Backtrack 1996 Volume 10

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6862 Derwent Grange heads south through Acock's Green. Michael Mensing. front cover
Empty stock 26 February 1962

Class T6 4-4-0 No 685 waiting to leave Waterloo in 1910. 3.
Black & white illustration

Camping coaches on the Scottish Region 1952 to 1969 - Part 1. Andrew McRae. 4-11.
The origins of SC1 to 39 were all either LNWR or CR vehicles (the specific origina are tabulated). Similarly the Pullman vehicles (SC40-51) and their origins are also tabulated as are the sites. Winter storage is described as is the prepartaion necessary to disconnect them from their sites and transport them to a winter storage site or to a carriage works. Publicity material is described but the illustrations are for a national (BR) programme. illus.: Camping coach DMSC 30 at Lochmaben; Camping coach PCC 40 a long term resident at Arisaig with a type 2 diesel; Table of camping coach origins Nos. SC1 to SC39; Camping coach DMSC 28 at Inverkip; Camping coach DMSC 3 at Aberfeldy; Table of Pullman camping coach origins Nos. SC40 to SC51; Camping at Fortrose the only visitor of the day being a pick up freight; Locations of camping coaches 1953 to 1960 according to the literature; Camping coach literature; Actual locations of camping coaches 1953 to 1960; SC42 and SC46 at North Berwick; Winter storage 1961/2; Coaches available 1963 - 69; DMSC34 in use as a departmental Mess van;

The Nelson branch. Edward A. Evans. 12-17.
This Taff Vale Railway branch was sometimes known as the Llancaiach branch. It was opened from Stormstown Junction on 25 November 1841 for freight only and included a 1:11 incline. Nelson was the name of a public house in Llancaiach. In 1858 the Newport, Abergavenny & Hereford Railway completed its Taff Vale Extension Railway from Pontypool to Quaker's Yard and crossed the Llancaiach branch on the level, but within two years the lines had been joined and the TVR gained access to Llancaiach station. In 1873 a deviation avoided the incline, although this was steep (1:40). The closure of Llancaiach Colliery in 1887 caused the branch to fall into abeyance until the Albion Colliery opened. Passenger services started on the branch on 1 June 1900 and ran from Pontypridd to Nelson. TVR railmotors (steam railcars) were used. The Royal Train visited the branch on 27 June 1912. Bus and tram competition eroded raiway traffic and passenger services ceased on 12 Sept. 1932. The line was open for coal until 1970. Many of the reamains were lost during construction of the A470 dual carriageway. See letter from Cliff on page 278. Letter on page 635 by Mallon critical of writer's failure to mention disaster at Albion Colliery in 1894. illus.: A Taff Vale A class on 'Three Arches' bridge; Taff Vale Nelson station; Berw Road station; Pont Shon Norton Jn.; A Taff Vale freight ticket; Map of the Nelson Branch; Llancaiach Jn.; Albion Colliery Cifynydd;

Commuting 86 years ago. D.W. Winkworth. 18-19.
The late F.E. Box was a commuter between Guildford and Waterloo during the period 2 May to 14 May and records of all journeys were maintained. Thereafter some special runs were recorded, including some non-stop journeys from Waterloo to London Road. Timekeeping is recorded. Locomotives included T1 and M7 0-4-4Ts and S11, T3, T6 and T9 4-4-0s. illus.: M7 no 25 at Surbiton; X2 no 582 at Wimbledon (both as LSWR stock).

Standedge Tunnel water troughs. Geoff Brown. 20-4.
The original railway tunnel (single track was opened in 1849, and a second single-bore tunnel was opened in 1871. A third twin bore was opened in 1894. All were equipped with water troughs at the Diggle end. They were certainly open in 1878 when an accident to maintenance workers occurred. The troughs were fed from a reservoir for the Huddersfield Canal.  Problems were experienced in lowering and retracting the scoops in the darkness of the tunnels. Latterly the troghs were formed from steel plate and rubber joints were used to prevent leakage. See article by /about Glover on picking up water from these troughs (Volume 16 page 228) See letter by Codling (page 165) concerning the importance of the canal tunnel both in the construction of the railway tunnels and providing a rapid source of drainage for the water troughs. illus.: The west end of Standedge tunnels at Diggle station; The portal of the north tunnel with the iron water tank still in place in; The trough in the south up tunnel; A locomotive approaching the trough; The valve apparatus; How the pick up worked; A Drewry diesel propelling a bricklayers train into the north tunnel;

Pitlochry. Les Elsey (phot.). 25
Colour photo feature.: Class 40 on Glasgow to Inverness train on 6 Sept 1978; Class 24 and Class 27 double head Edinburgh to Inverness train on 10 August 1964; the Highland Railway drinking fountain as a class 27 passes;

The 4.15 from Paddington. Celyn Leigh-Jones. (phot.). 26-7.
Colour photo feature.: 7022 Hereford Castle leaving Gerrards Cross; Two views of 6911 Holker Hall at Gerrards Cross; 6924 Grantley Hall at Princes Risborough; 7919 Runter Hall passing Chalfont St Peter (all in 1964);

Focus on the 'Britannias'. 28
Colour photo feature: 70003 John Bunyan at Thetford on RCTS tour on 31 March 1962; 70028 Royal Star at Cardiff in Juky 1957 (T.J. Edgington); 70021 Morning Star on parcels train between Preston & Lancaster in Sept 1962; 70048 The Territorial Army , 1908-1958 at Aston Depot Birmingham on 26 April 1963 (Geoff Rixon).

'Provincial' Electric multiple units. 30-2.
Colour photo feature.: Heysham electric car (M29021M) ex LNWR Willesden Jn.-Earls Court vehicles modifid in 1953 for 6,600 volts AC in July 1963 at Morecambe Promenade (B.R. Oliver); ex-LNER articulated twin set at Backworth in August 1966 (T.J. Edgington*) (both BR green); LNER-designed EMU (1500 volts DC) at Dinting in April 1981 in blue/grey livery (*); Manchester PTE (orange and black livery) two car class 504 EMU (1200 V DC) at Besses o' th' Barn in June 1991; Class 303 (067) at Manchester Piccadilly in May 1985: see letter from Macnab (page 222) (*); An AM4 later class 304 (010) ahortened to three-car set at Manchester Piccadilly in Sept. 1991 (*);

Revolutions and Manias - a forgotten anniversary. (Provocations )[Railway Reflections No. 13]. Michael Rutherford. 33-9.
Economic background to railway mania: poverty, the Corn Laws, the Anti-Corn Law League, Chartism, accumulation of capital, poor return on industrial investments, railway dividends were relatively high, the Parliamentary beneficiaries (capitalists and landowners); the boom of 1836 had led to the creation of stock exchanges in Liverpool and Manchester, and others followed. The Corn Laws were repealed in 1846. By 1847 257,000 were employed in constructing railways. The end of laissez faire was marked by the formation of the Railway Clearing House, the establishment of Bradshaw's timetables and growing involvement in Parliament with Committees and Commissions. The growth in third class travel is clearly shown. Long letter by E.R. Foulkes (page 165) on Richard Lovell Edgeworth and his "invention" of trains for conveying loads across soft ground. Portrait of George Hudson the 'Railway King' (see letter page 221/2 by Sinclair concerning this portrait). other illus.: Cartoons of railway promoters; the railway Juggernaught; and 'Off the rails'; Portrait of George Stephenson; Railway maps of 1840 and 1852;  GWR broad gauge 4-2-2 Lord of the Isles; Table 1 Mileage growth 1830-1849; Table 2 Amalgamations; Table 3 Journeys 1843 and 48; Table 4 People employed on the railways 1847-84; Drawing of Sharp Bros. 0-6-0 Sphynx;

Blackpool - Britain's most obscure locomotive. Philip Atkins. 40-2.
In 1909 the Knott End Railway (see 5-257 for history by Jeffrey Wells) took delivery of Manning Wardle 1747, a 2-6-0T Blackpool. This was fitted with Isaacson's valve gear (patents Nos. 17,533 and 27,899 of 1907). The other patentees were Edwin Wardle and Charles Edward Charlesworth. Isaacsons also invented an improved blastpipe (22,390 of 1907) and invented improved aero-engines. The 2-6-0T was rare on British standard gauge railways. The only other was on the Wrexham, Mold and Connahs Quay Railway - a rebuild from an 0-6-0. There was also the "revolutionary proposal" for a Hawksworth 2-6-0PT with outside Walschaerts valve gear fo working branch lines. illus.: Two views of Knott End Railway loco Blackpool; Isaacson valve gear; The only known photograph of R J Isaacson;

Rates and fares. (Railway Topics No 8 - Part 3). Bob Essery. 43-5.
Passenger fares including wormen's tickets, bulk travel, season tickets (contracts in North West England), trader's season tickets, parcels including fragile consignments, newspapers, perishables, and agreed charges. See letter on page 221 by Pearse on predatory behaviour of road hauliers and some trade unions.Illustrations::: Class 5XP at Rugeley; LMS compound No 1090; LMS No. 13120;

Williams, Sitwell D. Admirals of the fleet. 46-9.
Some of  LMS Jubilee class were named after admirals. These tended to duplicate the names of the Southern's Lord Nelson class with the exception of Sir Richard Granville, although the LMS names were shorter. Some such as Drake and Raleigh repeated earlier LNWR names. The nameplates of No. 5644 Howe and No. 5645 Collingwood were cast at St Rollox and had less bold lettering than the others. Letter by Scowcroft (page 165) queries why Monk was not used. Illustrations:: LMS Jubilee No. 5669 Fisher passing South Kenton; No. 5660 Rooke at Bristol Temple Mead's; No. 45650 Blake at Leeds City; No. 45668 Madden at Edge Hill; No. 45642 Boscawen at Glasgow Central; No. 45667 Jellicoe at Mill Hill. The Editor in October 2021 noted what Napier had said before he led his fleet into battle;

Colour files - Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Signal box safari. Philip A. Millard. 50-1.
Colour photo feature: The MS&LR signal boxes at Fish Dock Road (see 10-133 for working at); at Mitchell's Main; at Shireoaks station; at Habrough Junction; and at Worksop West.

Rolling stock focus - Southern-non standard. David Jenkinson (captions)/Dick Riley (phot.). 52
Colour photo feature.: Southern second class brake S3690S  (ex-Hastings line narrow width stock built in 1931 - Departmental coach DS348 used as tractor unit - originally LBSCR stock becoming motor coach 8899 in 3 SUB: see letters by Knowlden on page 221 for full history of this latter vehicle and by photographer on page 165

Readers ' Forum. 53.
Highland Railway Society. Sandy Harper.
Membership Secretary.
Growth of the Underground. Richard Bell.
See feature beginning page 545 in Volume 9: relates to problems of broad gauge train leaving Praed Street Junction on mixed gauge track.
Welsh Highland Railway. Michael J. Smith.
See Volume 9 (10) page 606: Russell (illus) at Dinas Junction in July 1929. Note on brown livery and on demise of WHR.
Provocations — failure. P.W.J. Bishop.
See Volume 9 No. 11 page 582: Cites R.C. Bond's Lifetime with locomotives to argue that British drivers did not know how to handle compound locomotives (the Bond extract related to the handling of a 4P standard compound on the WCML).
Provocations — failure. L.A. Summers
See Volume 9 No. 11 page 582.: comments about Webb compounds (and alleged difficulty of driving them), the Leader class (better as a Garrett), the BR Standards, and strong criticism of E.S. Cox.
Provocations — failure. M. Rutherford. 54.
See Volume 9 No. 11 page 582 for original feature: argues against Summer's view that drivers were poorly paid: the top-job ones were well paid and worked without much supervision. Agrrees that drivers were poorly trained and cites GNR(I) compound being worked badly. The Webb compounds did work, unlike Bulleid's Leader which was a "badly designed contraption".
Mystery photograph of a carriage on a barge on the river Thames  near Wapping. R.C. Riley. 54
Responses to this plea for information are on page 221 by Knowlden concerning the coach, and from Childs concerning the barge.

Book reviews. 54
A history of the York-Scarborough Railway. Bill Fawcett. Hutton Press. MB ****
"well-presented study"
Sir Arthur Heywood and the fifteen inch gauge railway. Mark Smithers. Plateway. SDW ****
index but no bibliography

BR Type 4 'Peak' No D65 Grenadier Guardsman leaving Blea Moor tunnel.B.R. Oliver rear cover
Southbound excursion on 2 August 1968

Number 2

A4 4-6-2 No.60007 Sir Nigel Gresley (the 100th Gresley Pactfic) on 23rd May 1959, when it hauled the Stephenson Locomotive Society 's 'Golden Jubilee' special from King's Cross to Doncaster . (Atlantic Collection). front cover.
During return journey No.60007 achieved a speed of 112mph, a post-war record for steam. At Doncaster according to letter by Wilkinson (page 278).

The Leeds skyline. Alan L. Bailey (phot.). 59.
B&w illus. of class 46 leaving city with a Liverpool train in June 1972

The 'Peaks' in retrospect. Part One. S.G. Allsopp. 60-7.
Operation and maintenance problems with diesel electric locomotive types 44, 45 and 46 fitted with Sulzer engines: Letter from Brian Orrell on page 222 relating to problems relating to turbochargers, illus.: Peak no 53 Royal Tank Regiment; Peak no 45 022 Lytham St Anne's leaving Penzance; Peak no D26 later class 45 passing Ribblehead; Peak no D18 class 45 leaving Edinburgh Waverley; Peak no D3 class 44 Skiddaw; Peak no D11 class 45 on Blea Moor; Peak no D 175 class 46 leaving King's Cross; Peak no D108 class 45 running into Leeds;

A working holiday on the Hertford branch. Don Rowland. 68-71..
Casual work at Gordon Hill Station on Hertford Loop in 1951. Alterations to platforms/terminating arrangements with MAS (letter page 278). See letter from Aylard (p. 221) concerning "Enfield Chase". illus.: Hertford North station; Hertford loop; Gordon Hill station in 1910; Map of Gordon Hill c 1951 [from memory]; N7/2 No. 69695 at Hertford North; J50 No. 8986 at Doncaster; G2 No. 245 at Potters Bar with a Hertford train;

The Salford docks branch. Jeffrey Wells. 72-7.
illus.: Lines round the Salford Docks branch; North portal of West Egerton Street tunnel; A view in the other direction to that on page 72 from West Egerton Street; Map of the branch; Salford Docks branch gradient profile; The ex LNWR main line under which the Salford docks branch burrows; An Austerity 2-8-0 breasts the top of the 1 in 47 climb; And the same locomotive approaching Windsor Crescent bridge;

Banking on the Salford Dock's branch. R.I. Hebden. 77.
Note by former footplate staff on conditions on banking engine in tunnels.

The hunting of the 'Steam Pig'. G. Lathey. 78-80.
Workings of Sentinel railcar 51914 Royal Forrester in the Leeds area during 1936/1937. Letter (page 278) claims same car worked Hertford to Hitchin. Brian Orrell (page 222) had not heard expression Steam Pig used for Sentinel railcars in Wigan/St Helens area where they were known as the Chip Train. illus.: The Steam Pig. Sentinel-Cammell railcar no 51914 Royal Forester; Railways in the Leeds area; Table A From LNER working timetables, Leeds district, 6July to 27th Sept; Table B Castleford to Wakefield and back; Table C Leeds to Laisterdyke and back; Table D From LNER working timetables, Leeds district, 27th Sept 1937 on; Table E Castleford to Wakefield and back; Table F Leeds to Laisterdyke and back; Table G Ardsley to Drighlington and back;

Fireless Locomotives. Keith R. Chester. 81.
Colour photo feature. of Barclay Works 2373 at Reed Paper & Board (UK) Ltd in Gravesend and Hawthorn, Leslie Works 3829 supplied to Northampton Electric Light & Power in CEGB ownership. See letter from N. Kelly (page 334) concerning early development of fireless type..

On the Cheshire Lines. Nigel Dyckhoff (phot.) 82.
Colour photo feature. taken in 1963 at Northenden Station of  B1 No 61249; Class 5 No 44759; Stanier 8F no 48139 passing Northenden Jn.; Crab No 42769; Southern Railway built 8F No 48634 at Northenden box;

When winter comes - railways in the snow. 84-5.
Colour feature: Q6 No 63446 at Ferryhill on 30 January 1965 (J.S. Gilks); "Track work" at Stockton station with Cowans Sheldon steam crane on 15 February 1970 (Chris Davies) who on page 222 states the crane was there to remove Stockton & Darlington Railway coack off its plinth; 8F no 48392 at Woodley Cheshire on 4 January 1968 (JSG); A trio of Ivatt class 4s at "unstated shed" which Tim Edmunds (p. 222) states was Lostock Hall; rebuilt West Country No. 34017 Ilfracombe in Weald of Kent in January 1960.

Warships in the west. 86-7.
Colour feature: Warship No D863 Warrior at Doublebois; Warship passing Marazion in May 1965 (Cliff Woodhead); Warship no D 838 Rapid leaving Penzance in May 1965; Warship No D 849 Superb at Newton Abbot on 20 June 1965 (Les Elsey): all locomotives were green. - some were clean.

A Caledonian duo. 88
Colour photo feature.: Caley 812 class No 57566 at Muirkirk on 30 June 1963 (Rodney Lissenden); Caley Jumbo No 57441  with preserved CR coaches on railtour (J.F. Henton).

Coach lighting and gas tank wagons on the LNER. C.S. Carter. 89-93.
At the Grouping the LNER owned about 12,000 gas-lit coaches. illus.: M&GN gas tank no 2 at Stratford behind is a 9cyl wagon built for the; NER double gas cylinder wagon; A GCR single cylinder wagon; Drawing of treble gas wagon; Double tank wagon no 902015 built for NER in 1928; Double tank wagon no 942014 on a six wheeled frame from a retired GCR; GN double cylinder wagon no 37N; GN treble cylinder wagon no 41N; Gas tank wagons 1940-1; Gas tank working from Temple Mills summer 1955;

Bulleid versus Raworth. Provocations [Railway Reflections No. 14]. Michael Rutherford. 94-100.
Much of the material on Raworth has been incorporated into the biographical section (and allusion to this feature is also made in the section on Bulleid). The Reflections notes the great contribution which Raworth made to the progress of Southern electrification in spite of his subsidiary position to Jones, the Chief Electrical Engineer, and questions once again how Bulleid was able to get away with designing his complex Pacifics which were a mixture of brilliance and perversity, and the Leader class which seemed only to incorporate the latter characteristic. illus.: Picture of Alfred Raworth; A much rebuilt two car EMU (see letter by R.C. Riley on page 165); Simultaneous departures from Guildford of three EMU trains; Electric loco CC2 on test; Bulleid Merchant Navy 21C7 Aberdeen Commonwealth nearing Weybridge; Rebuilding of a Bulleid Pacific; A projected Diesel - mechanical??;

Camping coaches on the Scottish Region, 1952 to 1969. Part 2. Andrew McRae. 101-5.
Includes a brief examination of the economics of the scheme, publicity, a case study of the Arisaig site, and personal memories. illus.: Camping coach at Arrochar & Tarbet in 1939; Ex Royal Saloon of the SECR at Glenfinnan; Pullman PCC41 at Morar; Derby type 2 no D 5055 at Arisaig; SC23 sprang a leak and temporary repairs were made with a borrowed; BRCW Type2 no D5359 at Callender passing SC35 and SC8; Mr, Master and Miss McRae at Arisaig in a 'demoted' Pullman coach no CC40;

Colour files - along the Barry railway. Bob Sankey (phot.). 106-7.
Colour photo feature.: Wenvoe station: from the track; the station frontage; shelter on down platform; tunnel portal on the extension to Barry Pier; platform building at Cogan; wooden shelter at Cadoxton;

Signalling focus - Great Northern somersaults in Lincolnshire. Richard D. Foster. 108
Colour photo feature: Firsby station on 9 April 1970 (P. Ravenscroft); Sutton-on-Sea station on 18 September 1970 (S.C. Dent).

