Modellers' Backtrack

It now seems incorrect not to have included Modellers' Backtrack, especially as a file has been available on the steamindex site for several years. Material relating solely to railway modelling will no longer be completely excluded: although steamindex is not really interested in scenery made from cardboard and sponge rubber. It had an untidy bibliographical life beginning in April and ending in March. Gradually it will be brought up to Steamindex standards.

Volume 1 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6
Volume 2 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6
Volume 3 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6
Volume 4 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6

Backtrack "key file"
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Volume 1

Number 1 (April/May 1991)

Editorial. David Jenkinson.

Why we are here. 3
Mission statement

Scales, gauges and allied matters. 3
No preferred scale, but fine scale fsvoured.

Future plans and prospects. 3
Balance and use of colour

Interlude at Cambridge. 4.
Vintage colour photograph from P. Colebourn Collection of E4 No. 7490 (LNER lined black livery) with branch train for Mildenhall consisting of four six-wheel coaches. Gresley buffet car behind. 11 June 1938. See also letter from John Watling.

Peter Erwood. The present state of the modelling art. 5-9.
See also anonymous response and from Peter Thompson

David Foxwood. Signalling aspects.10-14.
Illustrations: page 12 lower LBSCR 0-4-2 No. 214 Gladstone with J class 4-6-2T Abergavenny behind: see letter from G.F. Collins on page 142

David Jenkinson and Ian L. Wright. Pre-group Great Western carriages. 15-19.

David Jenkinson. Carrying on the torch at Lonsdale. nbsp;20-8.
MODEL RAILWAY: 7mm fine scale layout started by Neil Corner and taken over by W.S. Norris.

Russell Carter and Paul Timothy. Bulleid's light Pacifics. 29-36.
Russell Carter drawings (4mm scale): plan and side and front elevations of air-smoothed 21C123 Blackmore Vale and No. 34073 249 Squadron; also rear eleevation of tender and detailed drawing of RAF Squadron's badge. Similar drawings of preserved rebuilt locomotives Nos. 34010 Sidmouth and 34016 Bodmin. Photographic illustrations (all unrebuilt unless stated otherwise): No. 34088 213 Squadron passing Folkestone Junction on 23 September 1956; No. 21C154 Lord Beaverbook at Folkestone Junction in 1948 and 21C152 Lord Dowding; No. 34002 Salisbury in Eastleigh Works being painted; rebuilt No. 34016 Bodmin passing Winchfield with down Bourenemouth express on 4 August 1962; rebuilt No. 34052 Lord Dowding (Southern Region official); rrebuilt No. 34050 Royal Observer Corps leaving Victoria in July 1961 with fast train for Tunbridge Wells; No. 34049nbsp;Anti-Aircraft Command with modified casing at Waterloo in 1961; Nos. 34085 501 Squadron and 34078 222 Squadron at Folkestone Junction in 1960; No. 21C165 at Ramsgate in 1948; front view of No. 21C129; and nameplate of rebuilt No. 34052 Lord Dowding

Ken Morgan. What is a goods train. 37-46.
Freight trains were formed predominently of open wagons carrying coal, or return empties. Most lacked continuous brakes. Illustrations: continuous brake-fitted LNWR covered van painted with diamond-shaped symbols to assist identification by illiterates (photograph); reproduction of drawings of wagons from D.K. Clark's Railway machinery ;(all from LNWR: cattle wagon, round-ended open goods wagon; covered general goods wagon; low sided general goods wagon; timber truck (later known as bolster and used in pairs); coke wagon with iron lining; brake van (with totally open veranda); LMS freight marshalling circular (1943); NER horsebox (passenger stock livery and drawgear). See also letters from Stuart Brasier and from Alec Boothroyd

LMS tender comparisons. colour file for modellers. Gavin Morrison. 47
Both viewed from rear: No. 46221 Queen Elizabeth (green) and No. 46204 Princess Louise (red). Tender behind No. 46221 still showed its streamlined origins. Also No. 46204 was possibly only red Princess Royal to display later tender emblem.

King's Cross departure: vintage colour page. rear cover
C1 Atlantic No. 3274 in green livery with stopping train or semi-fast leaving suburban platforms with articulated lavatory brake third at front. P. Colbourn Collection. See also letter from Steve Banks on page 191 and from John Burden on pp. 140; 142.

Number 2 (1991 June/July)

Campling, Nick. The GNR/LNER class K3s.53-7.
Refers to RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. for detail. Locomotives for GNR were painted green, but LNER then applied lined black to all. Notes the three cab variants: GNR, NER-type and standard LNER. The 4mm drawings show all three cab variants. Illus. (colour): 61800 at Sleaford Junction, Boston, with freight on 23 June 1958 (R.C. Riley), 61810 on Norwich shed on 31 May 1960 (RCR). B&;w: 4005 at March on 2 May 1936; 2461 at same place & location (H.F. Wheeler); 61973 at Coke Ovens Junction, Lowestoft with fish empties on 9 October 1956 (RCR); 61849 at Stratford on 10 August 1958 (RCR); GNR 1001 on King's Cross shed; LNER 116 (Darlington-built); 61906 at Doncaster Works in 1961; 2937 at Scotswood Works; 61834 at Haughley on freight on 3 May 1958 (RCR); 61947 at Hawkins Lane Sidings, Burton on Trent on 26 May 1959 (RCR); 61834 on express at Bury St Edmunds on 16 June 1960 (RCR) and GNR 1000 when new on King's Cross shed.

Essery, Bob. Making tracks. 58-62.
Mixed prototype and model, but predominantly the latter. Illustrations: (prototype only): concrete sleepers with bullhead rail near Melton Constable in 1917; Midland Railway 81 lb/yd rail on 40 lb chairs on Settle to Carlisle line with open carriage truck No. 178; MR Bradford station under construction; MR Lenton Junction South in November 1913.

Erwood, Peter. As it was. 63-8.
How freight used to be handled and the necessity for cranes to handle certain loads.

David Foxwood. Anatomy of a boat train. 75.
SECR E1 class 4-4-0 No. 179 with boat train consisting of matchboard-sided Pullman gangwayed (except outer brake ends);corridor stock known as Boat Train No. 2 with red-painted Pullmans probably in the immediate post-grouping period.

Brigantes. In the eye, or in the mind? 76-7.
Perceptions of colour: describes perception tests which showed that colour memory is very poor, and notes the effect of the way in which colours are perceived. Illustrations (all colour): Rebuilt Scot No. 46144 Honourable Artillery Company with class 3 2-6-2T No. 40202 at Llandudno Junction shed on 18 March 1962; A2/3 No. 60500 Edward Thompson leaving St Neots on 31 May 1962 and A4 No. 60007 Sir Nigel Gresley at Stirling with train for Aberdeen on 9 June 1965 (Alan Tyson). See also letters on page 190 from John R. Endacott, (contact with Mick Gabbarus at Stratford Works concerning GER blue which weathered to black) P. Millard (upper panels of LNWR passenger stock were painted with a mixture of 1 lb of ultramaeine in 112 lb of white lead: the varnish led to the distinctive colour).and Larry Goddard. yellowing caused by the varnishes changed the appearance of GWR green. Post-WW2 varnishes were different and writer refers to maroon Oldham Corporation buses for change in colour.

Gibb, John S. Cart Lane crossing. 78-9.
Drawing of Furness Railway 0-6-2T No. 101 on freight train passing Cart Lane crossing, the starting point for the crossing of Morecambe Bay to Hest Bank; also map.

Barry C. Lane. Pullman..80-92.
Illustrations: Midland Raiway Drawing Room Car No. 8 (formerly Pullman Alberta); old Midland Railway either being attched or detached from train at Colne; Midland Railway built cars to match Pullman vehicles: grounded bodies at Bradford Forster Square, and at Hellifield; Pullman sleeping car diagram (side & end elevations & section):; American bogies diagram including plan; Birmingham RC&W Co. 1910 cars for SECR diagram (side elevation & plan) which were similar to Metropolitan Railway cars Mayflower and Galatea; vestibule Birmingham RC&W Co. 1910 cars end & side elevations, sections & plan; Clayton built cars for Great Eastern Railway side elevation & plans of third & first class cars with kitchens & in case of latter a coupé; Pullman dining cars named Bonnie Jean and Lady Nairn supplied for Caledonian Railway services in 1922 using GWR ambulance traiu underframes side & end elevations; recovered underframe cars for Brighton services with very small kitchens side & end elevation diagrams; Duchess of Fife built as a parlour car in 1890 for LSWR services at Bournemouth jn 1912; Devonshire — American built car for LB&SCR; Duchess of Norfolk — American built car for LB&SCR; interior of Grosvenor for Southern Belle; first class guards luggage van from Southern Belle without gangway at rear; 1920-built Orpheus showing six-wheel bogie and suspension and matchboard side ar Preston Park in 1955; Padua built by Birmingham RC&W Co. in 1920 for SECR and painted in crimson livery; one of two Metropolitan Railway cars painted crimson at Neasden; Birmingham RC&W Co. 1910 car Sorrento running as catering vehicle for Southern Railway Ocean Liner expresses; Maid of Kent built by Claytons on ex-LNWR ambulance car underframe with British Standard gangway and drawgear alongside Orpheus showing Pullman gangway and buckeye automatic coupler at Preston Park; third class car No. 23 built on LYR ambulance car underframe; SC214M restaurant car in carmine & cream livery at Stepps sidings c1954 (built Midland RC&W Co. on recovered GWR ambulance train underframe in 1922 and supplied as Lady Nairn to Caledonian Railway; interior of former Lady Nairn in 1956 (both F.W. Shuttleworth); Pullman dining car taken over from Pullman Co. by Midland Railway in 1882 fitted with six-wheel bogies; Flora MacDonald built by Cravens in 1914 and Maid of Morven Pullman observation car

The historical environment: colour file for modellers. Alan Tyson. 93.
Colour photo-feature: Conway station and ornate bridge over the line and signal box on 22 July 1964: in one view rebuilt Patriot No. 45530 Sir Frank Ree is passing on down express.

Great Western suburban. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
No. 6106 lettered "Great Western" at Aylesbury in summer of 1938: Dufaycolour from Philip Colebourn Collection

Number 3 (August/September 1991)

Model of Dublin & Froghrda Railway 2-2-2T No. 8. front cover
Cyril Fry model: see also p. 117
Pullman kitchen/parlour car Penelope at Old Oak Common on 12 September 1964 (R.C. Riley). front cover inset
See also p. 100 et seq

Models and reality. David Jenkinson. 99

Barry C. Lane. Pullman. [Part 2]. 100-10
Staates that cars on Caledonian and Great Eastern Railways were either green and cream or umber and cream. The SECR had used crimson on its cars and after 1924 the cars on the Dover service were nicknamed the White Pullman. 12-wheel car Grosvenor at Eardsley sidings on 18 April 1960 with American bogies and matchwood panelling; Savona, 1910 RC&W batch; Car No. 182 with narrow body, matchwood panelling, painted greeen and running as buffet at Gypsy Hill on 18 October 1959; Thelma built for Queen of Scots by Metropolitan CW&F at Eardsley sidings on 28 March 1963; (first four images R.C. Riley colour); Ivatt Atlantic No. 3300 on down Harrogate Pullman in mjd-1920s; plan & side & end elevation of all-steel 1928 Pullman cars and underframe diagram and bogies for K class cars; enlarge d details of 1930 painting specification; new K type Rainbow at Birimingham RC&W Works sent to France and did not return; Geraldine built by Midland Rly Carr & Wagon Co. in 1924 for Dover services; plan of Queen of Scots train with plans of first and third clas parlour cars with also kitchen provision; plan of electric Brighton Belle; brake third all-steel 1928 parlour car No. 79 in original livery without umber upper panels for Queen of Scots train; elevation & plan of first/third class car Anne for electric Brighton Belle with centre toilet and first class coupe; elevation & plan of third class Car No. 81 for Souther Railway services showing pantry and kitchen; K class third class car No. 107 as rebuilt internally in 1946 (built as Kathleen, a first class kitchen car with timber body on steel underframe in 1927); Minerva built in 1927 with timber body on steel underframe as rebuilt in 1951 for Golden Arrow as guard's brake/parlour first; Pullman observation car off the Devon Belle built by Claytons on ex-LNWR underframe; Brighton Belle electric unit; interior of Minerva; Audrey as running in part of VSOE operation in Britain; oval toilet window as replacement of rectangular one in VSOE set; second class brake parlour car probably for South Wales Pullman originally a 1928 second class dining car for London to Harwich boat trains. Bibliography.

Robert Reeves. The Great Western Duke and Bulldog 4-4-0s with drawings by K.C. Woodhead. 111-16.
Originally known as Pendennis Castle class, later as 3252 class, but later known as Duke class after No. 3252 Duke of Cornwall. Bogies originally fitted with Mansell wheels; boilers originally fitted with steam pumps driven off crosshead. Some were rebuilt with Belpaire fireboxes and some were fitted with larger boilers and became Bulldogs. Finally Bulldog frames were combined with Duke boilers to become Dukedogs. The first Bulldog was No. 3352 Camel (later No. 3340). Frames could be curved: Nos. 3300-40; straight Nos. 3341-3440, and deep straight Nos. 3441-55. Steam reversing gear was fitted, but was replaced by screw reverse from about 1908. Illustrations: No. 3276 Dartmoor (straight nameplate) at Bodmin Road c.1906; No. 3323 Mendip (round top boiler); No. 3330 Vulcan (Belpaire boiler); No. 3260 Mount Edgecumbe (narrow cab) at Gloucester in 1932; No. 3285 Katerfelto (wider cab) at Reading in 1927; No. 3258 The Lizard (short tender) at Reading General; No. 3267 Cornishman at Didcot in February 1936; Duke class: diagram (side &; front elevations); Bulldog: diagram (side &; front elevations); also 2000 and 2500 gallon tenders: diagrams (side &; front elevations and plans); No. 3352 Camel in original condtion; No. 3368 Sir Stafford at Swindon in 1900; No. 3341 Blasius at Reading General; No. 3409 Queensland during WW2; No. 3405 Empire of India at Old Oak Common in 1931; No. 3361 with nameplates removed after May 1927.

