Continental engineers

This is an arbitrary division forced by the limitations involved in handling large files.

Abt, Roman
Born in Bunzen, Switzerland on 17 July 1850 and died Lucerne 1 May 1933. Inventor of the Abt rack system. John Marshall. Widely used including in Britain on the Snowdon Mountain Railway. . H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia)..

Amsler-Laffon, Jakob  
Amsler was born on the Stalden near the village of Schinznach in the district of Brugg on 11 November 1823, and died on 3 January 1912 in Schaffhausen, Switzerland. On leaving school in 1843, he went to the University of Jena and then to the University of Königsberg to study theology. At Königsberg he changed courses, deciding to focus on mathematics and physics after meeting the inspiring Franz Neumann. Amsler gained his doctorate from Königsberg in 1848 and returned to Switzerland in the same year. In 1851 he became a Privatdozent at the University of Zürich and later in that year accepted a position as a mathematics teacher at the Gymnasium in Schaffhausen. In 1854 Amsler married Elise Laffon (1830–1899) and founded the Amsler Company in Schaffhausen. The couple had two daughters and three sons. Their oldest son Alfred Amsler (1857–1940) was a mathematician and engineer in his own right and succeeded to his father as the owner and director of the factory. From about 1885 until about 1905, father and son closely cooperated on many projects in their business; many of their ideas, inventions and constructions of the time are difficult to attribute to either one of them. Jakob Amsler-Laffon invented the polar planimeter in 1854 and the firm was associated with the development of the locomotive dynamometer. Langridge Under ten CMEs 2 p. 53: remainder Wikipedia 19-01-2001

Angelé, Florian
Inventor of form of valve gear and was patented in France (11071/1842 applied 2 December 1842; published 8 March 1843) which anticipated Walschaerts. Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 59. Engineer, 1912, 106, 681-2.

Armand, Louis
Armand was born at Cruseilles, Haute-Savoie on 17 January 1905 and died on 30 August 1971 (biographical information from Wikipedia). He studied in Annecy and Lyon, at the Lycée du Parc. He graduated second in his class from the Ecole Polytechnique (class of 1924) then joined the Corps des Mines and was major from Ecole des Mines  He joined the Compagnie du chemin de fer Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee (PLM) in 1934. In 1938 he joined the French national railway company, Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français (SNCF). In 1940 - 1941 he invented a method for preventing scale formation in  boilers called the TIA (Traitement Integral Armand) water treatment process for steam locomotives described in his Sir Seymour Biscoe Tritton Lecture (J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1949, 39, 328). During WW2 he organized and led the Resistance group named Résistance-Fer from February 1943 onwards. He was arrested by the Gestapo on June 25, 1944. He was liberated from jail during Paris' liberation; was decorated (Croix de la Liberation) In 1949 Armand was named General Manager of SNCF and created the Société du tunnel sous la Manche in 1957. During this time he pushed for the electrification of the rail system using DC voltage. From 1958 to 1959, he co-managed the European atomic energy commission with Conor Quilligan (Euratom) having inspired its creation. In 1971 successfully pushed to have the word “creativity” included in the French dictionary Armand died in Villers-sur-Mer, aged 66. Presented Motive power trends on European railways as part of the IMechE Centenary celebrations. Cox called him the arch-priest of water treatment with his TIA system.

Arnoux Republican, Jean-Claude
Born in Le Cateau (Northern France) on 16 December 1792, son of a postmaster: died in 1866. (French Wikipedia: 2012-11-16). He invented a rail-based system in which the locomotive drove through flangekess coupled wheels and lateral guidance was provided by freely rotating pulley wheels set at 45° to the top of the rails. It was capable of negotiating very tight curves. The system was demonstrated at the Paris Exposition of 1855. The locomotive had four cylinders. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 756.

Asselin, Georges
Locomotive superintendent of the Western Ry. of France and subsequently of Nord. Designed large compound 2-8-0s which could attain high horsepowers for long periods..

Baader, Joseph von
See Grahame Boyes Early Railways [1] 192.Baader (1763-1835) was granted a British Patent 3959/1815 (15 November 1815) An improved plan of constructing railroads and carriages to be used on such improved railroads. To use one or two cast iron rails (if two not greater tah 24 inches apart) to peovide horizontal guidance and reduce friction...

Banderali, David.
Born Paris on 18 January 1836, and entered École Polytechnique in 1854, and École des Mines, as an outside pupil, in 1856. On finishing his studies he began active work as a professor, and gave lessons in England to the younger members of a royal household. In December 1859 he entered the service of the Northern Railway of France, where he was successively locomotive inspector at Amiens and assistant carriage superintendent in January 1866, until in 1873 he was placed in charge of the central locomotive and carriage department, a position with slight changes in title occupied until his death. In the Exhibitions of 1878, 1881 (electrical), and 1889, he served as a member of committees and juries, and rendered services at international conferences, and for the military organisation of the French railways; and he was commandant of the fifth section of French branch railways. In 1882 he received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. After a short illness he died on 30 March 1890. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1890, 41, 171.

Banderall, David Jean Frederic Sosthenus
Born in Paris on 18 January 1836 and died there on 30 March 1890. Chief assistant engineer, Northern Railway, France. Graduated in engineering at École Polytechnique and École des Mines. In 1859 joined the Northern Railway as Inspector of the traction department at Amiens. In 1873 appointed chief assistant engineer at Paris. Advocated introduction of the vacuum brake which was fitted to all vehicles of the Nord in 1876. He strongly favoured bogies on locomotives and rolling stock. Also closely associated with the creation of the Chemins de Fer Economiques, narrow-gauge feeder lines. Many of the engines and carriages were designed according to his ideas. His ready command of English and his capacity for making friends made him well liked in Britain and USA.  Marshall.

Baumberg, Max
Born in Armstadt in Thüringen on 12 June 1906; died in Halle on 8 November 1978. Studied mechanical engineering in Munich before moving to the Meiningen [Steam] Locomotive Works established by the Prussian State Railways in 1914 which is now the European centre for the advanced preservation of steam traction: it was where the boiler for Tornado was manufactured. During WW2 Baumberg was sent to France to liaise with the SNFC at Tours. In East Germany Baumberg was responsible for enhancing the residual steam locomotive stock. Not in Marshall; introduced via Glancey augmented by Wikipedia

Belleville, Julien Francois
Civil engineer: inventor of Belleville washer spring associated with absorbing the recoil from artillery, but also used in buffers, drawbars and suspension systems.

Belluzzo, Giuseppe
Giuseppe Belluzzo was born in Verona in 1876 and died in Rome on 21 May 1952.. He taught in Milan and then Rome, and was the author of more than fifty technical books. He was involved in installing turbines in Italian cruisers and battleships ass well as equipping the first locomotive for turbine drive, Later Belluzzo went into politics; He was elected to Parliament and was Minister of National Economy from 1925 to 1928. Mentioned in Ransome-Wallis's brief survey of unconventional locomotives (Concise Encylopaedia p. 468). Most of remaining information off another website.
The first turbine locomotive was a small experimental 0-2-2-0T developed in 1907-8, being a conversion of an old 0-6-0T shunting engine built in 1876, carried out by the Societa Anonima Officine Meccaniche in Milan. One axle was removed, and four turbines were fitted, two on each side. Steam passed through all four in turn before exhausting via the chimney. In 1931 Belluzzo acted as consultant for a 2-8-2 turbine locomotive built by the Ernesto Breda company. It had high and low pressure turbines. It is thought to have been tested in the Breda works at Milan, but apparently the Italian State Railway would not allow it to be run on the main line; whether this indicates it was an obvious failure that would only delay traffic when it broke down is uncertain. The turbines drove via reduction gearing and a jackshaft. A condenser was fitted. In 1933 the Officine Meccaniche Miani-Silvestri-Grodona-Comi rebuilt a type 685 2-6-2 at Florence for the Italian State Railways. It was built for express service, and was a 2-6-2 with the turbine mounted at the front. No condenser was fitted. It was tested between Florence & Pistoia, but did not appear to enter service.

Patents: British
13261/1907. Improvements in steam turbines and other multiple expansion elastic fluid prime movers. Applied 7 June 1907 (in Italy 7 June 1906). Published 7 August 1908.
18771/1908. Improvements in steam turbines. Applied 7 September 1908 (in Italy 7 September 1907). Published 7 December 1909. Co-applicant: Gadda & Co.
24628/1908. Improvements in turbines. Applied 16 November 1908 (in Italy 16 November 1907). Published 16 November 1909. Co-applicant: Gadda & Co.
2215/1909. Improvements in steam turbines. Applied 29 January 1909 (in Italy 30 January 1908). Published  29 April 1920.
8493/1913 Improvements in elastic fluid pressure turbines. Applied 10 April 1913. Published 9 April 1914.
138,315. Improvements in steam turbines. Applied 11 December 1919 (in Italy 17 January 1919). Published  27 May 1920.
194,705. Steam turbine locomotive. Applied 7 March 1923 (in Italy 8 March 1922). Published 13 March 1924.
204,661.Improvements relating to steam turbines. Applied 29 April 1922. Published  1 October 1923.
200,269 Improvements relating to steam turbines. Applied 29 April 1922. Published  12 July 1923.
370,751 Improvements in and relating to distributors for steam turbines. Applied 25 June 1931. Published: 14 April 1932.
379,627 Improvements in surface condensers. Applied 18 February 1932. Published: 1 September 1932.
US 1,638.079 Steam-turbine locomotive. Applied 4 September 1925 (in Italy 28 February 1923?). Published: 9 August 1927. Applicant: Breda
US 1,865,551. Reversing steam turbine with variable velocity. Applied 4 September 1928 (in Italy 17 October 1927). Published: 5 July 1932.
US 1,887,178. Turbine locomotive. Applied 11 February 1931 (in Italy 25 February 1930). Published: 8 November 1932. Applicant: Breda

Belpaire, Alfred
Westwood notes: Best known for the eponymous Belpaire firebox, whose distinctive square shape could be seen on railways allover the world. The Belpaire firebox, usually (but not necessarily) recognizable by its square top, was adopted at times by most of the world's railways. Some continued with it, while others claimed that the conventional round-top firebox was as good. Probably, the Belpaire firebox succeeded in eliminating some of the disadvantages of its predecessor, but at the same time had other disadvantages which just about balanced out.

Belpaire was born in Ostend in 26 September 1820 (Marshall) and died in Schaerbeck on 27 January 1893 and hard work plus mechanical talent enabled him to obtain a place, at the age of seventeen, in the central school of Arts et Metiers, Paris. He graduated at the age of twenty, second in his class, and was appointed by the Belgian State Railway to take charge of the Malines workshops. This was a great responsibility for a young and inexperienced man. Furthermore, Belpaire was soon incapicated for many months by a  railway accident in which both his legs were broken. After recovery, he was appointed chief mechanical engineer (that is, Director of Rolling Stock).
It was in this capacity, in 1860, that he introduced a new design of firebox to enable locomotives to burn local cheap coal: Belgium had plenty of small coal of indifferent calorific value, but large steam coal was expensive. Belpaire reasoned that to burn small coal he would need a firebox in which the coal could be thinly spread; the conventional small but deep fireboxes were unsuitable. Thus his firebox was characterized by its great width, and at the same time he replaced the conventional iron grate with a more sophisticated arrangement of steel plates designed to improve the air flow through the entire area of the fire. He also found it possible to replace the old system of stays which held the inner and outer walls firmly at the set distance apart. His staying consisted only of vertical and horizontal stays, fixed inregular lines. Trials showed that his firebox could indeed utilize inferior coals, resulting in a significant reduction of running costs. Moreover, his staying system simplified the construction of the firebox. The design was adopted for all new construction, although in 1864 Belpaire changed the pattern, abandoning the round-top form for a square shape, which made staying even easier: henceforth, the term 'Belpaire firebox' implied a square structure. In the 1880s modifications were made to enable the firebox to be applied to large locomotives, and to extend over the frames and wheels. The original purpose of the firebox, the burning of small coal, was only one of the advantages of this design. The simplicity of the staying cheapened boiler maintenance costs, and the shape ensured a greater steam and waterspace In the firebox area. But the round-top boiler was somewhat easier to manufacture, and hence had a lower initial cost.
The firebox was not the only Belpaire achievement. Apart from designing a highly standardized range of locomotives for the State Railway, he invented a reversing gear in which the screw system was combined with the lever system. He was also the originator of a series of steam carriages for light passenger services. These single-unit vehicles comprised a leading locomotive section with behind it on the same frame, a luggage van or a permutation of luggage van and one or more classes of passenger accommodation. Some units carried a so-called guitar-type boiler. This had a lower main barrel on which was superimposed a narrower second barrel which served as a steam reservoir, where additional heat was transferred by smokebox gases moving by a circuitous route towards the chimney. This type of boiler was removed after it blew up. The idea of the steam carriage was not entirely new, but Belpaire was perhaps unique in the variety of types which he built. A main object of these units was to reduce the train crew to a driver and conductor; the driver also looked after the fire. A man so energetic, so inventive, and so well-certificated was obviously destined to go far. He presided over the second International Railway Congress in Moscow in 1892, and the following year attained the highest possible position in the Belgian railway world, that of president of the State Railway administration.

See: The Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, Sept. 1932, Nov. 1939.
H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia)..

Betts, Thomas George
Locomotive superintendent of the Stockholm-Vesteras-Bergslagenes Ry. See Loco. Mag., 1906, 12, 178.

Beugniot, E.
Designer at Koechlin's locomotive works at Mulhouse in France of counter-pressure braking system. Carling: Trans Newcomen Soc., 1983, 55, 1-32.

Bianchi, Giuseppe
Giuseppe Bianchi was born at Imola on 26 August 1888 and died in Milan on 20 July 1969. Bianchi graduated in electrical mechanical engineering at the University of Turin in 1912. He joined Ferrovie dello Stato (the Italian State Railways and was initially assigned to the team for the electrification of Rome. In 1920 Bianchi was transferred to the office for locomotive research within the Servizio materiale e trazione (Rolling Stock and Locomotive Service) at Florence. Although Bianchi distinguished himself through projects involving steam locomotives for mainline services (like the three variations of the planned 695, then the unrealised Class 691), his work was central to the transition from steam to electric power. As the limitations of using alternating current became evident, and after examining the possibilities offered by running on the system on direct current of 3 kV, Bianchi concentrated on this means of power. Already during the first part of his career he had contributed to improving electric locomotives run on three-phase alternating current (3.6 kV, 16.7 Hz), and subsequently directed the planning of new locomotive types, the E432 (FS) and E554. His office also directed the development of the E326, E626, E428, and E424. (That E424 was not built; Bianchi's successor built the group of the same name starting in 1943). The initial failure of his attempts to reach high speeds with his locomotives and with the electric trains ETR200 allowed his political and industrial opponents to get him dismissed from the assignment in 1937. He was transferred to Ferrovie Nord Milano, where he ran the complete electrification of the network and stayed on until retirement, except for a brief stint working again with the FS, from 1945 to 1946.
Bianchi fully understood the necessity of a high standard of service and maintenance for the railcars under his jurisdiction, which were then still highly prone to mechanical breakdowns due to the newness of the technologies used. To meet this requirement, in 1928 he introduced the theory of interoperability: all the technical components of the locomotives should be simplified in their planning-stages (in favor of reliability) and of a single standardized design to make finding spare parts easier. These guidelines represented a philosophy whose concept was very close to that of the 1950s, spread amongst industry in general under the names "Design for maintenance" and "Reliable system design".
These design choices were carried over to the characteristic "Bianchi Line" inspired by the locomotives and systems already used in Switzerland. His locomotives were composed of a heavy rigid chassis, a central box and two small projections, one for each side. These projections, though reduced, they continued to characterize new Italian engines until the introduction of the E424, in service until the 1990s. They also influenced the development of the E636, which were built from 1940 to 1962 and were one of the most numerous Italian locomotive groups, not decommissioned until 2006. From Wikipedia. See also Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 71.