Readers' Forum. 109.
Shanklin signal box. Jonathan Edwards.
See Volume 9 page  617. Picture shows state of box just prior to electrification and during the act of a locomotive running round its train.
Blair Atholl. John Roake.
See Volume 9 page  617. Bracket signal used to avoid trespass onto adjacent property.
Southern Channel steamers. Philip L. Scowcroft.
Written in response to item on train ferries (volume 9 page 674-5 ): mentions that on journeys in 1950/1 by car no railway vehicles were conveyed. See also subsequent letter page 222 by Evans.
Driven by adversity. Ernest Godward.
The Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway (see feature Volume 9 page 572) had according to E.M. Patterson's The Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway sent W. Napier, its Locomotive Superintendent to see the CDRJC railcars at Stranolar and had received a quotation for diesel-electric rail motors from Armstrong Whitworth of £2343 per unit. Writer considers that feature could have made more of railcar development on the NCC (where he incorrectly asserts that aluminium bodywork was novel in 1934) and of the multiple units on the GNR(I). The River class suffered from having asbestos insulation.
Failure? - F.W. Webb. Clive Holden
Illustration on page 588: location was Greenfield not Carnforth

Book reviews. 110.
The Rye and Camber Tramway: a centenary history. Laurie A. Cooksey. Plateway. TJE. ***
"the shorter the line and the narrower the gauge the bigger the book". How does one fill 160 pages...?
Colonel Stephens railmotors. Stephen Garrett and John Scott-Morgan. Irwell. TJE *****
Highly recommended.
Western change: summer holidays in the West 1957-95. Paul Chancellor. RCTS. RCR ***
Review makes it abundantly clear that the title is misleading and is mainly concerned with observations made in 1962-5.
Lost lines - Eastern. Nigel Welbourne. Ian Allan. TJE ****

Mornington Crescent. John Edgington (phot.). 110.
station frontage on 28 February 1963.

The Westerham branch train. Dennis Ovenden. rear cover.
H class 31308 at Westerham on 9 September 1961 - just prior to closure of busy branch line to make way for linear car park (M25).

Number 3 (March 1996)

LBSCR 'Terrier' No 54 Waddon outside Eastleigh works in LBSCR. livery. front cover
prior to shipment to Canada

The 'Bournemouth Belle'. 116-17
Colour photo-feature.: Merchant Navy No. 35028 Clan Line ready to leave Southampton (J.R. Carter); West Country No. 34047 Callington near Hinton Admiral  on 24 July 1965 (Robert Leslie) ; Merchant Navy No. 35010 Blue Star ready to leave Bournemouth in May 1966 (T.J. Edgington); Merchant Navy No. 35029 Ellerman Lines at Esher in Jan. 1962 (Geoff Rixon); Second class parlour car No. 76 at Bournemouth (T.J. Edgington)

David Jenkinson. The evolution of London's Underground stock - 1890 - 1960 - part 1: Historical background and surface stock: 1890-1960. 118-24.
Refers to "recent" Backtrack aricle for the history of the Circle line. illustrations.: Metropolitan Ry. clerestory cars of 1905 with train for Harrow at Baker Street during its 1910 reconstruction; District Line third class trailer No. 308 of American design for service between Whitechapel and Ealing; early Metropolitan Ry.steam locomotive hauled coaches of 1898 at Chalfont on Chesham service on 31 August 1995 (John Edgington); Metropolitan Ry electric locomotive No 3 Sir Ralph Verney passingt Neasden with a Liverpool Street to Chesham train on 9 August 1961 (John Edgington); new train of District Ry. wooden-bodied B stock posed at Sudbury Hill in 1905; District C or D stock from 1910 at Rotherhide with New Cross Gate train; diagram (elevation & plan of District Ry. F stock; eight car train of F stock at Neasden on Uxbridge train on 9 August 1961 (John Edgington); four car train of F stock at New Cross Gate on 21 August 1961 (John Edgington); G stock car at Acton Town on 9 August 1956 (John Edgington) (writer on page 278 asserts that caption implies that all G stock could operate as single cars); diagram (elevation and plan of G stock); G and B stock side by side in 1934; train of Q stock which could include examples of K, L and M stock at Edgware Road on 6 October 1062 on Putney service (John Edgington); diagram (elevation and plan) of K stock;

Alan Bailey and Keith Shipley. A view from the 'Rec.': the railways of Wortley and the surrounding area of Leeds. . 125-32.
The Recreation Ground to the west of Leeds Central and City stations was a "Rome" to boy enthusiasts who could view Copley Hill MPD. The period of observations stretches from the 1950s until the end of steam. Text notes B17 No, 61641 Gayton Hall in Leeds in 1958. The map shows the layout of railways after the close of Central Station. illustrations.: A2/3 No. 60520 Owen Tudor on Doncaster to Leeds Central parcls train on 4 September 1962; Fairburn class 4 No. 42166 at Gelderd Road Junction with Wakefield to Bradford Exchange parcels train on 1 April 1967; map of railways and roads round Wortley Recreation Ground; A4 No. 60029 Woodcock passes Copley Hill depot with Leeds to King's Cross express on 30 August 1962; Class 45 No. 45 025 crossing the Holbeck Viaduct with Leeds to Bristol express on 20 August 1976;  A1 No. 60130 Kestrel with 16.50 Leeds to Doncaster local passing Wortley South in July 1964; Stanier class 5 No. 45273 passes underr Wortley South  signal gantry on train for Doncaster on 4 March 1966; abandoned Copley shed yard with a Fairburn type 4 No. 42177 on the west to south spur with Bradford Exchange to King's Cross through coaches on 17 April 1965; Deltic No. D9001 St. Paddy on a Kings Cross express. on 8 Februaryy 1969; view on 12 January 1991 from the top of Wortley Heights with class 91 working in reverse mode hauling Mk 4 stock; Holbeck viaduct overlooking the Midland engine shed with various diesel locomotives on 17 September 1978. Records death of Keith Shipley. Further contribution from Alan Bailey in Volume 29 page 14 et seq. and 2016, 30, 502. and yet again in Volume 31 page 719.

Fifty years on the railway. Harry Ellerby as related to A.J. Ludham. 133-8.
Harry Ellerby had begun work at Grimsby Town (GCR) in 1909 as a van boy and later became a signalman at New Clee (having learnt at Fish Dock Road - col. illus. 10-50). He later worked at Cleethorpes where through his efforts the job was upgraded (under the LNER) as it was an extremely busy box. illus.: Fish Dock Road box Grimsby; Harry Ellerby in Cleethorpes signal box in the late 1930s; Cleethorpes in the 1960s; Grimsby Town station; D11 No. 62669 Ypres at Cleethorpes;

Between Scarborough and Whitby. J.S. Gilks (phot.) 137-9.
Colour photo-feature.: First three were taken on 4 March 1965: Cloughton station (see letter from present owners of station [not Railtrack!] but Mr & Mrs Hargreaves on page 698), Stainton Dale, Ravenscar station with a DMU pulling out; A DMU slogging up the hill to Ravenscar with bay in background in May 1964; Robin Hood's Bay station with camping coaches in May 1964; DMU slogging up the hill to Prospect Hill Junction; where it reversed to take the Scarborough line across Larpool Viaduct

Panniers on parade. 140-1.
Colour photo-feature.: 57xx No. 4691 leaving Shapwick (Evercreech J-Highbridge line) with local train on 31 March 1962; 57xx No. 9707 with condensing equipment with 94xx no 8420 at Old Oak Common on 19 Oct 1963 (Michael Mensing); 57xx No. 9639 passing Madeley Junction on freight on 27 Aug 1962 (Michael Mensing); 64xx No. 6430 at Tavistock on auto-train in Aug 1962 (P. Poulter);

On the Lickey incline. John Edgington (captions); Cliff Woodhead/D.C. Piddington (phots.) 142-3.
Colour photo-feature.: Bromsgrove station and the very obvious start to the incline; Over the top and bankers LMS 3F and GWR 94xx drop off; A partially fitted freight behind class 5 No. 44859; Double headed by LMS class 5 No. 44776 and a Jubilee with banker BR; same train showing the banker BR 9F No. 92079 apparently doing most of work;

Oliver Carter. Recollections of the Great Eastern Hotel, Liverpool Street. 144-5.

promising young men and it was such an opportunity in its Hotel Service that young Joe Forster accepted in June 1937. He was assigned to the Great Eastern Hotel, Liverpool Street, then the focal point of social and commercial life in the City. The Lord Mayor and the Sheriff took suites there during their terms of office. Twice a year the hotel was filled with buyers from many parts of Europe attending the London wool sales, while the Essex and Cambridge Rooms and Hamilton Hall hosted important business con- ferences and functions. But the story of the Great Eastern Hotel was not one of immediate success. In fact, when the Great Eastern Railway moved its terminus from Shoreditch to a ten-acre site at Liverpool Street in the mid-1870s an hotel was not included. This omission was reme- died in 1884 with the opening of a modest hotel in red brick and stone, to the design of Charles E. Barry. The company already owned hotels at Harwich (1865), Hunstanton (1868) and Parkeston Quay (1883) and the steady growth in Continental traffic prompted the company to review its hotel provision from time to time. By the turn of the century it was decided to enlarge the hotel at Liverpool Street, not only with far more bed- rooms but with a superb suite of public rooms. Colonel Robert Edis was the architect, and the red brick and terracotta facades in a marked French Loire Chateaux style and the interior decorated and furnished by Maples quickly made an impact on the City scene. The centrepiece of the new accommodation was the Abercorn Rooms, which included the mirrored and gilt Hamilton Hall, a dining room, smaller suites of rooms and a pair of Masonic temples, one in the Egyptian style, the other Grecian. It was into this then largely unaltered world that Joe Forster entered in 1937. The LNER organised its hotel management under Area Superintendents with Jack Ryan I in charge of the Southern Area. Bertie Howes was Resident Manager, a small but redoubtable character and strict disciplinari- an, who had started his service with the Great Eastern Railway. It was policy for the Manager to be accepted into the local com- munity and he was a member of the Common Council of the City of London as well as a Church Warden at nearby SI. Botolphs. Nevertheless he liked to get away from it all to his week-end home at Bentley in Essex when time permitted. He was assisted by two under Managers, one in charge of the hotel and the other who was responsible for the Abercorn Rooms and its staff. The staff worked a twelve-hour split shift, based on a fortnight's tour of duty, with one half day off during the first week and Saturday afternoon and Sunday off the second week. During the summer months some of the staff were able to exchange the busy London scene for a ipell of duty at the Felix Hotel at Felixstowe. F or the trainee manager the first spell of duty and learning was in the kitchens. The Great Eastern Hotel had two, one at roof level and the other en suite with the Abercorn Rooms. The Chef du Cuisine was M. Grandjean, later succeeded by Signor Givotti who had moved from the Howard Hotel. If the voice pipe was not answered immediately to Signor Givotti's requests, his feelings were expressed by resounding kicks at the wall plaster, which suffered frequent damage until the maintenance staff decided to add a timber or steel plate lining. If an impor- tant guest had to be served - Sir Percy Greenaway, the Sheriff, for example - the message "Sir PetTY right away" meant immediate attention. One day trainee Forster had the unfortu- nate experience of inadvertently breaking the fish tank containing live trout, amid cries of dismay from Signor Givotti. The damage had to be paid for in 2s 6d (12"l:p) weekly instal- ments. There were also the harrowing occa- sions when the despatch of a live turtle, des- tined for the soup, was a necessary duty. Pleasanter work was to be had in the bakery and in the cellars where wines and spirits were bottled. Bertie Howes, the Resident Manager, was a stickler for correctness of dress and always eyed his upstairs staff from top to toe. Under Managers wore a morning coat and striped trousers for breakfast duty and changed to a short jacket for the afternoon. For gentlemen's dinners a black tie was worn, while for a Ladies' Evening a white tie and white gloves were the custom. Waiters wore a dark blue uniform with a lighter blue stripe down the trousers and Eton jackets with lighter blue lapels. Waitresses wore lighter blue dresses. Guests were met by the Doorkeeper, or Link Man as he was known, resplendent in frock coat and gold braid. The Head Porter wore tails with French blue and gold braid trimmings. The recep- tion desk and office was run by men picked for their knowl- edge of French and German. To maintain the hotel's reputation, Bertie Howes checked the diary at least weekly to make sure that no meetings of a controversial nature were allowed to be held on the premises. It was inevitable that the occasional miscreant slipped through the screen. One day trainee Forster recalled the assistance given to a visi- tor who turned out to be a bogus clergyman who left with several suitcases containing stolen bed linen. For the experienced confi- dence trickster familiar with the hotel's layout, an escape route to the adjacent station was to be found by way of a passage leading from the lift shaft. A shock wave was felt round the hotel when one of its respected visitors, Clarence Hatry, the financier, made an igno- minious departure to begin a prison sentence. The Great Eastern Hotel also had a quota of about 15-20 permanent residents, most of whom returned home at weekends. One of them, Mr. Burton, was the talk of the staff because he owned a television receiver. Behind the scenes, the hotel's decoration came under the full-time care of AlfFuller, the foreman painter. The gold-leafed decorations in the Hamilton Hall were Alf's pride and joy. Carpet maintenance was another full-time responsibility for two men and the roof top squash court later became the carpet store. All that the staff saw of the Masonic temples was during the cleaning of the well-fitted-out rooms. Lodge regalia was kept locked in tin chests each conspicuously numbered for their owners' recognition. T he outbreak of World War II brought Joe Forster's training to an abrupt end. Then, after nearly six years in the RAF, he returned to the Great Eastern Hotel amid a scene of great austerity. Food rationing was in operation and guests had to produce ration books if their stay was for more than one night. Meals were restricted to three courses and a maximum price of Ss (25p). The same restrictions applied to clothes and uniforms; make do and mend was the order of the day. The hotel escaped serious war damage, but when many bombed-out offices came to be rebuilt, directors' suites with dining facilities were provided for the first time. Competition from air travel also began to make itself felt and the consequen- tial draught felt by the Great Eastern Hotel was a fact that had to be accepted. Modernisation and the provision of more bed- rooms with bathroom en suite helped to improve the hotel's image. Then in October 1949 Joe Forster's training was over and it was time to move on, first with several appointments as temporary manager and then with hotels of his own. But, looking back on an eventful career, it was undoubtedly his time spent at Liverpool Street which left the deepest impressions. References 2. Began hotel service with LNWR and became Hotels Manager for the Great orth of Scotland Railway in 1906. Moved to orth British Railway in 1912 as Hotels Manager. In 1923 appointed Hotels Superintendent for the LNER's Southern Area. 3. Purchased by the Great Eastern Railway, 1920. . illustrations: 1930s poster showing the dining room by Gordon Nicholl; GER postcard of hotel; paper bag advertising the Hotel and refreshment room dept.;

The Great Western, boilers and The Great Bear. (Provocations) [Railway Reflections No. 15]. Michael Rutherford. 146-54.
The evolution of boilers under Churchward is set against the expanion of the Great Western Railway at the same time which included the development of a major liner terminal at Fishguard and the development of Cornwall as a holiday destination: at that time non-stop running was envisaged to Fishguard and to Truro with water troughs near Lostwithiel. illus.: No 3306 Shelburne in front of a 2201 class; No 36 built at Swindon; No 3297 Earl Cawdor at Weymouth; An Atbara No. 3391; No 150 of the Great Northern; Two early schemes for GW pacifics; No 111 The Great Bear nearly as built but with front doorsteps removed as; No 111 The Great Bear in 1923; No 111 The Great Bear in post war condition at Twyford; A final scheme for the Bear; Capital expenditure of the major companies 1876-1907;

S.G. Allsopp. The 'Peaks' in retrospect - Part 2. . 155-8.
Modifications to improve their reliability: ttrain heating boilers; bogie frames, especially pony trucks and reduction in number of lubricating points. Engines reliable. Very fast. illus.: No D188 a class 46 at Liverpool; A Peak on the Settle and Carlisle; No D27 at Oakenshaw North Jn.;

Competition and the railways. John C. Hughes. 159-61.
Railway competition led to uneconomic and incomprehensible charges; such as Midland Railway charging more for Befoord to Yarmouth consignments than if sent from London where train originated. Reader questions author's assertions about tramway competition (page 278). illus.: An LYR 4-4-0 on the Luddenden troughs; Manchester Corporation trams in Oxford Street in 1921; Manchester Ship Canal;

Colour files. Paint it black. 162-3.
Colour photo-feature: ex-GWR 5959 Mawley Hall; ex-GWR 7823 Hook Norton Manor; SR N class No 31866 at Ashford; ex-LMS black 5 44671; ex-LNER V2 No. 60800 Green Arrow.

Rolling stock focus — carriage masqueraders. I. Londion Midland 'porthole' stock. David Jenkinson (captions)/S.C. Dent (phots.) 164
Colour illustrations.: M13109M looking very Stanierish but actually built in 1950. ; M27017M of the same design and build date (lavatory side);

Readers' Forum.. 165.
Compounds & 'Leaders'. P.S. Evetts.
Writer was former premium apprentice at Swindon from 1931 to 1936; a Locomotive Inspector told him that the Midland Compound was an excellent machine for light expresses such as Paddington to Bristol. My own knowledge suggests that the LMS Western Division Running Superintendent made no effort to learn from his Derby colleagues, so his Inspector (brought up on Crewe methods) had no opportunity to instruct their drivers in the best way to handle a Compound. Perhaps they didn't want to do so! The old G&SW men got on well with the Compounds when they arrived. Could this have been due to the fact that the Midland officials worked amicably with the G&SW (due to their through trains)? Regarding the Bulleid 'Leader', 1 can remember seeing No.1 at Crowborough, having failed on a test run and heard some blue comments from her crew. Earlier, on an RCTS visit to Brighton Works, I took a Senior Design Engineer from my London firm with me. He was not a railway enthusiast, but a sound man with anything experimental; after seeing the 'Leader', he said "It can't work, and I'll tell you sometime". About three years later, he offered the opinion that the idea was basically good (with oil firing) but BR lacked the good design engineers, the money and works facilities to see the scheme through. Turning to the basic education of drivers, I don't think this is entirely relevant. To quote one example, the finest driver on Chatham DI and El 4-4-0s at Stewarts Lane was a wonderful man in every way, yet had a very poor school career. To find his name, please read Steam Stories by R. H. N. Hardy.

Southern non-standard. R.C. Riley.
Amplifies his own caption to photograph on page 52 and to one forming part of Rutherford feature on page 94, both of which illustrate stock which had formed part of that used on LBSCR or subsequent SR AC services and which were converted to DC operation. May I draw attention to an error in the caption to my photograph of the ex-LBSC Driving Trailer Composite in use as a Tractor Unit, No.DS 34S. It is quite wrong to say that the LBSC overhead electrification relied on ac electric locomotives. At no time did the LBSC own any such vehicles, its electric units were what we now know as EMUs. Equipment for the LBSC overhead electrification came from Germany and because of World War I the last scheme, known as the CoulsdonlWallington scheme, did not come into use until 1st April 1925, an appropriate date; the last LBSC overhead electric train ran on 22 September 1929. Only this scheme used electric locomotives, which inevitably had a short life and were later converted to bogie brake vans for main line freights. On a similar caption in the February issue, Michael Rutherford has misunderstood the sequence of events which befell SR EMU Set No.1811. On introduction of the South London Line electrification by the LBSC in 1909, three-car sets were built, the centre coach being all first class. This was astonishingly over-optimistic and later the first class trailers were withdrawn and the sets altered to one motor coach and a composite trailer with two first class compartments, the latter converted from steam stock. The 1909 first class trailers were then used in express trains on the Brighton main line; their 9ft 0in* width precluded them from working throughout the system. With the SR third rail electrification in June 1925, the South London line was electrified using the original sixteen motor coaches, forming sets ISO I-S. In July 1930 the line from Wimbledon to West Croydon via Mitcham was electrified using the former first class SLL trail- ers, these eight coaches forming sets 1809-12. The assertion that most of the steam stock was converted to electric stock can also be challenged since the greater part of this work was carried out at the former LBSC works at Lancing, leaving Eastleigh to build new carriages for steam services. *Not 9ft 6in as stated.