Jenkinson, David. The Fry Model Railway. 117-20.
Model railway created by Cyril Fry which was begun in the mid-1930s and on which he worked until his death in 1974. This is a very good historical acciount with excellent photographs of a huge and vey well engineered model system in Dublin which has since moved to Mallahide where a very different layout can entertain a great number of visitors. Two letters relatted to this article on page 238 from Laurence Bindley relating to Belfast York Road and from David Bayes wishing for a museum to preserve railway models: to a great extent this is now performed by the NRM.

Peter Fidczuk. The 16-ton steel mineral wagon. Part 1. Pre-War and War-time designs. 124-33.
Cites Don Rowland and Paul Bartlett. Originated with Butterley Engineering Company's efforts to produce a 12-ton wagon and one was patented in 1925. Metropolitan Cammell also patented a 12-ton wagon and the Cambrian Wagon & Engineering Co. introduced a 13-ton design. Both Charles Roberts and Hurst Nelson produced vehicles. Illustrations: BSCO No. 20142 at Wellingborough in June 1978: 16-ton iron ore tippler built by Charles Roberts originally for Stewarts & Lloyds as No. 9442 (P.W. Bartlett: colour)' NCB No. 78290 built by Hurst Nelson at NCB Bargoed in 1979 (note pressed steel end door (P.W. Bartlett: colour); No. 4 of British Sugar, York in 1987 registered as LNE (E)/1939 12181 originally operated by Norstand of Grimsby; Butterley patent 12-ton wagons formed into train; Metropolitan-Cammell Patent 465720 12-ton wagon; No. P116693 at Slateford in 1962 , bujlt Cambrian Wagon Co. 13-ton wagon registered LMS (1943) No. 172024, original owner William Cory No. 1388 fitted end, side & bottom doors; Denaby No. 9151: slope-sided Chas. Roberts patented? design; Chas. Roberts No. 33457 slope-sided wagon for its hire fleet registered LMS (1943) No. 172972 at Renfrew in 1946 (A.G. Ellis); Hurst Nelson publicity photograph for its 12-ton wagon with pressed steel side & end doors; BSCO No. 20142 at Wellingborough in June 1978 iron ore tippler with Morton brakes (P.W. Bartlett:); Hurst Nelson 14/16 ton wagon diagram (side & end elevations & plan) based on No, P306389 seen at Sharpness Docks originaaly Rothervale 4940 registered LMS (1943) No. 174064; British Railways 16-ton mineral wagon with cupboard doors diagram (side & end elevations & half plan); Ministry of War Transport No. MWT 7326 at Crewkerne in 1947 (bauxite livery); detailed diagram of all-British steel 14-16 ton mineral wagon built Charles Roberts & Co.; No. 124552 at cement works; No. B197525 at Connah's Quay in 1965 (one of 2690 sent to France in 1945); LNER No. 271370 built Metropolitan Cammell in 1945 with pressed steel side & end doors; LMS No. 616731 built at Derby in 1947 with welded body and presseb steel side & end doors; SNFC No. T6562055 diagram 1/112 built in France in 1946 with cupboard doors; diagram 1/112 wagons working in chemical traffic with Covhops possibly carrying soda ash on electrified Woodhead route; diagram 1/112 No. B192624 at Leamington in August 1962 (D.P. Rowland); No. B194768 at Machynlleth in 1967 (L. Tavender); British Titan Products of Grimsby BTP No. 225 at Grimsby in 1976 (carried ilmenite) (R.J.E. Bayliff). See also letter from Dick Riley. Part 2.

T.W. (Smokey) Bourne. Model railways and road transport. 134-9.
Illustrations: Southern Railway motor lorry with solid tyres and loaded with container, thus post 1929; GWR Burford semi-covered lorry; diagram (side, front & rear elevations) of Thorneycroft J type ex-WD;

From our correspondents... 140; 142

More reactions. J.D. Smith
I came upon the first issue of MBT quite by chance in my local newsagents and was most impressed by its content and standard of presentation. I look forward eagerly to the appearance of No.2. I notice that several of your correspondents on page 46 have made suggestions concerning future content of the magazine. I wonder whether you propose to include reviews of books which are relevant to the general historical emphasis of MBT: I believe these could be a valuable feature. Mr Sadler suggests the inclusion of a "reader to reader help/advice page" and I assume he is referring to historical prototype information and not "how to make intransigent objects adhere to difficult surfaces". I would certainly endorse this and would like to make so bold as to kick off with a query to which either the editorial team or readers may have the answer.
A problem which has been exercising me recently is to discover the dates on which the BR Class 4 4-6-0s allocated to the SR (Nos.75065-79) acquired double chimneys. None of the standard works gives this information: Cox dwells on the lack of standardisation between Swindon and Eastleigh; Haresnape confines himself to the caption below an undated photograph of No.75074, attributed to J. B. Bucknall. Talbot gives June 1957 as the date for the first conversion, that of WR' s No. 75029 and rather vaguely 1960-61 as the period over which the Eastleigh conversions took place; he also includes Bucknall's photograph, again undated. Extensive perusal of photographs shows that many of the group still had single chimneys well into 1961. Does anyone know of a definitive list of dates of conversion? See Tony Mayne on page 238.

More reactions. Peter E Thompson
I write to say I was delighted with the clarity of the photographs in your first edition of MBT (April/May 1991). The print of Desford Signalbox - page 6 - was a joy to study. Did your average modeller, I wonder, observe the bucket of coal on the top step, the gong on the outside of the box by the door, the steel rods that filled the gap betdween handrail and stair treads, and, most of all, the concrete plinths and iron straps that were at the four corners around the upright timber beams? Peter Erwood's criteria of "no people because they don't move and the trains do" will be certain to arouse comment. The little girl on the swing and the fisherman casting his fly in action on a certain diorama that has been exhibited recently is the exact opposite. The people move and the trains don't! An excellent start and I wish you LJ every success. I just hope that you don't have to put the price up too often.

More reactions. 140
I was particularly interested in Peter Erwood's opening article in Issue No.l and his philosophy of modelling —but are you both voices crying in the wilderness? For a number of years past I have been helping with judging competitions. Last year I agreed to draft a brief statement of what we were looking for in models, and things which would lose marks, saying that if it only stirred up a little controversy it would have done some good. My statement could almost have been a precis of Peter Erwood's article, especially where he emphasised the "total.scene". I suggested modellers should compare the startling realism of old master or impressionist paintings with the unreality of Victorian 'photographic' paintings; and pointed out that the human eye-brain visual system was such that, looking at a steel structure, one saw riveting, not rivets; looking at a house, not bricks but brickwork. The sequel — I was not invited this year. Obviously the 'count-every-rivet' school is in command.

GWR 'Dreadnoughts'. J.M. Chamney
Modellers would be most likely to build examples of the ordinary service vehicles as odd ones, which in many ways is correct, as that is how they were generally employed, but restaurant cars were quite a different matter. The bulk of the GWR restaurant cars were built during the 20 years from 1905-1925, and the company only constructed a comparatively few what could be termed modern vehicles. As money was short during the 1930s, the policy was adopted of refurbishing these older cars, quite extensively, and in fact they ran in their modernised state for the greater length of their lives, and one could argue that it is rather more prototypical to model them in this form.
So far as the Dreadnoughts were concerned, subject to correction, all in diagram H8 were modernised, and were in use after World War 2. In diagram H11, only Nos.9505 and 9508 were probably similarly treated. Now the interesting point is that they were all employed in top main line duties. After the War, when restaurant car services were re-introduced —in the two Cornish Riviera sets: Nos.9572 and 9575 to diagrams H26 and H29 were employed. After some 3 years, they were replaced by Dreadnoughts Nos.9512 and 9515, which worked the service day in-day out until in turn they were replaced by twin sets Nos.9616/-9626 and Nos.9618/9628 with the introduction of the yellow and red livery. By this time four or five full sittings of lunch and three of tea were considered too much for a single car. While these two Dreadnoughts were in use on the Cornish Riviera, the following were, to the best of my recollection, employed:
No.9511l 8.55am Birkenhead to Paddington
6.l0pm Paddington to Birkenhead (from and to Wolverhampton)
11.45am Paddington to Hereford
4.48pm Hereford to Paddington (to and from Worcester)
8.30am Plymouth to Paddington
5.??pm Paddington to Plymouth
11am Paddington to Penzance
9.00am Penzance to Paddington
An interesting point is that, these coaches, in common with other GW catering vehicles were fundamentally reliable, and could, and did work up to about 3 years in a set without the need for heavy maintenance or repair. The Dreadnought Diners are therefore worth modelling due to their long service in main line duties.

Goods trains and goods yards. Alec Boothroyd
Re picture of Nottingham Midland Goods Yard on page 9: the sheeted wagon on the left hand side did NOT conform to the official requirements, but sagged with a puddle in the middle of it! We tend to forget that not everything conformed to the book, and that it always rains every other day in this country — how many models does one see depicting a dull, wet day? The sun does not shine perpetually, even on the Cornish Riviera, and the industrial north, where goods traffic was a mainstay, was not very sunny, but smoke black. While thinking of goods traffic perhaps one of your readers can answer a question? How were Welsh slates loaded in standard gauge trucks? One sees plenty of photographs of Ffestiniog Railway wagons loaded with slate, but I have never seen the three-plank wagon loaded, and there must have been plenty as they can be seen on roofs all over the country. I suspect they were loaded on edge, starting at each end of the wagon, and then when they reached the doors were stacked on face, much as can be seen in slater's/ builder's yards even today. This is how I have loaded my LMS three- plank, using paper slates dipped in thinned coloured PVA glue. Very tedious, but I think looks correct.

Goods trains and goods yards. Stuart Brasier
Re Ken Morgan's article "What is a Goods Train" and an an inaccurate statement. As had been involved in research into BR wagon liveries, noticed the erroneous account that piped wagons had red vacuum pipes. In fact piped wagons had white pipes. The red pipes were present on wagons that had fully fitted vacuum brake gear. He double checked this by looking through the David Larkin wagon books where photos clearly show that the pipes on piped brake vans are obviously white. He also questioned a railway shunter who confirmed this.

King's Cross 1939. John Burden. 140; 142
Re charming vintage colour shot on the rear cover of Volume 1, No.l at King's Cross. In November 1939, the time of the photograph, steam services were still operated to High Barnet and the outer suburban services, other than the Cambridge buffet expresses were generally three or four articulated twins or a mixture with one or two corridor coaches. It was not unusual for these to use the suburban platforms although Nos. l2-15 were limited to three twins or their equivalent. It was not until the High Barnet branch became an extension of the LPTB Northern Line that the quad-art sets became more generally used on Hitchen, Baldock, Royston and even Cambridge trains. Incidentally the quad art sets may have had uncomfortable seats (except for 1st class) but they were not 'bone shakers'. I commuted in them for 15 years and whether on Gresley or Fox bogies they always rode very well.
Reverting to the picture, the flagman suggests a Sunday, the sun early to mid mornng and whilst I do not have a timetable for November 1939, I do have one for July to September 1938. Services varied little at this time and I suggest the train could have been one of the following: 9.20am to Cambridge calling at Finsbury Park, Potters Bar, stations to Royston and Cambridge arriving 11.29am, or 10.20am to Hitchin calling at Finsbury Park and all stations, except Brookman's Park, arriving Hitchin 11.35am.
The Cls were certainly used indiscriminately on the last and slow to enter suburban services. Some of the slow services were indeed just that. For example: Weekdays 7.18am King's Cross to Cambridge arriving 9.35am calling at Finsbury Park, New Southgate, New Barnet and all stations thereafter - 8.05am King's Cross to Hitchin arriving 9.22 calling at all stations except Harringay and Hornsey - 6.06am Hitchin to King's Cross arriving 7.22am having called at all stations to New Southgate, then Finsbury Park. Occasionally D2 or D3 4-4-0s may have been used on the lighter trains, but the C2 Atlantics were, by this time, no longer active in the London area.

More questions answered. John Watling. 142
A new magazine that succeeds in providing on its fourth page a pre-War colour view of a train of GER 6 wheelers is, in my estimation, a very propitious start indeed. So, in rising to the challenge I set out' some details of the Stratford built stock concerned. Ignoring for the moment the first vehicle, the remaining three carriages were all built between 1892 and 1896 as conventional 34ft 6in long six-wheel main line stock. In response to the need for economies to be made in working several of the less prosperous branch lines, in- cluding the Mildenhall, Stratford converted a number of carriages in 1922 and 1923 for conductor guard working. Three types were created and all are represented in this view. Withdrawals started in 1932, follow- ing the closure of branches such as the Mellis and Eye, but the majority survived to be withdrawn in 1940.
The first carriage in the set was built as a six compartment third to Diag. 422. For conductor guard, working end gangways were added, the internal partitions removed and a centre aisle provided. All but the end doors were sealed up and of the 22· converted to Diag. 440, 16 remained in 1938.
The next vehicle, a composite to Diag, 248, was again converted from a third and fitted with end gangways. Four of the six compartments were opened up and the doors in the second and third bays sealed. The other two compartments also had their doors sealed and longitudinal seating installed for first class passengers. An inter-connecting door was fitted in the two retained partitions so the superior class passengers had the indignity of entering and leaving by way of the open third saloon. Of the 18 composites provided, 15 remained in 1938.
The final carriage, to Diag. 552, was one of 18 converted from Diag. 514 brake thirds dating from 1895 and 1896. The three compartments were opened out, a door installed in the guards partition and a gangway fitted at the other end. One door was left for access and a set of retractable steps, operated by the guard, was provided for passengers using a series of new halts. On the Mildenhall line these were at Fen Ditton, Exning Road and Worlington Golf Links.
Turning to the first carriage this too has something of a history. It was one of 25 seconds built in 1899, to Diag. 306, for the outer suburban service between Liverpool Street and Hertford. In 1923, 13 were reclassed and renumbered as thirds to Diag. 444, initially for the main line and later for use on branch services. By 1938 only three remained, LNER 61186,61189 and 61190, ex GER 306, 312 and 313 respectively and formerly Nos.175, 213 and 215 seconds. Whichever one it was at Cambridge on 11th June 1938 I cannot say but, remarkably, all three were taken out of service at the end of that same day! The final vehicle in the train, which with its elliptical roof towers over the arch roofed passenger stock, may well have been a GER general van, with six wheels and sliding doors, of which 50 appeared between 1913 and 1915.