Blavier, Aimé-Etienne  
With Larpent he designed L'Aigle with 9ft 4in coupled wheels. This was constructed by Gouin, but suffered from a very small boiler. See Loco. Mag., 1905, 11, 101 and Internet (good material 7 February 2013)

Bodmer, Johann Georg [John George]
German Swiss engineer who according to Marshall was born in Zurich on 6 December 1786 of German ancestry and Huguenot stock. He was apprenticed to a mill-wright named Mesmer at Haupteuil in Thurgau. He became associated with Rothwell of Bolton who assisted in the financing of Bodmer's inventions, includings ones for balanced locomotives. He died in Zurich on 29 May 1864. Bodmer spent several periods in Manchester and lived in London between 1846 and 1848. His main interest was textile machinery but he became a locomotive builder in the 1830s. A pioneer in the study of balancing, in 1845 he built at least two locomotives for British railways having opposed-piston cylinders in which the reciprocating masses balanced each other (patented in 1834). One Bodmer type locomotive was supplied by the Sharp Brothers to the Dublin & Drogheda Railway: see Norman Johnston's Locomotives of the GNRI (he included a diagram from The Engineer). Relevant patents below (via Woodcroft).
He patented a mechanical stoker and a rocking grate in 1844. In 1844 he developed a rolling mill for steel tyres. Lowe notes that he appeared before the Gauge Commission in October 1845. Locomotives incorporating his ideas worked on the South Eastern Railway (No. 123), LBSCR (No. 20) where Ellis (London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, p.44 notes) that they were expensive (£2100 as against £1485 for a comparable Sharp locomotive). Possibly (according to Sekon (Evolution...) four locomotives were supplied plus the Sharp  locomotive noted) on the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway (Sharp 269/1844) No. 9 Bellona (a 2-2-2). Marshall failed to note that some of the material published in The Locomotive had come from Diaries. KPJ: it is clear that inspection of the Locomotive, Railway Carriage & Wagon Review for the years 1909-1911 and for 1930 is required to improve the incomplete citations listed below..

Marshall suggests that J.J. Meyer's expansion valve invented in France in 1842 and A.K. Rider's valve of 1869 may owe much to Bodmer.

Walker, Herbert T. The origin of the balanced locomotive: as shown by the Diaries of John George Bodmer. Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 10-12. illus. (port.), 3 diagrs.; Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 56. . Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 110: Loco. Mag., 1910, 16, 58-60.:and Loco. Mag., 1910, 16, 246 .
See also Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 42.

Dickinson, H.W. Diary of John George Bodmer, 1816-17. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1929, 10, 102-14.
Rowatt, T. Railway Brakes. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1927/8, 8, 19-32.
On early horse wagons, self-acting, continuous, automatic, steam, vacuum, Clark's chain brake, hydraulic. Bibliography.
Winship, Ian R. Some nineteenth century brakes. Rly Mag., 1987, 133, 162.
GB 6616/1834 Steam-engines and boilers applicable to fixed and locomotive engines. 24 May 1834
GB 6617/1834 Construction of grates, stoves and furnaces applicable to steam engines, and other purposes. 24 May 1834
GB 9702/1843 Locomotive steam-engines and carriages for railways; marine engines and vessels... 20 April 1843
GB 9899/1843 Grates, furnaces and boilers... 5 October 1843
GB 10243/1843  Locomotive steam-engines and carriages for railways; marine engines and vessels... 3 July 1843

Borodin, Aleksandr P.
Born 1848; died 1898 (not to be confused with composer/industrial chemist with same name). Built world's first stationary locomotive testing plant on Russia's South Western Railway: see Backtrack, 2012, 26, 694.

Borries, August von
In 1880, four years after Mallet's successful demonstration of his compound system, August von Borries and the Schichau Works introduced their two-cylinder compound system to Germany. The advantage of the two-cylinder compound was that it did not deman15%1d the extra expense of third or fourth cylinders,but it had the disadvantage that it was impossible to ensure that at all cut-offs the work done in the large low-pressure cylinder would exactly equal that done in the small high-pressure cylinder. However,a 15% difference in thrust was found to be acceptable in practice, so long as speeds were not too high. Von Borries's contribution was his own design of starting valve and his conjugated valve gear. His system kept the cut-off of the low-pressure cylinder always a little behind that of the high-pressure, thereby alleviating the unequal thrust problem. Von Borries type locomotives became quite popular in Germany and Russia, and were also tried in other parts of Europe. But they were unsuited to high speed. The career of von Borries, born in Minden on 27 January 1852 (Marshall), really began after he had finished his military service in 1874 (spent with a railway-operating battalion) when he became chief mechanical engineer of the Hanover division of the Prussian State Railways. In 1891 he was sent on a study trip to the U.S.A. which was followed by the publication of his Die nordamerikanischen Eisenbahnen in technischer Beziehung. From 1902 to his death on 14 February 1906 he was a professor at the Berlin Technical High School. The compounding system was adopted by the Worsdells on the North Eastern and by Malcolm Bowman on the NCC in Ireland. See: Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol. XLIII; Glasers Armalen, 1 May 1906; The Engineer, 8 Feb. 1889. and van Riemsdijk's Compound locomotives. H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia)..

Bousquet, Gaston Du
Born and died in Paris according to John Marshall: 20 August 1839 to 24 March 1910. Worked with De Glehn on compounding. See also H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia)... and van Riemsdijk.One of is most notable locomotives was the freight 0-6-2+2-6-0 articulated compound with two driving bogies. Experimented with water-tube fireboxes.

Brotan, Johann.
Brotan was born near Pilsen in Bohemia on 24 June 1843 and died in Vienna on 20 November 1923. Locomotive engineer: invented a water-tube firebox in about 1870 and fitted to locomotives from 1902. British patent: GB 26,244/1898 Improvements in steam generation. applied 112 December 1898,; published 4 August 1899. See Szontagh, Gáspár. Brotan and Brotan-Deffner type fireboxes and fireboxes applied to steam locomotives. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1990, 62, 21-51.

Brown, Charles
Founder of Swiss Locomotive Works in Winterthur, but was born in Uxbridge, Middlesex on 30 June 1827. Apprenticed at Maudslay & Field in London, but started his own workshop before end of apprenticeship. In 1851 invited to start building steam locomotives at Sulzer in Winterthur, but left in 1871 to form firm which became SLM noted for its rack locomotives. He was involved in the development of electric locomotives in the 1880s. He died on 6 October 1905 in Basle. Father of Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown, born in Winterthur, Switzerland (died Lugano 2 May 1924): major developer of electricity generating and traction machinery. Both father and son covered by Marshall. and by H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia).

Caillet, F.L.
French engineer who invented spring system for long coupled locomotives: see Slaughter

Carnot, Nicolas Léonard Sadi
Carnot was born 1 June 1796; died 24 August 1832).  French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the foundations of the second law of thermodynamics. Wikepedia
Kerker, Milton. Sadi Carnot and the steam engine engineers. Isis, 1960, 51, 257-270

Caprotti, Arturo
Marshall states that Arturo Caprotti was born in Cremona (IME obituary states Moscazzano), in Italy, on 22 March 1881 and received his education at the Technical School and the University of Pavia; subsequently he studied mathematics and mechanical engineering at the Royal Polytechnic School, Turin, and graduated in 1904. He then entered the Florentia automobile factory in Florence and took charge of the design office, afterwards being promoted to be works director. From 1906 to 1908 he collaborated with Musante in Genoa, on designing and experimenting with a reversible internal combustion engine.. He invented in 1915 (Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1938, 138, 512) (Marshall states 1916) a rotating cam valve gear for steam locomotives, which was applied to an Italian 2-8-0 in 1921. This used vertical poppet valves operated by rotating cams with a scroll form, giving the possibility of varying the angular position of the cams, thus varying exhaust and admission patterns. The gear was applied to some of the LNWR Claughton class, and to some of the former GCR 4-6-0s. Theoretically, much superior to normal valve gear, this margin narrowed after long-lap valves were introduced in conventional steam locomotives. However, research in Britain led to an improved application of the Caprotti gear in the 1950s. This was applied to some of the last class 5 4-6-0s built for the LMS under Ivatt, and to British Railway's last passenger design, the lone Pacific No.71000 Duke of Gloucester and to some of the Standard Class 5 locomotives. The Duke of Gloucester was fitted with this new gear and achieved the extremely good steam consumption per indicated horsepower hour of 12.2 lbs, probably the best result from any simple locomotive ever (the locomotive is extant and when restored was improved). However, this came too late, and the Caprotti gear never really achieved the hopes of its inventor. He died in Milan on 9 February 1938.


170,855. Valve gear for reversing steam engines. Published: 20 July 1922. Application number: 28344/1921 Applied: 25 October 1921
170,877 Improvements in valve gears for elastic-fluid engines. Published: 4 November 1921. Application number: 12341/1920. Applied: 4 May 1920
205,829. Automatic compensating device for elastic fluid engines while drifting. Published: 9 October 1924. Application number: 26370/1923 Applied: 22 October 1923
232,676. Improvements in the reversing device for reciprocating engines fitted with cam-controlled poppet valve gears. Published: 22 April 1925. Application number: 1776/1924. Applied: 22 January 1924
246,175. Improved apparatus for heating and supplying boiler feed water. Published: 25 November 1926. Application number: 1437/1926. Applied: 18 January 1926
345,775. Improvements in poppet valve gear for fluid pressure engines. Published: 2 April 1931. Application number: 5582/1930. Applied:19 February 1930.
444,010. Improvements in valves for engines operating with a fluid under pressure. Published: 4 March 1936. Application number: 16652/1934. Applied: 4 June 1934
447,479 Improved valve arrangement for three cylinder engines. Published: 15 May 1936. Application number: 32948/1934. Applied: 15 November 1934
448,086. Braking valve-gear for reversible engines. Published: 2 June 1936. Application number: 30567/1935. Applied: 5 November 1935
455,323 Improvements in valve gears for fluid pressure engines. Published: 19 October 1936. Application number: 25506/1935. Applied: 13 September 1935.

US patents

1549712 Valve gear for reversing steam engines. Published: 11 August 1925. Application number: 509605/1921 Applied: 22 October 1921
1869463 Poppet valve for steam distributing gears. Published: 2 August 1932. Application number: 214912/1927. Applied: 23 August 1927
1976325 Poppet valve gear. Published: 9 October 1934. Application number: 431262/1930 Applied: 25 February 1930
2119904 Variable valve lift for oscillating valve gears. Published: 7 June 1938. Application number: 39988/1935 Applied: 10 September 1935

See: Railway and Locomotive Engineering, Feb. 1925; Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, Oct. 1923.
H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia)...

Caso, Marc de
Born in Montpellier of partly French and partly Italian ancestry in 1893; died 1985. After studying at the École Polytechnique, he joined the Compagnie du Nord in 1921. He was responsible for renovating a fleet of ex-Preussian State Railways 4-6-0s acwquired through reparation. He designed all-steel monocoque coaches and improved the valve gear on the Nord super Pacifics. His first own design was thev 150 class of four-cylinder compound 2-10-0 which used the Super Pacific boiler and a very large steam-flow circuit. With an official top speed of 105 kph  these heavy freight and mineral train locomotives were also worked heavy passenger trains making frequent stops. In 1933, de Caso became locomotive design engineer of the inter-central design office, where he continued his design work on some remarkable 4-6-4s for the Nord railway, with 290 psi boilers, 54ft2 grates, mechanical stokers, robust frames, and large steam-flow circuits. Three three-cylinder simple-expansion 4-6-4s and five four-cylinder compound 4-6-4s were built from 1941, the latter developing a maximum of 4,500 ihp. . He was an outspoken and passionate man. Glancey

Chapelon, Andre

Chatelier, Louis Le
Born 20 February 1815 in Paris, died 10 November 1873. Educated École Polytechnique. Entered government service as an inspector in the Corps des Mines and rose to become Ingenieur en Chef. One of the pioneers of counter-pressure braking and of locomotive balancing, the Frenchman Louis le Chatelier showed in the late 1840s that balancing of the moving parts of a locomotive not only improved riding and durability, but also affected coal consumption and speed. Known to Alexander McDonnell..

See: L. le Chatelier, Etudes sur la stabilite des machines locomotives en mouvement (1845).
Winship, Ian R. Some nineteenth century brakes. Rly Mag., 1987, 133, 162.

Cherepanov, Yefim Alekseyevich
Yefim Alekseyevich Cherepanov (1774-1842). Visited Britain to inspect early railways and locomotives: led to construction of first Russian steam locomotive in 1833/4 and a second in 1835. Worked with Miron Yefmovich. See Wikepedia and George Smith Tsar trek Backtrack, 2013, 27, 426..

Clapeyron, Benoit Paul Emile
Born in Paris on.26 February 1799; died there on 28 January 1864. (Marshall modified with information off Internet). Educated at École Polytecnique; graduated in 1818 and then studied at École des Mines where he met Gabriel Lamé. They both went to Russia in 1820 for ten years to build roads and bridges. On return from Clapeyron promoted the Paris-St Gerrnain Railway. He was concerned with the manufacture of locomotives for gradients of 1 in 200 and had these built at Sharp, Roberts, Manchester. in 1836. He then promoted the Northern Railway and was appointed engineer. He shared in the construction of the Southern Railway, the Bordeaux-Cette and Bordeaux-Bayonne lines. He was the first French engineer to build several large iron bridges, over the Seine at Asrueres, the Lot and Tarn rivers, and he established principles of construction and stress diagrams.

Conrad, Frederik Willem
Born in Spaarnwoude near Haarlem, Holland, on 15 February 1800; died in Munich on 1 February 1870. Son of Frederik Willem Conrad inspector general of buildings and roads  in Holland. In 1814 he began to study in engineering at Delft. At 17 entered the. Department of Buildings and Roads, passing through the ranks until he was made inspector general. In 1822 he undertook the construction of a dock at Hellevoetsluis. 1824-5 built the Zederik canal between the Leck at Vianen and the Merwede at Gorcum. Important river works followed. In March 1839 his career as railway engineer began when he was appointed by the government as chief engineer of the Railway Co of Holland and at once took in hand the cor:st of the Amsterdam-Haarlem Railway which had begun in 1838. For crossing the marshy ground he laid embankments on a mattress of stakes and wattles. He had to construct many opening bridges over canals, In 1844 he presented an account of its history and construcnon to the ICE for which he was awarded a Walker PI:emium (Min Proc ICE v 3 1844 pp 173-96). The account mcludes 25 detailed drawings of bridges etc. The railway was opened throughout on 6 December 1843. In 1847 he descnbed the bridge over the Poldevaart (Min Proc ICE v 6 1847 pp 149-57) on the same Railway. His account of the Katwyk canal (Min Proc ICE v 2 1842 pp 172-6) earned him a Telford Medal. He was elected MICE 7 March 1843. He became chief engineer of briIdges and roads in 1852. In 1855 he became a member of the International Committee to report on the practicability of a canal through the Isthmus of Suez. Conrad was elected president In 1856 he became a member of the  supervising committee to construct a new dock at Nieuwediep. He reported and advised on railway works in the province of Zeeland in 1866. In October 1869 he went to Egypt, to the opening of the Suez Canal. On his way home he died shortly after arriving at Munich. Marshall. Not in Chrimes

Coray, Richard
Born Trins, Graubünden, Switzerland, 30 July 1869; died Wiesen, Graubünden, 3 October 1946. Trained as engineer in the Technical School, Winterthur, 1889-92. Later worked on the Breitenburg-Rongellen rope incline in the Viamala and on the scaffolding for the iron bridge over the Versamertobel. From the early 1900s he performed centring and scaffolding for an increasing number of important bridges, first in Graubünden then elsewhere. Major projects included the Solis and Wiesen bridges on the Rhaetian Railway, Gründjetobel and Langwies bridges on the Chur-Arosa Railway, Sitter bridge near St Gallen on the Bodensee-Toggenburg Railway, Perolles and Zalmringer bridges in Canton Fribourg and the slender centring of the Salginatobel bridge near Landquart on which his sons cooperated with the great Swiss engineer and pioneer of concrete arches, Robert Maillart . Abroad he carried out notable work in Yugoslavia His advice was sought by engineers and was highly valued. John Marshall

Cossart, Léon
Works manager and subsequently engineer-in-chief of the Nord Railway in France, Leon Cossart is remembered best for the Cossart rotary valve gear. This was an advanced form of poppet valve in which two factors were variable (admission and expansion) and the others fixed. This enabled cut-offs of as little as five or ten per cent to be obtained without the inefficient side-effects that such cut-offs would produce with conventional valves. Moreover, these poppet valves made possible the use of very high superheat without temperature distortion and lubrication failure. Such high superheat produced the advantages of compounding for a. lower price and with less complication. These principles were embodied in the 2-8-2 tank locomotives (SNCF class 141TC) that Cossart designed for the Paris commuter service. These were two-cylinder simple locomotives, and were very successful, remaining in service until 1970. See: Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 109..