Admirals of the Fleet. Philip L. Scowcroft.
Writer was surprised that George Monk, later Duke of Albermarle, was not commemorated within Jubilee class names (see page 46) One 'Admiral of the Fleet' I was amazed not to see remembered in LMS Class He rivalled Blake as a General-at-Sea during the Commonwealth, winning the battles of the Gabbard and Scheveningen; after the Restoration, which he, more than anyone, brought about, he thrashed the Dutch again, in the St. James Day Fight (1666).

Provocations, revolutions and manias. E.R. Foulkes.
See page 33 concerning Richard Lovell Edgeworth (content of this letter incorporated into biography). Michael Rutherford in his 'Provocations' article, an excellent series, submits the claim that in 1768, Richard Lovell Edgeworth was awarded a gold medal for his suggestion for trains of horsedrawn waggons on wooden railways, quoting M.J.T. Lewis. There is little doubt that R. L. Edgeworth did 'invent' trains in this way, the problem is the date. The original source for Mike Lewis is probably Rees Cyclopedia, Volume VI, on Canals, where an article by John Favey, (1766-1826) was written in 1816, and published three years later.
It states, "About the year 1768, Mr. Richard Lovell Edgeworth contrived a remedy for the principal objection to cast iron rail roads, in making use of two or three small waggons linked together, instead of one large one: a model of these he presented to the Society of Arts in the Adelphi, London, and was honoured by the premium of their gold medal. .. " The problem here, as recounted by Desmond Clarke in his biography The Ingenious Mr Edgeworth, is that for most of 176S, he was at home in Edgeworthtown, County Longford, Eire, looking after his ailing father and estate. Further, the Society of Arts do not record an award to him in this year.
It might be thought that Edgeworth himself was a better witness. In his Commission regarding the Bogs of Ireland" for the Government, Parliamentary Papers 1810/11 Vol. VI, page 796, he writes: "The scheme of dividing a heavy load and placing it on several carriages to diminish the pressure on the roads was laid by me before the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in 1766 ... " Indeed Edgeworth did receive an award that year, but this appears to have been for a Phaeton road carriage with a small turning circle, and four-wheel independent suspension suited to poor and rutted roads, see Clarke, above.
Based on the Society's records, a better bet would be his 1769 award, which was for unspecified models and presentation which have not been identified.
His wagons were similar to a four-wheeled wheelbarrow, with two wheels ahead of the load, and two larger ones beneath, all flanged, which could be coupled together into a 'train'.
The load was carried in a side-tipping arrangement which, by over- balancing about a central support, could be made to tip to either side. As Edgeworth acknowledges, in 1802, and from early drawings, a similar vehicle was in use at the Penrhyn Slate Quarry for rubbish disposal from at out 1787, the main difference being that four equal-sized wheels were used, all below the load, looking much like a supermarket trolley. On all his many visits to England, he, or indeed his family, called as they passed through Bangor en route from Holyhead and surviving references in the papers refer to these visits long after Richard's death in 18I7.

Standedge Tunnel water troughs. D.J. Codling.
See article page 20 It is a pity that in the otherwise excellent article (Jan. 1996) on the Standedge Tunnel Water Troughs, no mention is made of drainage made necessary by the splashing of water overflowing from the troughs when the scoop was in use. The drainage of any railway track is always important; it would be more difficult in a tunnel, much more so in one with water troughs. However, on roughly a parallel alignment to the railway tunnels is a much older tunnel, that of the Huddersfield Narrow Canal which is at a slightly lower level. In 1844 the railway company was empowered to buy the canal and this made the construction of the first and later railway tunnels much easier. Cross galleries were made, connecting the railway and canal tunnels, which gave access for constructional purposes at much less cost than sinking shafts along the line of the tunnel as the canal builders had to do. According to L. T. C. Rolt (The Inland Waterways of England, Allen and Unwin, 1950) the canal tunnel working shafts are, in some cases, up to 600 feet deep. Spoil could be removed through the connecting galleries for removal by canal boat. After railway tunnel construction was completed the galleries were left for ventilation and drainage. In view of the drainage require- ments for tracktroughs it is almost certainly the presence of the canal tunnel that allowed the troughs to be installed. .

Rates and fares. G.K. Hawley.
Questions caption to illustration on page 672 of volume 9 of bales loaded on vehicle hauled by "mechanical horse": accoding to writer was a form of palletization using a "tram" is being moved from horse dray to motor truck — The Manchester & Leeds Railway by Martin Bairstow, has an illustration on page 52 of that very process under way outside (or at) Royston station, the date being given as 5 April 1920.

The Great Central in East Anglia. John C. Baker
The Great Central in East Anglia I much enjoyed reading Steve W. Banks' piece detailing the work of Great Central locomotives in East Anglia. I hope, though, you and he will not mind me correcting the odd error and filling in a few gaps. To begin, the picture, on page 634, of the JI0 is taken at Beccles, the train coming off the old direct line from Yarmouth (South Town). The pair of tracks joining from the right is the still-open route from Lowestoft. 0.6125, shown in full cry at the bottom of page 637 is a C 14, not a C13, and the picture was, I am certain, taken by G. R. Grigs.
On the subject of the Q1 0-8-0Ts, one other member of the class spent some time on the Great Eastern, albeit not in East Anglia. For a short while in 1950, No.69930 was allocated to Stratford. The RCTS book Locomotives of the LNER, part 9B, mentions that it was used in Temple Mills yard, but an old railwayman I once knew recalled that it made a fine sight on the main line on trip workings from Temple Mills to Goodmayes.
Finally, I must mention the original L1 s, or L3s as they later became. Four of them were allocated to March in 1929: Nos.5276, 5342, 5344 and 5368, intended for handling coal traffic for Whitemoor and beyond handed over at Peterborough (East) from the ex-Midland line from Syston. The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER, part 9A reports them being sent back to the GC Section in 1931, but the "No.4 Supplement to the Appendix to the Working Time Tables (Southern Area)", published by the LNER in June 1937, has the following intriguing entry:
LI Class tank engines will be employed for working goods and coal trains between Whitemoor and Peterboro' Middle Bank. These engines must, under no circumstances pass on to Bridge No.1838 at Middle Bank. Notice boards at Middle Bank are erected, indicating the limit for the running of these engines". The "are" is in bold type, so, did locomotives of this class return to the line in the late 1930s, or did the LNER publishing staff sim- ply fail to delete an obsolete instruc- tion when revising the supplement? Either way, the note at least in part explains why the more modern, and heavier, Great Central locomotive types spent so little time in East Anglia: weak bridges.

Book Reviews.. 166.

Stroudley and his Terriers. Tom Middlemass. Pendragon. R.C. Riley. ****
It is a brave man who chooses to write on his subject I What more is there to say? In fact Tom Middlemass has risen to the chal- lenge very well and although much of the earlier history is familiar, he brings the story up to date and indeed it is the later years in the life of the 'Terriers' that takes up half the book and this information is less easy to come by in book form. There are a few inconsistencies. A picture of LBSC No.650 hauling one bogie and seven six-wheelers on the level stretch from Bognor to Barnham Junction is described as a not inconsiderable load and yet LBSC No.668 had no problems propelling seven bogies from Victoria to Stoats Nest (later Coulsdon). Actually, the engine hauled this train. The 'Terriers' withdrawn at the turn of the century were photographed in store awaiting scrap at East Grinstead, not at Redhill, while in the Isle of Wight No.W 11 Newport on a train of loaded Blue Circle cement wagons from Shide cement works is described as hauling a train of domestic coal. The remarkable fact of ten of the 50 engines surviving in preservation is well described and the preservation story thoroughly covered. One minor error here, the Museum of British Transport at Clapham is described as being in a former tram depot. It is true that it was on the site of a tram depot, but it was demolished and rebuilt as a bus garage some years before its Museum days. At present only one 'Terrier' is fit for service, No.32640 on the Isle of Wight, but 1996 will see No.32678 in traffic on the K&ESR for the first time in steam since 1963. Altogether an interesting and comprehensive book. It is a pity that the photographers are seldom credited.

The Somerset and Dorset - then and now. Mac Hawkins. David & Charles. SDW ****
A first edition of this book appeared in 1986. Since that time Mac Hawkins has evolved a most cred- itable format which in many cases disproves that most basic of railway terms, the 'permanent' way. Of the lines which fell under the 'Beeching Axe', the Somerset & Dorset was one of the best loved. This book is a series of photographic pairs, 160 in all, some in colour, the majority in black and white, showing the line under full steam in the 1950s and 1960s with an exact equivalent from today. Some of the present-day shots are a frightening reminder of how tran- sient the railway can be. Somerset & Dorset devotees will delight in this book. The pho- tographs are of the highest quality, the historical ones relying heavily on the work of such as Ivo Peters and Dick Riley. Well-loved locations, favourite locomotive types (Class 7F, 9F and Bulleid Pacifies) and the branches to Wells, Bridgwater and Burnham-on-Sea are all covered. The author is to be congratulated on the exactitude with which the comparative con- temporary photographs have been located; the use of OS map extracts and candid comments all add to the well-rounded feel of the book as a whole.
Non-S&D fans cannot fail to appreciate the photographs of the line at work but not knowing the line intimately may well detract from the value of the contemporary photographs. Sheltered housing at Radstock or contented cows at Evercreech may not be what a neu- tral purchaser wishes to layout money for.
In spite of this latter minor moan, this is a remarkable book. It is well produced and forms a fascinating chronicle of the railway and post-railway era. Cows, car-parks, Evening Star and all, it is highly recommended.

A regional history of railways, Volume 16 - Ireland. J.W.P. Rowledge. Atlantic. SDW ****
As long ago as 1960 David St. John Thomas produced the first volume of the Regional History of Railways. Thirty-six years and six- teen volumes later, the present author and Atlantic are to be congratulated on producing the final volume of what has become the basic, and well respected, history of the railways in the British Isles.
The author has made a splendid job of compressing the history of Ireland's railways into one volume. What has been produced is the bare bones of an historical geography with routes and reasons sharply focused to the detriment of the more "Are ye right there, Michael?" side of Ireland's rail- ways. The book is a splendid basic reference at the expense of being an easy bed-time read.
The usual Regional History format has been used. The photographs are catholic in their scope and are well reproduced, twenty maps aid the reader's understanding of the sometimes complicated Irish railway geography. There is a comprehensive index and an exhaustive bibliography, the appendices are also exhaustive, listing opening and closing dates for the lines by chapters in the text as well as information on such items as customs posts, amalgamations and location of stations by route. This volume is a worthy conclusion to the Regional History series. It is full to overflowing — like a good glass of Guinness — with information on the railways of the Emerald Isle and should be on all serious students' bookshelves. Despite Norwich Airstrip sometimes sending aeroplanes to Dublin, not in that town's miserable book collection.

Celebration of steam - North Wales. Peter Johnson. Ian Allan. SDW ***
There seems to have been a pletho- ra of somewhat nondescript pictorial volumes of late. Your reviewer approached this book with some trepidation and, with happy memo- ries of the main line at Colwyn Bay in the early sixties, received a very pleasant surprise.
The author has covered the steam railway operations of North Wales, both standard and narrow gauge, with a superb selection of pictures (except for page 56) and succinct test. Both ex-GWR and ex-LMS routes are featured and the narrow-gauge coverage ranges from the quarry lines of the Padarn system through the Glyn Valley Tramway to the Rhyl Miniature Railway.
It is a shame that no 'Duchesses' appear in the Chester and Holyhead section, equally that the narrow gauge pictures do not always match up to the appropriate text; these are minor caveats. This book is a satisfying addition to the 'Celebration of Steam' series and is recommended.

North from Tebay. Joe Richardson rear cover
Tebay station looking north in December 1967 with steam banking engine

Number 4 (1996 April) 

8F 2-8-0 48453 restarts a freight from a signal check on the Queensville curve, Stafford. Michael Mensing front cover
6 October 1962

King's Cross station. 171.
Photograph taken at 14.22 on 11 August 1952: view from above clutter of buildings in front of entrance.

The evolution of London's Underground stock: 1890-1960. Part 2: Surface stock of the Metropolitan Railway and London Transport. David Jenkinson. 172-81.
Jenkinson observed that there was great variety within the Metropolitan Railway's stock, but there was great overall unformity on that of the District in spite of the external variety. The LPTB elected to follow District policy with its stylish Metadyne stock, after briefly building the last of the clerestory style vehicles, but it does note that the Metadyne stock had a false internal clerestory. Similarly styled, but electrically dissimilar R stock was built Postwar to displace the remaining stock with hand-operated doors.  See letter by Michael  J. Smith (page 331) which relates both to the text and specific illustrations: the former notes that the Metropolitan Railway had a clear policy of using saloon stock for the inner services and compartment stock on the outer services to Watford and Rickmansworth where it had to compete with the high qulaity stock used by the GCR and by the LNER. Letter by J.H. Price (page 331) argues that Metropolitan Railway "experimental rebuilds" (as saloon vehicles) following WW1 were new vehicles from Metropolital RCW. illus.: a train of modernised F stock at Northwick Park in July 1961 (colour: John Edgington); Former T stock used as sleet locomotives at Neasden in 1970 (colour); A G stock car in company with a car from the K to N series at Neasden (colour); A train of T stock at Northwick Park (John Edginton colour); Plans of some Metropolitan Railway stock of 1905; p.175 (top) first Met EMUs: see letter Michael J. Smith (p. 331) suggests post-1916 date as train has a lady guard; P. 175 (centre) Hammersmith & City stock soon after building lettered "Great Western & Metropolitan Railway" - Smith (page 331) observes that initial vehicles had been lettered ten as "Great Western Railway" and the other ten as "Metropolitan Railway; page 175 (bottom): two 'new' motor coaches sandwiching four cars of 1898 stock caption suggests at Wembley Park, but Michael J. Smith (page 331) states at Harrow-on-the-hIll; A Met third when new; A Q stock special at Barking  on RCTS special on 12 September 1971(colour John Edgington); A brand new two car set of O stock for the Hammersmith and City; A Met MW stock which became LT T stock here converted for use as a sleet; A train of two 1913 motor cars sandwiching three 1921 trailers; Elevations of O stock; The very comfortable interior of the 1937 Metadyne cars; A very mixed train at West Brompton; The guards compartment door of the P stock; A train of R stock; The interior of the R stock;

Route learning. Harry Friend. 182-7.
Memoirs of work as a Traction Inspector on diesel locomotives, from a background of steam fireman and driver with emphasis being placed on the importance of route knowledge and co-operation between footplate crew and with guard, if any, illus.: The signal gantry south of Darlington station; No 42204 at York with the route learning saloon; The view from a DMU which had good forward vision for route learning; A part of the sectional appendix for the Newcastle to Carlisle line; Two route learning diagrams; Route learning norms;

Wagon loading (Railway topics No 9). Bob Essery. 188-92.
Discussion of the tonnage conveyed in individual wagons, and in trains, especially of coal, and of the systems used to calculate such tonnages. Table 1 The maximum tonnage a wagon could hold of various commodities; Table 2 Average wagon loads of the pre-grouping companies; Table 3 Data of wagon loads from the NER from 1903 to 1910 showing growth in quantities conveyed; Table 4 Wagon load statistics; Table 5 graph of coal shipment; Table 6 Average distance carried for various commodities; Table 7 Railway operating statistics by C.P. Mossop; See letters (page 331) by Peter Erwood who was highly critical of author's use of statistics and from David Pratt on reason for peak in carriage of iron & steel in July. illus.: A 4F No 4230 with a mineral train in Roade cutting on 6 September 1947; LNWR compound 0-8-0 No 1401 with freight train on water troughs; No 48185 with a mineral train at Stapleford & Sandiacre; Salt Union wagon with grease axleboxes No. 2521.

Eight coupled. 193-5.
Colour photo-feature.: Q7 No. 63460 at Darlington in September 1963 (Geoff Rixon); 28xx No. 3848 at Exeter on unfitted freight on 5 July 1961 (R.C. Riley); O1 No 63795 at Leicester (GC) shed on 7 July 1962 (GR); O2/3 No 63972 with cylinder cover missing at Retford mpd in June 1962 (GR); O4/3 No. 63701 at Mexborough shed in April 1962 (GR); WD No 90611 at Burnley on coal train (Joe Richardson); 42xx no 5239 leaving Port Talbot on freight on 23 March 1963 (Celyn Leigh-Jones); S&DJR 2-8-0 No 53808 at Evercreech Junction on 30 September 1962 (Rodney Lissenden)

Around London's termini. 196-7.
Colour photo-feature.: Euston with no 42100 with express passenger code after replacing a failed locomotive on up Lakes Express in 1962 (Cliif Woodhead); Fenchurch Street station exterior (T.J. Edgington); A4 No 60028 Walter K Whigham at Kings Cross awaiting departue (Tom Marsh); Marylebone station exterior in June 1982 (Philip J. Kelley).

Wiltshire waysides. Paul Strong (phot.). 198-9.
Colour photo-feature.: Modified Hall No 7923 Speke Hall at Lavington on class 8 freight on 15 June 1962; Unidentified Hall at Woodborough on fitted freight on 8 June 1962; No. 4967 Shirenewton Hall at Lavington on 2 July 1962 on permanent way train; 57xx no 3735 scuttles through Patney and Chirton; 7308 in charge of a ballast train at Crockwood.;

NCB steam to Abercwmboi. Paul Joyce (phot.). 200
Colour photo-feature.:: NCB Llantanum Abbey (Andrew Barclay 2074/1939) on 15 October 1979; Two views of NCB No 8 (Hunslet 7139/1944) in August and 15 October 1979;

Change at St Boswells. A.J. Mullay. 201-6.
Twenty four hours of railway activity at St Boswells as it would have been in 1930. illus.: St Boswells station; Map of the location of St Boswells station; Map of track layout in 1945; St Boswells station; St Boswells MPD with a J36 on shed; B1 no 61029 Chamois; Peak no D13; No 78049 ready to go; No 78049 running round its train;

Railways - a family history? Roger Backhouse. 207-8.
Based on Census records (those for 1871 and 1881, mainly the latter) for railway staff on the Dartford Loop, especially Bexley station. See two letters in Readers' Forum by Jeremy Engert and R. Merrison (page 387). illus.: Bexley station c 1890; Census records of railwaymen living in Sidcup in 1871; SER locomotive at Bexley;

More about measurements. (Provocations [Railway Reflections No. 16]. Michael Rutherford. 209-16.
Locomotive testing and the use of the measurements obtained, sometimes for less than straight forward reasons. Author argues that the 1948 locomotive exchanges were solely to support the luxury of the BR Standard designs. Rutherford strongly asserts from the data stored at the NRM that the Claughtons were far more powerful than is frequently considered, and certainly comparable with the Castle class, the tests of which on the LMS were used to reinforce exisiting predilictions. illus.: A comparison chart from the use of a dynamometer car; Graphs of superheater experiments; An indicator shelter on Atlantic No 39; No 2663 George V with Tommy Sackfield after completion and ready for testing; Claughton No 192; Pioneer pacific No 2400; Locomotive testing plant of the Pennsylvania Railroad; No 6001 King Edward VII on test at Swindon; Southern pacific No 34005 Barnstaple on locomotive exchange duty at St Pancras in June 1948; Southern Merchant Navy No 35020 Bibby Line with Sam Ell and Ernie Nutty (caption notes that Ell drew general arrangents for King class and Nutty worked on main drawings for Hawksworth County class; Test results (diagram) for No 71000 Duke of Gloucester;

Poulton-le-Fylde. J.M. Tomlinson (phot.); John Edgington (captions). 217
Black & white illus from J.S. Gilks Collection: Early LMS days at Poulton signal box no 1 with a gang working on the line; Poulton signal box No 1 with a road bridge being built; Poulton station;

Colour files - More lineside huts. 218
illus.: A Great Northern cabmen's shelter at Hitchin which could well date to the; Great Northern again with a weighbridge hut at Three Counties; An extended platelayers hut on the Carlisle and Maryport; Horse stables at Patricroft ex London North Western; LNW huts at Crewe;

Signalling focus - LSWR pneumatics. Richard D. Foster (notes) and A.B. Jeffery (phot.). 220
Pneumatic signal gantries at Basingstoke and Farnborough on 30 May 1966.