More questions answered. G.F. Collins.
Re caption to the photograph of Gladstone (page 12, No.l) concerning the use of headboards and lamps on LBSCR locomotives. I have made a study of the subject and I can find no evidence that headcodes were displayed using a mixture of lamps and boards. In the Appendix to the Working Timetable it states clearly that Headboards are to be carried by Day and Lamps to be carried at Night by all trains. The only exceptions were the Royal Trains or Special Trains carrying Distinguished Personages where the trains carried boards by day and lamps by night or in foggy weather. Taking the photo in question, the loco is, judging by the well filled tender, waiting to leave Brighton Shed to take up its train. Taking the white board on its own it would apply to two routes:- 1. London Bridge, Willow Walk and Brighton (via Redhill) 2. Brighton and Eastbourne If we assume that the lamps facing forward are part of the head- code, no route can be found for those three positions. I am firmly convinced that lamps played no part in daytime codes and that they remained on the front of the engine due to lack of storage space else- where, the fact that they faced backwards or forwards had no significance. In order to complete my research I am still trying to locate a copy of the LBSCR Appendix for 1897 and any copy prior to 1881; with a bit of luck I may find official documentary evidence as to the date that white boards were introduced on the LBSCR, any help that readers can give will be gratefully received.

A prototype for everything. E.D. Bruton
This illustration of Cambridge MPD's Gresley Class B17/4 'Football' series 'Sandringham' 4-6-0 No.61653 Huddersfield Town was taken on 7th July 1951 during the fifteen months in which the locomotive ran fitted with a Class A3 chimney. This was (confirmed by RCTS) erroneously fitted at 'Plant' (Doncaster works) during a boiler change and although Cambridge shed reported that there had been no bad steaming, it was nevertheless replaced by a normal B17 chimney at a casual visit to Doncaster in August 1952. No.61653 is seen heading the down 2.05pm King's Cross- Cambridge buffet car express (or 'beer train' to many!) at Greenwood, recorded from the steps of the signal box as it enters the then double track 'bottleneck' onwards to Potters Bar summit. (Shed plate is 31A, Cambridge.) The locomotive is in BR lined green livery with newly repainted club colours. Strangely, it was 20 years later before the change of chimneys was spotted by a friend and -,. has, as far as I recall, remained unpublished.

From our correspondents

Colour file for Modellers: close-up motion. 141
Walschaerts valve gear: Class 5 No. 45307 at Manchester Victoria on 1 June 1963 (N.W. Nyckhoff); 9F at Carnforth (K. Nuttall)

Homeward bound from holiday. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
4F No. 4182 hauled excursion train of LMS stock leaving Scarborough pre-1939 from Philip Colebourn Collection

Voilume 1 Number 4 (October/November 1991)

Peter Fidczuk. The 16-ton steel mineral wagon. Part 2. Later pre-nationalisation developments. 148-56.
Ministry of War Transport and Ministry of Transport orders and designs. The Labour Government in the autumn of 1945 ordered 50,000 steel 16 ton wagons mainly to replace wagons which were beyond repair and to maintain work at Royal Ordnance Factories (ROF). These orders were placed with ROF Hayes, but constructed at Woolwich and Dalmuir. Designs included the Charles Roberts diagram 1/100 design and the LMS Diagram 2109 design, but with LNER pattern pressed steel doors. The Chairman of Charles Roberts, Duncan Bailey, was critical of the decision not to construct his Company's patented vehicle, but this would considered to be tt high. Welded doors were used on some wagons and rhe 1948 programme included both riveted and welded bodywork. nbsp;the wagons were intended for coal or iron ore. Part 3.

David Foxwood. Signalling aspects. Part 2. 157-63.
Signals neither stopped, nor started trains. Freight trains lacked continuous brakes and dumb buffers were not banned until 1913. It was a duty of signalmen to ensure that trains were complete: hence lamps on brakevans, Even after the implementation of continuous brakes on passenger trains drivers were discorouged from using them for mormal stopping, unless in an emergency.

Holt, Geoff. Random thoughts from the workbench. 164-7,
Msinly the construction of model locomotives, but also considers some aspects of the prototype which are difficult, but nor impossible to replicate in models, notably the lightly constructed Walschaerts valve gear introduced by Gresley and retained by Thompson and Peppercorn, and the inside motion on earlier locomotives.

Jenkinson, David. Close encounter of a Guage '1' kind. 168-71.
Illustrated by a visit to John van Riemsdijk's garden layout which included model steam locomotives with three and four cylinders, articulation, and compounding.

Harrison, Jim. The philosophy of the small layout. 172-3.
Solely concerned with modelling, but included two colour illus. of New Holland pier and station with one of the steam ferries.

Earnshaw, Alan. Mirfield station. 174-82.
Includes the engine shed. Illus. (all black &; white): L&YR A Class 0-6-0 No. 1293 next to sand house at engine shed; 8F No. 48163 also next to sand-drying house; Class 27 0-6-0 No, 12365 with shedmaster's residence behind; A Class 0-6-0 on up coal train in LYR period; map; plan (1893); 7F 0-8-0 No. 49662 with LNWR 0-8-0 passing coaling stage in 1949 with freight for Huddersfield; Aspinall 3F No. 52305; Johnson 3F No. 3341 at Cooper Bridge station in May 1939; 4F No. 44474 on 22 October 1955; rebuilt Scot No. 46117 Welsh Guardsman; Class 5 No. 44776.

Campling, Nick. Great Northern Railway coaching stock. 183-5.
Manchester bogie train constructed Doncaster 1898 consisted of composite brake; lavatory composite and third brake.: dimensions, photographs and drawings. Illus. include end view; Diagram 277 vehicle No. 41615 at York c1947 and Diagram 45J Bullion Salloon No. 4336 in April 1928..

Campling, Nick. 4-wheel carriage trucks. 186-8.
The CCT or covered carriage truck was an anchronism still being constructed by British Railways in 1961, but this article features GNR/LNER vehicles as depicted in official photographs and drawings derived from them. Illus. Doncaster diagram 364 c1892 vehicle No. 2881 labelled "CARRIAGE TRUCK"; Doncaster diagram 390 October 1909 vehicle No.3164 labelled "MOTOR CAR VAN"; also two open flat trucks Diagram 375 12ft 6in wheelbase No. 3287 in November 1912 and D375 with 10ft wheelbase No. 2799 c1893. Also Diagram 358 vehile number 303after overhaul in February 1926

Colour file: ground level. 189.
Colour photo-feature: Callington station on 25 August 1961 with 2-6-2T No. 41316 (R.C. Riley) and St Albans Abbey with pedestrian crossing over concrete sleepers with bullhead rail (Alan Hammond).

From our correspondents.., 190.
Trackwork. Peter Squibb.
See Issue No. 2: states that pilotman tended to imply a human "token" used during single line working. Points do not incorporate "tie bars", but incorporate stretchers or stretcher bars.
Boxmoor station. Eric Edwards.
Coal wagons. Peter Tray.
In the eye or in the mind? John R. Endacott.
See Volume 1 page 76: contact with Mick Gabbarus at Stratford Works concerning GER blue which weathered to black.
In the eye or in the mind? P. Millard.
See Volume 1 page 76: the upper panels of LNWR passenger stock were painted with a mixture of 1 lb of ultramaeine in 112 lb of white lead: the varnish led to the distinctive colour.
In the eye or in the mind? Larry Goddard.
See Volume 1 page 76: the yellowing caused by the varnishes changed the appearance of GWR green. Post-WW2 varnishes were different and writer refers to maroon Oldham Corporation buses for change in colour.
King's Cross again. Steve W. Banks. 191.
See rear cover of Issue Number 1: train in illustration former of 55ft 6in articulated brake third/lavatory composite which perpetuated a former GCR coach length as it was constructed at Dukinfield Works; also notes was an "ordinary passenger train"..

Book reviews. 191.
Birmingham New Street: the story of a great station, including Curzon Street. Richard Foster. Wild Swan. JBW ****
Four volumes: well received.

Busy scene at Guildford: vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover.
U class 2-6-0 No. 1611 probably at head of Margate to Birkenhead through train in 1938. Locomotive in olive green with number on tender and leading coach in malachite green.

Volume 1 Number 5 December 1991/January 1992)

David Jenkinson. Passenger trains and their operation. 197-203
Uniform sets of coaches were rare in steam days and it was quite common to see trains with added non passenger vehicles especially parcels vans, fish vans and horseboxes. Illustrations: class 2 2-6-2T No. 41328 with three-coack push & pull train at Higham Ferrars c1956 (colour: Ian L. Wright); Class 5 No. 45215 with four LMS coaches (three non-corridor) at Leicester Central on 8 May 1964 (colour: R.C. Riley); Coronation beaver tail and 16.00 for Leeds hauled by No. 4468 Mallard; LMS standard sleeping car showing gangway adaptors inside carriage washing plant at Willesden in 1957; Bulleid restaurant car showing Pullman gangway and buckeye coupler; M7 No. 30110 at Gosport with push &; pull special on 3 May 1953 (E.D. Bruton); J39 No. 64843 with single coach and vans at Burnmouth with train on Eyemouth branch (Eric Treacy); fixed set of ex-LBSCR four wheel coaches (with electric lighting) on Isle of Wight in Southern Railway period; diesel railcars Nos. W35/W36 with corridor coach in between near Reading West on 21 July 1951(E.D. Bruton); GWR 43XX 2-6-0 No. 8327 with five Southern Railway coaches on Brighton to Cardiff service at Patchway in 1930s; GWR 43XX 2-6-0 No. 7327 with 7 GWR coaches on similar service at same location, but earlier in date; push &; pull set formed of former GCR coaches at Winsford &; Over on 17 October 1953 (E.D. Bruton); 18.37 departure from Salisbury to Waterloo headed by No. 34052 Lord Dowding on 25 April 1954 (E.D. Bruton); 09.33 Sunday departure from Crewe (08.10 ex-Liverpool headed by No. 45737 Atlas with theatre traffic at front including road vehicle on flat truck (E.D. Bruton);

Adrian Tester. Making tracks. Part 2. Early Midland Railway permanent way. 204-12.
The development of permanent way on the consituents of the Midland Railway. Includes design, with diagram, of straight switches. The Leicester & Swannington Railway used fish-bellied wrought iron rail. Cites S.W. Johnson's Presidential Address as key source. The original track deteriorated rapidly and the directors visited other lines and acquired replacement rail from John Bradley & Co. The advice of John Cass Birkinshaw was probably a key factor. nbsp;The Sheffield & Rotherham Railway acquired its rails from Nant y Glo & Beaufort Ironworks and this was secured to the stone blocks by pointed slotted pins. The Birmingham & Derby Junction used parallel rails made from wrought iron. Small gravel was used as ballast. Cites Francis Whishaw. Peter Barlow considered the rail as a beam and advised the London & Birmingham Railway on how to improve its permanent way. The Birmingham & Gloucester Railway under the guidance of Moorsom adopted flat bottom rail. Suggested that Samuel Hughes may have been source of American practice. Kyanized sleepers were employed. Burnt clay was quite widely used as ballast. F.S. Williams Our Iron Roads cited. The Midland Counties Railway introduced permanent way of a type to remain standard for many years with double-headed rail which became the basis for bullhead rail. In part this may be attributed to Vignoles and to Woodhouse. The North Midland Railway followed Geoge Stephenson's policy. Illustrations: fish bellied rail at Darlington Bank Top; Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway joint chair and ordinary chair on stone blocks; preserved Birmingham & Gloucester Railway flat-bottom rail with stone blocks; stone blocks and chairs at Earlestown Works; round section sleepers at Nine Elms; Liverpool & Manchester Railway crossing being excavated (archaeology) at Crown Street Ford Liverpool; rail sections after Johnson and Whishaw; broad gauge with passage of last train on 20 May 1892 at Teignmouth; Liverpool Street station; supported joints between Riccall and Selby in early LNER period.

Peter B. Denny. Buckingham. 213-19.
EM gauge model layout based upon Great Central Railway.

