogies and bissel trucks.
The building of Stanier's taper boiler version began at the end of 1935, and over the next seven years a total of 206 was built, 133 at Derby and 73 by the North British Locomotive Co (Hyde Park works, Springburn). It was originally intended that the first batch of eight, Nos 2537-2544, should be of the three-cylinder type but this was changed after ordering.
The general layout and wheelbase were similar to that of the parallel boiler version, but slightly larger cylinders with extended valve chests and outside steam pipes were provided. The valve spindle crosshead guides were fitted to the rear valve chest covers instead of on separate frame brackets. Improvements were made to axleboxes and spring gear.

The taper boiler (Class 4) with top-feed (under the usual small dome-like casing with side bulges) was identical with that of the three-cylinder 2-6-4Ts, save only for an increase in the size of the superheater to 18 elements, and the provision of wash out inspection doors on the top shoulders of the Belpaire firebox, under small domed covers. The smokebox rested on a saddle.

The side tanks and bunker were of riveted construction, the narrow bunker top being tapered inwards at the back end to give the driver better visibility when running bunker first: this resulted in a prominent diagonal fold line in the bunker side plating. The side tanks featured a small access cutout over the expansion links, to reach which a footstep was fitted to the bottom of the motion plate with a grab handle on the footplate valance angle. The double side-window cab had waist-height doors and was cut away behind the doorway. A similar bi-directional water scoop to that on the Fowler locomotives was fitted below the cab, revealed by the domes in the back of the cab and the additional operating handle behind the driver. Dry trickle sanding equipment was provided. The class proved very efficient and economical, though when used on unbraked freight trains great care was needed on steep falling gradients because of their limited brake power.


Fairburn type

The only "Fairburn" locomotive was the modified form of 2-6-4T. He probably had something to do with the large diesel electric locomotive accredited to Ivatt.

4 :1945 : Fairburn:
This was a derivative of the Stanier class 4 design, but modified to be lighter and shorter, thus permitting a wider range of duties.

London, Midland and Scottish Railway: modified 2-6-4T locomotives. J.Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21, 136.
L.M.S. tank engine. Engineer, 1945, 179, 505. illus., table.
New post-war locomotives on the L.M.S. and L.N.E.Rs.. Railways, 1945, 6, 124-6. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
New 2-6-4 tank engines, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 182.
Editorial comment.
New 2-6-4 tank locomotives, London, Midland & Scottish Railway. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1945, 51,102-3. illus.,diagr. (s.& f.els.)
New 2-6-4 tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1945, 83, 190. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.), table.
2-6-4 mixed-traffic tank locomotive: L.M.S. Railway. Engineering, 1945, 159, 507-8. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective & critical

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175. 216-65. (Paper No. 520).
Mileage figures are quoted to show the advantage of manganese steel axlebox liners (79,361: as fitted to this type) compared with the other class 4 2-6-4Ts (55,579).
Churcher, Colin J. The L.T. & S. 2-6-4 tanks. Rly Wld, 1962, 23, 179.
Re L.M.S. and B.R. 2-6-4 tank engines. In summer of 1961 writer worked at Shoeburyness (L.T.S.) motive power depot and fired the Stanier three-cylinder and Fairburn two-cylinder varieties of the L.M.S. and also the standard type. The following notes may be of interest.
In general, the older L.T. & S. drivers seemed to prefer the three-cylinder engines, while the younger drivers and firemen preferred the standard engines. It is easy to see why the firemen like the standards. The rocking grates take much of the hard work out of cleaning the fire (he once put one away in 10-15min, with the driver's help) but difficulties may arise if a broken piece of brick arch gets stuck in the bars. Another advantage is that both steam and water controls for the two injectors are conveniently placed so that the fireman can set either injector without leaving his seat. On the other hand the standard engines have several disadvantages. Drivers complain that these engines are very hot. Several controls, blower, brakes, etc. are placed in between the drivtng position and the fire. The driver is further protected by a metal sheet which extends from the back-plate into the cab. It seems that these must absorb the heat from the fire to make the driver's position almost unbearable in summer, but he did not notice this from the fireman's side.
Another disadvantage was that the lookout was so placed that one had to crane one's neck all the time; this is paniculurly bad for the shorter drivers.
Perhaps the worst part of the standard 2-6-4 tanks was that there was an exposed steam pipe fixed to the boiler barrel in such a position as to appear to be a continuation of the hand railing. He had seen several nasty burns sustained by firemen when filling the tanks of these engines.
The L.M.S. engines did have their disadvantages. Only a few were fitted with rocking bars and so all the clinker has to come out through the firehole and the ash pan had to be emptied by hand, However, the general opinion seemed to be that a Starrier three-cylinder in good condition was equal, if not superior. to the other types. It seems sirmificnnt that as far as he knew the fastest train in between Southend and London, the 09.05. was never hauled by a standard. He personally preferred the Fairburn engines; the Staniers tended to throw the heat back more.