Readers' Forum. 221-2.
The 'Hertford Loop'. J.F. Aylard.
Enfield Chase (see article page 68) was an LNER nanme, previously the GNR had known the station as Enfield, and the former terminus (retained for freight) was known as Enfield (old).
Southern non-standard. Neil Knowlden.
DS 348 (page 52) had been built for LBSCR electrification in 1914, was placed in store, converted for steam use in 1920/1, reconverted for AC electric traction in 1924, converted for DC as motor brake third in 1930 and was finally broken up in 1961 having been used as an unpowered service vehicle since 1956. Also centre couplers for Southern Railway/Region EMUs.. Also adds some information concerning coach on barge in Dick Riley's mystery photograph (page 54).
Mystery photograph. R. Childs.
See page 54. Coach body part of mooring for barges operated by the Thames Steam Tug & Lighterage Co. Ltd.: an organization which appeared to have a close relationship with the Southern Railway and to a lesser extent the GWR.
Rates and fares. John Pearse.
See feature by Essery page 43. Writer observes how road hauliers were brazen in their requests for rates to be able to exploit this to capture traffic from railway customers. He also suggests that the trade unions frequently assisted in this process, especially where the truck drivers belonged to the same union as the factory employees. [KPJ: the actions of the powerful road haulage unions could be a fruitful area for research]
Provocations - revolutions and manias. N.T. Sinclair.
Portrait of Hudson (feature page 33) is not the one commissioned by York City Council, but the one now preserved at the Monkwearmouth Station Museum.
Provincial electric multiple units. John Macnab.
Picture of class 303 (feature beginning page 30) in Manchester led to Macnab questionning why class 303 was out-of-gauge (see Keith Horne page 331 who states that the many bridge requirements required for electrification had changed the gauge) when the units were sent back to Manchester for restoration following the transformer faults in 1961 (see Macnab for subsequent article in volume 14)
Southern Channel steamers. J.A. Evans.
Refers back to letter by Seacroft [sic] Scowcroft on original letter (page 109). Train ferries on Dover to Dunkerque route carried both trains and cars. Queries if Twickenham Ferry owned by SNFC. See letter by K.T. Bowen (page 331) which describes transfers to and from French ownership. Remembers Duke of Windsor travelling on Night Ferry.
When winter comes. C.A. Davies.
See page 84 see writer's photograph: who also describes cold experienced when taking it
When winter comes. Tim Edmunds.
See page 84 (85): location of photograph
The 'Peaks' in retrospect. Brian Orrell.
Problems relating to turbochargers see feature page 60.
Hunting the 'Steam Pig'. Brian Orrell.
See page 78: nicknames for Sentinel railcars.

A Dorset branch terminus - [BR Class 4 80094 at Swanage]. John Offer (phot.). rear cover.
July 1965: station had gas lighting.

Number 5 (May)

BR Class 6 4-6-2 72009 Clan Stewart at Carlisle Kingmoor depot. Geoff Rixon. front cover.
8 September 1962.

The Worcester line. Stanford Jacobs. 228-34.
illus.: Charlbury station; No 7031 Cromwell's Castle hurrying through Stoulton; a train about to enter Campden Tunnel; No 6947 Helmingham Hall; Map of the Oxford to Worcester line; No 7027 leaving Campden tunnel; No 7011 Avondale Castle meets no 7005 Sir Edward Elgar; No 5076 Gladiator passing Honeybourne station South box; No 7928 Wolf Hall picking up water at Chadlington troughs; No 3822 passing Campden box with a freight train; No 78009 returning with the last freight train;

Salute to the Scottish standard - part 1. Robin Barnes. 235-41
British Railways Clan class Pacifics. Part 2 begins page 284. illus.: No 5538 class 5XP Giggleswick passing Colney Street; No 72000 Clan Buchanan coming together at Crewe; No 72000 Clan Buchanan under the old Great Central bridge at Rugby; No 72001 Clan Cameron with a very 'naff' headboard at Crianlarich; No 72002 Clan Campbell leaving Carlisle Citadel; No 72003 Clan Fraser on the troughs at Tebay; No 72005 Clan Macgregor; Table 1 Class 4P dimensions compared with Class 6; No 72001 Clan Cameron coaling the signal box!!!!; No 34004 Yeovil in assorted company at Perth; Table 2 Various classes compared;

Sir Nigel Gresley, the LNER and the 'Big Four'. (Railway Reflections No. 17). Michael Rutherford. 242-8.
The number one problem facing the LNER was an acute shortage of finance, and this was so serious that policies implemented by the LMS and GWR could not be undertaken on the LNER. Most of the works, even the relatively modern one at Darlington, lacked the comprehensive facilities available at Swindon, Derby and Crewe. Investment in motive power depots was also stated to be poor (but probably better than GWR - mechanical coaling, ash plants and powered turnatbles - KPJ).  Records how Thompson came to rebuild the B12 along Swindon lines. Feature led L.A. Summers (page 390) to assert that Gresley failed to standardize. illus.: No 1470 Great Northern at Doncaster; No 2394 one of only two Mikados; Gresley's locomotive booster on a P1; The corridor tender under construction; No 2845 The Suffolk Regiment; The boiler for the experimental no 10000; No 10000 the 'Hush-hush' outside the erecting shop; No 2001 Cock o' the North when new; No 2001 Cock o' the North at Kings Cross station; No 2509 Silver Link with the bonnet up; No 3279 an rebuilt Ivatt locomotive; The 'Maid of the Loch'; No 61700 Bantam Cock a Gresley V4; Table 1 Steam locomotive stock of the Big Four; Table 2 Locomotives of the LNER built to pre-grouping designs [except GN]; Table 3 Locomotives of the GN/LNER built to Gresley designs; Table 4 Dimensions of Gresley locomotives;

Return to Shap. 249-51.
Colour photo-feature.: No 45072 descending near Greenholme on 22 July 1967 (Chris Davies); No 75026 providing banking assistance same day & phot. as prev.; No 92215 BR class 9F at Greenholme ascending with freight with a banker on 16 Juky 1966 (Robert Leslie); An LMS 8F drifts down on freight on 30 June 1964 (Rodney Lissenden*) ; No 75037 running light downhill after a banking duty on 30 August 1967 (Alan Tyson); A Crab on the way up with banker on 30 June 1964 (*); Shap station on 24 March 1967 (Alan Tyson).

Southampton boat trains. Les Elsey (phot.). 252-3.
Colour photo-feature.: No 34004 Yeovil on the Cunarder on 4 June 1962; No 34034 Honiton on the Statesman on 12 May 1963; No 30508 easing a freight across Canute Road on 10 March 1962; No 30795 Sir Dinadan on the Greek Line passing Swaythling on 24 April 1962; No 30860 Lord Hawke at Millbrook on 11 May 1961.

Last rites on the Shropshire and Montgomeryshire railway. Dick Riley (phot.). 254-5.
Colour photo-feature.. taken during SLS visit on 20 March 1960: Grounded Shropshire and Montgomery van No. 18; Shrewsbury Abbey station; WD 193 locomotive with WD49013 SR built brake van; WD 193 at Kinnerley; WD 193 stopped on Shrawardine Viaduct for photographic purposes.

The evolution of London's Underground stock - 1890 - 1960 - part 3. David Jenkinson. 256-65.
This series led to considerable correspondence on page 387 and to a reply by Jenkinson on page 390. illus.: A Standard stock motor car kept for departmental use at Neasden on 25 October 1969 (John Edgington); Standard stock emerging from the tunnel at Stratford in 1963 (colour: John Edgington); Central London Railway locomotive No. 19; CLR train at East Acton in 1924; An original motor car for the Yerkes lines being taken from the assembly; Gate stock of the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead line c 1920; Gate stock trailer for the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton railway; Two views of original Yerkes group cars before and after being fitted with; A Central London motor car; A train of modified gate stock at Wood Lane; Joint stock used for the Bakerloo extension; Diagram of a Cammell Laird motor car; Diagram of a Metropolitan Carriage control trailer car; A four car set of Standard stock taken in 1933; Diagram of the streamlined stock; Ex works photograph of the experimental streamlined stock; A early standard stock driving motor with a 1938 car and some of the new A; The as-built interior of a 1938 stock driving motor on the Bakerloo; A 1938 stock train on the Bakerloo using some pre 1938 trailer cars; A train of 1938 stock alongside a train of newer near cloned 1959 stock;

Great Central - the real problem. Martin Bloxsom and Robert Hendry. 266-71.
Between 1900 and 1914 the GNR, GER and GWR were paying 3 to 4% dividends. The LNWR, MR and NER were paying 6% or above. The GCR was paying 0%. The costly original route and the long time to opening were deep-seated problems. In 1846 the fusion of SA&MR with three Lincolnshire companies attempted to remedy this problem, but there were very poor returns between 1848 and 1851, and it could not even pay any dividend on its Preference Shares. The Company was in serious financial difficulty by 1855. See also correspondence by Steve Banks and Keith Horne. (page 387); and on page 634 which mis-spells both of original authors, which re-questions the probable actions to have been taken by Henderson if Grouping had not taken place. KPJ: is it not possible to equate the particular dire financial state with the "misfortune" of it incorporating the GCR?. Emblin & Longbone response on page 698. Martin Bloxsom returns to this theme in a summarizing letter in Volume 16 page 174, which contrasts this approach (the harsh financial realities) with what might be termed a more optimistic line of thought espoused by Emblin (Volume 9 page 129). illus.: No 105 class 11B near Harrow; The Woodhead tunnels at the turn of the century; Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire £10 preference share; Immingham Docks; No 6323 an LNER O4/3 at Rugby. Emblin returned to the theme of the financial status of the Great Central in Volume 22 page 654 et seq.;

A taste of the Highlands. Howard Geddes (captions). 272
illus.: Drummond Castle No 140 Taymouth Castle; Drummond Small Ben No 17 Ben Alligan; Rebuilt Seafield class No 2 Aldouri; Cumming Clan No 49 Clan Campbell; Drummond D type all-third coach No 62; Drummond Diagram 54 Composite coach No 13; Jones Type C 8 ton open box wagon No 2252; No 1 Ben-y-Gloe piloting No 141 Ballindalloch Castle.

Rolling stock focus - carriage masqueraders - LNER Thompson stock. David Jenkinson (captions), Les Elsey (phot.). 275
illus.: Buffet Car no Sc1705 which had been one of two buffet lounge cars built in 1948 for Flying Scotsman at Blair Atholl in blue/grey livery on 21 Ocober 1978; Third class sleeper No 1767 at Eastleigh on 15 April 1968 (maroon livery);

Colour files - Grantham. John Bateman (phot.). 276-7.
Col. illus. taken on 1 October 1970: A wooden structure on Grantham platform used as a guard's room, a grease house and for storing footwarmers; Grantham station frontage; Grantham yard signal box; 37,000 gallon water tank on its own tankhouse; built in 1873 a building has had various uses including telegraph office.

Readers' forum. 278
Film footage - South Wales. Denis Dunstone.
Request for.
The Nelson branch. Alan Cliff.
Queries status of Nelson signal box (page 12): replaced ground frame in 1907.
February cover photo. and Hereford [sic] Loop. D.C. Wilkinson.
60007: location was Doncaster (front cover Number 2). Gordon Hill - down siding: when MAS introduced 0n 3 September 1972 the down bay platform could despatch up trains, but track has since been lifted (Gordon Hill see page 68). Sentinel railcar was used for a time on northern part of Loop from Hertford to Hitchin - same car described on page 68.
The evolution of London's Underground stock. D.J. Bond.
Caption on page 122 implies that G stock cars were all suitable for single car working: only Nos. 4167 and 4176 had controls at both ends.
Competition and the railways. Graham Bilbé.
Tramways contributed to the rates – many were built as private ventures. Only in Manchester and London was competition severe: see Hughes page 159.

Book reviews. 278.
Rail centres – Manchester. Stanley Hall. MB *****
Includes a section on the proposed post-WW2 Trinity station.

Tranquility at Bath Green Park. A. Drake. rear cover.
2P 40569 with local train for Templecombe in 1961.

Number 6

GW diesel car No W22W at Leamington Spa. T.J. Edgington front cover.
Carmine/cream on 25 April 1955 - with non-corridor trailer.

Rush hour at Fenchurch Street. 283
B&w view taken on 29 June 1949 from above buffer stops with arrival from Southend on left behind 3-cyclinder 2-6-4T and from Ilford behind N7 on right with season ticket holders exiting through separate first class exit it front and through third class exits on either side.

Salute to the Scottish standard - Part 2. Robin Barnes. 284-90.
Unlike many writers Barnes claims that the Class performed well, especially in their last few years in service when some of them had been fitted with modified darughting arrangements. Thei best work was probably done on the Dumfries to Stranraer trains where the crews held the class in high esteem. One very fast climb to Ais Gill and descent to Leeds is included. On the other hand a trial on the Great Eastern Section in an attempt to dsiplace Britannia Pacifics led to the conclusion that the locomotives were no better than B1 4-6-0s. Part 1 begins on page 235. See letter by R.J. Newland plugging Hengist project (10-390). illus.: No 72006 Clan Mackenzie at Long Preston on 15 May 1965 (col. Alan Tyson); No 72008 Clan MacLeod at Carlisle Kingmoor in September 1962 (col. Geoff Rixon); No 14767 Clan MacKinnon (HR 4-6-0 at Aviemore in July 1946: colour: J.M. Jarvis); No 72006 Clan Mackenzie at Perth; No 72009 Clan Stewart at Chelmsford; No 72002 Clan Campbell leaving Carstairs Junction; No 72005 Clan Macgregor at Rugby on 27 October 1954 (col. J.B. McCann); No 72006 Clan Mackenzie leaving Carlisle; No 72008 Clan MacLeod at Penrith; No 72008 Clan MacLeod at Carlisle;

Flashing light signals and their use on the railways of Britain. L.G. Warburton. 291-3.
Flashing light system invited by Gustof Dalen and manufactued by the Gas Accumulator Co in Stockholm used acetylene as illuminant to provide flashing home and/to distant signals in darkness (the periodicity of flashing could be varied to give separate warnings. The Swedish State Railways rapidly equipped all distant signals. The system was taken up in the USA and in 1913 the system was demonstrated on Alexandra Palace racecourse. The Furness Railway adopted the system in 1914 and applied it to a number of signals north of Barrow-in-Furness. The LMS organized a more extended trail beginning in 1935, but the trial installations were ended in 1939 and not restarted after WW2. illus.: Park distant signal; Diagram of LMSR fog repeater; Diagram of Furness Railway Flashing light distant signal; Location of flashing signals on the LMS; Times at various signal sites. Served up again in LMS Journal No. 11 page 37 et seq in 2005.

Electric trains to Manchester 1890 - 1990. R.L. Vickers. 294-300.
The Bury line was not electrified until 1916, and the 1890 starting date is rather strange and largely reflects the activities of John and Edwards Hopkinson, the latter being an eminent electrical engineering consultant who joined Mather & Platt in 1884. The Hopkinsons and Mather & Platt were responsible for work on some of the earliest electric lines, such as those at Portrush and  Bessbrook in Ireland and on the City & South London Railway. The first public electric railway was an experimental installation on the Holcombe Brook branch when Dick, Kerr used in for a 3600v DC overhead system intended for Brazil. The Manchester to Bury system is covered in detail, including its advanced all-metal rolling stock, and its eventual replacement with compartment-door stock by British Railways Class 504. The line used the unique (for Britain) 1200v DC side contact third-rail system boxed in with jarrah wood. The MSJ&A electrification by the LMS/LNER is also considered: services on this 1500v DC route began in 1931. Some mention is also made of the 1500v DC service to Glossop and its rolling stock and the high voltage stock used for servies to Crewe and of the Metrolink system which has replaced both the Bury and Altringham systems. Further information on page 446. and on testing electric locomotive on page 570. and on "present" state of Holcombe Brook branch (page 510). illus.: Motor car M28537M which started life as LYR no 3539 then LMS 14609 at Bury Bolton Street in May 1955; Motor car M75047 of class 304/1; Rolling Stock; A two car train of the experimental Bury-Holcombe Brook electrification; Conductor rail brush car; Diagram of motor car; MSJA three car unit at Altrinchham and Bowden; A three car unit at Dinting; EMU leaving Manchester Piccadilly; A Metrolink tram;

Rails to Ongar. Tom Middlemass. 301-4.
Very brief history of branch followed by the gradual replacement of steam (Epping reached from Loughton in 1949), and electric services to Ongar in 1957, followed by retrenchment and eventual closure. illus.: Ongar station in 1911; F5 no 67202 takes on water at Epping; North Weald passing loop with F5 no s 67202 and 67218; F5 no 67218; Map of the Ongar branch;

The Looe branch. Dick Riley (phot.). 305
Colour feature on 17 and 18 July 1960: 4552 at Liskeard and at at Moorswater on freight; 4559 on B set at Looe signal box; (ground frame with cover)

North Eastern steam. 306-7
Colour feature: A8 class No 69885 on Northern Dales Rail Tour on 4 September 1955 (J.F. Henton); D20 (North Eastern R class) 62360 at Northallerton on special to Hawes on same special 4 September 1955 (J.F. Henton); Q6 (North Eastern T2 class) no 63366 at Tyne Dock in Sept. 1963 (T.J. Edgington); J72 (North Eastern E1) no 68736 in NER/BR livery with NER & BR crests as York station pilot (P. Ransome-Wallis); J27 (North Eastern P3) no 65804 on coal train at Seghill (Northumberland) (T.J. Edgington);

The LMS 'Princess Royal' pacifics. Geoff Rixon (phot.) 308-9.
Colour photo-feature.: No 46200 The Princess Royal (red) on a special at Watford on 3 June 1962; No 46202 Princess Margaret Rose (green) departing north from Carlisle on 8 June 1962; No 46205 Princess Victoria (green) at Euston (arrival) on The Shamrock on 11 October 1960; No 46207 Princess Arthur of Connaught (red) out-of-service at Camden in September 1961.

Six-coupled shunters. 310-11.
Colour photo-feature.: GWR 57xx No 9600 still bearing its GW cabside plate and BR transfer 5 years after purchase by NCB at Merthyr Vale Colliery on 25 June 1970 (Keith R. Chester); Midland 3F No 47202 withdrawn at Newton Heath on 18 March 1967 (Ron Hinchcliffe); United States Transportation Corps engine as SR no 30064 at Eastleigh in malachite green (J.R. Carter); BR built J72 no 69028 in unlined black at Gateshead shed in May 1964 (Joe Richardson); ex-L&Y no 11305 at Horwich Works (Gavin Wilson);

Interlude at Goraghwood. Michael Rutherford. 312
Brief text states that No. 96  Silver Jubilee with nameplates covered was tried experimentally between Belfast and Dublin in August 1935 and notes that the tablet catchers are still in situ, also makes reference to signal cabin. Correspondence re this feature page 446. Col. illus.: Two views of No. 97 Earl of Ulster;

Focus on the GWR '74xx' pannier tanks. A.J.B. Dodd (phot.) P.J. Chancellor collection. 313-15.
illus.: 5422 at Gobowen on Oswestry train; 7410 shunting at Llanfyllin; 7405 at Barmouth; 7437 shunting in snow; 6404 arriving Gobowen with train from Oswestry; 7401 at Chard with milk tanks including road vehicles mounted on container flats.