Peter Fidczuk. The 16-ton steel mineral wagon. Part 3. Developments under British Railways. 220-30.
Some consideration had been given by British Railways to introducing 40 ton or 21 ton coal wagons, but this was impossible due to the limitations of colliery screens. In 1951 a decision was taken to eliminate grease axleboxes and this led to pressure being put on the wagon programme. Pressed Steel open a new factory at Linwood to manufacture wagons. Both riveted and welded versions were produced. There were trials with both the vacuum and Westinghouse air brake, but the former was selected for larger scale adoption. There were difficulties with using braked wagons on hoists and they were mainly used to reinforce the braking power on coal trains running from the Yorkshire and North Midlands coalfields to the major power stations. Aluminium alloy bodies were constructed at Shildon from 1954. Sand and limestone were conveyed as well as coal and latterly they were used on civil engineers' trains. Illustrations: B254252 (Metropolitan Cammell, 1956 Lot 2799 with welded body affixed to solebar with U-shaped brackets); B561754 (Pickering, 1956 Lot 2918: 16-ton with vaccum brake) at Goole Docks in April 1982; B88429 (Pressed Steel 1953, Lot 2255, manufactured Linwood) at Goole Docks in April 1982; B160415 (Maclellan, 1958 Lot 3143) ex-shops at Toton in bauxite livery with vacuum brake and instanter coupling.

Alan Kirk. Mirfield shed. 231-6.
Plans and elevations of buildings and water tank and coaling stage, photographs of interior. Also anecdotes about drivers and their ability to stop with precision even at places like Bradford Exchange.

Colour file for modelmakers: landscape tones. 237
Colour photo-feature: Alan Tyson pictures of Chinley South Junction signal box on 21 January 1967 and Grindleford station at entrance to Totley Tunnel on 25 March 1966:

From our correspondents. 238

Tie bars. W. Wolfe. 238
According to A.M. Thompson (Proc. Ins.t Civil Engrs., 1884-5) "At all facing points a strong gauge-tie is provided..." 

J.D. Smith in Modellers Backtrack (3). Tony Mayne. 238.
The 75xxx with double chimneys are listed from information obtained from P.B. Hands What happened to steam booklets. The many preserved locomotives of this type are noted. "conversions" is mentioned in the  letter: the majority were so built. 

Wagon brake pipes. Ken Morgan. 238

Pullman working. B.M. Tellwright. 238

Vintage colour page.. John Farline, 238

BR wagons. C.J. Isherwood. 238

Fry Model Railway. Laurence Bindley. 238
Belfast Central

Fry Model Railway.  David Bayes. 238
Wishes for a museum to preserve railway models: to a great extent this is now performed by the NRM.

Book reviews. 239

Stanier locomotive classes. A.J. Powell. Ian Allan. Reviewed by CR ****
"Mr. Powell's name on a locomotive book is almost always a guarantee of reliability of information highly authoritative 'starter' to the subject and he does not let us down in this well produced survey. lt is lucid, well written and rattles along at a fair old pace as he reviews the story of Stanier's engines and how they changed in appearance over the years. It is not an indepth approach, though it contains a surprising amount of factual information. The book naturally invites comparison with Brian Haresnape's survey ot Stanier's engines for the same publisher back in 1970 and even allowng for twenty years or more of rampant inflation, Mr Powell's book wins on all accounts! There is also a fair amount of over-lap between this book and the standard sections of the far more comprehensive OPC/Silver Link five volume history of LMS locomovties not to mention the recently started RCTS LMS surveys. As a highly authorative 'starter' to the subject, this book cannot be faulted — and high praise too for the quality of most and the originality of many of the pictures.

Midland & South Western Junction Railway Vol. 2 — Locomotives. Mike Barnsley. Wild Swan Publications. 160pp. Reviewed by David Jenkinson. ****
This excellent book is the second part of what will now be a three volume survey of the M&SWJR (Volume 3 will cover rolling stock and Volume 1 dealt wlth the general history) and immediately on opening it one gains the impression of well-researched and quality product, a feeling reinforced on closer acquaintance. Each locomotive class is given its own chapter. Jenkinson was critical of the lacl of a scale line on many othe drawings which are all 7mm.  Liveries are diven a chapter to themselves. Highly recommended

North Eastern renaissance. Andrew Scott. Ian Allan. AE ***
The activity of the North Eastern Locomotive Preservation Group in particular the preservation of K1 No. 2005,

Varnished teak. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Gresley outer suburban twin articulated coach at King's Cross in April 1939 (Dufaycolour)

7mm scale model of M&GN Beyer Peacock
4-4-0 No. 31 built by Laurie Loveless
Number 6 (February/March 1992)

David Jenkinson. The twelve-wheelers of Wolverton. Part 1. The prototypes. 244-56.

David Foxwood. Rules and regulations. Part 1. Naming of parts. 257-60.

Stop signals. Alan Tyson. 261.
Romiley Junction on 24 March 1966; Chinley Station South Junction on 26 June 1965.

The Eric Bruton album: Number one: Big Four freight. 270-1
G2A 0-8-0 No. 49366 passing Northampton No. 2 signal box with a southbound freight on 5 April 1952; N2 No. 69590 lettered "BRITISH RAILWAYS" on J class freight between Red Hall signal box and Hatfield on Sunday 16 April 1949; 57XX No. 7791 passing Kensington Olympia on 6 October 1951; W class No. 31922 heading towards Kensington Olympia on 27 March 1954.

Alan Wells. The Beyer Peacock 4-4-0s of the Midland and Great Northern Railway. 272-80.
The Lynn & Fakenham Railway ordered four outside-cylinder 4-4-0s from Beyer Peacock WN 2105-8/1881. These carried the green and black Lamp;FR livery.

Colour file for modellers: platform lamps and barrows. 285.
Luggage barrows at Filey station in 1970s (S.C. Dent); platform oil lamp at Lavernock (Taff Vale Railway); gas lamp at Llanishen (Rhymney Railway), both in 1960 (Ian L. Wright); Lazonby & Kirkoswald oil lamp in 1966 (Alan Tyson)

Bristol Bath Road: vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Dufaycolour photograph taken from Temple Meads platform on 5 September 1937 shows Saint class No. 2979 Quentin Durward and Star class No. 4048 Princess Victoria.

Volume 2

Number 1 (April/May 1992)

B4 No. 5195 in apple green at Neasden in 1939. front cover
7mm scale models of WCJS clerestory dining cars. lower front cover

Nick Campling and Ken Woodhead. The Great Central 'Immingham' 4-6-0s: LNER Class B4. 4-10.
Illustrations: C4 No. 5194 and B7 No. 5474 (lined black) at Aylesbury (former with LMS through coach from Bradford) (colour); B4 No. 1482 Immingham in apple green on Ardsley shed on 23 April 1949 (colour); No. 1097 Immingham in GCR livery c1910; No. 1100 in GCR livery c1910; diagrams and plan for model making; No. 1096 (GCR black livery) c1920; No. 6101 with flower pot chimney and green livery c1937; No. 6097 Immingham in apple green at Copley Hill shed in 1936. See also letter from Steve Banks (p. 150) concerning first illustration: train was 08.20 from Manchester with through coach from Huddersfield attached at Penistone

Same train different periods. 11
St. Albans Abbey station: Webb 2-4-2T No. 6692 with LNWR coaches in 1930s and Lemon 0-4-4T No. 1908 with push & pull set on 14 August 1948 (E.D. Bruton)

Peter Erwood. As it was. Part two. 12-19
p. 12: ex-Midland Railway 5-ton crane transferring LMS open container between low-sided wagon and horse-drawn dray: bowler hat observing perilous move
p. 12: LNER low-sided wagon with grease axleboxes loadeed with sheeted container & crane behind
p. 13: Liverpool Dock (LMS) with huge gantry crane
p. 13: Taylor-Hubbard movable crane at St. Albans City goods station on 12 August 1949 (E.D. Bruton)
p. 13: Southern Railway 40-ton bogie bolster wagons loaded with timber at Southampton Docks in 1938 (E.D. Bruton)
p. 14: Derby St. Mary's in 1950s
p. 14: Sheffield City goods yard (LMS former LNWR): notes cobbled surface up to rail level
p. 15: Stewarts Lane goods station (SE&CR) with steam lorry owned John Blee & Sons Ltd; otherwise hoorse drawn lorries (with overhead electric catenary of LBSCR on viaduct in background)
Toton concentration yard in early LMS period with coal in waggons and in stacks
p. 17 saloo0n motor car being loaded into an LMS Covered Carriage Truck at Coventry
p. 18 sheeting instructions
p. 19 chalk inscriptions on wagons at Eltham Well Hall in 1936
see also letter on page 203 from R.E. Rodrigues on dung being loaded

John Farline. A Yorkshire railway accident. 20
Possibly at Heaton Lodge in September 1918: Claughton class without tender and L&YR 4-4-0 with destroyed wagons and their contents (bales?) spread on field adjacent running lines

David Jenkinson. The twelve wheelers of Wolverton. Part 2. 21-9.
Most of text and illustrations are devoted to model construction. Exceptions:WCJS dining saloon No. 200 when new in 1900'; Royal diner No. 76 after restoration in 1979 (colour); all third dining saloon No. 5026 of 1914

David Ibbotson. The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 1—Space saving prototype style. 30-1
Bridgework including pedestrian footbridge which crossed Great Central at Hornsbridge, Chesterfield; LNWR approach to City Goods in Sheffield where line went under two bridges one of which accommodated an unadopted road near Nunnery Junction; Five Ways Birmingham with two tunnel portals one of which (a single line) accessed Birmingham Central goods depot; Duffield Tunnel on Wirksworth branch

Bob Essery. Common and not so common goods stock. 32-5
"Common"" refers to common user: illustrations: LYR common user low-sided wagon loaded with bales; LMS 16-ton steel soda ash open with movable bar for tarpaulin for Fleetwood to Silvertown traffic; GWR open C wagon No. 99442 (14-ton low-sided); LMS 12-ton van No. 26000; LNER continuous braked container wagon No. 133560 with Type A container; London Midland Region shock absorbing wagon for transporting glass cradles.

Mike Peascod. Introducing the Cockermouth Project. 36-43
Preliminary work on former Cockermouth Kendal & Penrith Railway to establish what used to be theree an diagrams suitable for the preparation of modes: bridges, water tanks, signal boxes, turntable and buffers

Viaduct variety (Colour file for modelmakers). Stephen Dent. 45
Lambley Viaduct on Alston branch; Pod Gill Viaduct on Kirkby Stephen to Stainmore line and Hewenden Viaduct between Cullingworth and Wilsden

Non-standard LMS at Coventry (Vintage Colour Page). rear cover
Precursor 4-4-0 No. 25319 Bucephalus with Belpaire boiler on ordinary passenger train consisting of Bain four coach set of 48-ft low roof non-corridor stock augmented by LNWR 50-ft coach with cove roof and later ex-LNWR 57-ft vehicles at rear at Coventry in 1939.

Number 2 (June/July 1992)

Heckmondwike. front cover
MODEL with thick plastic wagons and plastic water tank. (Phil Godfrey)

Preservation and the modeller. 52
LMS third class sleeping car, Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5000 and V2 2-6-2 No, 4771 Green Arrow at Bold Colliery in 1980 all from National Collection (colour image)

Bob Essery. Goods brake vans. 53-60.
Brake vans can be divided into four distinctive styles and with the exception of some vehicles owned by the North Staffordshire Railway, all pregrouping vans can be divided into four groups as follows:
A Closed vans. The cabin is the full length with full-height doors.
B Vans with an entrance lobby at either one or both ends in the form of a vestibule with half-height doors and ends fully planked with windows.
C Vans with an entrance lobby at one or both ends in the form of a verandah with safety bars or half-height doors and waist-height ends.
D Vans with an open platform at one end and a verandah at the other — with no doors from the cabin to the platform.
Very interesting illustrations, the earlier of which use the spelling "break": Spalding & Bourne Railway supplied by Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. in 1865; GWR Toad brake van (drawing); GNR jwo 10 ton close-coupled brake vans io form 20 ton brake van; GNR six-wheel 20 ton break van of 1899 for working between King's Cross & South of London; GWR 12 ton brake van (diagram, including plan, based on Swindon 58198 by B.C. Lane); Gloucester Wagon Co. break van of 1874 for North Staffordshire Railway; South Eastern Railway 10 ton brreak van with double doors when in use as a road van; ex-Midland Railway 10 ton brake van as sole to Wemyss Railway No. 3; Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway 6-wheel 20 ton brake van with steel sheeted sudes (E.D. Bruton); Cheshire Lines Committee brake van; Great Northern Railway Leeds District ballast brake van with top lookout and accommodation for permanent way gang; former War Department brake van based on LSWR design and allocated to GWR; Highland Railway 20 ton brake van with top lookout and added space for freight; Southern Railway 25 ton bogie brake van photographed in 1964; LMS type brake van as built British Railways M732796; Wapping Tunnel (Liverpool) 6-wheel 20 ton brake van; LMS No. 197263 of 1932 ballast pkough brakr van. See also letter from J.A. Evans

David Jenkinson. The twelve wheelers of Wolverton. Part 3. Modelling the details. 61-8.
Predominantly model making, but illustrations of No. 309 dining saloon for American Special trains (pp. 66-7); preserved Royal Saloon No. 800 following restoration at Wolverton; Royal Train in service at Town Gates with Royal Dining Car No. 76 in service.

P.R. Bunce. Scottish horseboxes. 69-71.
Only inludes those from G&SWR and NBR. Illustrations: G&SWR horsebox at front of express haulrd by No. 497 at Gloucester in September 1926; NBR horsebox No. 81 to Diagram 110.. Refers to illustartion on p. 54 of British Rly J., 1986, 46. See also letter from J. Page and from Peter Bunce in Volume 3.

T.W. (Smokey) Bourne. Model railways as an art form. 72-4.
An interesting claim, but... Cites Edward Beal and John Ahern and the latter's Madder Valley Railway

Paul Rees. . A Great Western Railway goods depot in Liverpool. 75-9.
Restoration by the National Mueums and Galleries on Merseyside of former GWR goods depot on Manchester Dock in central Liverpool from which traffic used to be conveyed across the Mersey by barge for conveyance by the GWR from Birkenhead.