Crosti, Piero
Developing the ideas of his fellow-Italian Franco, Dr Ing. Piero Crosti designed the Franco-Crosti and Crosti boilers. The latter, used on Italian railways and also experimentally in Germany and Britain, used exhaust steam passing through a single drum to heat the feedwater (the Franco-Crosti later had two drums; but the principle was the same). Substantial economies were realized, but in countries where coal was cheap these were outweighed by extra maintenance expenses. See: Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, June 1953, June 1955.

Cugnot, Nicolas-Joseph
Born 26 February 1785; died 2 October 1804. French inventor of steam carriage: experimental sream vehicle pre-dated experiments by Murdoch and Trevithick. See Wikepedia.
Copper, Edward A. Description of Cugnot's original invention of the locomotive steam engine for common roads. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1853, 4, 33-7.

Czeczott (Czezcott), Albert
Born 13 April 1873 in St. Petersburg; died 3 November 1955 in Warsaw Polish engineer, professor of Warsaw University of Technology, a specialist in research on steam locomotives. He was the son of a doctor residing in St. Petersburg. Educated in Russia, specializing in the construction of steam engines and research on them. In 1914 he was professor of Locomotive Engineers Institute of Road Transport in St. Petersburg, also taught at other local universities. In 1922 he moved to Poland and from 1927 he lectured at the Warsaw Polytechnic. From 1928 began work at the Ministry of Communications in Warsaw, dealing with locomotive research. His initiative was created by an independent report experimental mechanical department of the Ministry of Communications. Czeczott designed measuring wagons, and even an experimental train. Developed test methods for use of steam engines and auxiliary engine thrust. In 1933 he directed the construction of a vehicle for testing Romanian locomotives and organized a survey of steam locomotives. Shortly after the liberation of Warsaw, Czeczott returned to work at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Ministry of Communications and conditions of the major difficulties in materials began to organize independent experimental paper. Developed a new method of testing locomotives, on the basis of which has been studied among others locomotives Tr202 , Ty45 , Ty2 , Ty43 , Ty246 , drawing up their operating characteristics. According to the project was built in 1949 Czeczott wagon measuring torque, followed by 3 locomotives resistance, marked CZ1, CZ2, CZ3, adapted for the manufacture of artificial resistance movement. In 1951, he moved to the newly established Research Institute of Railway, where he organized the establishment of traction steam and smoke. He participated in the study of newly constructed locomotives TKt48 , Ol49 and Ty51 . He was also an analysis of carbon species in terms of its use for sunbathing locomotives. He was the author of many publications in Poland and abroad. Introduced a system for flexibility in ten coupled narrow gauge locomotives for railways in Upper Silesia and a system of locomotive testing cited by H.I. Andrews. Author of book on testing. Mainly Polish Wikipedia and machine translation.
GB 356869. Methods of removing deposits from boilers and of preventing the formation of scale and apparatus therefor. Applied 14 July 1930 (priority 13 July 1929). Published 17 September 1931.

Debac, Pierre Barthelemy Guinibert
Patents via Woodcroft
GB 7100/1836. Railways. 18 May 1836.
GB 7373/1837. Railroads. 13 May 1837.

De Cambis, Louis Joseph Marie (Marquis)
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 5372/1826 Rotary steam engine; apparatus connected therewith. 23 May 1826

Décauville, Paul
Born in Petit Boury in Frnace on 7 June 1846. Died 1922 according to Marshall. Developed portable, narrow gauge railway systems for use in agriculture and later for military applications. Ransom, P.J.G. Narrow gauge steam. 1996 noted that system developed to harvest sugar beet and a 60cm layout was installed at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Decauville had visited the Festiniog Railway in 1879. See also W.J.K. Davies' Light railways..
On portable railways. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1884, 35, 126-49.

Dechen, Heinrich von
One of two Prussian mining engineers who visited the United Kingdom to study the railways: see Report on railways in England in 1826-27 by Carl von Oeynhausen and Heinrich von Dechen; translated and reviewed E.A. Forward. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1954, 29, 1-10. Disc.: 11-12. See also Warren

Deffner, Ernst
Mechanical engineer with Schweizerische Bundenshahnen (SBB), the Swiss Federal Railways, who became technical adviser to Mannesmann Steel Tubes A.G., to  whom Johann Brotan later sold the patent rights to his water tube firebox boiler. Deffner developed the Brotan boiler to a form which was much more readily applicable to larger locomotives. Brotan-Deffner boilered locomotives were first built in 1907, with a total of over 1000 in Hungary. British Patent GB 6582/1906 Improvements in fire bridges for steam generators. Applied 19 March 1906; published 10 January 1907.  See Szontagh, Gáspár. Brotan and Brotan-Deffner type fireboxes and fireboxes applied to steam locomotives. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1990, 62, 21-51. .

De Nanteuil, Pierre Antoine Auguste De La Barre.
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 13,809/1850. Propelling carriages. 2 November 1850

Denis, Paul Camille
Born at Château des Saales in Montier-en-Der, in the Département of Haute-Marne, France on 28 June 1796. He grew up as a child of the Mainz city councillor, Peter Denis, and attended the Lyceum Louis le Grand in Paris. In 1814 and 1815 he studied at the École Polytechnique in Paris. After the conclusion of his studies he returned to the Palatinate to his father who had since settled at Neustadt. Initially employed as a trainee by the Bavarian state, to which the Palatinate then belonged; from 3 March 1816 he worked as a construction overseer (Baukondukteur) in Germersheim. In 1822 he became an engineering inspector at Speyer and in 1826 was promoted to engineer, first class, at Zweibrücken. Here he came into contact with the democratic opposition organised by Friedrich Schüler, Johann Georg August Wirth, Joseph Savoye and Ferdinand Geib. In a report from the state police to the Bavarian king he was described, incorrectly, as their boyhood friend and fellow student. The German Press and Fatherland Union (Deutscher Preß- und Vaterlandsverein) of democrats was founded in 1832, in which the wealthy Paul Camille Denis was a major financial contributor. In his personal files for that year his wealth was stated at 300,000 Gulden. When in August 1832 the secretary of the Preß- und Vaterlandsverein, Georg Eifler, was arrested, Paul Camille Denis put up 10,000 Gulden as bail. As a member of the Palatine state parliament he took part in the Hambach Festival. As a result the Bavarian General Commissioner, Field Marshal Carl Philipp von Wrede, transferred him to Rosenheim for exceeding his authority. On 1 August 1832 Paul Camille Denis signed the Kaiserslautern Protest against the Federal resolution of 28 June. This led to a charge of "denigration of the most high state authorities". Denis reacted to the charge and threatened transfer to the Isar area by taking unpaid leave on 7 November 1832 for a technical training trip to England and America.
On return he built the first German railway line, the Bavarian Ludwig Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth which opened in 1835. This was followed by the construction of the Taunus Railway from Frankfurt am Main to Wiesbaden, opened in 1839-1840, and the Palatine Ludwig Railway in 1844–1849. Recognised as an expert in railway building he later took responsibility for the construction of the Palatine Maximilian Railway, the Homburg – Zweibrücken railway (1857), later part of the Schwarzbachtalbahn (Pfalz) and the Bliestalbahn, as well as the Bavarian Eastern Railway Company from 1856 to 1861. Now highly respected, he received the Knight's Cross of Philip the Magnanimous in 1852 from Grand Duke Ludwig III of Hesse and Rhine. In the same year he was raised to the peerage by the Bavarian king, Maximilian II, becoming Paul Camille von Denis. In 1865 Paul Camille von Denis became the head of the planning commission for the Rhine bridge on the Mannheim–Ludwigshafen railway and shortly thereafter, in 1866, went into retirement of his own volition. He died in Bad Dürkheim on 3 September 1872, Wikipedia (18-08-2013) and Rly Wld, 1960, 21, 264.

De Pons, Henry Francois Marie.
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 13514/1851. Constructing roads and ways, and pavements of streets; ballast of railways. 17 February 1851.

De Rigel, Antonin Pieux
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 7445/1837. Steam-engines. 14 October 1837.

De Rosen, Adolphe Eugene, Count
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 3938/1826. Engine for communicating power, to answer the purposes of a steam-engine. 1 August 1826

Dery, Victor Auguste Ernest Dwelshauvers-
Born in 1836; died in 1913. Normally cited as Dery as in Riemsdijk. Cited by Chapelon. Professor at the University of Liège. Not in Wikipedia (2012-08-31), but some material on Internet. Thermodynamics of steam.. Paper (one of presumably a great many):. Experiments on the compression of steam in the clearance space. J. Am. Soc. Naval Engrs., 1898, 10, 641–59.

De Strubing, James Ulric Vaucher, Baron
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 12876/1849. Axletree-boxes for carriages; bearinga of the axles of railways; making an alloy of metal suitable for such purposes. 3 December 1849

De Wydroff, Baron Victor
Patent via Woodcroft
GB 3580/1842. Construction of railways; wheels to run on railways; apparatus for cleaning the rails. 29 December 1842.

Egestorff, George
Born (7 February 1802) in Linden and died there on 27 May 1868. German industrialist whose activities included manuafcture of stationary engines, but moved onto locomotive construction in 1846, Established Hannoversche Machinenbau taken over by Dr Strousberg upon Egestorff's death. See Locomotive Mag., 1903, 8, 168

Eifel, Alexandre Gustav
Born Dijon on 15 December 1832; died Paris 28 December 1923. French civil engr, best remembered for his great tower in Paris, built 1887-9, and designer of many outstanding bridges still in use on French railways. Educated at Dijon and the Lycee Ste Barbe, and the Central School of Arts and Crafts, Paris, where he studied civil engineering until 1855. Became Member of the the Société des lngenleurs Civils de France in 1857. After experience in designing the great iron bridge over the Garonne in Bordeaux in 1858, and bridges on the Poitiers-Limoges Railway in 1867-8, he developed his prindple of construction in wrought iron and cast iron which he employed in the great viaducts at Sioule and Neuvial on the Orleans Railway in 1868-9. Other important iron viaducts were the Tagus bridge on the Caceres Railway in Spain (1880),312m long; the Vianna bridge on the Minho Railway Portugal, 736m long, on 9 masonry piers; and the Tardes viaduct in central France on the Montlucon-Eygurande line (1883), 250m long and 73m high. His iron-arched railway bridges included the Douro bridge at Porto, Portugal (1875), 160m long and 61m high; the Garabit viaduct, Sud Railway, France (1882), 564m long with a main span of 165m, 122m high. By 1887 his railway bridges alone accounted for 38,000 tons of iron and steel work. He received many honours John Marshall:

Engerth, Wilhelm Frieherr von
Born Pless in Germany and died Leesdorf, near Baden, on 4 September 1884. Designed locomotive Engerth for Semmering Railway. Frame was in two portions: the rear enclosing the firebox. The cylinders drove the coupled wheels of the front unit which were geared to those of the rear unit. This was patented in 1852. He served on the Panel of Judges at the Great Exhibition in London of 1851. John Marshall: Le Fleming Concise encyclopaedia gives a somewhat better description of the locomotive: none of the contestants at the Semmering trials of 1851 was considered wholly satisfactory and  Engerth was instructed to produce a design. Patented in 1852 the Engerth had the frames in two parts, of which the rear enclosed the firebox and was pivoted just in front of it. The cylinders drove the coupled wheels of the front unit which were connected to those of the rear unit by gearing and thus the "tender" weight was used for adhesion. However, the gears of those days and alternative forms of transmission proved unsatisfactory and were later abandoned. Use of part of the tender weight for adhesion was later revived in the Continental "Stutz-tender" locomotives. Carling, D.R.. Engerth and similar locomotives. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1985, 57, 31-56. Disc. 57-8.

Fialovits, Bela
Born 1885; died 1968. Chief mechanical engineer of Magyar Allanvasutak (MAV), Hungarian State Railways. From early 1920s, made great efforts to redesign and to rebuild older steam locomotives of MAV. He knew from his experience as chief running and maintenance engineer of MAV's northern main workshops that there were problems of structural strength and lack of rigidity in the Brotan-Deffner boiler, which he redesigned with successful results and applied to several locomotives. Extended applications were halted by MAV's abandonment of further steam locomotive development in the mid-1950s.  See Szontagh, Gáspár. Brotan and Brotan-Deffner type fireboxes and fireboxes applied to steam locomotives. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1990, 62, 21-51.

Flamme, Jean Baptiste
Marshall states that Flamme was born in Mons on 19 October 1847 and died in Brussells on 25 May 1920. A Belgian of great originality, Flamme was the first, in 1901, to fit Schmidt's firetube superheater to a locomotive, and did so successfully. He produced his unusual 4-6-2 and 2-10-0 for the Belgian State Railways in 1910. The Pacific had a very large boiler with a correspondingly sharp taper, and was conspicuous because its smokebox was set well behind the leading truck. The 2-10-0 was distinguished by a similar boiler and widely-spread coupled wheels and, but for the 1914 war, would probably have been adopted by the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway.  [see Barnes] Some of the 2-10-0 machines were sent to Russia during the First World War to work on captured standard gauge lines, and remained working in the Crimea until the mid-1940s.

See: E. S. Cox, World Steam in the Twentieth Century (1969); Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, Jan., July 1927.

Franco, Attilio
Westwood alleged that Italian contributions to locomotive design were small, but Franco made his mark (in Belgium) with a novel three-unit articulated 0-6-2 + 2-4-2-4-2 + 2-6-0 that carried two subsidiary and two main boilers. In 1937 he designed for the Italian State Railways a 4-6-0 with reversed boiler and cab in front, His ideas on improved boiler efficiency were developed by Crosti . See: Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, Aug, 1933, June 1953. Not in Marshall

Gakkel, Yakov Modestovich
Born 30 April 1874, in Irkutsk; died 12 December 1945, in Leningrad. Russian scientist and designer in the field of aircraft and diesel locomotive building; Gakkel graduated from the St. Petersburg Institute of Electrical Engineering in 1897. For participation in revolutionary student organizations he was exiled for five years to Siberia, where he directed the construction and later the operation of one of Russia’s first hydroelectric power plants (near the city of Bodaibo). On return to St. Petersburg, Gakkel worked on the design, construction, and operation of the St. Petersburg streetcar, at the same time teaching a course on electric traction at the Institute of Electrical Engineering (he became a professor there in 1921). He was associated with the Leningrad Institute of Railroad Engineering beginning in 1936. Between 1909 and 1912, Gakkel designed and built a number of original aircraft. Between 1920 and 1921 Gakkel designed one of the world’s first powerful and efficient diesel locomotives (about 1,000 hp; built in 1924). Many of Gakkel’s design ideas (in particular the interlinked design of the diesel locomotive) have been further developed in the modern diesel locomotive. Gakkel was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor and medals. Online sources. See also Hennessey, Backtrack, 2004, 18, 206.

Garbe, Robert
Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia p. 498) noted that born in 1847 and died on 23 May 1932. Carried out extensive tests on Prussian State Railways from 1895 to 1917. Advocate of superheating and standardisation: huge numbers of 4-6-0s, 0-8-0s and 0-10-0s built to his designs. "one of the greatest authorities on the locomotive". Marshall adds citations to several German publications, See also Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1993, 65, 165 for paper by J. Quellmalz, Thermodynamic aspects of the design of German Standard steam locomotives: compound vs. simple expansion.