London stations in the 20th. century - increase, decrease and revival - Part 1. John N. Young. 316-21.
Two tables list stations closed between 1900 and 1914 and those closed during WW1 (a long list). During the latter period there were also some temporary openings mainly to serve munitions workers, e.g. Church Manor Way Halt between Plumstead and Abbey Wood. Part 2 on page 369. See long list of addenda from M. Layne (page 510):  these relate to temporary closures on GER and a strong refutation of the & Battersea Pier to Grosvenor Road. Queries the author's sources for some of his dates. Illus. (from H.C. Casserley collection): Lordship Lane station; N2 no 4738 arriving at Mill Hill with Edgware train on 5 June 1937 (note tri-composite articulated coach); Ex LSWR M7 no E251 at Merton Abbey on 23 August 1937; 5410 with auto-trailer calls at Old Oak Lane on 24 June 1947; Spa Road station c1914; Ex SECR E class no A175 passing  closed Spencer Road Halt on 13 September 1931.

Railways, coal and wagons. (Provocations/Railway Reflections [No. 18]). Michael Rutherford. 322-9.
Mainly the transport of coal and its transhipment to sea-going steam vessels. Statistics presented include P&O bunker stocks on a global basis totalling 90,000 tons in 1853. Includes observations on private owner wagons which Sir John Aspinall called "the bane of the railways." illus.: A double headed Midland coal train; Cambridge Street coal depot; ten ton private owners wagon (Locke & Co (Newland) Ltd; Grangemouth coal drops on the Firth of Forth; seven ton CR coal wagon with dumb buffers; eight ton CR coal wagon with end & side doors; Coal stocks at Stratford; Lunchtime at Wilford Road Nottingham; Pampisford in Cambridgeshire; Coaling trawlers at Fleetwood; Goole docks; Leeds Forge-built CR bogie coal wagon; twenty ton L&YR high-sided coal wagon with end doors and vacuum brakes for Goole export traffic; A train partly of 40 ton side hopper wagons (for Stonebridge Park power station) hauled by 4F no 4150;

Signalling focus - LNWR overhead boxes. Richard D. Foster and Stephen Dent (phot.). 330
illus.: Boars Head Junction signal box; Chester No 6 signal box.

Readers' Forum. 331.
Wagon loading. Peter Erwood.
Highly critical of Bob Essery's use of Board of Trade Statistics (see feature on page 188): states problems of calculating average loadings, and post-1923 the one ton rule and small loads.
Wagon loading. David Pratt.
See feature by Essery (page 188): peak in iron and steel traffic in July to cover reduction in supplies during August due to annual holiday
Southern Channel steamers. K.T. Bowen.
See letter by J.A. Evans page 222: Twickenham Ferry sold to the French on 22 September 1936. In 1942 it was transferred to the Ministry of War Transport and retransferred to sail under the French Flag on 12 November 1947.
Provincial electric multiple units. Keith Horne.
The 303 class was out-of-gauge in 1961, but by 1984 the route had been electrified and the offending bridges had been replaced: see letter from John Macnab page 222 and feature beginning page 30.
The evolution of London' Underground stock. Michael J. Smith.
Relates to specific illustartions on page 175 (top), middle and bottom, and overall observation about saloon versus compartment stock on Metropolitan Railway (feature p. 172)
The evolution of London' Underground stock. J.H. Price.
See feature on page 172 (page 173) which argues that Metropolitan Railway "experimental rebuilds" (as saloon vehicles) following WW1 were new vehicles from Metropolital RCW

Colour files - Pre-grouping survivals round London. Chris Faulty (phot.). 332-3.
Colour photo-feature of remnants still visible in 1995: Great Northern lettering by the clock inside station at Kings Cross; Great Western insignia at Paddington; London and North Western at Euston on pavillions on Euston Road; Great Central at Marylebone on railings; London and South Western at Waterloo - lamps on approach to Victory Arch; London, Chatham and Dover Railway badge on Blackfriars Bridge.

Readers' Forum. 334.
Fireless locomotives. N. Kelly.
The first British fireless locomotive was manufactured by Hunslet (229/1879) and was of the LAMM-FRANQ type of tramway locomotive. The first to operate in Britain were Hohenzollern locomotives (319-324), operated unsuccessfully on the Croydon & Norwood Tramway. The first industrial locomotives were three Orenstein & Koppel locomotives built in 1907 for the Empire Paper Works at Greenhithe. The Imperial Paper Works acquired Andrew Barclay 1496/1917 and more subsequently.
Information required. Alan Grindrod.
Reproduces photograph taken outside Research Department in Derby: who were the people illustrated? Sir Charles Goodeve may be one of those present.
Information required. R. Carvell.
Accident on 13 February 1961 when passenger train crashed into rear of freight train hauled by 2856 at Baschurch due to signalman error: what was the locomotive on the passenger train? KPJ: according to Richard K. Morriss Railways of Shropshire: a brief history. rev ed. Shropshire County Council Leisure Services, 1991 (p. 65): the locomotive was Habberfield Hall, presumably 6949 Haberfield Hall on which both of the train crew were killed.

Book reviews. 334.
The industrial locomotives of Dyfed and Powys. John de Havilland. IRS MR *****
"matchless reference work"
Celebration of steam - East Anglia. Nigel J.L. Digby. Ian Allan. TJE ***
"interesting book... spoilt by poor photographs and map."
Recollections of Oxenholme. W.L. Harris/Edward Talbot. LNWR Soc. D. Joy ****
W.L. Harris was born in Kendal in 1900: reminiscences of life in that area.
Riccarton Junction (just a few lines). Christopher Milligan. Author. DPR *****
Author was born at Riccarton Junction and lived there until railway closed when he moved to Hawick.

A broken giant at Sharpness.. J.S. Gilks.rear cover
The railway bridge at Sharpness minus two spans following damage by oil barges on 25 October 1960: it never re-opened.

Number 7 (July 1996)

LNER Sandringham class No 61662 Manchester United at Liverpool Street. R.C. Riley. front cover
9 April 1957: in sparkling condition with football and red splasher clearly visible

Of rash assaults and fools everywhere. Michael Blakemoor. 339.
Editorial comment on environmental objections to railways or highways (written at time of Didcot Bypass), noting especially the angst felt by William Wordsworth in the Lake District.

Seen at East Croydon. Chris Gammell (phot.). 340-1.
illus.: 22 October 1967: 2-HALno 2700 leading a six car train for Lewes ; 4-COR no 3134; 4-LAV no 2924; Three car diesel-electric set no 1313. 30 May 1968:  Southern Railway 20001 (Rail blue) on the Royal train for the Derby including ECJS royal coach in royal purple, two 1960 Pullmans in rail blue and grey reversed livery and brake third in normal rail blue/grey livery

The railways and Loch Lomond. J. Graeme Bruce. 342-6.
See very extensive corriegenda by Brian Patton on page 571. The confusingly named Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Railway connected Dumbarton with Balloch in 1850 before the former was connected to Glasgow by rail. The Glasgow, Dumbarton & Helensburgh Railway was opened on 1 May 1858 and both lines became part of the NBR in 1865, having amalgamated in 1862. The NBR developed steamer traffic on Loch Lomond and circular tours via Loch Long. In 1889 the Lanarkshire & Dumbartonshire Railway was promoted to provide another route to Dumbarton. This railway had CR backing and had intimated that it would build its own line to Balloch unless joint facilities were provided between Dumbarton and Balloch. The NBR was reluctantly forced into the Dumbarton & Balloch Joint Railway from 1896 and into the provision of joint services on the Loch. Vessels for the Loch sailings tended to be constructed by A.&J. Inglis. illus.: The Prince George; The Princess May; Map of the Loch Lomond and Loch Long steamboat services until 1885; The Prince Edward; Poster for the Loch Lomond and Loch Long steamboat services c 1960: see informative letter by John Paton (page 510) concerning the artist; Railway connections to the River Clyde; Maid of the Loch

Normanton - The Crewe of the coalfields - Part 1. Jeffrey Wells. 346-51.
Situated on North Midland Railway (Act July 1836), opened 30 June 1840. Junction with York and North Midland Railway (the Hudson protegé (Act 21 June 1836) opened 1 July 1840, and Manchester & Leeds Railway at Goose Hill Junction on 1 March 1841. Station in joint ownership and connected to Normanton Hotel, initially independent venture, but Act of 28 June 1861 enabled MR to purchase on behalf of Joint Committee for a time the LNWR became part of the Joint Committee but later withdrew. The station was enlarged in 1871 and the refreshment rooms, run by Spiers & Ponds were important in serving the MR Anglo-Scottish trains. Normanton was a significant centre for Royal Mail traffic. See letter from Keith Horne (page 510) concerning ambiguities in opening dates and route (via Burton Salmon not Methley) of York & North Midland Extension. illus.: North Midland railway's Normanton station; Map of railways around Normanton 1950 see letter by Smith (page 510) concerning error on map in Wakefield area.; Plans of Normanton station; Normanton station building in April 1975; Normanton station in the 50s; Covered footbridge at Normanton; No 61033 Dibatag passing the engine shed;

Working on the Brighton line. Edwin Rann. 352-3.
Mrs E.G. Colledge submitted notes kept by a relative who started work as a lad porter at Falmer on 25 March 1876 working from 6a.m. to 9p.m.; moved to Rotherfield from February 1877, became a signalman at Falmer and later at Preston Park where an alleged error led to suspension for eight days and demotion to porter. Subsequently worked as shunter until reinstated as signalman. Management admitted error in demotion and promoted to inspector at Lewes. illus.: Brighton station in 1882; Falmer station with D1 no 282 arriving; ;

Three of a kind: the genesis of the express locomotive. Provocations/Railway Reflections [No. 19]. Michael Rutherford. 355-60.
The development of the express passenger locomotive by Gooch, Crampton and Sturrock. The article also contains a considerable amount of biographical material about Daniel Gooch and other members of his family. illus.: Drawings of Gooch's Firefly; Robert Stephenson's 2-2-2 North Star stored at Swindon from 1871 to 1906; Swindon engine house with several Fireflys; Great Western' locomotive after rebuilding; A painting (b&w repro.) of Liverpool at Coventry (C. Hamilton Ellis); The Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Jn. Rly. No 14 Kinnaird; Paris-Strasbourg Rly. No 80 Le Continent; Sturrock's massive No 215 which was too big for the GN, unfriendly to track; Iron Duke'; Sturrock's 264 class No 268 in original condition; Drawing of 1925 North Star; A Rover at Flax Bourton in the last years of broad gauge;

A selection of 'Sandringhams'. Dick Riley (phot.). 361
Colour photo-feature.: No 61600 Sandringham passing D16/3 No 62543 at Cambridge on 10 May 1957; No 61646 Gilwell Park on March shed on 23 June 1958; Nos. 61665 Leicester City and 61664 Liverpool double-head Yarmouth South Town to Liverpool Street express formed mainly of early Gresley corridor stock near Wickham Market on 4 May 1958.

Kilmersdon Colliery. Keith R. Chester (phot.). 362-3.
Colour photo-feature: A loaded coal truck starting the descent of the incline; the only locomotive in 1970: Peckett 0-4-0ST 1788/1929; The engine propelling two trucks toward the incline; The engine with the two wagons at the top of the incline. See letter from Pitman (page 510) concerning preserved Peckett 1788.

The Ballachulish branch. 364-5.
Colour photo-feature: Caledonian 439 class No 55208 at Ballachulish; Caledonian 439 class No 55224 at Ballachulish; A BRCW type 2; An LMS version of the 439 class No 55263; The Connell Bridge;

Ten-coupled freight. 366-8.
Colour photo-feature: No 92019 at Jackson's sidings Tyldesley (J.R. Carter); WD No 600 Gordon on Longmoor Military Railway on 30 April 1966 (R.C. Riley); Ex-WD no 90773 at Grangemouth; No 92064 at Consett on Tyne Dock iron ore working (Joe Richardson); No 92209 at Woodford Halse in October 1964 (Geoff Rixon); No 92095 passing Scout Green box J.R. Carter); 92243 at Old Oak Common in 1962 (B.J. Harding)..

London stations in the twentieth century - increase, decrease and revival - Part 2. John N. Young. 369-74.
Part 1 on page 316. Covers the periods from 1919 to 1939, WW2 and up to 1948 and that from then until the "present". As usual the "present" causes problems as some things have still to happen, mainly due the mendacity of Railtrack. Much of the material is tabulated as stations closed and re-opened for a variety of reasons, including bombing and relocation (such as British Museum replaced by the Holborn interchange). See letter by John Verity for corrections & additions (page 570). See letters on page 510 by Burrell and by Moon.  Also very extensive list of corrections and additions on page 698 by D.E. Hodgkinson. Illus.: Crystal Palace High Level before it closed for the third and final time; N2 no 2663 arriving at Stroud Green; LMS no 40010 at Stanmore Village station; Stratford Market station; Primrose Hill station;

The travelling commission on Midland railway dining cars. John Lloyd. 375-9.
Midland Railway internal report of 12 March 1903 on the quality of ride and general passenger comfort in the Company's dining cars and on some other mainlines, notably the LSWR, GWR, LNWR, GNR and GCR. Notes were maintained of speeds attained and behaviour through curves and points and crossings. 90 mile/h was recorded on the GNR. In general six-wheel bogies gave better ride and short-wheel base bogies gave inferior ride. There was criticism of the lack of pantry provision on MR cars. illus.: Interior of First class diner; MR kitchen third no 1864; MR diagram 444 Kitchen composite diner; MR diagram 442 First class diner; MSWJS third class diner no 1; A dining car express leaving St Pancras;

The Manchester South District railway remembered. Oliver Carter. 380-5.
Line (Act 11 August 1876 and opened 1 January 1880) gave Midland Railway fully independent access to Manchester Central. This is partly a historical account and partly one of personal memories of the line viewed from Withington & West Didsbury during the 1930s. See letters by Young and Brettle on page 570. illus.: Heaton Mersey station c 1920; A train arriving at Withington c 1920; Staff at Withington and West Didsbury 1952; No 2009 at Cheadle Heath; The Ljungstrom condensing loco at Chorton-cim-Hardy; Johnson 1532 class no 1539; Map of railways in South Manchester; Didsbury station c 1910; No 92027 at Stockport Tiviot Dale with a train of empty mineral wagons;

Rolling stock focus - carriage masqueraders - Western Region Hawksworth stock. David Jenkinson. 386
illus.: Brake second no W2151W (maroon); Full brake no W304W (plain Rail blue).

Readers' forum. 387/90.
Great Central—the real problem. Steve Banks.
Original article page 266. Comments on the Banbury branch: its steep gradients, and the failure of the GCR to repay the GWR loan and the suggestion that the GWR found it a useful outlet for their traffic.
Great Central—the real problem. Keith Horne
Original article page 266. Considers the financial difficulties of Lord Wharncliffe (Chairman) and C.B. Vignoles (Engineer) of the SA&MR and the subsequent finacial status of the MS&LR..
Railways— a family history. Jeremy F. Engert..
LSWR Family History Society: prompted by feature on (10-207)
Railways— a family history. R.J.H. Merrison.
Refers back to Roger Backhouse (10-207) note of engine drivers at Crayford Waterworks and observes that these were drivers of stationary engines.
Provincial electric multiple units. L.J. Lord.
See letter by Macnab (Number 4): tseting of Glasgow units on Styal line and method of returning them to Glasgow.
The evolution of London's Underground stock. Michael J. Smith.
This and following refer back to three part feature by David Jenkinson ending 10-256. This relates to errors in captions of Central Line rolling stock.
The evolution of London's Underground stock. J. Graeme Bruce.
Illustration of GNP&BR car No. 292 is not typical of stock supplied as remainder all constructed in either France or Hungary. The Waterloo & City were operated on locomotive-car principle not as multiple units.
The evolution of London's Underground stock. John H. Brown.
Refers to illustartion on page 175: New Cross services resumed in 1913 and female labour became common in 1915/16
The evolution of London's Underground stock. D.J. Bond.
Refers to Part 2 of this three-part contribution: two car set illustrated on page 173 was used to haul stock between works and depots. Preservation of sleet locomotive shown on pages 172/7. Extensive note on Q stock, Metadyne equipment and actual introduction dates of O and P stock (some did not enter service until 1949).
The evolution of London's Underground stock. David Jenkinson. (page 390)
Reply to above corespondence.
Provocations: Sir Nigel Gresley, the LNER and the 'Big Four'. L.A. Summers. (page 390)
Provoced to write following contribution beginning page 242. Incorrectly asserts that Gresley failed to "introduce a broad system of standardization" (see Gresley for refutation of this nonsense) and contribution by Geoffrey Hughes concerning financial state of LNER which disrupted locomotive building Programme. (page 510).
Salute the Scottish Standard. R.J. Newland. (page 390)
Plug for Hengist project (prompted by Robin Barnes feature Part 2 page 284)..
Stanford Jacobs (1921-1996). Martin Bloxsom. (page 390)
Excellent short obituary of Backtrack contributor and active enthusiast.

Colour files - Signal boxes at Avonmouth. Ian Beckey (phot.) and Richard D. Foster (captions). 388-9.
illus.: Avonmouth Dock Junction box; St Andrews Junction box; Avonmouth Town Goods Yard box; Holesmouth Junction box;

Book reviews. 390.
The Fintona horse tram. Norman Johnston. West Tyrone Historical Society. SDW *****
On Somerset & Dorset lines. Robert Robotham. Ian Allan. SDW ***
A5 landscape format

Lost Cause at Euston - The Euston Arch. T. Linfoot. rear cover.
View seemingly taken just as demolition was beginning.

Number 8 (1996 August)

SR. 'Schools' 4-4-0 No 30910 Merchant Taylors waiting to leave Victoria. Philip J. Kelley. front cover.
c1957: leaving Waterloo see page 634

Our first ten years. David Joy. 395.
Observations on progress since first issue.

The Skipton scene. Joe Richardson (phot.) 396-8.
Colour photo-feature.: Class 5 No 45297 at Skipton shed; Skipton station with a Peak with the Thames-Clyde express; Shellmex and BP oil tanks for the oil sidings being shunted by Skipton's; Black Five No 45095 by Skipton station north junction box with Type 2; Black Five No 45095 shunting an engineer's train;

The remarkable Rookhope railway - Part 1. L.E. Berry. 399-404.
The Rookhope Railway was mentioned by Earnshaw in his feature on railways in the Durham Fells (2-125). Part 2: 10-495. The Rookhope Railway ran from a junction with the Stanhope & Tyne at Parkhead, crossed over Stanhope Common to Bolt's Law and with few earthworks reached a summit of 1670 ft. There are remains of the engine house. There was a 2000 yd incline at 1 in 12 with 1 in 6 at the foot. In the 1850s the Rookhope & Middlehope Railway was extended west towards Allenhead. See 17-432 for Auden's reaction to the landscape and railways of Rookhope. illus.: Boltslaw Incline and Rookhope village c 1908; Map of the Rookhope railway 1846-1923; Bolt's Law cutting blocked by snow; Oilskin clad miners; Bolt's Law cutting with locomotive no 4; Mishap at Boltsburn trestle; Boltslaw Incline and Rookhope village c 1900-4; Locomotive no 19; Appendix 1 Working timetable c 1898-9; One of the narrow gauge horse operated railways;

Brake vans - Goods incline and ballast - Part 1. (Railway Topics No. 10). Bob Essery. 405-9.
This series began in Modellers' Backtrack. Next part on page 467. illus.: A Caledonian Railway van no 383 c 1900; DS 55467 in departmental use; LYR no 145808 twenty ton brake van; North British brake van no 580; SER Goods break sic! van No 8935; Brake van no 280603 and its outline drawings; Ex GN brake van no 418036; MR no M595; GN goods break sic! Van no 8048;

The Devenport Dockyard railway. Brian W. Mennie. 410-11.
Black and white photo-feature:See letter by Bill Aves 10-571. and letter by Paul Burkhalter concerning passenger services (page 634). illus.: The tunnel connecting north and south yards; Two views of the same train at Devonport dockyard; A signal box, locomotive shed on a Saturday afternoon with assorted 0-4-0STs;

Going round in circles. Michael J. Smith. 412-16.
Outer, Middle and Inner Circles worked under steam and eventual electrication and demise of Outer Circle. An attempted start was made on 1 July 1905, but there were problems.  The Outer circle resumed on 13 September and the Inner on 5 November. There was only light traffic in the east. The Metropolitan ran all services from 4 Novemeber 1907, but the District ran some from 1908. The Middle Circle trains were withdrawn ion 31 January 1905. The LNWR ceased to run to Mansion House from 6 December 1905 and Disrtict electric locomotives were used between Earls Court and Mansion House: this practice was discontinued from 1 January 1909. In 1912 the Earls Court to Willesden Junction shuttle was electrified. .  Letter by writer on errors in Vickers' article. This article was the spur for a contribution from the late J. Graeme Bruce on the station layouts at Mansion House and South Kensington on page 571. illus.: Inner circle train approaching Aldgate c 1900; Rear view of an inner circle train c1870; Uxbridge Road station c 1900; District Loco no 7A; Ex metropolitan rake of 1921 calls at South Kensington in the early 50s; Metropolitan's Aldersgate station c 1922; A 1905 car photographed in 1950;

Pullman publicity in BR days. Robert Forsythe. 417-21.
Collection of "ephemera" originally discussed in guest editorial by Fiona Forsythe (7-115). Pullman not completely nationalized until 1 January 1963. There was a risqué element in the advertising for the Brighton Belle. There is a gap in the collection for material on the Master Cutler. See letter from Charles Long (page 635) concerning relationship between Southern Region and Pullman and on difficulties of Blue Pullmans. illus.: 1957/8 Brighton Belle poster; 1961 Brighton Belle and Bournemouth Belle poster; 1966 Brighton Belle and Bournemouth Belle poster; 1962/3 Eastern Region named trains; 1961 Midland Pullman leaflet; A leaflet used in America for visitors to use Blue Pullmans; 1971 leaflet for Pullman excursion to Cardiff Arms Park;

Via Devizes. Paul Strong. 422-3.
Colour photo-feature.: 54xx No 5410 in Devizes Station in June 1962; Hall class No 5979 Cruckton Hall leaving on Reading train on 1 June 1963; DMU in July 1963 and a train leaving Patney and Chirton in January 1962.;

The LMS 5XP 'Jubilees'. 424-5.
Colour photo-feature.: Jubilee No 45562 Alberta at Ashington Colliery; Jubilee No 45565 Victoria at Crewe North depot; Jubilee No 45660 Rooke at Camden; Jubilee No 45738 Samson on its way out of Carlisle; (J.C. Carter, Geoff Rixon and J. Corkill). Captions subject to criticism by Wilder on page 698.