Barry C. Lane. The Aspinall six-coupled goods. 80-6.
Notes that 496 were put into service between 1889 and 1918. They were sometimes known as the 11 class (the initial locomotive shared this both as the Works and the running number, but in 1919 the locomotives were classified as Class 27, or if superheated class 28.

Colin Ganley. A little piece of history. 87.
GWR locomotives: No. 1376 0-6-0T taken over from the Bristol & Exeter Railway which had built it as a standard gauge engine at its workshops in Bristol stating that it was intended for use on the Culm Valley line. After the grouping No. 1376 and its sister engine No. 1377 ere allocated to Weymouth and No. 1376 then moved to Oswestry. Locomotive No. 120: 119 class 0-6-0PT origated as a standard gaugue 0-6-0ST constructed at Swindon in 1861. Withdrawn from Oswestry in 1933. Both illustrated.

The Eric Bruton album. No. 2 Pre-group Royal Mail carriages. 88
Midland and North Eastern Railway Post Office tender built as No. 4 in 1907: 54 ft long clerestory. Became No. 30283 at Carlisle in 1950.
No. 30240 with electric side lights for tranductor operation to Wolverton design adjacent to above
Ex-LNWR vehicle: 64ft van based on two 32ft six-wheel vehicles with cove roof dating from 1917
See also letter from Philip Millard

Stations of character: Colour file for modellers. Alan Tyson. 93.
Radyr station on 4 May 1965 with two sets of bracket signals; flat-roofed timber signal box and diesel shunter in sidings with tank wagons; Inverkip station on 10 June 1965 with footbridge and double track.

Essence of Southern: vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Norwood Junction in 1939 with E3 class 0-6-2T No. 2167 (black livery) hauling freight (visible GWR wagon and two private owner's seven plank wagons; diesel electric shunter No. 2, and multiple unit derived from SECR stock.

Number 3 (August 1992/September 1992)

9F No. 92167 (MODEL). front cover
Photograph by Doug Hewson of wonderful 9F 2-10-0 model which he had built and operated on his garden layout

David Geen. [Great Western Railway] dining and restaurant cars. [Part 1]. The wooden panel cars. 100-9.
Part 2 see pp. 160 et seq. Note author's name given as "Green": his website clearly indicates Geen. Illustrations:
p. 100: H3 diner at Barnstaple Victoria Road c1908
p. 100: No. 9516: 1900 built car altered to Refreshment Car in 1932
p. 100: Dean single possibly No. 3060 Warlock at Uphill Junction with H2 diner leading coach;
p. 101: No. 9519: H7 diner with Royal Clerestory in simplified 1927 livery;
p. 101: No. 9520 on a through working at York (since preserved at Didcot)
p. 101: Robinson Atlantic as LNER No. 5267 on North East to South West express near Sheffield on train of GWR cleretory stock with H7 diner in centre and NER horsebox at rear.
See also letter from Chris Youett on page 259

John B. Gibb and K.J. Norman. Lancaster LNWR 1903. 110-11.
Drawing (black & white) of northbound express passing through Lancaster Castle station hauled by Webb Waterloo class No. 773 Centaur and a Precedent class 2-4-0 with Midland Railway 0-6-0 No. 1374 in background.

Bob Miller and David Goodwin. Southport — Lord Street in 1886. 112-16.
The Cheshire Lines Extension Railway opened to Lord Street on 1 Sreptember 1884 for passenger traffic and on 1 June 1885 for freight. Passenger traffic ceased on 7 January 1952. Includes map of the line and notes on main train services and motive power. Illustrations: map showing Gateacre to Southport line; MS&LR Class 12 2-4-0 No. 314 at Manchester Central on 5 Febraruary 1886 (R/E. Bleasdale); MS&LR Class 12A No. 363 at Manchester Central c1885 (R/E. Bleasdale); sketch based on weight diagram of Class 12A; 4mm scale drawing based on one in J.C. Cosgrove article of Class 14 2-2-2; map of track layout at Southport Lord Street; Sacré inside-framed Class 18 0-6-0 No. 308; MS&LR 2-4-0 No. 312 at Manchester Central in 1897; MS&LR 2-4-0 No. 48 outside Southport Lord Street c1888; frontage of Southport Lord Street c1895; interior of Southport Lord Street c1889 with 12A 2-4-0 with passenger train leading vehicle birdcaged six-wheel brake third.

D.K. Horne. Clearances. 117-19.
The positioning of signals, the design of switches, the design of station platforms; bridges, coaches and the limits on the size of loads were all dictated by clearances which varied from railway to railway: the GWR had more generous clearnces than the LNWR. 2 diagrams

John C. Adams. North British Railway: Reid third class brake model. 120-2.
Excellent colour photographs from several angles, including its interior of model coach built by a Cowlairs apprentice, David Mann in his tenement home. He subsequently went to Canada with his model and was eventually brought back to the Springburn Museum. See also North British Study Gp. J., 1992, (61), 4

Philip A. Millard. Photographic survey of LNWR signal cabins. 122-6.
All colour unless stated b&w: Dunham Massey (b&w); Boars Head Junction (b&w); Vulcan Bank; Euxton Junction; Bamfurlong Sorting Sidings; Chester No. 5; Chester No.6; Moor Row; and Brent Junction (b&w). Interesting in that "cabins" rather than signal boxes.

Edward Talbot. A visit to Asters, with additional note by John van Riemswdijk. 127-30.
MODEL RAILWAY: visit by author to Japanese factory where Aster Gauge 1 steam models were made and where he met Messrs Susumu Fujii and Inoue. The business was founded by S. Teraoka in 1955.

Making tracks. Part 3. Midland Railway permanent way. 131-40.
Directors and Officers of the Permanent Way Company were Peter Barlow, William Barlow, Charles Wild, James Samuel, Robert Richardson, Peter Ashcroft, Charles May (Manager) and W. Howden (Secretary). Most held patents and the aim of the Company was to exploit them. William Barlow's Saddle-back system is considered in detail.and it was used on the Great Western Railway. Peter Barlow was responsible for introducing fishplates, inside key chairs an steel rail: this last supplied by the Victoria Ironworks of the Ebbw Vale Iron Co. in 1857. Rail laid at Derby station lasted until 1873. The LNWR conducted extensive trials with steel rail. Midland Railway engineers mentioend include John Crossley, A. Johnston, Alfred Langley (who returned the keys to outside, McDonald who adopted heavier rail. James Briggs was the final Midland engineer appointed in 1915. BS9 was adopted following the St Neots accident in 1895.

Bob Miller. The Sacré singles. 141-6.
2-2-2 with double frames and Crewe pattern outside cylinders as a response to broken crank axles. No. 399 was built in 1882 and Nos. 500-10 followed. They were intended for use beween Manchester and Grantham on the service to King's Cross and for the Cheshire Lines Committee expresses between Liverpool and Manchester. Illustrations: No. 502 at Sheffield (Neepsend) c1884; No. 505 at Brunswick c1887 (R.E. Bleasdale); diagram (side & front elevations drawn J.C. Cosgrave); No. 500 in Parker livery on turntable outside Cornbrro shed c1889; No. 506 with Parker chimney outside Brunswick shed c1889 (R.E. Bleasdale); No. 508 with Sacre chimney in Parrker livery outside Brunswick shed c1889 (R.E. Bleasdale); No. 104 with later Parker chimney and replecement big end outside Trafford Park shed c1896 (R.E. Bleasdale); No. 104 inside Manchester Central (T.F. Budden); No. 112 after rebuilding in 1901 with extended smokebox and Robinson chimney and livery possibly at Annesley c1904; No. 115 leaving Fulwood Tunnel in Pollitt livery in early Great Central days with Liverpool bound express originally published in Locomotives and Railways in October 1900 (E. Pouteau); No. 108 in Robinson livery at Trafford Park c1903 (R.E. Bleasdale); marine big end diagram; No. 501 with marine big end at Platform 4 in Manchester Central. See also letter from Edward Talbot on page 259

From our correspondents.

'Imminghams'. J.H. Quick.

'Imminghams'. John Cockcroft.

Aylesbury, 1938. Steve Banks.
Express was 08.20 from Manchester with through coach from Huddersfield attached at Penistone; the other train was the 09.35 Leicester to Marylebone which stopped at all stations north of Aylesbury and then waited for a long time at Aylesbury before going forward.

Colour file for modellers: the colliery scene. Alan Tyson. 149.
Austerity 0-6-ST No. 52 painted red at Asshington on 19 May 1965
Kitson 0-6-2T of 1907 No. 31 painted green with red former NER hoppers at Philadelphia Colliery on 20 May 1965
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn 0-4-0ST of 1953 No. 38 at Philadelphia Colliery on 20 May 1965

Local trains at King's Cross. Vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
A1 No. 2550 Blink Bonny in local platforms with stopping train headlamp, and Great Northern articulated set behind in morning sunshine in April 1939: not much colour left in reproduced image (green on boiler barrel difficult to detect: reds on buffer plank and teak coaching stock had survived). See also letters from Peter E. Whitaker and from John Measures on page 203

Number 4 (October 1992/November 1992)

Geoff Holt. Random thoughts from the workbench: cosmetic rivets. 156-9..

David Geen. [Great Western Railway] dining and restaurant cars. Part 2. Steel panelled stock. 160-71.
Part 1: see pp. 100 et seq Illustrations of H25 type (narrow body with 7ft bogies); H26 No. 9569 with automatic (buckeye) couplers; Nos. 10002-4 (articulated set); No. 4061 Glastonbury Abbey with concertina stock (one in crimson lake livery) with H27 or H28 dining car near Twyford with down express; interiors of articulated vehicles including first and third class saloons and kitchen unit; No.4015 Knight of St John on up express at Filton with articulated set in service; No. 6000 King George V nbsp;with down train of dining cars halted at Wellington station (probably "stop and examine"); 9ft wide vehicle No. 9579 after postwar renovation; ex-Cambrian Railways tea car in March 1937; H38 type No. W9607W on cross country working; 1929 built Cornish Riviera kitchen car on Ocean liner duty at Plymouth Millbay; Castle class on west to north express with H38 car in formation; preserved H39 kitchen/first on Severn Valley Railway. See also transfer of somee cars to departmental stocl.

Peter R. Bunce. Great Central Railway open carriage truck. 172

Jack Ray. Forty years on—at least—;a Crewchester retrospective. 173-6.
Gauge O model garden railway

Doug Hewson. Big is beautiful! Running a 5in gauge ground level model railway. 177-83.
Prototype! A2 class No. 60536 Trimbush on down express passing Dukeries Junction in 1962; remaining illustrations show ratherb over-scale human beings sitting uncomfortably behind model steam locomotives.

Paul W. Bartlett. Gulf Red — a nearly forgotten livery. 184-8.
No. DE 301599 ballast brake/workmen's van (LNER diagram 203) in Tyne Yard; DB 985459 Grampus ballst wagon at Northampton in February 1983; DB 995251 Whiting in S&T Department at St Blazey in June 1979; DB 982095 Sole at Peterborough in May 1980; DB 996757 GANE bogie rail carrier at Bristol Kingsland Road in September 1980; KDB 997653 bogie bolster at Reading West in July 1982; DB 983859 Catfish nbsp;ballast hopper at Stoke Longport Junction in April 1980; DB 993708 ballast plough/brake in January 1986.

Paul Rees. The Woodside Project. Part 1. 189-92.
Wirral Museum exhibit covering the Ferry Terminal, bus and tram terminus, Woodside Station, the landing stage, graving dock and pumping station as in 1934. Contract between local authority and Merseyside Model Railway Society.

Bob Essery. Train classification and locomotive headlamp codes. 193-9.
See also lettter from Mike Barnsley
Illustrations: p. 198 upper: standard compound No. 914 with express passenger train and semaphore routing code: see letter from Arnold Tortorella

T.W. ('Smokey') Bourne. Non-locomotive movement. 200-2.
Horses, capstans, tractors with pneumatic tyres.

From our correspondents. 203

Alfreton aftermath. Frank Nicholls
I have made purchases of model railway equipment from ordinary toy/model shops, by mail order, from exhibition stands and occa- sionally from specialist retailers over a period of 30 years. Despite the view rather forcibly expressed by one of the correspondents the only seriously defective purchase I have made was from an ostensibly reputable specialist retailer who showed little inclination to acknowledge any problem.
This may have been an unfortunate and atypical experience, but my second point is a more general one. A lot of the things required by serious modellers cannot be produced and sold in large volume. There is more chance of finding such items when manufacturers or traders from a large geographical area are concentrated at a show than from anyone specialist retailer. I have found the trade stands at exhibitions a useful source for many of my requirements. Mail order is another useful source. If these sources are providing a good service to the buying public I see no good reason for criticising them unless there is clearly evidence of devious practice. Operating without the expense of ordinary retail premises does not appear to me to be a criticism if they still provide a satisfactory service.

We are afraid that some of the correspondence on the above topic has taken on a mutually destructive tone which we do not think helps anyone; but Nicholls' letter does reflect a balanced view which, as far as anyone letter can, summarises the majority view - Editor.

'Blink Bonny' at King's Cross. Peter E. Whitaker
As we do not know what day of the week the picture was taken, I can only hazard a guess but there are several possibilities. Judging by the shadows the picture was taken about mid-morning, something like 10 or 11am. The most obvious reason that comes to mind is that the booked engine for the train (probably a Cl 4-4-2) had failed, and the Al was on shed as a standby locomotive to cover failures. Another possibility is that the locomotive had received attention either to a big end bearing or some other part of the motion, and the train involved was being used as a running in turn. Bear in mind that the LNER in 1939 was trying to save money wherever possible, and would try to get a large engine back in service as soon as possible. Other explanations could be that the locomotive had accumulated a high milege which prevented it from being run at high speed, but as secondary services rarely exceeded 50mph, the locomotive could safely be used for lower speed running until a place could be found at 'The Plant' (Doncaster) for it to receive a general or intermediate overhaul. The train appears to be in the short platform between the main line and the suburban stations, and as a secondary service probably consisted of a mixed bag of coaches. With regard to the Quad-art on the right of the picture, the lower stepboard was a feature that remained on these sets of coaches right up to their withdrawal in the 1960s. I believe that other coaches mostly had them removed because shunters made a habit of riding on the stepboards and were frequently swept off by lineside equipment, often with fatal results. As the Quad-arts ran in almost permanent sets of eight coaches (2x4) they were not often used in shunting movements and so the need to remove the lower steps did not arise.