Gerstner, Franz Anton Von
Born Prague on 11 May 1793; died Philadelphia, USA on 12 April 1840. Son of Franz Josef von Gerstner, founder of the Prague Polytechnic Institute, where son was educated and promoter of the railway from the Danube to the Moldau (Vltava). His full name was Franz Anton Ritter von Gerstner (members of the family were allowed to bear the title 'Ritter'). In 1818 was appointed professor of practical geometry at Vienna Polytechnic Institute. In 1822 he decided to study railway construction and visited England. Returning to Vienna he built a 2km long railway, a third of it with wooden rails, a third with cast iron rails and a third with wrought iron rails. He surveyed the Danube-Moldau Railway and on 7 September 1824 obtained a concession for the railway from Budweis on the Moldau to the Danube near Linz, using wooden and iron rails. In 1826 he again visited England to examine locomotive haulage on railways. On 7 September 1827 the Budweis-Trojern section was opened. This had steeper gradients and sharper curves. Still not convinced of the merits of steam power, he visited England again in 1829. The Budweis-Linz Railway opened throughout on 1 August 1832. In 1834 he visited Russia intending to layout a railway network and in 1835 presented a memorandum to Tsar Nicholas I suggesting that he should be allowed to build a railway between Moscow and St Petersburg, Nizhnii Novgorod and Kazan. He asked for a 20-year monopoly of railway construction in Russia At the end of October 1837 only the 23km section from St Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo had opened, extended to Pavlovsk the following summer. Harro Zabehlicky (letter Backtrack, 2013, 27, 573) states that Gerstner built, after visiting English railways (but he never had been able to find out which), the first mountain railway from Budweis, 315.5m above sea level (nowadays Budejovice in the Czech Republic, then a part of the Austrian empire) via Kerschbaum (713.4m) to Linz-Urfahr (262.6m) in Upper- Austria, begun in 1824! The first railway, albeit by the use of horses, in the continent, was primarily thought for the transport of salt, which could not be found in the granite massive of the Bohrnerwald. In 1838 he went to America to study railways there but died in Philadelphia. John Marshall (other):

Gerwig, Robert
Born Karlsruhe, Germany, on 2 May 1820; died Karlsruhe 6 December 1885. Engineer on St Gotthard Railway. Educated Technical High School, Karlsruhe. In 1840 engineer of water and street works in Baden. 1868-71 supervised construction of the Black Forest Railway. 1871 appointed engineer on St Gotthard Railway, being placed in charge of the Ticino section with its four great spiral tunnels, which opened 1 June 1882. John Marshall:

Ghega, Karl Kitter von
Born Venice on 10 January 1802; died Vienna 14 March 1860. Engineer of the Semmering Railway, Studied at Padua University and graduated as Doctor of Mathematics in 1819. For seventeen years he was engaged on street tramways and water supply works in Venice. In 1836 appointed engineer on Kaiser Ferdinand's Nordbahn, the first steam railway in Austria. In 1836-7 he visited Belgium and England to study railways. He then planned the Rabensburg-Brünen, and Lundenburg-Olmütz Railways. In 1842 he visited USA on a study tour. His greatest work was the laying out and construction of the Semmering Railway, Wiener Neustadt-Murzuschlag, Europe's first mountain railway, begun after much delay on 8 August 1848 and opened to freight on 15 May1854 and passengers on 17 July 1854. A large memorial to Ghega was erected at Semmering station. John Marshall:  

Giesl-Gieslingen, Adolph
Born  in Trient, Tirol, on 7 September 1903 died in Vienna on 11 February 1992). Studied at the Technical College in Vienna. In 1924 he published a technical article on smokebox design and chimneys.[1] In 1925 he received his diploma as an engineer, and began working as a design engineer at the Floridsdorf locomotive works,[1] where he was involved in the construction of the Class 214 2-8-4s. While at Floridorf he continued his studies, being interested in developing the rectangular chimney design developed by Golsdorf in Austria, and finished his doctoral thesis on locomotive front-end design in 1929. In 1929 the director, Arno Demmer, sent him to the USA, where he stayed until 1938, working on the New York Central Railroad testing a Kylala blastpipe. There he got to know his wife, whom he married in 1933 in New York. After his return  to Austria he became Demmer's assistant and, after the Second World War, chief engineer of the Floridsdorf company. In 1946 he took up his post as honorary professor at the Technical College in Vienna as the successor to Johann Rihosek. (Wikipedia 2012-10-11)
Inventor of the Giesl Ejector, a carefully proportioned rectangular multi-jet exhaust arrangement, Giesl spent decades trying to interest railways in his device. About thirty years after he began his studies, the Austrian Federal Railways adopted it and found that it increased the power output of its locomotives by up to one-third, whilst reducing coal consumption. Some other railways followed the Austrian example, but in most parts of the world it came too late, dieselization and electrification being already the accepted policy.

Cox (Locomotive panorama. Part 2 p. 99) considered that he was "a delightfully fair minded man, devoted to steam traction, and a first rate engineer". Nevertheless, Cox doubted whether the device was worth the cost and effort although did concede that it reduced spark throwing by the West Country Pacific so-fitted,
See: Trains Magazine, Jan. 1958; European Railways No.2, 1963.
John Sagar. Just what the doctor ordered; experience with the Giesl Ejector on City of Wells. Rly Wld., 1992, 53 (629), 46-9.
Includes photograph taken on 14 September 1986 at Haworth of No. 34092 with John Click and Adolph Giesl-Gieslingen when latter was aged 84.

Giffard, Henri
Marshall notes born in Paris on 8 February 1825 and died there on 14 April 1882. Inventor of the injector in 1859 which he had hoped to apply to steam engines for ballooning. Often mis-cited as "Gifford". Engineer, 1923, 31 August, p. 231. See I.Loco.E. Paper No. 498 by T.H. Shields which includes extracts from Giffard patent,.

Gölsdorf, Karl
Born in Vienna on 8 June 1861; died Semmering on 18 March 1916. Son of Adolf Golsdorf, CME of Austrian Southern Railway from 1885 to 1907. In charge of locomotive design on Austrian Stae Railways from 1891. (Marshall). H.M. Le Fleming (Concise encyclopaedia) noted that "few men have left such an unmistakable stamp on the locomotives of a country. Noted for the elegance and ingenuity of his designs. 2-cylinder compound introduced in 1893 with simple automatic system which permitted semi-compound working at long cut-offs. 4-cylinder compound introduced in 1901. A ten coupled locomotive was introduced in 1900 with adequate side play. He exploited the Brotan boiler. He introduced the 2-6-2 to Europe. He designed an 0-12-0T for  Abt rack system. He developed a valve gear which dispensed with expansion links and introduced a numbering system for locomotives. Phil Atkins has found the following quotation attributed to Gölsdorf: 'You can't save a ton weight on a locomotive, but you can save a kilo in a thousand places' (it certainly sounds plausible KPJ). Kalla-Bishop Locomotives at War pp. 145-6 presented a highly contrary view "they [Golsdorf locomotives] were all pretty dreadful, worse than the Italian designs of the same age...".

Gruson, Hermann
Born Magdeburg, Germany on 31 March 1821; died in Magdeburg 30 January 1895. Manufacturer of railway equipment, machinery and armaments. Descended from a Flemish Calvinist family who settled in Magdeburg in 1689. Between 1840 and 1844 he worked in August Borsig's machine factory in Berlin. In 1855 Gruson founded a machine factory, iron foundry and shipyard on the Elbe at Backau (now part of Magdeburg). In the depression shortly afterwards he was almost bankrupted, but by experimenting with two types of pig iron he produced a chill cast iron with an extremely hard surface which was used for railway crossings and other parts subjected to heavy wear. Later locomotive, carriage and wagon wheels were made of this cast iron. But he found his most profitable market was in armaments production. In 1892 the Gruson plant was bought by Krupp of Essen. Gruson then retired and devoted his time to growing exotic plants. Marshall.

Gysel, Ernst
Born 1882 in Schaffhausen Switzerland. As mechanical engineer Ernst Gysel was CEO from 1930 to 1947 of the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works (SLM) at Winterthur (near Zurich).

Haerter, Ludwig
Inventor of a resilient wheel with rubber spokes. See Loco. Mag., 1940, 46, 295.

Hagans, Christian
Born Erfurt in 1829; died in 1908. In 1891 Hagans was granted patent DE 58,845 /1891 for his articulation system for steam locomotves. In 1892 the first two Hagans system locomotives built for Gelnhausen-Bieber mine railway. In 1893 trial of 0-4+4-0 on Prussian State Railways (0.9m gauge). In 1894 The Association of the German Railway Administration awards Hagans its first prize of 7500 Mark. In 1894 Schichau built an 0-6+4-0. In 1895 three Hagans built by Weidnecht in Paris for the Greek Volo Lechonia railway (0.6m gauge)  In 1900 Hagans locomotive exhibited at the Paris International Exhibition and Vulcan 0-6+4-0 Hagans locomotive built for Tasmania. In 1902 construction by Henschel of more 0-6+4-0 locos for Stettin-Jasenitz line of Prussian State Railways and by 1905 there were 152 Hagans locomotives in use on the Prussian and Hessian State Railways but by 1907 all Hagans gone from Prussian and Hessian systems. (Internet). Also Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, 10 and Carter Unusual locomotives (who spelt name incorrectly). Many patents listed in Espacenet including some British and American.

Hall, Joseph
An Englishman who went to Munich in 1839 and two years later built the first locomotive for J.A. Maffei. In 1856 he patented his arrangement of cranks with outside framing, which was widely adopted. In 1858 he moved to Austria and was engaged in various branches of railway engineering. Le Fleming. The Hall crank used on outside frame locomotives: see Ahrons British steam locomotive pp. 240-1 and Wikipedia (2012-10-10). Mentioned by Hamilton Ellis in his chapter on the development of railway engineering in Singer and by Ahrons British steam railway locomotive (p. 240) who invented the crank system which bears his name whilst working for J.A. Maffei in Bavaria. May have influenced John Haswell.

Hammel, Anton
Born 26 May 1857 in Munich; died 27 March 1925. Entered the drawing office of the Maffei locomotive works in 1875, later becoming chief of the design department until his death. He re-introduced bar frames into Europe in 1905 and was responsible for many types on the Bavarian and Baden State Rlys. Most of these were four-cylinder compounds with bar frames, the Bavarian Pacifics and 0-8-8-0 tanks being amongst the very few non-standard designs built after formation of the Reichsbahn. His engines were always distinctive with their elegant design and beautiful finish. Based mainly on Le Fleming, but this contains very obvious errors and has been corrected by German Wikipedia (2012-11-06)

Locomotive superintendent of the Bavarian Railways and inventor of modified Clark's brake used in Germany for many years. Rowatt, T. Railway brakes.Trans Newcomen Soc.,1927, 8, 19-32. According to A.M. Bushell (discussion on paper p. 29) Heberlein brake used on Maenclochog Railway in Wales, on the Highgate Hill Cable Tramway and on the Colne Valley & Halstead Railway.

Helmholtz, Richard von
According to John Marshall: was born in Königsberg on 28 September 1852 and died in Munich on 10 September 1934. Apprenticed at Borsig Locomotive Works in Berlin and completed his studies at high schools in Stuttgart and Munich. In 1881 he entered Krauss works (later Krauss-Maffei) in Munich and in 1884 he was made of the firm's drawing office, a position he occupied until retirement in 1917. His best known innovation was the Krauss-Helmholtz truck which combined the pony truck with the leading coupled axle. He was responsible for a modified form of Walschaerts valve gear and in 1930 he published with Staby a major history of the German steam locomotive. Le Fleming summarised: Chief designer of the Krauss Locomotive Works in Munich from 1884 to 1917. In 1884 he brought out a form of Walschaerts valve gear with straight expansion link, and in 1888 the Krauss-Helmholz truck combining one carrying and one coupled axle as a bogie. The latter's influence on Continental design had been enormous. Engines he designed for the Palatinate Rly. in 1894, and the Bavarian State Rly. in 1900, incorporated "boosters" in an early form. He was a great authority on the steam locomotive and its history.
Die historischen Lokomotiven der Badischen Staats-Eisenbahnen. Karlsruhe, Dtsch. Gesellschaft füür Eisenbahngeschichte, 1982.

The cause of wear of wheel-flanges and rails in curves: mechanical contrivances to diminish the same. Zeit. Vereines Deutsch. Ing., 1888, 32. English trans. by A. Bewley. Madras: Laurence Asylum Press, 1896. BLPC

Rutherford, Michael. The 'Prairie' - a survey of the 2-6-2 type - Part 1. (Railway Reflections No. 35). Backtrack, 1997, 11, 622-8.
Includes notes on the development of the Wootten firebox and the Krauss-Helmholtz bogie.

Henry, Adolphe
Born at Barisey-au-Plain (Meurthe) on 27 February 1846, died 23 January 1892. Following an academic career he joined the Compagnie des chemins de fer Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée [Railway]in 1878 under Marié whom he succeeded in 1882. Le Fleming noted that in 1888 he introduced four-cylinder compounds on the PLM and was the first to use considerably higher boiler pressure (213 lb.) on them. His 1889 compounds had the inside high-pressure cylinders behind the outside low-pressure cylinders, an arrangement which remained peculiar to the PLM.

Heusinger von Waldegg, Edmund
Edmund Heusinger was born in Langenschwalbach (present day Bad Schwalbach) in the state of Hesse in central Germany on 12 May 1817. In 1841 he became a master-workman with the Taunus Railway (Taunusbahn). In 1854 he was awarded a contract to build the Homburg Railway. He invented a new type of valve gear for steam locomotives that was to become the most widely-used valve gear in the world. Because the Belgian, Egide Walschaerts, invented the same system independently, it is usually called the Walschaerts valve gear outside the German-speaking world. Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg died on 2 February 1886 in Hanover. Wikipedia. Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 59.

Hirn, Gustave-Adolphe
Born on 21 August 1815 in Logelbach, near Colmar into the prosperous textile-manufacturing family Haussmann; died in in Logelbach. on 14 January 1890. At 19, he entered his grandfather's cotton factory as a chemist. Later he worked as an engineer, and began research on mechanics, especially on calorics. He was made a member of the French Academy of Science in 1867; in 1880 founded a meteorological observatory near Colmar; and later devoted himself to astronomy. Hirn was educated in the shop, and his works are marked by much practical criticism of mere academic theory. In 1855 Hirn demonstrated the value of steam-jacketing. Early user of superheated steam (1850). Adrian Tester Introduction to steam locomotive testing. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 694.

Igel, Martin  
Born in Berlin in 1879 and studied mechanical engineering at the Berlin Technische Hochschule, specialising in locomotive construction. For some years he worked in various technical and administrative grades of the then Prussian Railways and went from there first to the Borsig Locomotive Works and then to Westinghouse and Baldwin’s in the U.S.A. where he spent 2 years. On his return from the U.S.A. in 1907 he started his academic career at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin Charlottenburg, where he was first a lecturer (“Privat-Dozent”) and from 1919 onwards a professor in charge of the Department for locomotive construction and railway operating installations. From 1925 onwards he was also acting as consultant and expert to the High Courts in disputes involving problems falling within his field. In 1933 he was forced to relinquish his appointments in Germany and accepted a chair for mechanical engineering at the University of Shantung, China. When the Chino-Japanese war broke out in 1937, he returned to Europe and came to England in 1938 on the invitation of the Railway Research Service. He volunteered for war work and was employed for some years by Morris Motors in Cowley. He published books and papers some of which were translated into such languages as Russian and Japanese and are used as standard textbooks. He was elected a Member of ILocoE in October 1950.