Off the beaten track - locomotives in unfamiliar surroundings. 426-8.
Colour photo-feature.: A2 No 60532 Blue Peter at Holyhead on 21 August 1966 (M.H. Yardley); A4 no 60019 Bittern at Stockport Edgeley shed on 5 March 1966 (J.R. Carter); No 7029 Clun Castle on the Midland main line at Trent South Junction on 27 March 1965 (J.F. Henton); Royal Scot no 46155 The Lancer at Peterborough East on 19 September 1964 (Joe Richardson); A1 No 60114 W.P. Allen at Beaconsfield on 12 June 1964 (Celyn Leigh-Jones); preserved Caledonian No 123 in front of preserved LSWR T9 No 120 at Brighton shed on 15 September 1963 (R.C. Riley).

A glimpse of the Cavan and Lentrim railway. John Edgington. 429
Colour photo-feature.: Cavan and Leitrim Ballinamore shed with three locomotives in May 1958; Cavan and Leitrim No. 10L at Belturbet on 27 April 1956; Cavan and Leitrim No 6T at Drumshambo in May 1958.

The West Highland at Fort William. Cliff Woodhead (phot.) 430-1.
Colour photo-feature.: BR class 5 No 73078 at one end and a K1 on the other; Fort William depot in 1960; BRCW Type 2 No D5353 and EE Type 1 No D8101 with LMS 4F No 44255 (see letter by Richard Jackson on page 634); K1 No 62011 on shed in 1962 their last year of service; The Glenfinnan Viaduct;

Hydraulics and Diesel-hydraulics. (Provocations). [Railway Reflections No. 20].  Michael Rutherford. 432
Brief history of hydraulics as applied to lifts, cranes and in means for bridge construction. notes the replacement of towers by accumulators. Also the development of hydraulic transmission, both on miniature locomotives and on full-size locomotives, notably on the Western Region which enabled high power-to-weight ratios to be obtained, using technology which had been developed in Germany.  illus.: A diagram of a 0-4-0 with a Lentz hydroctatic transmission; Diagram of the Derby designed Diesel-hydraulic no 1831; Hunslet Clarke 4-6-2 diesel hydraulic on the North Bay Railway Scarborough; Simplified diagrams of a Torque converter and a hydraulic coupling; Diagram of the very first main-line diesel hydraulic loco; Diesel-hydraulic V200 class no V200.015 at Koblenz; A brand new D800 passing Sonning sidings; Hymek D7074; A 218 class no 218.188.1; A diesel-hydraulic Western; A DB no V60.421 at Frankfurt on station pilot duty; Diagram of a Class 69000 a 4,400 hp diesel-hydraulic;

Normanton - the Crewe of the coalfields - Part 2. Jeffrey Wells. 440-5.
illus.: An LMS Black Five, an LNER Q6 and a BR class 9F; Class B1 no 61013 Topi; Arrivals and departures on an August Sunday in 1865; Locomotives stored ready for scrapping (letter page 635 by Bradbury states that 42702 remained in service for two further years); Ex midland class 4F no 3156; Class 3F no 43833; A Black Five no 44713 piloting a Britannia on a parcels train (see letter by Bradbury on this train which excited much attention); Altofs Road bridge;

Readers' Forum. 446.
Electric trains in Manchester, 1890-1990. David Hibbert.
Original article by Vickers p. 294. The Manchester to Bury brush car illustrated could have been used for snow clearance. Callenders Cable Co was responsible for the MSJ&A electrification.
Electric trains in Manchester, 1890-1990. R.M. Tufnell.
Original article by Vickers p. 294. Illustration of pantograph of MSJ&A vehicle, and some biographical notes about writer of letter: Tufnell had been pupil of Col. Cortez-Leigh and was an assistant clerk of works on the MSJ&A electrification. Powerful motors were fitted to give rapid acceleration from the frequent stops.
Electric trains in Manchester, 1890-1990. Stan Roberts.
Original article by Vickers p. 294. Cites The Electric Lines of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. Electric Railway Society 1976.
Interlude at Goraghwood. J.A. Cassells.
Original article by Rutherford p. 296. .Notes on removal of nameplates due to political sensitivity for trial of NCC 2-6-0 No. 96 test on GNR (I) in 1935; the tablet catcher on No 97 is not unusual as the equipment continued to be used until 1966/7, also notes on Customsmen at Goraghwood and their voracity.
The Twickenham Ferry. George Behrend.
Letter refers back to another letter by K.T. Bowen (page 331) which implied that vessel had been owned by SNFC. The SR bought the controlling interest in the Angleterre-Lorraine-Alscace Co. to be able to access Dunkirk and ran a service from Folkestone to Dunkirk from 1932. The Twickenham Ferry was registered with the ALC and was forced to fly the French flag. On 18 May 1940 the crew took the vessel from Dunkirk to escape the Germans and sailed to Southampton and were ordered to sail to Brest only to find that the Germans had reached there and then set off for Plymouth, but ran out of coal before reaching there and had to burn part of the additional decking. The vessel was re-registered under the red ensign and was mastered by Capt. G.W. Walker, DSC. The Night Ferry restarted just prior to Nationalization.
The evolution of London Underground stock. Frank Goudie.
Refers to letter by Price: Post WW1 rebuilds of Metropolitan Railwy stock: Metropolitan Carriage Wagon & Finance Co. rebuilds of two of each of motor cars, firsts and thirds eith elliptical roofs and swing doors as 'Hustle train', but design was not successful.
Early narrow gauge tunnels in North Wales. Colin Pealling.
Refers back to letter in December issue and to a personal visit on 28 May 1971 to Penrhyn and tunnel under old A5.
Last rights on the Shropshire & Mongomeryshire Railway. E.D. Bruton.
Another tour on 21 September 1958 organized by SLS and hauled by 0-6-0 No. 188.

Book reviews. 447.
Great Western auto-trailers, Part II - postgrouping and absorbed vehicles. John Lewis. Wild Swan.
Midland & South Western Junction Railway. Volume. Carriages and wagons. Mike Barnsley. Wild Swan. DJ *****
the M&SWJR wins the drawings prize: they are superb

Signalling focus - semaphore signals. Richard D. Foster. 449
illus.: CLC signals at Trafford Park on 10 March 1969 (Alan Tyson); NER signals at Eaglescliffe in July 1955 (J.F. Henton)(further information by Mick Nicholoson page 570).

Colour files - Great Western advertising. Beverley Cole. 450-1.
illus.: GWR poster for The Cornish Riviera by Louis Burleigh Bruhl 1928; GWR poster for Tintern Abbey by Freda Lingstrom 1933; GWR poster for Glorious Devon by Louis Burleigh Bruhl 1928; GWR poster for Royal Leamington Spa by J.P.Sayer 1933;

A view of Lincoln cathedral with a B1 4-6-0 No 61247 crossing the River. P. Ransome-Wallis. rear cover
See letter by Welton concerning spires mentioned in caption.

Number 9 (September 1996)

A Class 5 4-6-0 No 44833 on its way through the Lune Gorge. Derek Cross. front cover
July 1966: parcels train

Steaming through Woodhead [Great Central 4-6-0 heading east into Woodhead Tunnel in 1930s. 459

The 'Golden Arrow'. 460
Col. illus.: Golden Arrow hauled by: Battle of Britain No 34085 501 Squadron at Petts Wood junction on 16 May 1959 (R.C. Riley); Britannia No 70004 William Shakespeare passing Sydenham Hill on 10 August 1957; BR Bo-Bo of the E5xxx class between Beckenham Junction and Shortlands Junction on 19 August 1962 (Rodney Lissenden); Golden Arrow publicity 1952/3;

Post-war return of the 'Golden Arrow'. Klaus Marx. 462-6.
Author claims to have seen departure of first post-WW2 Golden Arrow on 15 April 1946. This run behind MN 21C1 Channel Packet had been preceded by resumption of Continental traffic in October 1945 with MN class Pacifics and a press run on 13 April on which one of the Pullman cars ran hot and had to be removed at Folkestone. This feature stirred up a lot of comment about the Trianon Bar from Neil Knowlden and Charles Long on page 699. illus.: Boarding the Golden Arrow at Dover Marine; Merchant Navy no 21C1 Channel Packet near Brickley; The SS Canterbury leaving Folkestone; A West Country leaving Victoria; The dining room of the SS Canterbury; Merchant Navy no 35027 Port Line at Dover in 1950.

Brake vans - Goods incline and ballast - Part 2. (Railway Topics No. 10). Bob Essery. 467-70.
Previous part on this particular topic on page 405. Neil Knowlden (page 699) identifies errors in sections relating to SR vehicles, and to the RCH vans. Illus.: Ex Highland Railway no 294054; Great Western brake van W35291 at Stetchford; LTSR brake van no 35; Southern brake van no 56285; Southern brake van no 56352-56494; LMS brake van no M732562; Wemyss no 3 brake van possibly ex Midland M39; Brake van no 197263; Ex GN service brake van no 45E;

Railway signalling in the early days. James Faircliffe. 471-4.
See letter by Cooke on page 635. illus.: A sketch of a London and Brighton flag signalman; A selection of early telegraph instruments; S&D; A disc and crossbar signal at Spetisbury; A pair of LNER upper quadrant signals; Signal box at Brompton;

William Dean - The standard gauge designs of his later years. Geoffrey Williams. 475-82.
By the standards of this author, a fairly serious assessment of Dean's contribution to Great Western locomotive development prior to Churchward taking over the reigns completely. illus.: Dean 2201 class no 2205; Dean Goods No 2569 at Westbourne Park; Badminton class No 3296 Cambria; No 3019 Rover; A Kruger no 2601 An ugly brute that did not perform well so the class did; A Dean Atbaras no 3390 at Plymouth Millbay; An Aberdare no 2669 at Stapleton Rd. Bristol; Dean 3600 class no 3607:  actually at old Birmingham Snow Hill station see Corriegenda page 635; Atbara class no 3376 Herschel and City class 3433 City of Bath at Paddington.

Class C15 to Arrochar [push & pull]. Tony Wakefield (phot.). 483
Col. illus.: No 67474 stated to be at Arrochar, but at Garelochhead (see page 634); and in pier platform at Craigendoran;

The Woodhead Electrics. Alan Earnshaw (captions). 484-5.
Col. illus.: Electric locomotives (captions imply original livery was green - it was black see Corriegenda page 635): No 26041 in green accompanied by an unidentified sister in blue on ballast hoppers east of Penistone; No 26044 (green) west of Penistone on freight on 18 April 1964 (Cliff Woodhead); Nos. 26010, 26012 and 26038 (green) at Wath on 28 May 1961; 76.023 and 76.010 on a passenger special at Penistone; E26048 Archimedes in blue (D. Lewis).

Broad Street: the North London's lost terminus. Dick Riley (phot.) and John Edgington (captions). 486-7.
Col. illus.: Broad Street in 1984; Platforms 2 & 3 with two 501 DC electric units (front overall blue/rear blue/grey) for Richmond at platform 4; Broad Street no 2 box; Class 501 unit no 178 (blue/grey livery) arriving with a service from Richmond;

The LNER's mixed traffic Class 5. 488-9.
Col. illus.: B1 class: No 61098 leaving Cleethorpes with return excursion in 1964 (John H. Hills); No 61337 at Platform 12 at York on 13 August 1964 (B.R. Oliver); No 61099 leaving Perth on freight on 2 August 1965 (B.R. Oliver); No 61172 also at Perth on empty stock (same day/photographer);

The standard tanks of the Western Region. P.J. Chancellor. 490
Survey of where BR Standard tank engines worked on Western Region, but without a great deal of analysis: this was provided by Neil Burgess (page 635). illus.: Class 3 no 82021 at Towyn (Corriegenda page 635); Class 4 no 80102; Class 3 nos. 82017 and 8 under construction at Swindon; Class 4 no 80132 on Talerddig bank; Class 3 no 82009 at Tyseley; No 82004 at Stratford on Avon; No 80043 at Bath Green shed; No 82035 piloting SR no 31853 up the bank from Exeter St David's;

The remarkable Rookhope railway - Part 2. L.E. Berry. 495-9.
Part 1: 10-399. An attempt is made to disentangle the complex history of the locomotives which worked the line: it was complex as many of the locomotives were second-hand. The line was worked intensively during WW1 as there was great demand for lead and German prisoners-of-war were used to cut a new outlet down to the NER via the Cambokeels incline. After the war the lines gradually fell into disuse, although some were retained in anticipation of the construction of new reservoirs and some was used to provide access to a shooting (sporting) estate. The remaining rails were taken as scrap during WW2. Remains extant are mentioned. See 17-432 for Auden's reaction to the landscape and railways of Rookhope. illus.: Weardale Iron Company Locomotive no 19; Weardale Iron Company Locomotive no 4; Weardale Iron Company Locomotive possible no 7 0r 14; Prisoners of war building a new outlet down the Cambokeels Incline; Rookhope Engine shed; The ruins of the Bolt's Law engine house; LNER class Q6; The ruins of the old battery driven truck;

The Jewel in the Crown. (Provocations) [Railway Reflections No. 21]. Michael Rutherford. 500-7.
Author attempted to deal with a vast subject (railway development in India) in one article. Nevertheless, he was able to bring out some of the salient points, such as the massive nature of some of the bridges, supplied by British firms, the impact of the railways upon society in India (such as the relief of famine), that it was sometimes cheaper to use imported British coal than locally produced coal, and the relatuionship between British consulting engineers and the railways in India concerning locomotive design, and the evolution of the Indian Standard classes in the early twentieth century. The late J Graeme Bruce contributed a long letter on the reasons behind the gauges adopted in India (page 634) and this in turn provoked an informative response from Horne (11 51). In text there is a reference to "John" Barton Wright (page 507) - should have been William (see Corriegenda page 635). illus.: Bengal, (should have been Bombay see page 634) Baroda and Central India Railway (BB&CIR) 0-6-2T no 44; East India 2-2-2WT no 26 Fawn; Great Indian Peninsular F4 no 1208; Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR) H1 no 770; BB&CIR class H no 534; GIPR 2-10-0 No. 603 (Vulcan Foundry 1928); GIPR 0-8-4T Y3 no 41 shunting in Bombay (P. Ransome-Wallis); BB&CIR class XC no 603; GIPR Electric Locomotive for service over Ghauts (Ghats); BB&CIR class H no 347 being prepared for, and working the Flying Ranee in 1941 leaving Bombay (P. Ransome-Wallis).

Encounter with a fiery monster. Alan Earnshaw. 508-9.
Eye witness from Meltham of train entering Standedge Tunnel in 1850 (a fiery monster). illus.: ex-LNWR Prince of Wales class 5805 leaving Standedge Tunnel; The track lay-out at the end of Standedge tunnel.

Readers' Forum. 510-11
Kilmersdon Colliery. Roy Pitman.
Feature page 362. 0-4-0 Peckett (1788) restored by S&D Trust and stored at Washford Station.
Sir Nigel Gresley, the LNER and the Big Four. Geoffrey Hughes.
Letter by Summers (page 387) reflecting Railway Reflections (page 242) misunderstood the perilous financial state of LNER which inhibited the locomotive programme (cancellations and cut backs were common). Nevertheless the J39 was built over 15 years and the J50 over 15. KPJ: Commentators, like Summers, tend to overlook the huge number of highly standardized V2 class locomotives which were vastly more powerful than the class 5, and similar 4-6-0 mixed traffic classes.
The railways and Loch Lomond. John Paton.
See page 342. Refers to reproduction of William C. Nicholson poster: mentions other work by same artist who was chief artist at McCorquodale's Glasgow Studios.
Normanton. Peter J. Smith.
Error on map: (see feature page 346): GN&GC line crosses over L&Y not under as shown.
Normanton. Keith Horne.
York & North Midland Extension was via Burton Salmon, not Methley. Opening date of 1850 was a pretence as the bridge was only temporary and the permanent bridge was not opended until 16 November 1852. Suggests Royal train may have been conveyed over temporary structure! See page 346.
London stations in the 20th century. G.M. Moon
See Part 2 page 360. Addenda to Tables D and E: Uxbridge Road closed 2 October 1940; King's Cross Metropolitan closed 14 March 1941 when new platforms opened (notes that no LNER tickets were issued for travel from Moorgate to King's Cross); Highgate (High Level); Holborn and Aldwych on the Kingsway Tram Subway (5/6 April 1952). Suggests addition of Charles F. Klapper's London's Lost Railways to bibliography.
London stations in the 20th century. Jack Burrell.
See Part 2 page 360. Mildmay Park was little used after 1928: few trains called there.
London stations in the 20th century. M. Layne
See Part 1 (page 316). Table A: King William Street abandoned on 25 February 1900; Dudding Hill & Harlesden was solely MR property not as shown; Grosvenor Road - strongly questions & Battersea Pier; questions dates for many of GER temporary closures. More seriously questions original author's sources.
Electric trains in Manchester. Martyn D. Hughes.
See page 294. More of the Bury to Holcombe branch still remains than implied by author: much is usable as a footpath.

Rolling stock focus - six-wheeled evolution - Midland to LMS. 513
illus.: Ex Midland coach here as DM01894 a mobile warehouse at Higham Ferrars; LMS gangewayed brake van no M32981M at Willesden in BR blue; Midland type body on an old LNWR chassis no DM395568 at Plymouth Millbay;

Colour files - Frodingham shed. Len Green (phot.) and Bryan Longbone (captions). 514-15.
illus.: Frodingham shed was opended in 1932 and was constructed from reinforced concrete. Several views from a high level (coaling tower?) of yard , west end; south side and east side of the engine shed.; Q1 no 69932 with driver Len Green and fireman Frank Ellis having a quick rest; the rather antique blacksmiths shop. (LNER equipped this plant with second-hand tools, except for wheel lathe not shown). Earlier arrangements at Keadby are described in Bedside Backtrack.