'Blink Bonny' at King's Cross. John Measures. 203
At the date quoted Blink Bonny was a Grantham engine and therefore working north. Moreover it is standing at platform 11, which was part of King's Cross suburban, in the.morning sunlight. The working timetable differentiates between suburban and main line stations and so this means we can narrow the field. While I have no copy of the Winter table, the Summer ST shows two trains carrying 'stopping train' headlamps that are candidates, mainly the 7.45am (train No.228) and the 10.40am SX - 10.35am SO - (train No.356). Both trains were of the 'Parliamentary' variety after Hitchin and normally worked through to Doncaster arriving at 2.25pm and 5.30pm respectively. Saturday arrivals were even later! Of the two I would put my money on the later departure; a more gentlemanly hour with interesting departures to photograph in the previous hour. Further I would bet on a Saturday.
While I have no first-hand knowledge of pre-war workings, there is much pictorial evidence of Pacifics working secondary services. Some of these carried express headlamps but were clearly semi-fast. A well- known and extreme example is the 3.30pm Peterborough to Grantham (train No.455) calling at Tallington and Essendine. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER part 2A has a photograph of No. 2562 Isinglass, a Grantham engine, approaching its local station in 1935, carrying express headlamps and hauling two ex-GN six-wheel coaches making up this train! However the timetable shows these as ordinary passenger. Further, train No.580, the 4.15pm King's Cross to Grantham, was another such train, often photographed with A4 haulage. This had light headway clearance in front of the Jubilee at Peterborough and in earlier days frequently delayed the 5.30pm Newcastle service beyond Peterborough, much to the chagrin of C.J. Allen and other train timers. Once again this train is shown in the timetable as ordinary passenger, though I have seen pictures, purporting to show this train, with a Pacific displaying an express passenger headcode.
I am sure other more erudite readers with perhaps first-hand experience, can enlighten us all on these matters with more assurance'. I therefore end this letter before going further over the top with more speculations! But I can't help wondering when Easter 1939 was, and was this a normal working or had No.2550 brought an 'extra' sleeper up to London?

Horseboxes. J. Page
Writer modelled the Midland & South Western Junction Railway and its heavy military and racehorse traffic. I think, however, that the horsebox referred to as appearing in the Likey Incline photographs (NRM ref. Derby 9583) can be identified as an MSWJR vehicle, probably built for the Company in 1894 by the Oldbury Railway Carriage Co. Although much of the detailed history of these vehicles remain unclear, a photographs exists showing an identical vehicle at Chisholrn station clearly lettered as MSWJR No. 10. Having said that, photographs of MSWJR horseboxes and milk vans in service are rare, whether pre- or post-grouping.

As it was. R.E. Rodrigues. 203
Regarding the caption to the photograph of Stewart's Lane Goods depot (SE&CR) where it is stated that: "The nature of the load on the left cannot be determined, but it seems to warrant sheeting down." suggest that this load is manure. This would have been collected from mews and carters' stables and sold for use as agricultural fertilizer. Before shipment it would have been 'de-odorised' as required by the Incorporating —or Additional Powers — Acts of the railway companies, and the reason for the use of sheeting should be obvious. In pre-grouping days the horse was, of course, the dominant motive power of the road transport indus- try and hence the supply of this useful commodity would have been plentiful and continuous — if unmentionable in polite society.

LNER goods brake vans J.A. Evans. 203-4
Use of sanding gear to augment braking power on LNER express freight brake vans built until the 1940s. Presumably Bob refers to the Diagram 61 16ft 0in wheelbase vans (Toad D) built from 1929 onwards which eventually formed the basis of BR's own standard goods brake vans. It is true the earliest D61 vans when built were equipped with sanding gear. Indeed I have an ex works photograph of No.l57838, built in 1930, which shows this. However, it would seem vans of the same type built later in the 1930s lacked sanding gear. This is demonstrated by photographs of Nos. l82915, built 1936, and 187642, built 1937, both photographed in service in the late 1930s by Guy Hemingway. Peter Tatlow's Pictorial Record of LNER Wagons, plate 349, also shows No. l82922, also of 1936, ex works, without sanding gear.
Model Railway News, April 1939, contained an article "The Rolling Stock of the LNER" by C. H. Dunk, describing his collection of 7mrn scale models which for their time were of excellent quality. These models included a Toad D, the number of which is indistinct, but which may be No. l57838 mentioned above. This model has sanding gear. Dunk says "I went to considerable trouble in modelling the awkward shape of the sandboxes at each end only to find they have all been removed."
It seems the earlier LNER GBVs Image Image of D's 34 and 64 with 10ft 6in wheelbase (Toads Band E respectively) underwent the same modification, compare Tatlow, Plates 345 and 346 with Plate 348. All three vans were new when photographed. The same pattern is repeated on several other Toad Band Toad E photos in my own collection. It does look as though the LNER began to dispense with sanding gear on their GBVs sometime in the early 1930s, but I cannot say when this process began. Incidentally, I wonder what happened to C. H. Dunk's models, and whether they are still in existence.

David Ibbotson. 204
Noted that Bob Essery mentioned that the GNR built goods brake vans with as many as eight wheels on a thirteen foot rigid wheelbase. From his flies, David has produced this photograph of one of these unique brake vans in preservation and restored to pregrouping livery at Grosmont on the North Yorkshire Moors Railway in 1984.
Just to prove that the goods brake van with a top lookout or 'birdcage' lasted in to more recent times, David also provides a view of the local breakdown train at Queensbury GNR in 1951. An original condition view of the type was included in the Goods Brake Van feature in MBT Vol.2 No.2.

Pre-Grouping Royal Mail vehicles. Philip A. Millard. 204
Following up Eric Bruton's photograph of M&NEJPS 54ft 0in Post Office No.4, you may be interested in the enclosed photograph which shows sister vehicle No.5 as LMS No.30284 in the 1930s. Note that the four traduclor arms are still in place, and that no large 'Royal Mail' lettering is carried. I rather think that this was only introduced around 1936.
The carriage was built in 1907 and lasted until December 1953. The far vehicle is LMS No.30286, formerly M&NEJPS No.7, a similar vehicle but a Post Office Sorting Van (POS) rather than a Tender (POT). This means that although it had the four traductor arms, no receiving net apparatus was provided.
The carriage partly visible nearest the camera is the unique LNWR 50ft 0in Parcel Sorting Van to D.408 of which very few views are known. It was built in November 1898 as LNWR No.21, later LNWR No.9521, then LMS No.3238 and finally No.30378 in the 1933 scheme. It was built for the Bangor-Crewe service where it ran until 5 November 1915, but not much is known about its subsequent career and it was not allocated to any service in the 1935 Post Office Roster. However, the photograph reveals that it found employment on the Newcastle-Bristol mail at around that time. It was withdrawn in January 1939.
The security aspect of the continued use of the Lansdowne side gangway on Post Office vehicles was only a by-product. The side gangways were retained not only because they permitted better utilisation of the interior space, but because they were wider than normal and allowed the passage of hand carts loaded with mail bags from one vehicle to another. A disadvantage of the side gang ways was that the PO carriages had to be turned at the end of each journey, either by working around a triangle or in some cases on a locomotive turntable.

Contents and variety. Mick Nicholson. 204
Like myself, many of my friends are professional railwaymen, and they all speak highly of the contents of both your magazines. At first I was a little doubtful of the inclusion of 'pure' modelling articles in MBT, but now having seen your three LNWR coach articles I look forward to others. Maybe I can add a couple of personal comments. There is often a long lack of continuity between successive parts of the same articles. For example 'Making Tracks' first appeared in Vol 1 No.2, then Vol. 1 No.5, we are now up to Vol.2 No.2 without a further article. Yet conversely Peter Fidczuk's excellent articles on steel mineral wagons practically dominated three successive issues. I do of course realize that owing to research time etc. it may not always be possible to produce articles for successive issues.

Colour file for modellers: branch line bridges. Stephen Dent. 205
Viaducts on Boar's Head to Adlington branch and at Redbrook across River Wye near Monmouth.

Great Western in transition. Vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover.
Unidentified Hall class (dirty) with locomotive coal hoppers in two different liveries. Photograph taken 5 September 1937.

Number 5 (December 1992/January 1993)

Brigantes. Can we with kits? 212-15

David Geen. GWR dining and restaurant cars. Part 3. Collett's later dining and restaurant cars. 216-29.
Includes buffet cars, kitchen cars (to run with excursion stock), kitchen/dining cars to run with Centenary stock built for Cornish Riviera in 1935 with Beclawat windows, but rapdly replaced by airstream vents. The Super Saloons were modified with kitchens and a further series of kitchen cars was constructed in 1936/7. Some vehicles were built with six-wheel bogies aznd were mainly intended for heavy excursion traffic. Mention is made of the buffets installed in the single unit diesel railcars and in the twin-unit railcars.

Mike Williams. LNWR 30ft 1in picnic saloons. 230-4.
Six-wheel third class saloons intended for private parties and fitted with a WC and aa compaartment for luggage or food. Built in 1893. Diagrams and plans. Photo. illus: shown in use at Gloucester old station behind MR 2-4-0 No. 1295 (1282 class) in early 1900s; behind 0-6-2T Coal Tank No. 7722 at Huddersfield in late 1920s; and interior of preseved vehicle.

B.C. Lane, Tender exchanges. 235.
Use of L&YR eight-wheel tenders on LNWR G1 0-8-0s (No. 9167 shown in this state at Willesden in 1932) and LNWR tenders on L&YR 0-8-0s (No. 12952 shown at Bolton shed in this condition probably post-WW2)

David Jenkinson. The 'domeless' LMS Class 5 4-6-0s. 236-47.
The early domeless locomotives also included the four named locomotives. This is mainly about the construction of models in 4mm and 7mm scale, but includes information and some excellent illustrations of the prototypes: No. 5020 in ex-Works condition from Vulcan Foundry; No. 5029 on short express passenger train (space at front beneath smokebox clearly visible; No. 5024 without space; No. 5025 (colour view showing cab and number and "LMS" on tender); No. 5094 ex-works (with shorter chimney; top feed set into boiler casing and straight combination lever; No. 5160 (Armstrong Whitworth series with welded tenders) at Perth with tablet catcher on cab in 1935; No. 5157 The Glasgow Highlander with clear lining in 1936; diagram (side & front elevations of locomotive & tender; short firebox No. 5202 fitted with domed boiler; No. 5006 built at Crewe with short chimney, but with Vulcan built tender; 7mm scale Ayrshire Yeomanry on Author's garden railway; No. 5156 Ayrshire Yeomanry at Carlisle c1957; No.. 5113 with domed boiler; and 1936 style sans- serif insignia; No. 5048 in original condition at Sheffield c1935 and with domed boiler at Willesden as No. 45048 in 1963; No. 5047 modified to accept long firebox boiler in 1936 style livery; No. 45054 with t long firebox boiler and welded tender; No, 5171 with 10-inch numerals on express wiuth former Pullman dining car at front at Perth in August 1939 (Gavin Wilson); No. 5156 models in 4mm and 7mm scale; No. 5160 in plain black with tablet catcher at Kingmoor; No. M5101 with domed short firebox boiler leaving Bradford with inaugural The South Yorkshireman; No. 45157 The Glasgow Highlander in plain black livery with BRITISH RAILWAYS on the tender and number high up cab; cab interior; No. 45170 in BR lined livery but with BRITISH RAILWAYS on the tende at Carrbridge c1950 (Gavin Wilson); No.45000 with replacement short fiorebox boiler and welded tender; No. 45030 still with Horwich type combination lever and still domeless c1960 on Scottish Region. See also letter from G.A.G. Potts.

Eric Bruton. Southern tank engines. (The Eric Bruton album No. 3). 248-9..
H class No. 31310 leaving Hastings for Rye with 17.45 in September 1950; E5 No. 32586; 4-8-0T No. 30494 at Feltham in 1952, and 415 class 4-4-2T No. 30583 nbsp;at Exeter Central on 12 April 1953.

Paul Rees. Getting it right: the Woodside project. Part 2. 250-5.
Birkenhead: timetables in 1930s. Illustrations: 0-4-2T leaving with toplight coaches from Platform 2 in April 1930; King George V 4-4-0 No. 5365 Racehorse leaving with GWR stock in April 1930; Dean Goods 0-6-0 leaving with LMS non-corridor stock in April 1930; LMS (ex-LNWR) 2-4-2T No. 6649 with GWR stock See also letter from J.K.L. Mann.

Water columns, tanks and standards. (The Ibbotson Portfolio No. 2). 256-7.
Water column at Five Ways, Birmingham; water tank at Tewksbury and water crane at Leek.

From our correspondents. 259-60/62.