Hardy, R.H.N. A 'stranger' strolls down Stewart's Lane. Part 29. Steam Wld, 2003 (194), 42-7.
At Stewart's Lane thhis type was known semi-officially as the P4 class: Hardy called the injectors fitted "terrible".
"Namron", pseud. Uckfield line services. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1955, 31, 26-7.
A Southern Region footplate man's impressions, which were not so happy as Powell's.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991.
Originally appeared as Pony trucks to the fore. [Trains ill., 1958, 11, 35 1-7. (Living with L.M.S.locomotives – 5)]. Class 4 two-cylinder 2-6-4T short wheelbase. Pp. 19-21: By 1943 some 243 2-6-4T locomotives of Stanier design, with either two or three cylinders were in service, having the same 38ft 6in wheelbase as their Fowler predecessors and thus limited to 6 chain minimum radius curves. The accession of C. E. Fairburn as acting CME in 1943 led to a reappraisal of the two-cylinder design, discarding the traditional 8ft 0in + 8ft 6in coupled wheelbase to give greater flexibility; they could then negotiate 5 chain curves. A bonus was a weight reduction of 2.6 tons. So successful did this revised design prove that following trials it was also adopted for use on Southern Region services (but see Namron), Brighton works building 41 out of a total of 277. They formed the basis of the BR Standard 2-6-4T (80XXX series), though the latter were less highly regarded by enginemen.

The principal dimensions apart from length and weight - were unchanged from the Stanier long-wheelbase 2-6-4Ts. There was a considerable number of visual changes, however.(i) The front platforms were of light folded construction, open in front of the cylinders for easier access to the piston valves; (ii) The side tanks and bunker were of a new design, part welded and part riveted, not supported by a platform valance angle. The internal baffle plates were riveted but the tank bottom was welded as far as the trailing coupled axle, behind which it was riveted. The bunker top had vertical sides and there was (iii) Footsteps at the front and under the cab were of open type; (iv) The coupling rods were fluted (v) Double brake blocks articulated on to each hanger were provided to give longer block life (vi) External sieve boxes were fitted under each tank balancing pipe behind the cab footsteps (vii) Self-cleaning smokeboxes were fitted. This was not immediately accompanied by the fitting of 'SC' plates below the shed plate (viii) The atomiser steam cock was moved to the high position on the smokebox as on Nos 2537-2544, and a cover was provided. Commencing with No 2229 (Derby, 5/46) all new examples were fitted with rocking grates and hopper ashpans to make shed disposal easier. The oper ating gear for the ashpan hopper doors projected from the left side
Radford, J.R. Derby Works and Midland locomotives. p.199.
Locomotives constructed at Derby
Order Locomotive Nos Year built
O/8277 2673-7 1945
O/8278 2678-87 1945
O/8467 2688-99, 2200-2 1945
O/8468 2203-2222 1945-6
O/672 2223-32 1946
O/675 2233-52 1946
O/678 2253-72 1946-7
O/1676 2273-92 1947
Part O/1678 2293-99 1947
Part O/1678 2187-99 1947-8

Topping, Brian. Anytime, any place, anywhere... Part 6. Steam Wld, 2005 (213). 42-5.
Substantial modifications were involved in the Fairburn version of the LMS 2-6-4T.
Topping, Brian. Anytime, any place, anywhere... Part 7. Steam Wld, 2005 (214). 8-12.
Later batches of the "Fairburn" 2-6-4Ts.

2-6-2T

Class 3: 1935 :
NEW 2-6-2 passenger tank locomotives, L.M.& S. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 75-6. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW 2-6-2 tank locomotive, L.M.S.R.. Rly Mag., 1935, 76, 268. illus.
NEW 2-6-2 tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 436; 446. 2 illus.
2-6-2 type tank locomotive; L.M.and S. Ry.. Engineering, 1935, 139, 263. illus.
WELDING in locomotive construction. Rly Gaz., 1936, 64, 400-3. 8 illus.
Especially smokebox saddles.

1935:
Locomotive experimentally equipped with a water de-sanding device to prevent track circuit interference.

LOCOMOTIVE sand gear and track circuit. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 471.

Larger boilers for some of the class.