Klose, Adolf
Born in Pirna, Saxony on 7 July 1844; died in Munich on 2 September1923. Went to Switzerland in 1870, after varied railway experience, he took up position of machine inspector in the then Vereinigten Schweizer Bahnen (Associated Swiss Rs) in St Gallen. In 1884 he was appointed to Royal Württeernburg State Railways in Stuttgart. In the same year, with Bissinger, he brought out the rack-rail system known as Bissinger-Klose, introduced on the Höllental Railway In 1888-9 Klose returned to Switzerland where he supervised construction of the rack railway from St Gallen to Gais, the later Appenzeller street Railway. There he established the Klose system rack. In this connection he supervised construction of the section from Honau to Lichtenstein and Freudenstadt to Klosterreichenbach. Le Fleming (H.M. Le Fleming in Illustrated encyclopedia of world railway locomotives.) noted that he introduced compound locomotives on rack railways

Kuretschka, Friedrich Josef
Patent CA 395227 Valve gear for fluid pressure engines. published 11 March 1941

Kylala, Kyosti
Kyösti Kylälä was a Finnish engine driver who designed a cowl that split the exhaust cone into four streams. Some Kylala exhausts included two of these splitters in series before the chimney was reached. The system was originally devised to reduce spark-throwing and later it was claimed that there was a more even draught over the tubeplate and that the need for tube-cleaning was reduced. A major step forward occurred when Andre Chapelon of the Paris-Orleans Railway developed his own draughting system: the 'Kylchap' incorporating Kylala cowels.

Rutherford included the Kylala and Kylchap systems in a survey of blast pipe systems.

Labrijn, P.
Locomotive engineer on the Dutch State Railways in the 1930s. Experimented with pulverized fuel (see Locomotive Mag., 1940, 46, 74) and introduced 4-cylinder 4-6-4Ts for the Amsterdam suburban services, unpopular heavy 2-8-0s which rode badly and large 4-8-4Ts for the Limburg coal traffic.

Lambert, Henri Louis
French locomotive engineer who invented wet sanding apparatus. Worked for C.d,F. l'Ouest.. Described in The Lambert sanding apparatus in Loco Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1911, 17, 4. 7 diagrs.
2811/1913 Improvements in apparatus for sanding railway and tramway rails. Applied 3 February 1913. Published 24 July 1913.
1420/1912 Improvements in apparatus for sanding rails. Applied 18 January 1912. Published  20 June 1912.
19475/1908 Improvements in apparatus for sanding railway, tramway and like rails. Applied 16 September 1908. Published 29 July 1909

Lamé, Gabriel
Born in Tours on 22 July 1795; died in Paris on 1 May 1870. His name is commemorated on the Eiffel Tower. Worked with Clapeyron in Russia from 1820 for ten years (they had met at the Ecole des Mines). Major mathematician who contributed to theory of structures.

Associated with Blavier in construction of L'Aigle

Lebedyansky, Lev Sergeyevich
Born in 1898; died after suffering a stroke in 1968. Member of the Central Locomotive Group which built steam locomotives at the Kolomna Works including the FD 2-10-2 freight and IS 2-8-4 passenger locomotives. The L class 2-10-0 introduced in 1945 acknowledged Lebedyansky's contribution. The P36 4-6-4 were stylish passenger locomotives introduced in 1954, but steam development was ceased in 1956 with Lebedyansky involved in successful diesel electric and unsatisfactory gas turbine designs. Glancey.

Léguille, Robert
CME of the East Region of the SNFC. Member of the Pacific Locomotive Committee (India) chaired by [Sir] Alan Mount. Cox: Locomotive panorama, V.2. "Now one of the members of our Committee came from a background and experience far removed from the British school of thought. Robert Leguille, a son of Alsace, and quite the opposite of the typical Frenchman in his bluff square appearance and more phlegmatic approach, had had to live all his professional life with big 4-6-2s and 4-8-2s working over what was none too good track in those days before World War II. French theorists such as Marie and Blondel, had peered into the fundamentals of exactly the same problem, and had established the relation between moment of inertia of the mass of the locomotive and its side control. More recently Mauzin had developed test equipment and procedure in verification. Leguille,. therefore, knew enough to suspect that there was more in the problem than damping values only, and had been gradually influencing the Committee's thoughts. So it came about that he and I shut ourselves up in our car on the special train we travelled in, and spent eight hours one steaming hot Saturday in a siding outside the East Indian station in Calcutta, examining every inch of every flange force record which had been presented to us. At the end of this travail we had the evidence of the Railway Board's own charts that they had not solved the problem, for these showed that while the increased friction reduced flange forces on straight track, it did nothing to reduce them on curves, and that only a combination of stronger side control springs plus appropriate damping could give the desired result".
I Loco E obituary (1951, 41, 481):  In 1914 Robert Léguille was a 19-years old French student in Germany. Upon repatriation after four years’ internment, he entered the service of the Chemin de Fer de l’Est, which railway he continued to serve throughout his distinguished career finally obtaining the rank of Regional Chief Engineer. His special interest was always in locomotive design and research work which led to his taking part with ever increasing responsibility in many commissions of enquiry, including several of international importance. He was the French Engineer chosen to collaborate with three leading British Engineers, Col. Sir Alan Mount, Sir Wm. Stanier and Mr. Carpmael, in the investigations for the Government of India leading to the Pacific Locomotive Committee Report in 1938. In the 1939 War Leguille was appointed Liaison Officer with the British Staff in London, being aided in his work by his mastery of languages-English, German and some Russian, besides his native French. During the difficult years of the invasion of France, he became Liaison Officer for the French Railways with the German Army of Occupation, until the landing in 1944 of the British and American forces of liberation. In the meantime the French Provisional Government in Algiers had set on foot negotiations for the purchase of materials for rehabilitation. Steam locomotives, wagons, diesel engines and stores were wanted in immense quantities. For the leadership of a national purchasing mission in America the choice fell upon Robert Léguille who later, on his return to France, took a leading part in organizing the reconditioning of war-damaged rolling stock required for the restoration of the Eastern Region. In 1950-51, once again he was called in by the Government of India for a further enquiry on the design of new locomotives of Pacific type. But this was to be the last occasion on which he could exercise his professional ability in the service of his country. On 15 July 1951, he collapsed while attending Mass and died during the night. He will be long remembered by his many friends in the Institution as a Locomotive Engineer of outstanding ability and personality. He had been a Member since 1947.

Lemaître, Maurice
Engineer of the Nord Belge Railway, Lemaître is known for his eponymous exhaust system. This was adopted in 1935 for all modern Nord locomotives and on some other railways (notably by Bulleid on the Southern Railway). The chimney is of wide diameter, and steam is passed through it by an exhaust ejector consisting of a variable wide nozzle surrounded by five smaller nozzles. In use, a saving of about ten per cent of fuel (or a power increase of ten per cent) was claimed for the good vacuum and low back pressure of this system. See: Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, June 1937. Rutherford included the Lemaître system in a survey of blast pipe systems.
Several issued to Lemaitre, including some American, but only the solitary British one is listed:
452,636. Improvements in or relating to blast pipes of locomotives. Applied 10 February 1936. Published 26 August 1936.

Lentz [Lenz], Hugo
An Austrian, Hugo Lenz, but born in South Africa on 21 July 1859 according to Marshall (who gives a detailed account of his work), originated one of the most successful poppet valves for locomotives. His vertical type and oscillating cam type, introduced in 1905 and 1907, were worked by normal valve gears, and his rotary cam type (1921) by worm drive. French and Austrian railways made a success of Lentz valves, and they were also applied elsewhere (e.g. on Malayan Railways and on the LNER). Died in Austria on 21 March 1944. See : P. Ransome-Wallis, Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives (1959). Also innovator in boiler design: Rutherford (Backtrack, 1998, 12, 333 stated that Heilmann steam-electric locomotive Fusée was fitted with "Lentz-type boiler". Dr Hugo Lenz was born in South Africa in 1859. When he was six years old his father died and the family returned to their native Germany. Lenz trained and worked in Prussia as a naval engineer before setting up his own engine business in Vienna when he was aged 28. Later in life, during the 1920s, he is believed to have had an experimental workshop in or near Paxman's Standard Ironworks on Hythe Hill [Colchester]. Although there was no 't' in Lenz's surname, his engines and patents were always called 'Lentz' as this was thought easier for English-speaking people to pronounce.  (Website on Paxman history).

Designer of six-coupled locomotive with 8ft 3in wheels called La Prisienne, built in 1886. See Loco. Mag., 1905, 11, 101 .

Ljungstrom, Fredrik and Birger
Of all the inter-war experiments with steam turbine propulsion, those of the brothers Fredrik and Birger Ljungstrom in Sweden were the most successful. Several of their turbomotives worked satisfactorily on the Swedish State Railway, their relative reliability resulting from the absence of condensing equipment.
See: Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Review, March 1923 and Robert Tufnell's Prototype locomotives.

Locher-Freuler, Eduard
Born and died in Zurich: 15 January 1840; 2 June 1910.Builder of the Pilatus Railway and inventor of the horizontal double rack rail. After leaving school in 1857 he spent a year at Yverdon, Switzerland, then entered the works of J J Richter & Co in Toss to learn mechanical engineering. The sudden death of his f ather in 1861 gave him the opportunity to leave the manufacture of textile machinery and to follow his father's career in architecture. A plan to emigrate to the USA was thwarted by the Civil War there. In 1863 he supervised building of a factory for an established weaving firm at Azmoos, later becoming a director. In 1871, with his brother, he formed the firm of Locher & Cie in Zurich. In 1873 he studied the theory of bridges and railway building with Prof Calmann and his assistant, later Prof W. Ritter, at the Federal Polytechnic. By diligent application the two brothers built up the firm and were engaged on the construction of the St Gotthard Railway, Fluelen to Coschenen including the Pfaffensprung spiral tunnel. Faced in 1888-9 with the const of a railway to the summit of Pilatus near Lucerne with gradients of 48%, almost 1 in 2, the steepest in the world, Locher-Freuler designed a special rack with horizontal teeth on each side. The pairs of rack wheels engaging these teeth could not climb out, and also prevented derailment. After being engaged on various water projects, Locher-Freuler worked on the first Simplon tunnel in collaboration with Brandt, Brandon & Co. and Sulzer Bros, Winterthur. Soon after the tunnel was started Brandt died and Locher-Freuler took on responsibility for the whole work, working in temperatures of 55°C at a depth of 7000ft which ruined his health. In 1905 the two brothers handed over the business to their sons. Locher-Freuler became a director of SLM, Winterthur, and of the Pilatus Railway. His advice was often sought and freely given almost up to his death from a heart attack. He was noted for his modesty, kindness and outstanding courage Marshall .

Lott, Julius
Born and died in Vienna (25 May 1836, 24 March 1883). Engineer of Arlberg Railway including the long Arlberg Tunnel and Trisanna Bridge. Died before line was completed. Marshall

Lomonossoff, Dr George Vladimir (Lomonosov, Iu. V.)
Iurii Vladimirovich Lomonosov was born in Russia on 24 April 1876 (into an impecunios rural gentry family) and died in Montreal on 19 November 1952 (Marshall). Graduated from Institute of Transport in St Petersburg in 1898. Russian academic and Chief Mechanical Engineer of Tashkent Railway. From 1911-21 he was Prof of Railway Engineering and Economics at St Petersburg Institute of Transport, whilst he was also president of the Locomotive Research Bureau; CME of the Nicolas Railway; and Assistant Director General of Russian Railways. He was president of the Russian War Railway Mission to the USA. In this position, in the latter part of WW1, he was responsible for designing and ordering about 2,000 locomotives. Later, as High Commissioner for Diesel Locomotives, Lomonossoff was authorized to build three. In 1925 he visited England and placed an order with Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd for a 1,200 bhp diesel loco designed by Schliebest, but it was sent to Russia in 1926 before completion: Duffy accepts this as the first diesel mainline locomotive. Author of Introduction to railway mechanics. OUP, 1933. Heywood (Trans. Newcomen Soc., 2000, 72, 1) describes his work on locomotive testing between 1895 and 1901 and also notes his close association with Lenin. Paper on diesel traction (which castigates steam locomotive inefficiency and makes some questionable claims against electric traction) Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1933, 125, 537. Le Fleming in Ransome-Wallis Concise encyclopedia.

Maillart, Robert
Born Bern, Switzerland on 6 February1872; died Geneva 5 April1940. Pioneer of reinforced-concrete bridge construction. In 1890 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic engineering school where, in 1894, he obtained the Diploma of Civil Engineering. He worked for several organizations and, in 1901, while with Frote & Westermann in Zurich he designed the first 'Maillart system' 3-hinged arch at Zuoz. In 1902 he went independent and established his own office, Maillart & Cie. In 1905 he designed and built the Tavanasa bridge over the Rhine, with a 3-hinge arch and pierced spandrels, a work of great strength and elegance. In 1912 he began practice in Russia but was overtaken by the war. His wife died and he returned penniless to Switzerland with his children. By 1919 he was able to set up an engineering office in Geneva. His first 3-hinged arch R bridge was a modest span of 30m (98ft) over the Landquart at Klosters on the metre-g Rhaetian Railway, built in 1930. Although most of his bridges were for roads his designs formed the basis for many railway bridges all over the world, such as the massive 3-hinged concrete arch with a span of 150m (495ft) carrying the 4-track SBB over the Aare at Bern, and the tremendous arches on the Tauem Railway in Austria, including the Pfaffenberg-Zwenberg bridge with a span of 200m (660ft), the world's longest Marshall . .