A Morayshire Whisky branch - [Balmenach Distillery at Cromdale]. Peter Tatlow. rear cover.
Barclay WN 2020/1936 0-4-0ST

Number 10 (October 1996)

BR 'Britannia' 4-6-2 No 70028 Royal Star at Cardiff Canton shed. Alan Tyson. front cover
20 September 1959 with 9F 92210 alongside

Back Track Portfolio: Running round at Ventnor - O2 0-4-4T No 33 Bembridge. B.R. Oliver. 522
8 April 1965

Enthusiasm or education? Alan Earnshaw. 523
Guest editorial: evening classes and Atlantic lectures to take place in Cumbria. Letter by Longbone shows what is being achieved in Scunthorpe (page 699).

On the North Wales Coast line. 524-5.
Col. illus.: Britannia No 70025 Western Star heads parcels train near Abergele & Pensarn in June 1963 (Geoff Rixon); The 'mediaeval!' entry to Conway seen from train in June 1962 (Cliff Woodhead); 9F No. 92078 moving empty stock from Llandudno passing Deganwy in July 1966 (Joe Richardson); Britannia no 70052 Firth of Tay at Rhyl on 21 July 1964 (Alan Tyson); Class 5 no 44749 with Caprotti valve gear arriving Llandudno Junction in June 1963 (Geoff Rixon).

Tufnell, R.M. The tragedy of DP2. 526-31.
Very promising prototype EE diesel-electric locomotive damaged beyond repair at Thirsk (1967-07-31) when express hauled by DP2 collided with derailed freight (cement) train. The locomotive incorporated Deltic bogies and underframe with the 16 CSVT engine rated at 2700 hp. Includes a mention of other prototype locomotives: Lion from BRCW/AEI with Sulzer 12 LDA 28-C engine and Brush Falcon with two Maybach engines. Personal experiences mentioned include visit to La Grange. See Corriegenda page 635: on page 527 German V200 class is implied to have had mechanical trnsmission, whereas it was hydraulic. See page 699 for letter by Simon Lilley on engine type(s) fitted to Type 47. Much of the material in Lilley's letter is repeated in a letter by the authorative Allsopp (Volume 11 page 50) and this also corrects information to illustration at bottom of page 531 relating to 47046. Letter by Keith Dredge (11 page 51) gives details of DP2 workings on LMR in May 1962. Long letter from Andrew Fox in Volume 11 page 106 contains several corrections.
Illustrations: English Electric 16CVT Mk 1 diesel installed in the chassis of No 10000 in; English Electric Deltic 3,300 hp prototype crossing Runcorn Viaduct; The Fell locomotive No 10100; DP2 on display at the Vulcan Foundry; English Electric Deltic alongside No. 10001; DP2 diagrams; DP2 leaving Kings Cross; EE 12CSVT engine of 3250HP replacing a Sulzer 2750 engine in type 47; DP2 after its accident when it hit an overturned freight wagon at Thirsk;

The Aber branch. Edward A. Evans. 532-8.
Rhymney Railway branch: Aber Junction north of Caerphilly)-Senghenydd. Severely graded (1:58/1:49) with special working instructions. The area was late to develop coal mining, but the Universal Colliery opened in 1893. An Act of 28 July 1890 enabled the branch to be opened on 1 February 1894. The Windsor Colliery opened in 1895. There was a terrible disaster at Universal Colliery on 14 October 1913 when 439 were killed in an explosion. See editorial comment following letter by Mallon on page 635. Includes note on traffic, both freight and passenger. Passenger services were withdrawn on 13 June 1964, but coal traffic, hauled by Class 37, lasted until 1976. illus.: Rhymney railway A general view of Abertridwr with the station under; Rhymney railway Senghenydd station; Senghenydd station with a train of four wheelers behind ex-TVR A-class no; Senghenydd station with ex-Cardiff railway cars W144 and W142 on an auto; A postcard of Abertridwr station; Senghenydd station just before closure; Maps of the branch and station lay-outs; A view of Windsor colliery at Abertridwr from a passing special; Rhymney railway A view of the ill fated Universal Colliery Senghenydd; A DMU nears Penyrheol signal box with the signalman standing with the; Aber junction with a 0-6-2T no 6635 shunting in the yard;

Walkden Yard and the Bridgewater Collieries Railway. Brian Syddall. 539-45
The Bridgewater Canal linked Worsley Delph to Manchester, but by the mid nineteenth century the collieries at Worsley were worked out and the Bridgewater and Ellesmere Estates developed new collieries and a private railway system to serve them and linking them to the L&YR and LNWR lines. There were severe (1 in 27) gradients and locomotives were acquired from Manning Wardle and Sharp Stewart. The collieries were merged as The Manchester Collieries Co. in 1929. Former NSR 0-6-2Ts were acquired from the LMS in 1936/7. Alan Buxton indicates errors in map (see page 50 Volume 11) and Michael Thomas adds a vast amount of extra information (11 page 50): this last caused the author to reply on page 229 of Volume 11. illus.: Revenge Hunslet Engine Co 3699/50 on 23 October 1961; Map of railways in the Walkden Area in the 1960s; 0-6-0T Bridgewater on 6 November 1967; Ex NSR 0-6-2T Sir Robert on 5 February 1962; 0-6-0T Francis with Giesl ejector on 6 November 1967; 0-6-0ST Charles with Giesl ejector and NSR 0-6-2T no 2 at Sandhole Colliery in 1965; Peckett XL 0-6-0ST works number 518; A line of locomotives ready for the scrap heap.; 0-6-0ST Repulse (red livery); Walkden shed yard in 1967 with NSR locomotive in background (both latter col,).

York station in 1906. W.R. Burton. 546-9.
Feature based on colour reprodction of F. Moore painting of 1906. The same view is also reproduced from a postcard in black & white. A table analyses the southbound trains shown and their probable departure times and destinations. Locomotives shown include those from the NER, MR, GNR and GER. Edgington argues that GNR lcomotives are 4-4-0s not 4-4-2s (page 698). Further letter from P.J. Lynch in Volume 11 page 106 (content added herein):the 0-6-0T shunting Midland Railway empty stock is No. 1720. NER Class EI. LNER Class J72. No.216 was NER Class B I. LNER Class N8, a 0-6-2T mainly used on freight and mineral duties. GNR locomotives in Platforms 3 and 1 are identified as Nos.1332 and 1324 respectively. These were GN Class D1 4-4-0s, later LNER Class D2. rather than Atlantics. The locomotive in No.2 south bay has a tall chimney and round spectacle windows in the cab. It is more likely to have been a 2-4-0 of Great Eastern Class T26, later the famous LNER Class E4. In the original photograph the last coach in the rake being shunted partly obscures the 4-4-0 on the far right. In the painting this is not so. additional trackwork having been painted in. This seems to have been done without foreshortening the clerestory coach which in the photograph is a brake vehicle having only two roof ventilators. In the painting it has live roof ventilators and appears to be identical to the next-to-Iast coach in the photograph.

Diesels over the Peak. Ian P. Travers (phot.). 550-1.
Col. illus.: D52 The Lancashire Fusilier near Miller's Dale on with St. Pancras to Manchester Central express in July 1964; D141 crossing East Buxton viaduct with train as prev. but in April 1965; BR Type 2 on the East Buxton viaduct with all stations Derby to Manchester train in April 1965; Gloucester RC&W twin-car set on Buxton branch train;

The Hayling Island 'Terriers'. 552-3.
Col. illus.: 32646 arriving at Havant on 19 August 1962 (Paul Strong*); 32650 at Havant during its final summer (Tom Marsh); 32650 buffers up to its train at Hayling Island on 19 August 1962 (*); 32650 at Langstone station on 19 Aug 1962 (*); 32650 steaming away into the sunset over Langstone bridge on 26 October 1963 (B.R. Oliver).

Penrith and the Lune Gorge. Derek Cross (phot.). 554-6.
Col. illus.: 8F no 48730 heads north with an unfitted freight on 17 July 1965; Jubilee no 45572 Eire on troop train passing 4F no 44081 near Penrith in July 1962; 8F no 48536 passing Penrith No 1 signal box with train of limestone for Glasgow on 16 July 1965; Britannia no 70041 Sir John Moore heading for Glasgow with express through Lune Gorge on 17 July 1965; Fairburn no 42105 leaving Penrith with express from Workington to Euston on 17 July 1965; Ivatt class 4 no 43009 running tender first on short freight from Ingleton to Tebay at Low Gill on 21 August 1964.

LYR loco miscellany. Michael Blakemore and Barry Lane (captions). 557-9.
Very lengthy captions to illustrations of 0-6-0 No 1182; Yates 2-4-0 No 53; 2-4-2T No 1010; 4-4-0 No 488; 4-4-2 No 1407; Ex West Lancashire Railway 2-4-0 No 7 Blackburn [ex LBSCR Craven No 150];

The LMS, locomotives and T.F. Coleman. [Provocations/Railway Reflections No. 22]. Michael Rutherford. 560-7.
See the engineering biography of Tommy Coleman which is based on this article which extends to other areas of locomotive design on the LMS. This feature produced a considerable response. Keith Horne (page 698) was critical of Rutherford's comments about the LMS Chief Engineer, E.F.C. Trench, and his education, and the fact that the Bridge Stree Committee did not report until 1928 (the Coleman 2-6-2 is used as an exemplar by Horne) ... and Rutherford replied to this in a long letter on page 284 of volume 11.  On the locomotive side van Riemsdijk contributed a lengthy letter on page 106 of Volume 11 and this led to correspondence from Doug Landau (517) and from Rutherford (163) and a not quite a last-word from van Riemsdijk (340). illus.: LMS no 14760 was CR no 942 and before that Highland No. 74 River Garry; Port Vale FC team 1909; LMS 2F dock tank no 11272; Drawing of the Stanier 2-6-0 with Swindon safety valve cover; Princess Royal class No 6200 un-named; Class 5 No 5020; No 6170 British Legion; T.F.Coleman in his office at Derby; No 6234 Duchess of Abercorn; Drawing of proposed 2-6-2 mixed traffic engine;

Watching the clock - railway time. Helen Ashby. 568-9.
The gradual introduction of standard time, but early railway timetables had to allow for local time. The Railway Clearing House pressed for Greenwich time; and by 1852 most towns had adopted it. The 1880 Definition of Time Act sealed standard practice. Station clocks. illus.: The clock from Gravesend pier now in working order at the NRM; Double faced clock at Wakefield Kirkgate; Lancs. and Yorks wall clock;

Readers' Forum. 570-1.
Manchester South District Railway. David A. Young.
See: Carter page 380. Varied motive power during the period 1948 to 1962, including Royal Scot and Britannia classes: former even used on Buxton commuter expresses.
Manchester South District Railway. Roger Brettle.
See: Carter page 380. James Allport was the General Manager and not the Chairman as statedv by Oliver Carter 10-xx. He was instrumental in building the line to Manchester, however. Also points out errors in map.
NER signals at Eaglescliffe. Mick Nicholson
Further information on illustration page 449, plus observation that LNER continued NER practice until about 1927 when upper quadrants introduced. Also notes on disc signal shown in illustration.
London stations in the twentieth century. John Verity.
Addenda & corriegenda to article by Young on page 369: King William Street first tube tunnel; also failed to note Tower Subway now used for telecommunications.
Electric trains in Manchester. Simon Marshall.
L&YR 2-4-2 electric locomotive almost certainly was not tseted on Holcombe Brook branch: see article by Vickers on page 294.
William Adams. J.T. van Riemsdijk.
This letter was inspired by a contribution from Williams (9-489) and is reproduced as part of the biographical section on Adams.
The railways and Loch Lomond. Brian Patton.
Corrections to a multitude of errors in article by the late J. Graeme Bruce (10-342) mainly about vessels employed, but also in position of West Highland line on wrong shore.
Going round in Circles. J. Graeme Bruce.
See page 412: Layout changes at Mansion House and South Kensington.
Early narrow gauge tunnels in North Wales. Tim Edmonds.
Refers to letters by Colin Pealling and to writer's original contribution (9-535).
Lincoln Cathedral. R.O. Welton.
See rear cover August issue: towers not spires.
Devonport Dockyard Railway. Bill Aves.

Rolling stock: classes and doors one-side only: original article on page 410

Book Reviews. 572.
Furness Railway 150. Cumbrian Railways Association. MB ****
Includes locomotive history: commended by Blakemore
Regional railway centres — North West. Rex Christiansen. Ian Allan. MB ****

Signalling focus: Shrewsbury & Hereford line signal boxes. Richard D. Foster (notes) and Stephen Dent (phots.) . 573
Col. illus.: Bromfield signal box; Woofferton Junction signal box;

Colour files - steamers from Heysham. John Edgington (phot.). 576-7.
Colour photo-feature: MV Harrogate (originally built for Associated Humber Lines) being loaded with Freightliner containers at Heysham in September 1967; SS Duke of Lancaster as converted to car ferry, Belfast May 1970; SS Slieve Bearnagh at Heysham in August 1970; MV Cambria diverted from Holyhead route at Heysham in May 1970; SS Dover at Heysham in August 1970, and  SS St David built for Fishguard & Rosslare Railways & Harbours also at Heysham in 1970

Exeter Activity [St Davids]. R.C. Riley. rear cover.
Panorama with locomotive depot and goods yard (with much freight activity still visible) on 23 September 1962

Number 11 (November 1996)

Manor 4-6-0 No 7819 Hinton Manor leaving Shrewsbury with Cambrian Coast Express on 12 September 1964. Michael Mensing. front cover

Penryn station. R.J. Sellick. 583
4 July 1957 4574 shunting in Penrhyn goods yard (b&w)

8F Country. Jim Carter. 584-5.
illus.: No 48375 about to rejoin BR metals at Astley Moss; No 48491 at Hulton's sidings; Nos. 48181 and 48720 at Worsley; 48077 at Carnforth;

Southern Ramblings - Part 1. Peter Erwood. 586-90.
Recollectionms of the Southern Railway in the 1920s and 1930s. He lived on the slopes of Shooters Hill and the commuter was faced with travel from Blackheath (sounded good, but no seats left), Woolwich Arsenal (easy walk, some semi-fast trains, but environs were awful), or Eltham Well Hall (a walk and a tram-ride away). illus.: SER No 238 at West Wickham; Sidcup station; Development of railways SE London and NW Kent 1836-1933; Timetable as published in the Blackheath Press c 1904; Woolwich Arsenal exterior; Woolwich Arsenal interior;

Train and traffic control. Roger Lacy. 591-5.
Developed from MR central office based at Derby, but which was moved to London, with Divisional offices at Manchester (based on L&YR system), at Crewe based on the LNWR system, at Derby, and a new Northern Division based in Glasgow which also covered Carlisle (the CR did not have a strongly developed system) By 1928 there were fifty District control offices. During WW2 there were great problems in communication. Post-War development was hindered by the lack of a strong central organization. The L&Y system is described by Mellow in Volume 16 page 366. illus.: The main LYR control office at Manchester Victoria; Map of the Midland Railway's control areas in 1919; The MR control room at Rotherham; 8F no 8009 near Bedford; The Birmingham west control office 1942; WD no 90765 leaving Carlisle;

The Penistone Viaduct collapse. Alan Earnshaw. 596-9.
Happened on 2 February 1916 under the locomotive of a train which had just arrived and before its crew xould remove it to safety. Salvaging the locomotive was impossible and it had to be cut up for reassembly. The cause was scouring of the foundations by the River Don. The viaduct was repaired by 14 August. illus.: 2-4-2T No 661 after crashing between piers 3 and 4 of the viaduct; 2-4-2T no 661 in happier times at Huddersfield; The engine has been recovered and the shoring up starts; The funeral cortege; the dismembered engine on trucks; The bit that got away. The chimney ring on a plant pot;

LNER kitchen cars. C.S. Carter. 600-5.
Includes those incorporated within articulated sets and conversions from GCR and GNR restaurant cars into kitchen cars for use in excursion trains. Further cars of this type were built new. Unlike other catering vehicles, which used electricity, these used gas for cooking. Letter from John Macnab (Vol. 11 page 50) concerning scrapping of sole Scottish Region vehicle. illus.: Articulated restaurant set no 16481/2/3; Kitchen car no 42183; Kitchen car E5127E; Kitchen car no E2334E; Kitchen car diagram 353; Kitchen car no 1943; Kitchen car no 21484; Table A Kitchen cars New construction; Table B Triple restaurant car sets; Table C Kitchen / Kitchen Buffet cars Rebuilt cars; Triple restaurant car set nos. E1428/9/30;

A place in the sun for a highjacked 'Diamond'. Iain Hutchison. 606-8.
State Railway of Thailand P class 4-6-2 exhibited at Kanchanaburi in Thailand ("Bridge over River Kwai") forms basis for title: North British Co, locomotive originally supplied to Federated Malays States Railway in 1919. Article mainly describes tourist journey from Bangkok Noi to Kanchanaburi. illus.: Garratt 2-8-2 + 2-8-2 at Kanchanaburi; SRT locomotive no 804 prior to delivery to Malaya; Thailand State railway P class no 804 commandeered from Malaya by the; The drivers view of the bridge over the River Kwai;

Nottingham. J.F. Henton (phot.). 609
Colour photo-feature of exteriors of Nottingham Midland and Nottingham Victoria Stations in 1965;

The Montrose - Brechin pick up goods J.S. Gilks (phot.). 610-11.
Colour photo-feature: photographs.taken on 19 May 1964 (1 September 1965 pictures on page 610: see latter from phoptographer in Volume 11 page 163).: Brechin goods yard; NBR class J37 No 64577 arrives at Brechin; Brechin station frontage; NBR class J37 No 64577 running round during shunting; One horsepower freight delivery [Horse and cart!];

Great Northern survivors. Dick Riley (phot.). 612-13.
Colour photo-feature: Ex GN C12 no 67397 at Grantham on 25 June 1958; Ex GN J52 no 68824 at Hornsey with no 68846 in the background; Ex GN class J50 no 68966 at Hornsey mpd on 20 September 1958; Ex GN class N2 No. 69523 leaving Moorgate on 30 July 1958 with wide variety of ex-Metropolitan line stock and ex LMS class 3 2-6-2T also within picture.

The Great Western's prairie tanks. 614-15.
Colour photo-feature: : 45xx class no 4552 at Penzance shed on 9 April 1960 (R.C. Riley); 5101 class no 4150 at Newton Abbot shed in June 1961 (Geoff Rixon); 61xx class no 6135 at Paddington on 29 July 1963 (M.H. Yardley); 81xx class no 8102 at Duffryn Yard on 23 March 1963 (Celyn Leigh-Jones).

To Snowdon summit. 616
Colour photo-feature: : 0-4-2T Snowdon at Llanberis on 22 July 1968 (Keith R. Chester); No 7 Aylwin at Clogwyn station and train on its way down with summit in background in June 1962 (both Cliff Woodhead).

The other Channel tunnel [North Channel]. Peter Dale. 617
Article is based upon a paper presented to the International Engineering Congress in 1901 and more recent sources (not cited): three routes were considered Mull of Kintyre to Antrim coast (short length of tunnel, but Mull of Kintyre is/was inaccessible); north of Stranraer to nearest point in Antrim/Down; and Holyhead to Howth. The North Channel is much deeper than the Straits of Dover. Map of proposed Irish Sea /North Channel tunnels;

Focus on the Furness. Michael Rutherford (captions). 618-21.
illus.: Furness Railway No 104 (0-6-0ST obtained from Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway); No 9 (Bury type 0-4-0 built by Fairbairn's in Manchester in 1855 and shown shunting; Furness No 16; Furness No 71; Furness No 104; Furness No 18; Furness No 116 renumbered as 11101 by the LMS; Furness No 126; Furness No 36. See also letter from Michael Andrews in Volume 11 page 106.