Sacré Singles and the LNWR. Edward Talbot
Bob Miller's article on the Sacre Singles (MBT Vol.2 No 3) was of great interest. In particular, it was fascinating to learn that Sacré adopted the Crewe-type arrangement of double framing with outside cylinders for the very same reasons that the type was developed in the first place some 40 years before.
The repeated breakage of crank axles on the various inside-cylinder engines of the Grand Junction Railway had become a major problem. It was caused partly by the difficulty of manufacture but was exacerbated by the very sharp curves at Earlestown. The solution was to abandon inside cylinders altogether, and with them the need for crank axles, and to use outside cylinders in double frames for rigidity. Evidence that the solution was successful can be found in the long life of the various Crewe-type engines, both passenger and goods.
Although the Sacré Singles were the last new design of outside cylinder 2-2-2 built in Britain, they were not strictly the last to be built, as the London & North Western Railway actually built some sixty new engines of the type when F.W. Webb 'renewed' the 'Problems' in 1895-9. It is perhaps not generally realised that 'renewal' in LNWR parlance meant in effect scrapping an old engine and building a new one of the same or closely similar design in its place. The new engine took the same number and name, and incorporated as many of the parts of the old engine as possible. So when 'renewed', the 'Problems' had new steel frames and cylinders, and new steel boilers pitched higher than in the original design of 1859, which had itself been renewed once already. Many parts from the previous engines were reused, such as valve gear, cab, bufferbeams, whistle and so forth, but essentially the engines were new.
Despite this, they had very short lives, all being scrapped in 1903-7, under the superintendence of Webb's successor, George Whale. In some accounts the large-scale withdrawals which took place at this period of LNWR history are presented as evidence of the failure of Webb's three-cylinder compounds. In fact, it was not merely the three-cylinder compounds that were scrapped at this time but all the smaller Webb classes, simple and compound alike. As well as the 'Problems', the first 'Jumbos', themselves 'renewed' in the 1890s, were also scrapped, along with the first of the 'Special DX' 0-6-0s and four-coupled passenger tanks. The reason for this was that they were simply too small for the greatly increased train loads of the early twentieth century.
It may also not be generally realised or accepted that the practise of 'renewal' at Crewe did not end with the LNWR. The 'Rebuilt Scots' were a typical Crewe 'renewal', albeit in the LMS period under no less a personage than W.A. Stanier. They had new frames, cylinders and boilers, and reused some parts from the original 'Royal Scots', which were scrapped after fifteen to twen- ty years service. The same applied equally to the 'Rebuilt Jubilees' and 'Rebuilt Patriots'. Did any other company or works practise 'renewal' in this way and to this extent?

GWR dining cars. Chris Youett.
David Geen's feature on the GWR wooden panelled restaurant cars was timely, not least because it corrected a number of errors perpetuated by the late Jim Russell and other authors. I was particularly pleased that he was able to find a photograph proving that the 11ft 6in American bogies did actually exist.
Just to amplify his comments on kits which are available, the Trevor Charlton zinc sides and ends actually cover Dreadnought Dia H11 the sides for the M15 cover the first four with recessed doors, the rest of the Lot with normal doors and the first rebuild of the M15 series where the three windows per bay were re- placed by a single long window and Beclawat ventilator above alternate windows as per Super Saloons as built.
There were at least four types of six-wheel bogies fitted to GWR Restaurant Cars. The wooden American type as fitted to H22 Dining Car No.9556 are available from Blacksmith Models, as are the later 5ft 9in + 5ft 9in and 6ft 3in + 6ft 3in types. The other type, the first steel framed bogies, are almost identical to LNWR six-wheel bogies as fitted to its best Anglo-Scottish and WCJS coaches. These can be obtained from Modellers World at Coventry, but modellers will have to carefully file off the Crewe type axle boxes and replace them with GWR OK pattern
See Vol. 2 No. 3: six wheel and 11ft 6in American bogies fitted

Post Office vehicles. J.B. Dawson. 259-60
Iinterested to see the items on Post Office vehicles by Eric Bruton and Philip Millard in Vol.2 Nos.2 and 4, and in particular the M&NEJPS vans. Throughout the 1930s and for several years after that I regularly saw the Midland TPO in Newcastle. The train always consisted of two letter sorting vans and one tender behind these two vans, plus various passenger coaches and ordinary vans. On arrival at Newcastle in the early hours, seven days a week, the whole train was taken by the Newcastle Station Accommodation Pilot to a siding at Low Fell, just south of Gateshead, to spend the day. About 5.50pm the pilot brought the train back into Newcastle via the High Level Bridge in order that the train got turned. It was then backed into what was then No. 11 bay platform and postal workers commenced work about 1½ hours before departure time. The two sorting vans were taken from M&NEJPS 30283 to 30288; two others from the batch being on the opposite train from Bristol and the other two either spare or in shops. These vans always ran with their nets and traductors on the left hand side. The tender was normally taken from one of three vehicles: M&NEJPS 30280 which was a semi-low roof bogie vehicle built in 1886 by the North Eastern Railway to Midland Railway specification. It was numbered 257 in the NER an register but lettered M&NEJPS 30280. It was withdrawn in February 1939 after 53 years service. The other two were clerestory roof Midland Railway-built vams. M&NEJPS 30281 built in 1899 and an identical vehicle 30282 which, for some unknown reason was always lettered LMS.
In the 1930s and probably until around 1950 it was the practice for all post offices, even small village post offices, in the north of England to sort their outgoing mail into three bags:
1 to the Midland TPO going South.
2 to the North Eastern TPO going south (Newcastle to King's Cross).
3 to the nearest letter sorting office, ie Darlington, York etc.
The three bags were then taken to the local passenger station by the postman and handed to the Guard of the passenger train. On arrival at say Darlington the bags from numerous stations were handed over to post office staff who sorted them into the above three categories to await the arrival of the Midland TPO when the bags were loaded into the tender, emptied and the letters taken into the sorting vans for sorting into destination towns or areas. The tenders were vans, the only item of equipment in them being the numerous hooks around the walls on which, at the start of a journey were hung empty mail bags complete with their labels. The labels were to some distant town or to another TPO with which the Midland TPO connected at such places as Tamworth. As the TPO continued its journey the letters in the pigeon holes were conveyed to the tender and placed in the appropriate bags as the time approached for certain bags to be closed, sealed and handed over to postal staff at the next stop of the TPO. Also conveyed in the tender were through bags, ie bags from such as Newcastle to Birmingham where there would be a large volume of mail.
Parcel Post was not handled by the TPO, and until British Railways lost the parcel post contract a few years ago, parcel post was handled by railway staff once it was on railway property. It was always in through bags made up by the post office.
With regard to Philip Millard's photograph on p204 of Vol.2 No.4, he does not mention where he took the photograph but the vehicles appear to be in the wrong order for them to be in service. The 'far' vehicle which he says is 30286 is to me more like tenders 30281 and 30282. He also mentioned 30378 partly visible. I saw this vehicle in Newcastle in February 1938 but am not sure whether it was on the Midland PTO.See also further observations from Philip A. Millard.

Club saloons. Philip A. Millard.
See letter from Tony East: it was improbable that he nbsp;rode in a twelve-wheel vehicle on a North Wales Land Cruise train due to restrictions on the lines which the excursions traversed. It is more probable that the vehicles used were ex-LNWR Club Saloons (Nos. 234 and 235) used on the Manchester-Llandudno Club Train from 1907 and which became Nos. M814 and M815 (illustrated) on the Land Cruise Trains.

Train classification and locomotive headlamp codes. Arnold Tortorella. 260
With regard to the fine print of LMS Standard Compound 4-4-0 No.914 displaying express passenger train headcode, I can confirm that this locomotive and working is, in fact, on the former G&SWR mainline. As per the attached copy of the LMS Sectional Appendix to the Working Time Table, 1937, a variety of positions for the semaphore arms on the smokebox front or the front buffer beam of the locomotive were employed by the LMS after the 1923 grouping to differentiate traffic travelling over the two Joint Lines — Glasgow and Paisley, and Glasgow, Barrhead and Kilmarnock, into and out of Glasgow.
Prior to the 1923 amalgamations, traffic on these two routes of the Caledonian and Glasgow and South Western Companies had been extremely heavy, and the Caledonian Company had used the semaphore arms to indicate to signalmen, along with the correct bell and whistle codes, where a working was bound for. According to reliable data, 1924 is taken as being the year for the introduction of semaphore arms to the former G&SWR section of the LMS, although confirmation of this point would be desirable. David L. Smith in Legends of the G&SWR (David & Charles, 1980), page 37, records No.914 as being a Corkerhill locomotive. Along with the former Midland carriage at the head of the train, and the print as currently reproduced, I would estimate that the location is on the former G&SWR main line from St. Enoch to Carlisle and being south of Kilmarnock.
It should also be noted that the LMS continued to employ semaphore arms as route indicators on the front of locomotives for workings bound for both Glasgow Central Station and Edinburgh Princes Street.

Train classification and locomotive headlamp codes. Mike Barnsley. 260; 262
Agreed with Bob Essery's assertion that locomotive headlamp codes had received scant coverage in the railway press. Consequently he wonders whether the full significance of his references to the year 1903 will be appreciated. During the nineteenth century, each railway company had been left free to develop its own individual system of train headcodes. A wide variety of schemes had resulted. By night, lamps were used which displayed white, green, blue, or purple lights. By day, some companies simply left the lamps unlit, while others replaced them with discs, boards, or indicators. Sometimes the code indicated the class of train, but in other cases it showed the destination, or distinguished between regular and special traffic.
The lack of conformity often led to confusion when trains of more than one company operated over the same stretch of line. In the case of my local company, the Midland & South Western Junction Railway, all trains working onto the London & South Western Railway at Andover were expected to display a unique MSWJR route code of white lamps in front of the chimney and over the right-hand (offside) buffer. But at the northern end of the route, the Great Western signalman at Andoversford would not have recognised such a code, while his Midland Railway colleague at Cheltenham Lansdown would have interpreted the code as signifying an excursion, official, or special passenger train booked to stop at principal stations only. Such chaos could not be allowed to continue. Talks were held under the auspices of the Railway Clearing House, and eventually most of the English companies agreed to adopt a uniform system of head codes. The new headcodes were to indicate the class of the train, rather than its route or destination, and would comprise lamps which were unlit by day, and which displayed a white light at night. The date chosen for introduction of the new system was 1 February 1903.
Not all companies adopted the new system. The South Eastern & Chatharn, the London, Brighton & South Coast, the London, Tilbury & Southend, and the Metropolitan and District lines kept to their old system of route codes. The Great Eastern Railway continued to use discs for daytime display, and while adopting white discs for main lines, developed its own system of white and green discs showing destina- tions of suburban trains. The London & South Western Railway tried the new headlamp codes for a short while, but soon reverted to discs for daytime use, claiming that the lamps were less easy to see.
Details of the new head codes are given in the Historical Model Railway Society booklet Midland Style, and in an article by G.W.J. Potter in the Railway Club Journol of 1903. Chart showing the 1903 headcodes reproduced. The three examples using triple headlamps will be noted. He was not sure exactly when the codes were simplified to the single and twin lamp codes as shown in Bob Essery's article, but it seems to have been around the time of the WW1.

A trio of tunnels. (Colour files for modelmakers). Stephen Dent (phot.). 261.
Tunnel portals at Flax Bourton, Disley and St. Anne's No. 2 tunnel.

LMS loose-coupled freight. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
LNWR 19inch Goods 4-6-0 No. 8824 on up freight at Berkhamsted in 1938 (Philip Colebourn Collection). See also letter from J.K.L. Mann.

Number 6 (February-March 1993)

Stan Roberts. The Woodside Project supplementary: telephone kiosks. 268-72.
See also letter from G.M. Moon.

Eric Bruton. Buffet cars. (The Eric Bruton album No. 4). 273.

Steve Banks. Passenger trains and formations on the LNER. 274-82.
Concentrates on ordinary passenger trains (those with a single headlamp or disc next to the chimney) almost entirely composed of non-corridor, some of which might contain lavatories, normally with a brake composite as the rear vehicle. illustrations: Atlantic No. 4400 with a pair of articulated twins on ECML c1935; C4 No.6088 between Sheffield and Nottingham with a four set which included a clerestory coach and was strenthened by two six-wheel coaches; C4 No.6085 leaves Rugby with a four set formed entirely of Great Central coaches; B1 No. 61162 sets back at Rugby with set of Thompson coaches c1950 (A.G. Franklin); A5 No, 154 with set of four coaches of Great Central/LNER stock plus one clerestory third at front and two vans at rear north of Marylebone; V1 No. 2910 with five set of North British/LNER coaches strenthened at rear with NBR third in Princes Street Gardens, Edinburgh c1935; L1 No. 67740 with Marylebone set formedoff two twin artiuated pairs plus two older singles c1950; N1 No. 69434 shunting a four set at Harrogate formed of Great Central, to Gresley andv on Thompson coach; Chesterfield Market Place with C14 No. 6129 and set of six-wheel coaches behind; C13 No. 67417 with Manchester to Hadfield push & pull (motor train) (W. Potter). See also correspondence from D,P. Rowland and from Lawson Little and J.H. Quick.

B.C. Lane. Parachute water columns. 283.
Diagrams redrawn from Horwich drawing No. 4536.

Philip A. Millard. The Great Northern signalbox safari. 284-9.
Harringay Up Goods; Cemetery (colour); Wood Green No. 3 after closure but erving as a PW hut in 1970; Huntindon North No. 2 in 1972; St. Neots; Lolham controlling level crossing; Leadenham (colour); High Ferry (colour); Old Leake (colour); Doncaster C (colour).

Alan Kirk. Whitwell staation. 290-1
Photograph and diagrams

John Horton. Mostly maimftames—a Modelling dissertation. 292-300.