BRITISH locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1941, 87, 173-6.3 illus., 3 diagrs. (s.els.)
MODIFIED tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.: the standard 2-6-2 design re boilered. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 76-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
RE-BOILERED tank engines, L.M.S.R.. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 253. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Bourne, T.W. (Smokey). Back to reality. Modellers Backtrack, 1994, 4, 116-18.
Critical of the concept of Chief Mechanical Engineers, notably Webb, but Stanier is also condemned. In both cases their approach to standardisation is condemned: Webb because Crewe Works were unable to adept to change, and Stanier for his application of a standard tapered boiler to a poor design as in the class 3 2-6-2T.
Cox, E.S.. Locomotive panorama. Vol. 1 p. 113
The smallest of the new range was also the least satisfactory, namely the Class 3 2-6-2 Tank. Instead of breaking away completely, Stanier merely revamped the already unsatisfactory Derby engine, retaining the same spread-out wheelbase, tractive effort and grate area. Certainly the whole engine was redesigned with taper boiler, new cylinders, cab tanks and bunker, and with long travel valve gear, but it was still under-boilered. Many changes were made subsequently, such as increasing the grate area from 17.5 to 19.2 sq. ft., introducing a modernised version of the Adams 'Vortex' blast pipe, and most drastic move of all, the rebuilding of three engines with larger diameter boilers. Nothing sufficed, however, to make this class better than very pedestrian, and I recall how unsatisfactory they were on the St. Pancras suburban services before they were entirely replaced by 2-6-4 Tanks soon after nationalisation.
Loach, J.C. discussion on Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 161-3. (Paper No. 457)
Highly critical of the LMS lack of a small smart tank engine. The Stanier 2-6-2T still had an undersized boiler. He was also critical of the bissel trucks in spite of Stanier having modified them with bolster bearing pads and check springs. The 16ft 8in fixed wheelbase was excessive and the overhang was appreciable: he suggested 14ft or 14ft 6in. Cox replied that the wheelbase was an "old Spanish custom" at Derby, and that in later designs this had been reduced.
Powell, A.J. Stanier locomotive classes. 1991.
"They were still poor locomotives" [like the Fowler locomotives] and the wheelbase "could with advantage have been reduced by 18in or more". "There was a very small superheater of only seven elements which did nothing to improve the steaming." "...the side tanks were on the shallow side and their limited capacity sometimes restricted their working range". They "were undoubtedly Stanier's least successful design."
R.L. Vickers.The LMS Class 4 tanks. Letter Backtrack, 2013, 27, 510.
Writer compiling the Railway Correspondence & Travel Society volume on 'LMS Passenger Tanks:.the piece mentioned that the 3P 2-6-2Ts were not so successful – to be polite. Those enginemen who worked on the 3Ps are still trying to forget the experience. Now in his researches he has discovered that when very new the [Fowler] 3Ps were warmly welcomed. The 'Locomotive Practice and Performance' section of the Railway Magazine for May and June 1931 had a discussion by Cecil J. Allen of details sent to him from a correspondent in the West Midlands.  The 3Ps were noted for their comfortable cabs, power and silent running. They had a 'soft blast' and were liable, even when brand-new, to blocked tubes and other problems. Mr. Allen and his correspondent wrote that such problems were common on the new "thermally efficient" locomotives, especially those with "long lap long travel valves" – which were not fitted on the Fowler 3Ps. The later Stanier locomotives did have them and were no great improvement on the Fowler tanks. In 1941 tests were made on Stanier 3Ps in runs on the Derby-Darley Dale route. The test locomotives were fitted with various blast modifications. The final report in April 1942 recommended the fitting of annular (ring within a ring) orifices in the blastpipe. This was later done on many engines, to Order 665.

2 :1946 : Ivatt
This class was linked to the 2-6-0 design and was intended for branch line working. It formed the basis for the similar British Railway's design, but in retrospect may be regarded as being too sophisticated for such mundane duties, and something simpler and cheaper might have been more apt.

L.M.S.R. locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1947, 93, 82; 84-7. 4 illus., 4 diagrs. (5. els.)
L.M.S.R. 2-6-2 tank engines for secondary services. Rly Gaz., 1948, 88, 105+. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW L.M.S. locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1947, 53, 5-6; 16-17.
4 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW L.M.S. locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1947, 86, 14-16.5 illus., 2 diagrs. (s.& f.els.)
NEW standard locomotives for L.M.S. Railway.. J.Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1947, 23, 39-42. 2 illus.
NEW standard locomotives, L.M.S.R.. Rly pict.;1947, (2), 120-1.2 illus.,
diagr. Cs. & f. els.)
The 7,000th locomotive buift at Crewe. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 756-60. 12 illus.
No.41272 : commemorative plaque and notes on the first, thousand

Retrospective and critical

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-216. Disc.: 217-65 + 5 folding plates. (incl. 2 col.). 6 illus., 4 diagrs., 11 tables. (Paper No. 520).
Quotes mileages achieved between repairs: 83,155.