'Premier Line' - 150 years. (Provocations)[Railway Reflections No. 23]. Michael Rutherford. 622-30.
Begins by noting the lack of serious histories of the LNWR (although this was about to be remedied through the work by Reed), and for the Caledonian Railway (this gap still exists end of 2002). Quotes Rixon Bucknall (reproduced as following: ". . it did things in the traditional grand manner. Everything on the North Western was solid and grand; the offices and waiting rooms had that cheerful aroma of highly varnished woodwork, the carpets portrayed 'Britannia' emblazoned as the Company's arms, the very station notices were cast in a massive though practical type, the spotless locomotives gleamed in shiny black lined out with scarlet (sic) while the chocolate (sic) and milk white coaches were a sheer joy to behold"). This Provocations provides an extremely skeletal history of the LNWR mentioning the amalgamations which formed the core of the system, some of the later extensions, the effects of Moon, Webb and George Coker, and the very high standard of rolling stock drawn up under him. Includes notes on the fifteen patents filed by Webb with Arthur Moore Thompson on electric signalling. Also observations on the Birmingham Canal Navigation. Horne (letter Volume 11 page 50) argues that Dickens' Dombey and Son may not have been London & Birmingham, but any one of railways to north of Euston Road. illus.: Map of the line at amalgamation; Map of the line at its zenith; Locks of the Shropshire Union canal at Ellesmere Port; McConnell Bloomer 2-2-2 No 1008; Engineer Lancaster; Locomotive workshop possibly Rugby; Widening the Stockport Viaduct; Crewe South Junction box from the outside; The power frame of Crewe South Junction box; G class No 1090; West Coast joint stock composite No 381; Claughton class No 161 on Clifton Junction Rugby; Down corridor hauled by a George V 4-4-0;

Brock water troughs: archive photographs by J.M. Tomlinson from the J.S. Gilks Collection with captions by T.J. Edgington. 631-3.
illus.: A Precursor c 1906; Brock water troughs with no trains; No 6200 The Princess Royal in 1933 or 1934; No 8134 an ex-LNWR 17" coal engine; Class 5XP Jubilee Nos. 5587 Baroda and 5652 Hawke on LMS Royal Train on 27 July 1937; No 6202 the rare turbine pacific probably in 1936 on trial with dynamometer car.

Readers' Forum. 634-5.
The Jewel in the Crown. J. Graeme Bruce.
Rationale for the gauges adopted in India. See page 500. This letter in turn produced an informative contribution from Horne on the evolution of the gauge, and the people involved (Volume 11 page 51).
The Jewel in the Crown. Michael J. Smith.
BB&CI stands for Bombay not Bengal (caption to illus. in article beginning page 500).
Cover picture - August. R.L. Ratcliffe.
30910 was at Waterloo not Victoria and on a train for Basingstoke.
The Devonport Dockyard Railway. Paul Burkhalter.
See feature on page 410: There were six classes of passenger, including one coach for the Admiral (he had light unlike the rest).
'Great Central - the real problem'. Bob Turner.
Something of a citation problem as writer cites all the earlier contributors, but this is tied to Bloxom & Hendrey (page 266). Suggests that Henderson's sole contribution was to propose merger with GER and GNR in 1915. Both Bloxsom and Hendry are incorrectly spelt in this letter.
C15 to Arrochar. B. Henderson.
At Garelochhead (page 483).
The West Highland at Fort William. Richard Jackson.
Illustration of 4F 44255 at Fort William with snowplough: see page 430.
Railway signalling in early days. R.A. Cooke.
See page 471: Disc and crossbar signals survived on Somerset & Dorset until 1902 at Milldown Crossing (north of Blandford).
Normanton. David Bradbury.
Comments incoporated within captions (page 440)
Pullman publicity in BR days. Charles Long.
Closer ties between Southern Railway/Region and Pullman as provided all catering on Central and South Eastern divisions. See page 417. Publicity for blue Pullmans was beset with arcane trade union behaviour concerning "job insecurity".
The Nelson branch. J.F. Mallon.
Albion Colliery (see page 12) was site of attrocious mining disaster on 23 June 1894 when 290 deaths occurred. Writer suggests railway historians should be more aware of such catastrophies and their effects upon traffic. Editor refers to feature on Aber branch (page 532).
Standard tanks on the Western Region. Neil Burgess.
Writer provides the key information on why the 82xxx series of 2-6-2Ts were "well regarded" on WR: (article by Chapman page 490) the BR6 boiler was a domed version of the Churchward No. 2 boiler. Where class 4 2-6-4Ts were used they tended to have excessive axle-loads.
William Dean (picture on p. 481); Woodhead electrics (p. 484), Standard tanks (page 490), Jewel in the Crown (page 507), Tragedy of DP2 (page 527 )

Book Reviews. 636
Narrow gauge steam its origins and world-wide development. P.J.G. Ransome. Oxford Publishing. Reviewed by SDW ***
Reviewer was at one and the same time delighted and disappointed: delighted in that some unusual and broad themes connected with the narrow gauge are examined in detail and fascinating links made; disappointed in that, by the author's own admission, coverage of the world-wide narrow gauge scene is, of necessity. patchy.
Chapters within the book cover a broad spectrum. The question of the actual gauge to be used for a particular type of railway is uniquely examined and personalities such as Captain Tyler, George England and Robert Fairlie loom large. Locations as diverse as North Wales, especially the Festiniog Railway. Norway. County Donegal and Queensland all exemplify the development of the narrow gauge; there are some splendid photographs and drawings. The book has a comprehensive bibliography and lengthy appendices, one. on principal early narrow gauge locomotives. complete with its own annotated notes. The narrow gauge enthusiast will find much of interest and much to pro- voke thought in this volume. The newcomer to the subject may be somewhat overwhelmed by the scope of the volume — and amazed by the narrow gauge. Reviewer still really has his reservations and is unsure of a book on narrow gauge steam which concludes with a photograph of 3ft 6in gauge diesels!

Derby and the Midland Railway. Peter Billson. Breedon.149 pp, Reviewed by John Edgington ****
Reviewer thoroughly enjoyed this work which proves once again that authoritative railway books can be produced without undue emphasis being given to the steam locomotive. The author has brought together a number of diverse threads and woven a very readable fabric. Beginning with the origins of the Midland Railway. we are treated to chapters which encompass the joint station at Derby. the Midland Hotel and the growth of Derby as a result of its early involvement within the British railway system.
A most interesting examination of railway architecture forms an essential part of this work where the author's architectural background and his work in conservation are clearly evident. Less effective is his 'railway understanding' where more knowledgeable readers may note some factual errors but in my view these are not important and do not detract from the overall value of the work.

Rolling stock focus - variations on a 57 ft LMS theme. Chris Davies (phot.) and David Jenkinson (captions). 637.
Colour photo-feature: Ex LNWR coach now (built 1917-22) as used as Camping coach, but near  Darlington  in July 1970. See also letter from photographer in Volume 11 page 106.. Ex LMS coach (D1692) in use as Black Arrow exhibition coach at Darlington Bank Top on 8 May 1965; Ex LMS coach (D1899) in use as Remington exhibition coach at York on 6 November 1965;

Colour files - back on the Barry railway. Bob Sankey. 640-1.
Colour photo-feature: Barry railway station at Cogan; Platform shelter at Cogan; footbridge at Cogan; Rhoose signal box; Station buildings at Gileston;

Up from Folkestone Harbour: a pair of ex-GWR 57xx 0-6-0PTs leading a boat train out of Folkestone. P. Ransome-Wallis. rear cover.

Number 12 (December 1996)

LNER A3 4-6-2 No 60047 Donovan at King's Cross in 1962. front cover.

Look to the future now, it's only just begun...! Michael Blakemore.
Railway privatization and the moving arrow dimension of history.

1962 Welsh Rail Rover. Bruce Oliver. 648-53.
Account of use of Freedom of Wales Railrover ticket (First Class) in July 1962. Writer/photographer reproduces his day-by-day itineraries with map. Also reproduces some of the Cambrian Railways' parcels lables which could still be found. Tabulated statistics for tour. Illustations.: 2251 class No 2218 arriving at Hay on Wye; County No. 1010 County of Caernarvon passing through Bridgend; 5600 class No 6662 leaving Porthcawl; Castle No. 7023 Penrice Castle entering Hereford; No 46510 at Three Cocks Junction (colour thus far: b&w thence forward): 74xx No 7439 at Llandeilo; Freedom of Wales map with places and lines visited; Rail Rover ticket for Wales; Somersault signal at Pengam; Luggage labels obtained on the tour. See also Editorial apology (Volume 11 page 107) for lapses in reproduction standards..

LNER road motor vehicles. Lawson Little. 654-6.
Fairly general article which gives detailed information about fleet classification and numbering system. For instance: a J in the first position indicated a Jensen and P implied a mobile crane. The second letter indicated specific models: for instance HE implied a Scammell specific type of mechanical horse. The first number gave the code for load capacity and the second numberthe area code. Illus.: FYY 722 a Fordson 5 cwt van; FYY 756 a Fordson 7V 24hp chassis; A Ford two ton flat truck; AYH 946 a Scammel mechanical horse; Bedford 4 ton truck with removable body.

Pullman in perspective. Anthony Bower. 657-61.
Early introduction of Pullman cars to Europe, and especially on the Midland Railway; also the separate development of the British sleeping car by the NBR for use on services between Glasgow and King's Cross. .illus.: Interior of saloon car Omaha; Diagram of sleeping car exhibited at the Vienna Exhibition; Diagram of sleeping car constructed for the North British Railway Co.; Sketch of the first Pullman sleeping car; Colonel William D'Alton Mann's patent sleeping berth; Pullman and Wagner luxury compared;

Focus on the Tilbury tanks. 662-6.
Black & white photo-feature:: 4-4-2T locomotives Nos. 11 Stanford; 47 Stratford passing Plaistow; 17 Thames Haven at Fenchurch Street on 28 April 1900; 51 Tilbury Docks near Upminster; 41 Leytonstone at St Pancras; Kentish Town decorated for Coronation of King Edward VII in 1902; 7 Barking fitted with condensin gapparatus and rounded cabs for working over Whitechapel and Bow and District lines; 28 Romford heading for Romford (from Upminster); No 59 Holloway with No. 51 at Southend in 1911. See also letter from Michael J. Smith in Volume 11 page 107. which refers to Dictrict Railway services to  East Ham and Upminster..

The Brighton Electrification scheme. Michael G. Foster. 666-9.
The original manuscript was written in May 1933 whilst the author was studying at Battersea Polytechnic. Describes control of power supply, signalling, rolling stock, and traffic operations. illus.: Central control room Three Bridges; Preston Park sub-station; 6-PUL set no 3042 at Crystal Palace East; 2 of 4-LAV sets; 5-BEL set no 3053; Interior of a first class compartment in a 4-LAV;

St Rollox 1951 - the adventures of a locomotive engineer manqué. Alistair Wright. 670-2.
"I realised that the only part of a locomotive that retains its identity in a general overhaul is the cab sides with the numbers on, Everything else is up for grabs including the frames". Author was participating in a four year "thick sandwich" system at the Royal Technical College in Glasgow (now University of Strathclyde). Commented upon the antiquity of many of the machine tools at the works: only those installed by the Ministry of Munitions in WW1 and WW2 were recent.  Further experiences of this graduate engineer: 12-47. illus.: Caledonian 294 class 0-4-0ST as BR No. 56025; Caledonian 72 class 4-4-0 as BR No. 54492; Class 5 No.73150;

Black 'Five': the LMS mixed traffic masterpiece. 673-5.
Colour photo-feature.: 44680 on SLS Special at Ruabon on 5 March 1967 (T.J. Edgington); 45020 at Willesden mpd in 11 May 1962 (Geoff Rixon); 44766 with double chimney at Willesden mpd on 11 May 1963 (Geoff Rixon); 44767 with outside Stephenson valve gear, but without double chimney boiler near Carlisle on 6 August 1966 (Les Elsey); 45156 Ayrshire Yeomanry at Fleetwood on 20 April 1968 (J. Corkill); No 44748 with Caprotti vavle gear at Willesden mpd in August 1963 (Geoff Rixon); 44757, a Caprotti with double chimney at Cricklewood shed in May 1963 (ibid).

'Westerns' in the West. 676-7.
Colour photio-feature. Western No D1000 Western Viscount (maroon) on Royal Train at Truro in 1966 for start of Tall Ships Race (R.C. Penberth); Western No D1036 Western Emperor (green) at Dawlish in 1964 (Cliff Woodhead - remainder); Western No D1013 Western Ranger on freight at Burlescombe on 11 May 1967 ; Western No D1065 Western Consort (blue) at Bristol in 1967;

Waterloo departures and arrivals. 678-9.
Colour photo-feature: Bulleid Q1 No 33009; Merchant Navy No 35029 Ellerman Lines in mid-1960s (both Tony Wakefield); Preserved LSWR No 120 on normal train on 7 July 1962; West Country No 34002 Salisbury in 1966 (T.J. Edgington).

The LNER D49 4-4-0s. Tony Wakefield. 680
Colour photo-feature: D49/1 No 62716 Kincardineshire in store at Thornton shed and D49/2 No. 62744 The Holderness in steam at same location.

Spoilt for choice. (Provocations). [Railway Reflections No. 24]. Michael Rutherford. 681-8.
Development of four-coupled tank engines from Gooch onwards. Note quotation from Tunstall: "The India rubber springs did not answer well and were rough for the enginemen". Reference to South Devon 4-4-0T. Locomotives discussed included Met Rly 4-4-0T; GER 2-4-2T; Kirtley 0-4-4T (also Stirling and Fletcher (BTP) of same wheel arrangement); Single Fairlies; Adams 4-4-2T; Churchward 4-4-2T; LTSR 4-4-2T; Stroudley 0-4-2T; Drummond 0-4-4Ts and NER and Met Rly 4-4-4Ts. Notes problems with derailments of 0-4-4Ts. illustrations.: Drawing of a 4-4-0ST broad gauge taken from Daniel Gooch's pocket book; Highland railway No. 58; Ex Metropolitan no 3095; No. 7 Barking see also page 664; Midland No. 18; Taff Vale No 170; Wirral railway No. 11 [ex LNW No. 969] and No. 6 [ex LYR No. 1041]; Barry railway class J1 No. 89; 159 class No. 418; 4-4-2T No. 2240; D class No. 2143; Ex LPTB as LNER H2 class No. 6417;

Keith Scholey. Railway war memorials. 689-91.
Most commemorate the dead of WW1 with most giving the further casualties from WW2. Some were designed by Edwin Lutyens, notably those at Derby and York. The memorials at Euston and Waterloo are especially notworthy for their architectural scale, whilst that at Liverpool Street was the site for the assassination of Sir Henry Wilson outside his home immediately following the unveiling of the Memorial. A further plaque commerates this outrage. illus.: War Memorial outside Euston Station; Memorial at Horwich Works; Metropolitan War Memorial at Baker Street; War Memorial at York; War Memorial outside Waterloo as part of the Victory Arch; War Memorial details in the United Kingdom. See also letter from J.C. Hughes (Volume 11 page 106) concerning reference to Captain Fryatt, master of the GER steamer Brussels shot by the Geramns.;

Night on a bare mountain. Peter Tatlow. 692-7.
Bivouac at Raven's Rock in 1960 to photograph the early morning Kyle of Lochalsh to Inverness express (only one stop, but with class 2 headlamps). Also other photographs and obervations on other trains at that location and time. Illus.: Raven's Rock on the Skye line; LMS Black Five no 45123; LMS Black Five No. 45479; LMS Black Five No. 45123; 9.10 a.m. train from Inverness to Kyle on the last of the four mile 1; Caley bogie No. 54463 piloting Black Five No. 44795; 1960 Kyle line timetable. See also LMS Journal 2007 (19), 80 for caption correction by the Editor;

Readers' Forum. 698-9.
The LMS 5XP 'Jubilees'. R.G. Winder.
Where the joint between the firebox and boiler was located. Correct number of Silver Jubilee: See page 424.
London stations in the 20th century. D.E. Hodgkinson.
Extensive additions and some corrections to feature on page 369. Notes on the ownership of Uxbridge Road station; observes that Kensington Addison Road never actually closed, and adds three post-WW2 prolonged closures: Kentish Town West, London Fields and Mornington Crescent. See also letter from Michael J. Smith in Volume 11 page 107..
Claughton station—Scarborough. & Whitby Line. Steve & Barbara Hargreaves.
See page 137 for picture of station in railway use: Illustration shows Cloughton station now the Station Tea Rooms [writer's photo].;
York Station in 1906. T.J. Edgington.
See page 546: GNR locomotives are 4-4-0s– not 4-4-2s as stated.
Great Central: the real problem. Robert Emblin and Bryan Longbone.
See page 266: The real cast of this communication is to stress the significance of Alexander Henderson who had rescued the Manchester Ship Canal before [being] turned towards GCR and its finances. {KPJ: there would seem to be a need to consider (1) the state of the MSLR before its London Extension; (2) the performance of the London Extension as compared with similar GWR capital projects of  about the same time (where is the literature on the "folly" of the Fishguard works?); (3) the stature of Henderson, (4) the effect of the GCR finances on the LNER, and (5) the actions by the Government/ the alchemist (Beeching) towards the potentially valuable route (in particular the failure to recognize that changing demands on land/population/motorway construction might have on future railway requirements in the Midlands}
The LMS, locomotives and T.F. Coleman. Keith Horne.
See Rutherford page 560. Argues that the Ministry of Transport was excessively cautious in its bridge design criteria, and that this prevailed until the DSIR Bridge Stress Committee reported in 1928. Uses the proposed Coleman 2-6-2 locomotive as an exemplar which appears to have been near to the limit. Also justifies the Chief Engineer's (E.F.C Trench's) apparent conservatism and corrects Rutherford's version of his education.
'Golden Arrow' brake vans. Neil Knowlden

The part on the Golden Arrow refers back to the feature by Marx on page 462 and concerns both the Trianon Bar and brake vehicles for the train.See further letter on this subject by Charles Long in Vol. 11 page 228.. The other part relates to a feature by Essery on brake vans (page 467) and errors therein, especially those relating to the SR and its constituents' vehicles and the bogie brake vans converted from LBSCR electric motorized luggage vans.
Ethusiasm or education? Bryan Longbone.
See guest editorial from Prof. Earnshaw on page 523: contributes notes about WEA classes on railways in vicinity of Scunthorpe.
The Post-War return of the 'Golden Arrow'. Charles Long.
See page 462: there is considerable confusion in contemporary sources concerning the Trianon Bar. The Railway Magazine 1946 (July/August) stated that this vehicle was formerly No. 5, whereas Trains Illustrated (No. 2) stated that it was the former Diamond. Modern Transport (20 April 1946) described the press run which used the former No. 5 and described it as the first all-plastic buffet car. The former Diamond was moved to the ordinary train where it was known as The 100 Bar or The New Century Bar.
The tragedy of DP2. Simon Lilley.
See page 526: The majority of Type 47 were fitted with 12LDA28-C power unit but five were fitted with 12LVA24 until late 1960s/early 1970s. No. 47046 was fitted with GEC 16RK3CT in 1976 and later with 12RK3CTT engines as part of class 56 development programme.

Book Reviews. 700.
The heyday of steam in South Wales. Derek Huntriss. Ian Allan. SDW ****
"Splendid and worthy addition to the series."
Harry Pollit—GCR locomotive engineer. Geoffrey Hughes and David Jackson. First named author. CPA ****
"Highly recommended"

Signalling focus - Midland lower quadrants. Richard D. Foster 701
Col. illus.: Midland lower quadrants at Long Eaton Jn. and at Trent station north;

Colour files - Winter sunshine. Beverley Coles. 704-5.
Four advertising posters on a winter theme from the NRM collections: Christmas Greetings by Earl/Kitto (BR Southern Reg. 1961); South for Winter Sunshine by Edmond Vaughan (SR, 1929); Winter Sports Express by Weber (SR, 1934); Winter Sunshine by EVAK (Edmond Vaughan and Arthur Knott) (SR, 1932)

Around Morecambe Bay. S.C. Dent. rear cover.
Lancaster to Barrow DMU passing Kent's Bank in July 1972.

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