Mallet, Jules T. Anatole
Westwood claims that Jules Anatole Mallet was remarkable amongst late nineteenth century innovators in that he achieved a influential success both in compounding and in a method for articulating the driving wheelbase. The resulting Mallet articulated locomotive became especially popular in the USA, where it attained great size. Mallet's ideas on compounding inspired many subsequent designers to develop their own compound locomotives, some successfully, some very unsuccessfully.
Mallet was born at Carouge, near Geneva,  on 22 May 1837 (Wikipedia), and studied and later taught engineering at the Paris Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. He first attracted attention in 1877, when the Bayonne-Biarritz Railway put two tank locomotives into service, designed according to Mallet's two-cylinder compound system with a single high-pressure cylinder passing its exhaust steam into a second, larger, low-pressure cylinder. The Biarritz locomotives worked well, but like subsequent two-cylinder compounds they tended to be unsteady at high speed, because one cylinder exerted more thrust than the other. Mallet was unable to interest any of the mainline railways in his idea. This lack of enthusiasm is not surprising when it is remembered that even after compounding had been adopted by many railways, it was never adopted by a majority. Those who rejected the idea almost always did so on the grounds that any fuel economies obtained from so-called double expansion were lost by the extra complication of compound machines. This criticism of compounding would be reinforced after superheated steam had shown another way of overcoming the basic problem that compounding attacked: that is the condensation of steam inside the cylinders which resulted from the fall in temperature as the steam expanded. Compounding broke the steam expansion into two parts, divided between two cylinders and thereby made it easier to cope with cylinder wall condensation. Superheating raised the steam temperature so that even after cooling it would remain higher than condensation temperature. Ideally, from the point of view of thermal efficiency, the most efficient machine would be one embodying both superheating and compounding, and many such machines were built in the twentieth century. In the 1870s, however, compounding seemed the only solution. Mallet believed he had a workable compound system, but could not persuade French engineers to try it.
However, the proliferation at that time of narrow-gauge light railways gave Mallet another avenue of approach. These lines required more powerful locomotives than their winding tracks could tolerate, and the only solution seemed to be some form of articulated locomotive. Two articulation systems were already fairly widely adopted. These were the Fairlie and the Meyer concepts, both of which embodied two pivoting engine units, supplied by steam through pipes with flexible joints. These flexible joints, so difficult to keep steamtight, were a weakness of these systems, and Mallet believed he had a solution in his own system of articulation, which he patented in 1884. Instead of two pivoting engine units, he had just one, placed beneath the smokebox. A second engine unit was at the rear, but this was non-pivoting. It was on this rigid rear unit that the boiler was fixed. For Mallet, the important feature of this layout was that it was a perfect setting for a compound system. Steam was taken first to the high-pressure cylinders of the rigid rear unit, and then piped to the cylinders of the leading pivoting unit for re-use at a lower pressure. In this way it was only the low- pressure steam which passed through the flexible steampipe joints, thereby easing the problem of steam leaks. The first such Mallet locomotive appeared in 1888, being built in Belgium for Paul Decauville. In 1889 Decauville's 60cm gauge line at the Paris Exhibition carried more than six million visitors and assured the continuing success of his enterprise. It also assured the future success of Mallet's compound articulated locomotive, for it was on this line that the first Mallet units made their debut.
The obvious success of these machines was followed by orders for similar narrow-gauge units from many railways, at first with the same 0-4-4-0T wheel arrangement but later in other versions. In the nineties the Mallet tank locomotive was joined by the Mallet tender locomotive in Switzerland and Germany.
In 1904 the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad introduced the Mallet concept to America, ordering an 0-6-6-0 from the American Locomotive Company for use on its Sand Patch incline over the Alleghenies. By 1911 more than five hundred Mallets had been built for US railroads. During the First World War the Virginian Railway brought the original Mallet concept to a peak so far as size was concerned, ordering 2-10-10-2 units whose low-pressure cylinders were 48in. in diameter. This Virginian design represented the virtual limit of size for the conventional Mallet locomotive. The overhang of the boiler at the front end on curves was excessive, and the low pressure cylinders were so large that it was impossible to design adequate valves for them, which meant that they worked efficiently only at low speeds and long cut-offs.. Moreover, the 4ft diameter cylinders were the biggest that could be accommodated on American railroads. For this reason most subsequent American Mallet locomotives were simples, not compounds. Later, American designers eliminated another fault which inhibited high-speed running with Mallet locomotives. This was the rough riding of the forward engine unit, which was only loosely attached to the main bulk of the locomotive.
Eventually Jabelmann of the Union Pacific modified the articulation and applied a four-wheel leading truck to produce the Challenger 4-6-6-4, which could run up to 80 mile/h. This type was developed into the 4-8-8-4 Big Boys, which are regarded as the most powerful locomotives ever built. Although, at its peak of popularity, the Mallet locomotive was ordered by railways in many parts of the world, it was only in America that it retained its market up to the end of the age of steam.
The Garratt form of articulation, developed later, was technically superior, while many central European lines found that they did not really need articulated types. As for Anatole Mallet, it is said that he did not approve of the concept of the simple Mallet locomotive, as he had evolved his system of articulation as a means of promoting his compound system. In the twentieth century he was something of a grand old man of French engineering, regularly contributing comments on locomotive matters to the Memoires of the French society of civil engineers. He also designed the original locomotives for the Lartigue monorail system. Relatively little information has survived about Mallet the man, even though he was probably one of the three most important post-Stephenson locomotive engineers. Marshall noted that he died on 10 October 1919. Le Fleming in Ransome-Wallis Concise encyclopedia..

See: I. Vilain, Les Locomotives Articulees du Systeme Mallet dans le Monde (1969)
A. E. Durrant, The Mallet Locomotive (1974)
Journal de Geneve, 16 Nov. 1919.

On mechanical traction upon tramways. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1878, 29, 395-439

On the compounding of locomotive engines. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1879, 30, 328-63.

Marcotty, Franz
Patented devices relating to boilers including an improved firebox door fitted to Gresley Yarrow locomotive. (William Brown. Hush-Hush, 2010)
GB 9068/1910 Improvements to fire doors to furnaces. Priority 14 April 1910. Published 6 April 1911

Mareš, Vlastimil
Born in 1896; died in 1979. Czech locomotive engineer; worked closely with Chapelon between 1945 and 1948. Designs included the 476.0 three-cylinder compounds built in 1949-50; the 475.1 class two-cylinder 4-8-2s; the 498.1 class three-cylinder 4-8-2s; the 556.0 class two-cylinder 2-10-0s, and the 477.0 4-8-4Ts. These last were probably the ultimaate tank engine design and were fitted with mechanical stokers. Glancey.

Meyer, Jean Jacques
According to Marshall Meyer was born in 1804 was educated in Paris and died in Vienna in 1877. Elsewhere he was stated to be an Alsatian engineer, Meyer in 1831 established a locomotive works at Mulhouse (later taken over by Koechlin). He registered several patents for improving the steam locomotive, but is best known for the Meyer articulated locomotive. This had two engine units beneath a single boiler, with the cylinders at the inner end of each unit (that is, in the centre of the locomotive). The engine units were attached to the draw gear and buffing gear. Some units were compounds and known as Saxon-Meyer or Mallet-Meyer. The patent was registered in 1861 and the first unit l' Avenir built in 1868 for a short line which later became part of the Etat system. In 1890 the Hartmann works in Germany Degan to build Meyer 0-4-4-0 tank locomotives for the Saxon railways, the type being especially favoured for steep narrow-gauge lines. Some units were still at work in the mid-seventies in the German Democratic Republic. A British variant, was developed by Kitsons: the Kitson-Meyer, which had a limited success and was used on the Trans-Andean Railway which linked Argentina with Chile. This had a girder frame, sometimes with a tender, and the cylinders were positioned differently. See: L. M. Vilain, Les Locomotives Articulées du Systeme Mallet dans le Monde(1969).

Morandière, Jules
Worked for French Nord Railway and in 1866 proposed a three-cylinder compound with a single high-pressure cylinder inside and two outside low pressure cylinders in phase with each other and at 90° to the inside cylinder. J.T. van Riemsdijk

Notesse, Raoul
Born 1898; died Harrow in July 1944 due to V2 rocket attack. In 1932 joined the Belgian State Railways to work for the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Fernand Legein. In 1933 he was sent to Britain to meet Stanier and examine the Princess Royal Pacifics. This led to the construction of 35 Type 1 Pacifics with 6ft 6in coupled wheels and 256 psi boilers. In 1939 the late flowering streamlined Atlantics appeared. These had 6ft 11in coupled wheels and inside cylinders. One was fitted with Dabeg rotary cam valve gear, and another with Caprotti, the remainder Walschaerts. They were intended for the high speed Brussels to Ostend light expresses. When WW2 stopped development he was working on two three-cylinder designs with triple chimneys and mechanical stokers: a 4-8-4 for passenger services and a 2-10-2 for freight. Mainly Glancey

Oeynhausen, Carl von
One of two Prussian mining engineers who visited the United Kingdom to study the railways: see Report on railways in England in 1826-27 by Carl von Oeynhausen and Heinrich von Dechen; translated and reviewed E.A. Forward. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1954, 29, 1-10. Disc.: 11-12. See also Warren

Pambour, Guyonneau de
Francois Marie Guyonneau de Pambour, a French Count, and author of A new theory of the stesam engine and the mode of calculation by means of it of the effective power. London, 1838 Ottley 10409, and of seminal Practical treatise on locomotive engines upon railways, 1836: Ottley 2930. When Pambour visited Britain in 1834, and again in 1836, Woods assisted him with his experiments into fuel consumption and locomotive performance. Pambour's work was widely reported, and translated into English (A Practical Treatise on Locomotive Engines, 2nd edn, 1840). Woods clearly profited from this experience, and was soon conducting his own experiments.

Parmantier, Ange
Assistant to Vallantin on the PLM Railway. Associated with streamlined 4-4-2 which reduced Paris to Lyons time to five hours and compound 2-10-2 with all four cylinders outside, but with inside coupling rods to connect front and rear sets of coupled wheels. J.T. van Riemsdijk claims was a successful design. From 1947 to 1956 Parmantier was in chief engineer of the Est section.

Petiet, Jules Alexandre
Born 5 August 1813; died 29 June 1871. Chief engineer of the Nord Railway from 1845. Head of the Ecole Centrale engineering school in Paris. Responsible for 0-8-0T design (Wikipedia 2014-06-20)

Place, Pierre
Head of the Testing Plant at Vitry. Author of:.
Locomotive testing plants (with special reference to the Testing Plant at Vitry). J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1935, 25, 380-406. Disc.: 406-15. (Paper No. 338)

Radovanovic, Andreas
Patent GB 1900/12815 Improvements in Valve Gear. Applied 16 July 1900. Published 18 August 1900

Renaud, Edouard
Inventor of poppet valve gear: patented. Fitted to Mountain type three-clinder locomotives see Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 32.
GB 5339/1914 Improvements in valve mechanism for locomotive and other engines. Applied 4 March 1913; published 2 March 1914.
See Loco Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 428.

Ricour, Théophile
Born 1831, Died 1916. Igenieur des Ponts et Chaussées and Chief of Rolling Stock and Traction of the Northern Railway of Spain from 1861 to 1867, during which time counter-pressure brake was developed. From 1878 to 1886 he was Chief of Rolling Stock and Traction of the État, the French State railway where he introduced the brick arch (with arch tubes) in 1880 and what Carling termed the first practical piston valves. Carling and Loco. Mag., 1913, 19, 206. Le Fleming in Ransome-Wallis Concise encyclopedia..

Ridder, Gustav Joseph de
Gustav Joseph de Ridder constructed a metre gauge (approx.) line from Antwerp to Ghent which reached Saint-Nicholas on 3 November 1844. He also designed the locomotives: outside-frame 2-2-2STs. One was exhibited at the Great Exhibition and Payes de Waes (built by Postula at the Renaud Works in Brussels in 1842 is preserved in the Belgian national railway musuem. Rutherford. Backtrack, 2007, 21, 358..

Riggenbach, Niklaus
Born at Gebweiler in Alsace on 21 May 1817 (Marshall states place of birth as Basel in Switzerland) and died on 25 July 1899 at Olten. From 1840 to 1842 and from 1844 to 1853 he worked for Emil Kessler at Karlsruhe. He then moved to the Swiss Central Railway, initially at Basle, and from 1855 at Olten. With the support of Koechlin of the Mulhouse he patented his rack system used on the Rigi Railway opened 21 May 1871. Carling. Le Fleming in Ransome-Wallis Concise encyclopedia. who states that a form of counter-pressure braking was fitted to the locomotives working on his rack system.

Rihosek, Johann
Born in  Maków Podhalanski, Galicia, now Poland on 5 June 1869. He died 21 November 1956 in Vienna. Studied at Technical University, Vienna, and trained at Floridsdorf Locomotive Works. In1897 he joined the Austrian State Railways and worked in the design office under Karl Gölsdorf, finally as his assistant. In 1916, following the death of the d of Gölsdorf, Rihosek succeeded him as CME and continued to design locomotives for the different lines of central Europe. He played an important part in developing the vacuum brake and later the air brake. Among his best-known locomotive designs was the '81' class 2-10-0 (1920) for heavy goods and passenger work on the Semmering, Tauern and Arlberg lines. One of these is preserved at the Vienna Railway Museum. When he retired in 1924 he was appointed lecturer (later professor) of locomotive engineering at Vienna University, and when he retired from the chair in 1939 he continued to write on locomotive subjects. Marshall and Wikipedia (vital statistics).

Rinecker, Franz
Born in Würzburg, Germany, on 16 December 1843 and died there on 10 April 1899. Studied mathematics and engineering at Polytechnic School, Karlsruhe, and at Zurich. Began practical work in November 1864 as asst engr on Bavarian State Rs, laying out and building part of the Munich-Ingolstadt Railway until November 1867. From May 1869 to  June 1873 he was employed on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad and then on the Pennsylvania Railroad, laying out and building new lines. Returned to Europe and from January 1874 until May 1876 was divisional engineer on the Swiss Central Railway for surveys and construction of the Liestal-Waldenburg (750mm gauge) and Liestal-Oensingen lines. Between 1876-83 he was involved in technical studies on the Abt rack system (see Abt). In August 1883 he established the fum of Rinecker, Abt & Co in Würzburg and was engaged on many Abt rack railways including Harzbahn, Germany; Usui Toge Railway, Japan; Transandine Railway; Nilgiri Railway, India; Snowdon Railway, Wales; Mount Lyell Railway, Tasmania; and Mount Morgan Railway, Queensland. Marshall

Roosen, Richard Otto
Born in Hamburg on 13 October 1901; died Kassel on 2 March 1980 (Wikipedia). Designed eight cylinder (arranged in V fashion and driving into the axles) 2-8-2 with Friedrich Witte. Also involved with Henschel condensing locomotives and with pulverized fuel. See ILocoE Paper 607 and Paper No. 251. Book: Ein leben für die lokomotive. 1976.

Saluz, Peter Otto
Born in Lavin, Graubünden, Switzerland, on 6 April 1847; died Chur 8 September 1914. Civil engineer, Rhaetian Railways. Educated at Chur and Technical High School, Zurich, where he gained a diploma in civil engineerin in 1870. After two years on road and water schemes, in 1873, he was appointed engineer on the Swiss North Eastern Railway. In 1879 he worked on the St Gotthard Railway. 1885-8 he was municipal engineer at Chur. Early in 1889 he went to the Government Railway Dept in Bern. His work on the Rhaetian Railway (RhB) began in 1898 when he was appointed engineer on the Reichenau-Ilanz section. From 1905 he was chief engineer on the difficult Davos-Filisur, Bever-Schuls and Ilanz-Disentis sections. Marshall.

Sauvage, Edouard
1850-1937: Sauvage was one of the nineteenth-century designers who made a success of compounding, even though he himself did not follow up his success very enthusiastically. As engineer-in-chief on the Nord Railway he built the first French three-cylinder compound. This was a 2-6-0 with its single high-pressure cylinder inside and its two low-pressure cylinders outside the frames. The arrangement was later developed by W.M. Smith of the North Eastern Railway in England. and passed from there to the Midland Railway. Sauvage's 2-6-0, like its successors in Britain, could be operated as a compound, a simple, or as semi-compound (by admitting some steam direct from the boiler to supplement that entering the low-pressure cylinders). Chapelon's 4-8-4 prototype 242A1 reverted to this arrangement. Later, Sauvage transferred to the Est, and then the Ouest Railways, and taught at the Academie des Arts Metiers. In 1910 he gave a series of lectures on superheating in London which were subsequently published in book form.
La machine locomotive : manuel pratique donnant la description des organes et du fonctionnement de la locomotive à l’usage des mécaniciens et des chauffeurs. 1st edition, Librairie Polytechnique Baudry et Cie, Paris, 1894, XVI+374 p 10th edition with Chapelon in 1947

Recent locomotive practice in France. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1900, 59, 375-433.
Compound locomotives in France. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1904, 66, 327-80. Disc.: 380-467.
Participants to the Discussion included John F. Robinson (pp. 398-400) and Churchward (400-04).

Schleyder, Karl (or Charles)

17511. Applied 1 August 1911. Published 11 January 1912. Improved apparatus for consuming smoke, ashes and other returned products of combustion in the furnace of locomotive and other steam boilers, and other furnaces. Applicant: Schleyder Ash and Smoke Consum
11456. Applied 16 May 1906. Published 9 May 1907. Improvements in means for consuming smoke and soot in locomotive and other furnaces.
9207. Applied 21 April 1904. Published 9 February 1905.  Improvements in or relating to locomotive and other furnaces
8732. Applied 14 April 1898. Published 18 February 1899. Improvements in or relating to deflectors or baffles for the furnaces of locomotive and other steam generators
8731. Applied 14 April 1898. Published 14 April 1899.  Improvements in or relating to blast apparatus for locomotive and other steam generators.

Schmidt, Wilhelm
According to Marshall Wilhelm Schmidt was born in Wegeleben, near Halberstadt in Saxony on 18 February 1858 and died at Bethel near Bielfeld on 16 February 1924. As the first engineer to make a practical success of the superheater, Wilhelm Schmidt established himself as the most influential locomotive engineer of the twentieth century. His firetube superheater of 1901, rapidly fitted to thousands of locomotives throughout the world, raised thermal efficiency by up to 30% without creating (as did so many innovations) new problems that outweighed the advantages. His later experiments with novel high-pressure boilers in his native Germany and elsewhere were not successful. See extract from seminal Fowler paper on Schmidt's contribution.