Tenders (coal weighing)
Coal weighing tenders L.M.S. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1947, 53, 49-50. illus., diagr.
Two tenders introduced under H.G. Ivatt with weighing appartus supplied by the Transport & Generaal Engineering Co. of Leeds.

Projected designs

Most were covered by Cox, but the 4-4-0 was not.

Atkins, Philip. Some thoughts on the proposed LMS 4-6-4. LMS Journal, 2009 (25) 78-80.
Two boiler designs were considered: one was similar to the Princess Coronation, the other would have sought to improve the A/S ratios and would have adopted 5½in flues (only used in Britain in LBSCR superheated locomotives and the GSR 800 class). It would not have been possible to incorporate a combustion chamber, nor would it have been possible to adopt a Belpaire firebox for the 70ft2 grate. The round-top grate was to be fed via a mechanical stoker. Some consideration (a weight diagram is included) is given to a four-cylinder compound Duchess with Kylchap double-chimney and mechanical stoker. Also notes that No. 6257 weighed 112.5 tons.

Rowland, Don. Black '4'. (Essence of LMS 4). Rly Wld, 1985, 46, 130-2.
Projected Stanier design for an outside-cylinder 4-4-0: drawing dated 9 September 1941 for which signed A.E. Owen. Used shortened 3B boiler and gave two suggetsed cylinder sizes and two boiler pressures.

Rutherford, Michael. Some notes on the 4-4-0 type and its final fling. Railway Reflections No. 77. Backtrack, 2001, 15,  292-9.
Includes a Stanier design for an LMS two-cylinder class 4  4-4-0 (Stanier was very rude about Churchward's County class and this is a most intriguing might have been). Bob Mills wrote (page 422) concerning the Stanier County.

Three-cylinder Pacific
Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 8.
Noted three-cylinder Pacific proposed for Midland Division with 20 ton axleload: design not progressed due to rebuilding of Royal Scot class.

Turbine lelectric condensing locomotive with Lamont boiler

Cox. Locomotive panorama. Vol. 1 pp. 121-2
The exercise on the Turbine-Electric engine was suggested by the availability at that time of three new types of high pressure boiler recently developed for locomotive purposes. These were the Velox, a drum-type water-tube boiler having forced circulation and combustion under pressure, the ' Steamotive " a once through 'flash' type boiler, with automatically controlled oil firing, somethmg on the lines of the' Vapor' boiler with which we are now so familiar on diesels, and finally the Lamont, also a water-tube and drum-type boiler having forced circulation, but capable of burning coal .under manual operation. Notwithstanding the unhappy expenence wIth. the Schffildt-Henschel boiler already referred to, high pressure did seem in these pre-diesel days one method of raising. the low thermal efficiency of steam traction. I made my first visit abroad m February 1937 in company with Herbert Chambers, to examine the Velox boiler in Paris, where a prototype was bemg mounted on the chassis of an old P.L.M. compound 4-6-0. Although this effort was eventually put to work, and I rode on it on a subsequent visit in 1938, it was really a most complex piece of machinery which did not commend itself to British operating conditions. The boiler selected for our own scheme was the Lamont, which alone of the alternatives could be served with coal in the ordinary way. The locomotive as worked out followed the principle of the Beyer Peacock-Ljungstrom engine in that the boiler, fuel and water ran on one unit, the turbo-generator and air-cooled condenser on the other, a major difference was that both units were mounted on conventional motor bogies. Each unit was 52' long and diesel-type cabs were provided at the outer ends. The fireman was to occupy a compartment amidships in the boiler unit, and he might have found the climate rather warm, as did the unfortunate fireman who took out Bulleids 'Leader' engine having a similarly placed 'glory hole' some ten years later. Total weight was about 184 tons, and 3,000 h.p. at the traction motors was proposed, which would have given a sustained performance substantially above that of the existing Pacifies. When full advantage was taken of the theoretical improvement in efficiency, the coal price of £1 per ton ruling at the time only offered a 10% return on an increased capital cost of some £3,000, and such a machine was bound to cost far more than that beyond conventional practice. For this reason the proposal was dropped, and recalling subsequent experiences in this field in different parts of the world, few regrets remain.
Barnes, Robin. Locomotives that never were. Chapter 30
Cites Cox: one of the best of Barnes's creations: a wonderful vision in red and gold numbered 6500

and the Stanier cross-breed 4F/2251?
Rly Mag., 1941, 87 (525), 101.
the strange background colour is due to WW2 paper degradation!

Rotary snowploughs

Chackfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland Compound to the HST. 2004.
Page 88 In May 1948 Jarvis and Coleman visited the Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works (SLM) at Winterthur to investigate the purchase of two rotary snowploughs (following the severe winter of 1947). Proposals were put to Riddles, but these were ignored by him.