23171/1893. Tubular boiler combined with superheater.  Applied 2 December 1893. Published 6 January 1894.
15296/1894. An improved tubulous boiler with superheater. Applied 10 August 1894. Published 24 May 1895.
9026/1895. Improvements in steam-boilers with superheater. Applied 7 May 1895. Published 7 March 1896.
5908/1897 New or improved means or devices for superheating steam in steam boilers. Applied 5 March 1897. Published 15 January 1898.
11952/1898. Improvements in and connected with self-acting temperature-regulating devices for superheaters. Applied 26 May 1898. Published 26 May 1899.
19173/1899. Improvements in and connected with superheating arrangements with separate firings. Applied 23 September 1899. Published 1 September 1900.
22538/1899. Improvements in and connected with boilers for locomotives or similar tube-boilers. Applied 11 November 1899. Published 10 November 1900 (with Elsner Hermann)
10019/1905. A new and useful joint for the fire tubes of boilers. Applied 12 May 1905. Published 12 May 1906.
17485/1905. A new and improved arrangement of steam-superheater. Applied 29 August 1905. Published 26 July 1906.
5734/1907. Improvements in and relating to superheater arrangements for flue-tube boilers. Applied 9 March 1907. Published 27 June 1907.
24655/1907. Improvements in and relating to steam superheaters. Applied 7 November 1907. Published 13 February 1908.
8519/1908 Improvements in and relating to steam superheating. Applied 16 April 1908 (14 September 1907 in Germany). Published 16 July 1908.
10325/1908 Improvements in and relating to superheaters suitable for boilers of the locomotive type. Applied 12 May 1908 (18 October 1907 in Germany). Published 1 October 1908.
12432/1908 Improvements in and relating to steam superheating. Applied 9 June 1908. Published 3 September 1908.
12751/1908. Improvements in and relating to superheaters suitable for tubular boilers. Applied 13 June 1908 (13 June 1907in Germany). Published 13 Auigust 1908.
5175/1909. Improvements in and relating to steam superheating devices. Applied 3 March 1909 (4 March 1908 in Germany). Published 10 June 1909.
10792/1909. Improvements in and relating to U-bends suitable for superheater tubes. Applied 6 May 1909 (12 February in Germany). Published 2 September 1909.
276/1910. Improvements in steam superheaters for locomotives. Applied 5 January 1910. Published 22 September 1910 (with Peter Thomsen).
2098/1910. Improvements in and relating to combined water tube boiler and superheater arrangements. Applied 27 January 1910 (18 February in Germany). Published 6 October 1910.
17959/1911. Improvements in and relating to superheaters. with Peter Thomsen. Applied 8 August 1911 (10 August 1910 in Germany). Published 30 December 1911.
1287/1915 Improvements in and relating to water-tube boilers. Applied 26 January 1915 (27 January 1914 in Germany). Published 12 August 1915.

Hugh M. Le Fleming in P. Ransome-Wallis, Concise encylopedia of world railway locomotives (1959) neatly summarised Schmidt's superheaters into three types: (1) large central flue with horizontal elements first applied on Prussian State Railways in 1898; (2) smokebox apparatus with annular tubing to which the firebox gases were conducted by a large central flue at the bottom of the barrel. As the large flue only resulted in 10% heat loss, high temperature superheat was obtained, first used in Prussia in 1899; (3) the fire tube type with elements housed in larger diameter flue tubes, first applied in Belgium in 1901 and within a decade was being fitted to nearly all large locomotives worldwide.

See: R. Garbe, Application of Highly superheated Steam (1908) ; Glasers Annalen, April 1924; E. O. Jochmann, Die Entwicklung des Hochdruckdampfes in Deutschland (1958); Journal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, Nos. 5, 211.

Schonerer, Matthias Ritter von
Born Vienna 10 January1807; died Vienna 31 October 1881. Austrian civil engineer. Studied in Prague and Vienna and in 1824 worked on the early Linz-Budweis Railway. Between 1829 and 1832 assisted with construction of the horse-worked Unz-Gmunden Railway. He then travelled extensively in Britain and the USA. From 1839 he was employed on the locomotive-worked Vienna-Gloggnitz Railway, becoming superintendent in 1842, director of construction 1846-53, in 1850 working on several sections of the Semmering Railway. 1854-6 he built the Bruck an der Leitha to Raab and Neu Szöny line. From 1856 until his death he was technical consultant of the Kaiserin Bisabeth Bahn. Marshall

Schubert, Johanm Andreas
Bom on 19 March 1808 in Wernesgrün, Sachsen, to poor parents. He was "adopted" by a wealthy couple and brought up by them in Leipzig and then Konigstein, studying at the Dresden Building College. It was here that he developed his mathematical skills for problem solving. In 1828 he was appointed a teacher in Book-keeping at the Technical College, later Technical University, and, due to his skill, also assisted the Professor of Mathematics until in 1832 he succeeded him. For the rest of his life he remained a teacher and "polytechnic lecturer". As a teacher he received from the Kingdom of Saxony permission and a scholarship to undertake a study-tour of England (the same tour as Beyer's second) The Liverpool & Manchester Railway was one of many surprises that Schubert encountered, since modern railway operation was already being practiced here. However, the main purpose of his study mission was to visit English textile factories, for the benefit of Saxon industry. The Leipzig-Dresden Railway imported locomotives from England, and Schubert at once noticed their technical weaknesses. He wanted to demonstrate that it was also possible for Saxony to construct locomotives and so managed to construct, within nine months, a machine which he named Saxonia. The Saxonia was able to be present at the opening of the Leipzig-Dresden railway on 8 April 1839, but was not permitted to haul one of the special trains; she had to follow on behind and at Priesterwitz, through a deliberate mislaying of the points, was involved in an accident (although receiving only slight damage.) She did not therefore manage to reach Dresden on the opening day. In 1836 Schubert was elected as Chairman of the Board of the "Aktienmaschinenbauverein" in Obigau, near Dresden. Saxonia was built in this works and here more of Schubert's ideas, regarding construction of steam ships for use on the Elbe, were to be brought to reality. However, no contracts were awarded for these, nor were any locomotives ordered, so that Saxonia remained a unique item, even though she had more economical running characteristics than the locomotives brought from England. Schubert lacked the necessary business sense, and a lobby. Although he had clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of his locomotive there was no demand for them, and eventually the Ubigau works went bankrupt. In 1843 Oberingenieur Wilke got the contract to develop plans for the Leipzig-Hof line (via Reichenbach and Plauen), and thereby to cross the Goltzsch and Elster valleys with viaducts. Schubert published his own theory for arched viaducts and took over the detailed design work. When the line opened Schubert was not among the honoured guests – he had not been invited, since in the 1848/9 revolutions he had sympathised with those who had wanted to bring down the government. Nevertheless in 1859 he received the Ritterkreuz of the Saxon Order and in 1860 the Citizenship of Dresden. In 1865 he received the title 'Regierungsrat' (Counsellor), and died five years later, on 6 October 1879, in Dresden. It appears that although the Saxon Government was indeed very progressive when it came to investment and sponsoring study trips, and although one could become a Professor at 24, it still helped (as always) to have the right friends and contacts in Government. This might also help to explain why Beyer chose to turn down the job of textile mill manager in 1834 and make  a second trip to Manchester, this time taking his teacher (a 21-year-old student and a 26-year-old teacher!); the teacher's efforts to build up locomotive manufacturing capacity in his home country foundered upon official opposition, whereas the student's efforts in England met with greater success. One is tempted to wonder whether these two matters were linked in some way. Walter Rothschild, Backtrack, 1999, 13, 53 from an article by Reiner Preuss on Johann Andreas Schubert in Lok Magazin No. 212, 5/98, p.109.

Schucan, Achilles
Born Avignon, France on 1 March 1844; died in Chur, Switzerland on 18 July 1927. Engineer and managing director of Rhaetian R (RhB), Switzerland. Whilst he was still a child his family moved to their native Engadin. He was educated at the canton school and the Federal Polytechnic, Zurich, where he gained a diploma in engineering in 1844. He began his engineering career on roads, later turning to  railways and eventually becoming leading engineer in the Swiss Railway Dept at Bern. In 1879 he transferred to the Federal Railway Inspectorate. To gain experience in railway management in 1885 he took over the poverty-stricken Seetal Railway which he brought to a position of security within three years. In 1888 he was appointed chief engineer of the metre-gauge Landquart-Davos Railway, the nudeus of the Rhaetian system. On its completion in 1889 he continued the line through Chur to Thusis, transferred his headquarters to Chur and as managing director of what, in 1896, became the Rhaetian Railways (RhB), he guided the affairs of the company to the completion of the 172 mile network, supervising also the preliminary electrification work on the Engadin section. He retired in 1918. See also son Paul (below). Marshall

Schucan, Paul
Born in ? Bern on 10 December 1879; died of acute dysentery in Salta, Argentina, 5 September 1930. Swiss civil engineer. Son of Achilles Schucan (above). Educated at Davos and Chur, and Federal Polytechnic, Zurich, qualifying as engineer in 1902. After a year on the RhB he worked on the Bodensee-Toggenburg Railway 1904-6. 1906 assistant engineer on the RhB Davos-Filisur section. 1909-12 resident engineer on Engadin section at Zernez. 1913 section engineer on the Furka Railway Anderrnatt-Disentis. 1919 became chief engineer of the RhB but in 1923 he went out to Argentina as chief engineer on a survey for a railway across the Andes. Marshall

Séguin, Marc
A contemporary of Stephenson, Marc Séguin was one of the pioneers of French railways. He visited the Stockton & Darlington Railway in 1825 and subsequently, and was associated with the St Etienne-Andrezieux Railway and, more intimately, with the line to Lyon. In 1827 he began experimenting with the multi-tubular boiler, and he constructed a model of a locomotive with such a boiler somewhat earlier than Robert Stephenson's construction of the Rocket, which was the first full-sized locomotive with multiple tubes. It would appear, for lack of contrary evidence, that the English and French inventions of this locomotive boiler were independent of each other. According to C.F. Dendy Marshall was born in Annonay on 20 April 1776 and his mother was a sister of the Montgolfiers. Marshall notes that Seguin died in his place of birth on 24 February 1875, also notes that he trained under Joseph Montgolfier. See also Skeat's George Stephenson..  Hugh M. Le Fleming in P. Ransome-Wallis, Concise encylopedia of world railway locomotives (1959) .

De l'influence des chemins de fer. Paris. 1839. reprinted Lyons in 1887..

See: Transactions of the Newcomen Society, Vol. VII pp. 63 et seq (on his observations on the British scene in 1825) and 97 et seq on his multi-tubular boiler

Séjourné, Paul
Born Orleans, France on 21 December 1851; died Paris 15 January 1939. French civil engineer. In 1871 he began training at the Polytechnic School, Mende, and qualified as bridge and road engineer in 1877. His first railway work was on the Montauban-Castres line on which he built the bridges at Castalet, Lavaur and Antoinette. 1899-1902 he built the great bridge on the Petrusse in Luxembourg with a span of 279ft. In 1900 he entered the PLM as chief of const ruction and remained on that railway until 1928. He built some of the most difficult mountain lines in France: the Tarentaise line; Moutiers Bourg St Maurice, opened 1913; Frasne-Vallorbe inclining Mont d'or tunnel, 3 miles 1,388 yds long; and, with Andre Martinet (1878-1947), the Nice-Breil sur Roya line, opened 1914. He also began the Le Puy Lalevade and Chorges-Barcelonette lines. Between 1901-22 he was professor at the National School of Bridges and Roads. In 1913-16 he published his book Grandes Voûtes (Large arches) in 6 volumes. From 1910 he served on the editorial panel of Le Génie Civil In 1924 he was made Member of the Academie des Sciences and in 1918 was awarded the Prix Caméré.Marshall

Serpollet, Leon
Died in Paris on 5 January 1907 at age of 48. Inventor of flash-type boiler used in steam cars: Gardner-Serpollet and the Darracq-Serpolet steam omnibus. See: C.E. Lee Rise and fall of the steam-driven omnibus. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 1949, 27, 181.

Sigl, Georg
Born Breitenfurth, Lower Austria, 13 January 1811; died Vienna 9 May 1887. Austrian locomotive engineer and industrialist. In 1840 he founded a works in Berlin to manufacture power printing presses. In 1846 he moved to Vienna where he combined manufacture of presses with other machinery. In 1851-2 he built the first power lithograph press in Europe and installed the first pneumatic post installations in Berlin, Munich and Vienna. In 1857 he established workshops at Vienna and Wiener Neustadt where many types of locomotives were built for Austria and other countries, One of his locomotives, 0-6-0 No 106 Fusch, built for the Vienna-Linz Railway in 1868, is preserved outside Linz station. Marshall

Stevart, Armand
Belgian inventor of scissors valve gear vide Phil Dambly. Vapeur en Belgique. J. Blanchart. 1989. pp. 27 & 106 et Miles Macnair Backtrack, 2014, 28, 390

Strub, Emil Viktor
Born Trimbach; near Otten in Switzerland, on 13 July 1858; died from heart failure in Zurich on 12 December1909. On leaving school he went to Aarau to study mechanical engineering, where, as was Abt, he was influenced by Riggenbach who interested him in mountain railways. After further technical studies at Mitweida, and at the engineering works of Hohenzollern and Esslingen, in 1888 he was appointed to the Federal Railway Department as a leading engineer in a new office concerned with mountain railways. In 1891 he was appoinnted inspector on the newly opened Bernese Oberland Railway. During 1897-8 he directed the Jungfrau Railway, then under construction, having come to this through the prize competition organized by the erectors Guyer-Zeller to celebrate their 90th year. He won the first prize for the formation work. On the Jungfrau Railway his rack system was used far the first time. (It was replaced by the Lamelle system rack in 1955.) The teeth of the Strub rack are machined out of the head of a flat-bottomed type of rail, similar to an ordinary running rail. The manufacturer of the Strub rack was undertaken from the start by L von Rollschen Ironworks, Gerlafingen, with which Strub worked for the rest of his life. By 1909 it was in use in Switzerland, France, Germany and Italy. From 1898 Strub established his own engineering office, in Montreaux until 1901 and then in Zurich, where from l905 he worked with H.H. Peter. His work led to a succession of Swiss mountain raiways in 1889-1909. In 1902 his book Die Bergbahnen der Schweiz bis 1800 was published. Marshall 

Stumpf, Johannes
Born in Mülheim, Germany on 4 April 1862; died in Berlin on 18 November 1936. Developer of the Stumpf 'Uniflow' steam engine. Studied under Riedler at the Technical High School in Aachen. In 1888 when Riedler moved to the Technical High School at Charlottenburg he chose Stumpf as his assistant. With Riedler Stumpf greatly improved pumping machinery. In 1893 he went to Chicago with Riedler and became chief engineer of Allis Chalmers where he supervised building of pumps, compressors and Corliss steam engines. In 1896 he was appointed professor of steam engines at the Technical High School at Charlottenburg where he designed his Uniflow steam engine. The principle had been first applied in England in 1845 on a 2-2-2 engine built under J.I. Cudworth for the SER and was further developed by L.J. Todd in 1885. In this system the steam is exhausted through ports in the middle of the cylinder. To achieve this the piston has to be nearly half the length of the cylinder. The idea is to maintain a uniform direction of steam flow, avoiding reversal at each piston stroke. The Stumpf system was applied in England by Vincent Raven on the NER, first on S2 class 2-cylinder 4-6-0 No 825 in 1913, and on Zl class 4-4-2 No 2212 in 1918. Both showed coal economy, but the use of the Stumpf arrangement was not extended. In 1920 Stumpf was awarded a Doctorate in Engineering at Aachen Technical High School . The system tried on the North Eastern Railway was described by Tuplin North Eastern Steam. Briefly, the system worked well and obtained a small economy in fuel consumption, but at the price structure prevailing at that time the extra constructional and maintenance costs were greater than the coal economy. H.W. Dickinson's A short history of the steam engine makes it clear that the concept of the uniflow engine reached back to Montgolfier and Jacob Perkins (who patented the idea) and Leonard Jennett Todd (Patent No. 7801): Dickinson then gives Stumpf of Charlottenburg University his due  citing a paper by T.B. Perry Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 1920, 99, 731. Marshall and Throp Trans. Newcomen Soc., 43, 19. Le Fleming noted that there were three types of Uniflow system: (i) with vertical poppet admission valves in 1908; (ii) with piston valves in 1912; (iii) with the exhaust passage designed as a Venturi tube in 1920. Developments were cut short by the prior adoption of superheating and WW1.
The Unaflow steam engine. 1912 (translated Stumpf Uniflow Engine Co., Syracuse (NY))
5429/1908 Application (original: 7 March 1908), UK 6 March 1909, Accepted 15 July 1909. Improvements in four-cylinder locomotive engines
25,531/1910 Application 3 November 1910, Accepted 2 March 1911. Improvements relating to manoeuvring and like gear for uni-directional flow steam engines
16,442 /1910 Application (original: 5 March 1910) 9 July 1910, Accepted 23 March 1911. Improvements relating to valves
16,383/1910 Application (original: 18 June 1910) 8 July 1910, Accepted 20 October 1910. Improvements relating to uni-directional flow steam engines

Engineer to the Port of Alexandria Authority in Egypt, set up a company titled La Societe Des Trains Internationaux, in which unlike the Orient Express, the same locomotive would haul his luxury train the breadth of Europe. He did indeed die during the trials but sad to relate it was his brainchild that killed him. In June l900, running between Chartres and Orleans his locomotive, Trains Internationaux No.1 derailed and, according to the French National Railway Museum at Mulhouse, in English translation, "hurled its unfortunate designer fatally against a lineside pole". Internet source (2013-01-25) states Robin Barnes as source. See also Loco. Mag, 1900, 5, 155.

Vallantin, René
Chief Mechanical Engineer of the PLM Railway in France. Presented Paper 274 on compounding to Institution of Locomotive Engineers in 1931. J.T. van Riemsdijk notes that Vallantin locomotives suffered serious crank axle failures. Considered by Carpenter Vallantin prevented Chapelon from achieving full success.

Fitted cylinders to a tender of a locomotive on the Lyon - St Etieene Railway in 1843. See Ahrons and Bulleid paper of the booster, J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1928, 18, 239. (Paper 228)

Wagner, Richard Paul
Born in Berlin on 25 August 1882 and died in Wellberg on 14 February 1953. (Marshall). Forenames off Wikipedia on 2012-11-09. Studied mechanical engineering at Charlottenburg Technical College. While studying he spent a year on the railway and passed the engine driver's test on 17 November 1905. During training as government construction superintendent with the railway administration of Berlin & Magdeburg he made several educational visits to England. He passed the constructional administration exam with distinction and was awarded an educational tour to the USA. His civil service began with the Maschineninspektion, Wittenberge. Worked in the Dortmund locomotive department and in inspection. In 1920 he was commissioned to establish a new locomotive research department, In 1922 called to railway central office and for 20 years was head of locomotive construction section. The establishment of the German Reichsbahn on 11 November 1924 made necessitated a reduction in the number of locomotive types taken over from the various state railways. Wagner established a standard locomotive design in co-operation with German locomotive builders. He was responsible for numerous developments in locomotive design including the use of high and super pressure, turbine drive, coal-dust fuel, and light shunting locos. In 1924 he was nominated Oberregierungsbaurat (chief of const ruction department). In 1929 he became honourary Member Institution of Locomotive Engineers. In 1931 awarded hon doctorate by Aachen Tech College. 1938 nominated departmental president. Forced to retire by Nazi regime in 1942 (and replaced by Friedrich Witte) see Glancey. Wagner was the only German to be made a Member of the Royal Society of Arts. After WW2 he gave further service to aid the restoration of the German Railways. 1946--8 acted as administrative director for supply, planning and buying section, first at the General Reichsbahn admin at Bielefeld, Prussia, and lastly at the head admin of the German Bundesbahn (DB) in Offenbach. Following his final retirement Wagner remained active as presiding Member of the German Standards Inst, as president of the technical standards committee steam locos and as collaborator in the technical committee on locos in the DB.

Some new developments of the Stephenson boiler. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 5-21. Disc.: 21-47. (Paper No. 253)
High speed and the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1935, 25, 254-69. Disc.: 269-85. 5 illus., 6 diagrs. (Paper No. 336).

Walschaerts, Egide
According to Marshall the name is Walschaerts, not Walschaert. He was was born in Mechlin (Malines) on 21 January 1820 and died in Sint Gilles Brussels on 18 February 1901

Walschaerts, a foreman of the Belgian State Railway, made several inventions of which one, his valve gear, was very successful and was widely used throughout the world, especially for outside cylinder locomotives in the twentieth century. The modern version of this gear was patented in 1848 by his nominee, Edmund Fischer. He does not appear to have greatly benefited from this success, and remained without promotion for four decades.

For a small country, Belgium has contributed a surprising number of men who have influenced the design of the steam locomotive. The Belpaire boiler and Walschaerts valve gear were both Belgian products, and both belonged to that group of innovations which seemed to their inventors not to create a revolution, but simply to promise a better way of doing things. Both were widely, but never totally, accepted by locomotive builders and operators. The valve gear may be regarded as the nervous system of the steam locomotive. Its function is to open and close the admission and exhaust ports of the cylinder at the appropriate points in each cycle; steam must enter behind the piston and be free to exhaust in front of it. In the early days this was all the valve gear was expected to do, apart from providing some means of break- ing the cycle in order to initiate reverse movement. However, it was soon realized that the ability to change the 'cut-off', that is, to cut off the admission of steam before the piston had completed its stroke, would be a great advantage. Steam admission through the whole length of the stroke was only needed when pulling a heavy load at low speed; at other times it was more economical to cut off the steam prematurely, thereby utilizing the expansive potential of the steam already in the cylinder to maintain pressure on the piston face. In the nineteenth century the most popular form of valve gear was the Stephenson link motion, which enabled the point of cut-off to be finely adjusted from the footplate while the locomotive was in motion. Its widespread adoption enabled the locomotive to be driven in accordance with the task facing it; that is, how its steam could be utilized at any given moment was in the control of the locomotive crew.

During the steam era well over a hundred different designs of valve gear were devised, but perfection was never attained and only a handful were adopted on a large scale. Apart from the obvious aim of providing a good steam distribution, a valve gear had to be reliable, economical in space and weight, and easy to maintain. The Walschaert gear, which to a large extent re- placed the Stephenson motion in the twentieth century, offered reliability, light weight, moderate space requirements, and (unlike the Stephenson gear) a constant lead at all points of cut-off. Apart from being lighter than the Stephenson gear, it also dis. pensed with the need for two eccentrics for each cylinder ( which entailed four eccentrics on one driving axle, undesirable because of stress and because of space restriction). The working of these gears can hardly be explained without the use of models, the various movements of the different rods, levers, and links being very complex. However, the first of the reference sources given on presents a helpful diagram of the gear. Egide Walschaert was born in Malines in 1820 and died near Brussels in 1901. Apart from his contribution to the steam locomotive, his life casts a not-too-favourable light on Belgian society in the nineteenth century .

The Belgian government took the Industrial Revolution very seriously, more seriously and earlier even than Germany Railways were carefully planned, and a heavy engineering industry fostered. Moreover, a technical meritocracy seemed to be the ultimate aim of the govern- ment's sponsorship of technical education with its accompanying emphasis on diplomas and certificates. But Walschaerts, no doubt to his lasting sorrow, did not have a diploma, and for forty-one years, from 1844 to the day he retired, got no pro- motion. He began his working life as a mechanic in the Malines locomotive repair works, and his mechanical aptitude led to his appointment in 1844 as foreman at the Brussels-Midi locomotive shops. It was in this same year that his valve gear arrangement was patented.

Working as a mere foreman for the highly bureaucratized Belgian State Railways, Walschaerts was not allowed to apply for patents in his own name. But he soon found a nominee, one F. Fischer, who consented to file the patent in his own name (which is why in some parts of the world the Walschaerts valve gear was long known as the Fischer valve gear). The design as patented in 1844 is rather different from the later Walschaerts' gear, although the principle is the same. By 1848 Walschaert had devised the improved gear, which is similar to the modern Walschaert gear. This he was allowed to fit to a locomotive attached to his Brussels-Midi locomotive depot, an inside-cylinder 2-2-2. Apparently the trial was suc- cessful, although it was the private Belgian companies, not the State Railway, that adopted it for all their outside-cylinder locomotives. As elsewhere, the Stephenson gear remained the favourite for inside-cylinder machines.

In 1848 a Prussian engineer, Heusinger invented, and in 1849 patented, a valve gear almost identical to Walschaert's 1848 version. This was tried out on a tank locomotive in 1850. At the time there was some acrimonious dispute about whether Walschaert or Heusinger was the true inventor of the 'Walschaert' gear. However, it was always accepted that this was no case of plagiarism, but of independent and almost simultaneous invention. After thirty years Heusinger acknowledged that Walschaerts had priority, but in central Europe the valve gear continued to be known as the Heusinger gear, as indeed was only right. Walschaerts did not make his fortune with this invention. He was only a foreman, and he remained a foreman. In a meritocracy, it is not merit, but certificates of merit, that bring advancement.

References to
See: P. Ransome-Wallis, Concise Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives (1959) Le Fleming used incorrect form of Walschaert(s); Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 313; Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 59.

Willoteaux. Marcel
Invented an improved form of piston valve used by Chapelon:
GB Patent 337,621. Improvements in or relating to piston valves. Applied 21 November 1928. Published 6 November 1930.

Witte, Friedrich
Born 1900; died 1977. Listed in Glancey, who does tell us much about him except to note that the Nazi regime engineered him in to replace the highly respected Wagner. Witte with Richard Roosen of Henschel had designed an eight cylinder 2-8-2 No. V19 001 and this was shipped to the USA. Following WW2 Witte prroduced simple basic locomotives for the DB.

Wöhler, August  
Born 22 June 1819; died 21 March 1914. German engineer, remembered for his systematic investigations of metal fatigue. Born in Soltau, the son of local teacher Wöhler showed early mathematical ability and won a scholarship to study at the Technische Hochschule in Hannover, under the direction of Karl Karmarsch. In 1840, he was recruited to the Borsig works in Berlin where he worked on the manufacture of railway track. In 1843, after a brief stay in Hannover, he started to receive instruction in locomotive driving in Belgium, returning as an engineer on the Hannover to Lehrte line. By 1847, Wöhler was chief superintendent of rolling stock on the Lower Silesia-Brandenberg Railroad. His growing reputation led to his appointment in 1852 by the Prussian minister of commerce to investigate the causes of fracture in rolling stock axles, work that was to occupy Wöhler over the next two decades. The railway was nationalised in 1854 and the recognition of his keen administration and technical leadership resulted in his appointment as director of the newly formed Imperial Railways, based at the board's headquarters in Strasbourg, a post he held until his retirement in 1889. Wöhler started his axle investigations by research into the theory of elasticity and was led, in 1855, to a method for predicting the deflection of lattice beams that anticipated the work of Émile Clapeyron. He also introduced the practice of supporting one end of a bridge on roller bearings to allow for thermal expansion. Wikipedia Anglicized (19 January 2011)

Wolff, Adolf
Born in 1894; died 1964. Involved with Deutsche Reichsbahn' 4-6-4 built by Borsig which ran high speed tests at speeds approaching 200 km/h in 1936-8. Book Dampflokomotiven der New York Centralbahn für hohe Geschwindigkeit; Beispiele und Betrachtungen zum amerikanischen Lokomotivbau. 1951.

Wurmb, Carl
Born Neumarkt, near Wels, Austria, on 8 September 1850; died Vienna 31 January 1907. Studied at Zurich Polytechnic. After experience on the Südbahn, Salzkammergutlokalbahn, and Arlberg Railway he was appointed general inspector of light railways to the Ministry of Trade in 1894. 1901 appointed section head and Imperial and Royal Director for construction of railways in the Railway Ministry, and was responsible for construction on many Austrian Alpine lines including the Tauern, Phyrn, and Karawanken. Following criticism of the high cost of the Tauern Railway in 1905 he resigned. After his death a statue of him was erected in Salzburg. Marshall.

Yefmovich,. Miron
Miron Yefmovich (1803-1849). Yefim Alekseyevich Cherepanov had visited Britain to inspect early railways and locomotives: this led to construction of first Russian steam locomotive by Cherepanov and Yefmovich in 1833/4 and a second in 1835. See Wikepedia.

Zara, Guiseppe
Italian innovator. Patents included:

11825/1904 Equilibrium valve for admitting steam to the valve chests of locomotives. Published 31 December 1904. Application number: 11825/1904 Applied 24 May 1904.

Zeh, Johann
Had been a designer at Gunther's, later Sigl's, locomotive works at Weiner Neustadt, about thirty miles south of Vienna, since 1842, devised a closely similar shut-off valve in the blastpipe, known as the Zehsche Klappe and this was applied to some of the locomotives of the then Kaiserin Elisabeth Westbahn, the main line to the west of Vienna, to which Zeh had moved in 1858, such as the Class 12 2-4-0s built from 1853 to 1863 and a class of 2-4-0s of 1859, in or before 1860. It was possible, with the engine in forward gear to bring trains of 300 tons down long 1 in 100 gradients and, on the Südbahn, trains of 100 tons down the 1 in 40 grades of the Semmering, the locomotives being 0-8-0s dating from 1860 rebuilt from Engerth 0-6-4Ts. No information is available as to how many locomotives were fitted with Zeh's device before it was overtaken by later developments. He put his valves nearer the cylinders than Allan, using a separate valve for each outside cylinder. Carling: Trans Newcomen Soc. 1983, 55, 1-32.

Zeuner, Gustav Anton  
Born 30 November 1828 in Chemnitz; died 17 October 1907 in Dresden. His first training in the subject of engineering was at the Chemnitz Königliche Gewerbeschule (Royal Vocational School), today Chemnitz University of Technology, where he studied from 1843-1848; then onto the Bergakademie (Mining Academy) in Freiberg, where he studied mining and metallurgy. working with the mineralogist Albin Julius Weisbach. The university course was disrupted by revolutions which took place in Germany. Zeuner joined the revolutionaries on the barricades in Dresden during the May Uprising in 1849, but was pardoned. He was able to complete his course, and completed his PhD at the University of Leipzig in 1853, but was banned from teaching at any Saxon university. In 1853, Zeuner took over as the editorship of Der Civilenginieur Zeitschrift für das Ingenieurwesen, the first German  periodical specialising in mechanics, which ran until 1896. He continued in this position until 1857, even after moving to Zürich in 1855 to work as a professor for technical mechanics at the ETH Zürich, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich where Zeuner made his model of a locomotive front end in 1858; he recognised its potential for creating momentum but was only interested in the theory and did not develop the design any further. Also in Zürich (in 1869) Zeuner invented the three-dimensional population graph now sometimes known as a Zeuner diagram. In 1871 Zeuner returned to Germany and was once again able to work with Weisbach when he succeeded his old friend as director of the Freiberg Mining Academy. He also taught there until 1875 as a professor of mechanics and the study of mining machinery. This was possible because of an amnesty granted to revolutionaries in 1862. In 1873, while still director of Freiberg Mining Academy, Zeuner also took on the post of director at the Royal Saxon Polytechnicum in Dresden (now Technische Universität Dresden). Zeuner's efforts there led to the introduction of the humanities; the extension of the range of subjects taught resulted in the polytechnic's rise to a full-scale polytechnic university in 1890. In 1889, aged 61, Zeuner gave up his position as director of the polytechnic to work as a lecturer until his retirement in 1897. On retiring he was made an emeritus professor. Publications Die Schiebersteuerungen mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Lokomotivsteuerungen (Slide-valve controls with particular emphasis on locomotive controls) Freiberg 1858 Grundzüge der mechanischen Wärmetheorie (Basics of mechanical heat theory) 1860 Technische Thermodynamik (Technical Thermodynamics) 1887 Wikipedia 2012

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