Peter Tatlow. The Highland Railway station footbridge. 301-4

The Ibbotson Portfolio No.3 —Signals and bridges. 305-7
See also letter from C.J. Isherwood

John Van Riemsdijk. The case for gauge 1 live steam. 308-11

T.W. Bourne. Dancing on the roof. 312-14
As a youth writer visited Water Orton where vans werre inspected to see3 if they were suited for potato traffic. Also notes how vans could be classified as ventilated or not, by wheelbase, by axlebox lubrication (oil or grease), by being braked or fitted as well as by load type. Illustrations include LNER former fish van used as unventilated van; former LSWR external-framed timber van and a cut of vans showing their variety. See also correspondence from D,P. Rowland

Rrom our correspondents.. 315-16

Bishop's Lydeard. (Colour file for modelmakers). 317
See also letter from Tony Bagwell Honorary Secretary Taunton Model Railway Group

Index. Peter Erwood. 318

Book reviews. 318

Southern express (Vintage colour page). rear cover
Eric D. Bruton Dufaycolour colour image of Merchant Navy 21C18 British India Line (in malachite green with bold yellow stripes) with train of Maunsell corridor stock still in darker green livery near Raynes Park with down Weymouth train in September 1946

Volume 3

Number 1 (April/May 1993)

Holt, Geoff. The red Scots. 4-13.
The author's definition extends to the unrebuilt locomotives, plus the solitary 6170 British Legion. The approach is that of the model maker who was constructing three 7mm models (two unrebuilt locomotives at different stages in their existence plus No. 6170 for David Jenkinson). There is comment on the errors which have been detected in many of the drawings (diagrams) available to model makers. The illustrations and diagrams have been gathered to show the detail differences and changes wrought on the locomotives: these include smoke deflector plates and steps.

Wordsworth, Ian. Layout planning. 14-21.
Although ultimately concerned with such non-prototype features as fiddle yards (although how the bizarre prototype fiasco would love to be able to employ such features) this does feature many useful prototype features: station layout plans for Ashburton, West Bay, Highworth, and Holywell Town plus R.C. Riley photographs of Bath Green Park with 2P No. 40698 on 13.10 to Templecombe on 22 July 1958; Bath Green Park with 41243 on 17.45 to Bristol on 4 July 1959; Highworth on 9 June 1951 with No. 5805 awaiting departure; T9 No. 30719 at Padstow on 15 July 1960 and 41310 at Torrington on 25 September 1962.

Bruton, Eric. LMS non-passenger coaching stock (the Eric Bruton album No. 6). 22-3.
Bogie van No. M31978 at Windermere in June 1950 (vehicle rebuilt from former LYR ambulance coach by LMS in 1924); M40476 six-wheel slatted fish van at Mallaig Junction in June 1951 (30ft vehicle built by LMS to MR design for fruir or fish traffic); General Utility Vans (GUV) hauled by Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 2684 near St Albans on 14 August 1948.

Millard, Philip A. LNWR Royal Train Saloon No. 56. 24-9.
With colour photographs of then extant fittings and furnishings by Peter Bishop. Includes black & white photographs of vehicle in its original state and as converted to a holiday home in 1936.

Fidczuk, Peter. Air Ministry tank wagons. Part 1. The War years. 30-7.

From our correspondents. 52

Our Editorial in Volume 2 No.6 on the theme of 'Attracting Newcomers' prompted a very large mailbag containing much valuable and thought- provoking material. As we go to press it is still arriving so rather than print short extracts here, we have decided to enlarge the letters section in the next issue to give extended airing to the subject. If you wish to join the debate, please let us have your thoughts no later than mid-April. - Ed.

Operation (Vo1.2 No.6). D.P. Rowland
Thought the article by Steve Banks on LNER Ordinary Passenger trains was one of the most interesting and realistic offerings he had read for some time. If he does present more could he perhaps say something about Saturday diagrams between the wars? Not the 'summer Saturdays' so beloved of modellers but the way Saturday services peaked at morning and mid-day rather than morning and evening, and how the diagrams reflected this different service pattern.
Turning to 'Dancing on the Roof' by T. W. Bourne in the same issue? I think I can explain the ballet demonstration. The railways went to great lengths to protect potato traffic from frost and chills. This was especially true of the more valuable seed potatoes. Vents admitted cold air which damaged the load so, wherever possible non-ventilated vans were used. If ventilated vans had to be used the first job was to block the vents with straw or sacking. In the winter months the floor was first covered with a layer of straw and more straw was packed around the sides, all to protect the load. In later years some stations in Scotland lined the van sides and ends with draft paper, secured to the planks with staples. What I believe the author saw at Water Orton would be the movement of a stock of vans to Lincolnshire or Scotland ready for the start of the potato season.
However, I find it very difficult to accept the same author's statement in the caption on page 314 that (in the 1950s) "it was still deemed necessary to return vans to their operating region even though they were now all under common ownership ... ". None of my railwaymen friends has ever heard of such a practice and the British Railways bible of control and distribution of freight stock makes no mention of anything remotely resembling it. Indeed, how would Bourne's foreman at Water Orton know whether an ex-LNER van was allocated to Eastern or Scottish regions or to which of the five regions a BR-built van was allocated? I doubt whether even Sir Brian Robertson could have told him. There were movements of stock between regions but these were solely to balance stock shortages and I am unaware of any selection of particular vehicles for these movements. Specialiy Controlled wagons were of course treated differently. Much as I dislike saying so, I think we need something more positive, like an official instruction, before we can accept it as railway 'history'.

Telephone kiosks. G.M. Moon. 52. 2 illustrations
Congratulations to Stan Roberts (Vol.2, No.6) for his article on a subject which has received scant coverage in the past — indeed, the whole subject of street furniture to suit railway models has been largely overlooked. I would only add a couple of comments: the concrete kiosks fell out of favour as although they were cheaper to produce than the cast-iron ones, they had the two disadvantages of being much more fragile and liable to damage, and extremely heavy; they could not be picked up intact and moved as can an iron box. Probably the last K1 in service in the greater London area was outside Little Heath Post Office at Potters Bar and I am happy to have been instrumental in saving it for re-erection at the East Anglia Transport Museum near Lowestoft (photos enclosed) in 1972 where it is equipped with Button B machinery though not yet operable. The kiosk sits on a concrete plinth visible as preserved but sunk by successive re-tarmacing of the pavement at Potters Bar. The main structure was, and is, painted white. Two K3 kiosks formerly inside the Royal Exchange, London, are now preserved at Cobham Bus Museum near Weybridge.
K6 kiosks' can have either a King's Crown or a Queen's Crown cast in below the roof, depending on the date of manufacture; the King's Crown has a round top as shown, and the Queen's Crown a concave top. Pre-1953 modellers take care!

Paul Bartlett. Brick traffic: colour file for modelmakers. 53
Bogie brick wagon No. 163538 built LNER to GNR design at Euston Station during its rebuilding PALBRICK for carrying bricks in pallets

LNER passenger trains . Lawson Little, . 54
Particularly interested to see mention in Steve Banks article on LNER passenger stock of the 'school saloons' used on the Chesterfield-Langwith Junction line, as he travelled in them daily for six years starting in 1945. The ex-GCR saloon was one of three built to Diagram 5Fl in 1900 and carrying LNER numbers 51315- 17. The ex-NER vehicle was a three-compartment Third Saloon built to Dia. 1518. Contrary to the article, both lasted until the end of passenger service in 1951; latterly they ran with a Thompson three-set (BT-CL- BT), the only post-grouping stock on the line.

LNER passenger trains . J.H. Quick. 54
Photograph at top of p.275 was taken rather earlier than 1930 and I am sure that it is not between Sheffield and Nottingham. The picture has appeared before in Locomotives of the LNER, part 3A. That publication suggests 1924 which seems much more reasonable. It also says that the picture was taken near East Leake, which is between Nottingham and Loughborough. I feel fairly sure that it is a little further north, nearer Ruddington, with bridge 300 in the background.
The first vehicle behind 6085 at the top of p.276 is not an ex-GC carriage. I am not certain what it is but it may be an ex-NER 40ft third. Nearly 50 of these were transferred to the GC section in the 1936/37 period. Steve Banks mentions the GC clerestory stock, the construction of which continued through to 1905. The last examples in normal BR service were withdrawn towards the end of 1958. They were 5344 and 5154, a five compartment third brake and a luggage composite respectively. They finished working on the Guide Bridge to Oldham service.
A most important point that the author raises is just how many pre-group vehicles were around in BR days. The last GC coaching stock example that I can trace, was a full brake, withdrawn at the end of 1961.

Bishops Lydeard. Tony Bagwell. 54
It must be the aim of every serious modeller to attempt to achieve realism in all that they do, and I think I can say that the Taunton Model Railway group can claim to have done that, at least in one respect. Imagine our surprise when, on opening Vol.2 No.6, we spot in the 'Colour File' sectidon a photograph of our club room on Bishops Lydeard Station on the West Somerset Railway. The text suggests that the collection of buildings on the said station represent a typical GWR country station. Whilst I agree that the Great Western produced many aesthetically pleasing buildings from the mundane material corrugated iron, the example shown in your photograph is actually an ex MOD war-time Nissen hut that was erected about 1978 over what was once the goods shed siding end. Whilst these once common buildings may now be a rarity, it is a complement to the Group for it to be mistaken as a genuine GWR construction. For those of your readers wishing to view the inside of the structure, and of course, the Group's large 4mm, 2mm and tram layouts, may I suggest they visit the station on one of the WSR gala days, or perhaps a Bank Holiday when the building is usually open to the public. It may be interesting to see if any such buildings begin to appear on model railways in the future; that indeed would be a novelty!

Post Office vehicles. Philip A. Millard
Greatly obliged for J.B. Dawson's additional information about the Midland TPO, but I need to say that the number of M&NEJPS 30286 is clearly legible on the original print. I did not take the photograph myself, and I cannot identify the location, so I accept that the carriages may not be in service.
However, I cannot agree that Parcel Post was not sorted by the GPO staff en route where this was required and where facilities existed. The Diagram of LMS No.30378 (LNWR D.408) clearly shows parcel sorting tables. There were also Parcel Post Vans in the West Coast Joint Stock fleet, similarly equipped with sorting tables.
Some LMS standard TPOs also had parcels sorting tables Editor.

The Ibbotson Portfolio No.3 —Signals and Bridges (Vo1.2 No.6). C.J. Isherwood
To clarify exactly the subject of the photograph, it is South Wigston, on the Leicester-Rugby branch. Wigston, which is about four miles south of Leicester, had three stations, (not bad for a small suburban town); Wigston Magna, on the Midland main line; South Wigston on the Rugby line; and Glen Parva on the Nuneaton line. South Wigston station had staggered platforms either side of the level crossing, and the photographer must have been standing in the middle of the road approach to the crossing. The platform visible is that which served Rugby-bound trains.
The triangular junction at Wigston, between the London and Nuneaton lines, (one chord of which crossed the Rugby line on the level), made for much activity in the early sixties. It was difficult to find a vantage-point from where one could be sure of not missing anything.
South Wigston station, together with that at Wigs ton Magna, is long-gone. Even Glen Parva closed, but has been reopened in recent years somewhat east of its former location.

Birkenhead Woodside and Vintage Colour (Vo1.2 No.5). J.L.K. Mann
What a splendid photograph on page 252 of the LNW 4-4-0 pulling out of Birkenhead Woodside. You must agree that the composition is perfect; the disposition of the two figures on the left, the framing of the train by the overbridge and the board walkway; the fortuitous angle of the sun, making the shadow of the tender coping, and picking out the bolections of the coach windows; even the bridge number plate echoing the shape of the locomotive smokebox. From memory, how one can hear the whacking exhaust of the LNW main types! Over the page, the other photograph of the 2-4-2T against that coursed-ashlar walling, the solid signal gantry as a 'stop' —all delightful! And this taken at a station of which so many of us knew absolutely nothing!
Vintage Colour Page, same number; one may guess that the five sheeted HG wagons a third along the train had come from Bletchley, having originated at some of the sidings along the Banbury Branch - contents, hay; destination, LMS stables at London goods stations; this was regular traffic in the summer and autumn; the loading gauge at every station was employed so that the wagon could travel safely; instructions for roping and sheeting were carefully adhered to, two sheets beng used to protect the load from engine sparks.

Domeless Class 5s. G.A.G. Potts
Thanked author for article on 'Domeless Black Fives'. Secondly, your comment column asking for people modelling in different scales to write in was also very apt at this time of writing. Although a keen 00 Gauge modeller, he also liked to model in a much bigger scale (lin = Ift) and for the last five years had been making an Armstrong Whitworth Black Five No.5157 The Glasgow Highlander in this scale. Up to now I didn't have a tender arrangement drawing to work from, but since your article he had cut out the main frames, and wheels. This model is scratchbuilt but non-working and made out of a multitude of materials. It will be finished in 1938 livery minus vacuum pump, in a showcase. So as you can see I was delighted to see your full drawing of an SFB and tender, and more so to see a wonderful photograph of what seems to be a very camera-shy 5157. But as always in this wonderful hobby there are some things he cannot measure or photograph. Namely the nameplates for 5157 (she was the only one to carry the crest above the name). He would be grateful if you or anyone who takes MBT could supply him (and any other Black 5 modeller) with some photographs of the crest and some sizes overall.

A plea for help. J.G. Edwards
Having attempted to research Kingsbridge, South Devon for over twelve months, had come up with one indisputable fact: despite the great interest shown by enthusiasts in the 1950s and 1960s, and the continuing fascination ever since, there appears to be a dire lack of information, of any sort, available relating to Kingsbridge in particular, and the line from Brent in general. My research, such as it is, is intended to form the basis of plans for a 4mm scale model based around Kingsbridge in 1950. Thus I would be most grateful if you could publish a plea for help from your readers and contributors for any photographs, articles, details, plans etc relating to Kingsbridge. Not only the station area, goods yard, cattle docks, etc, but also the struc- tures, station approach, goods yard approach, 'external' views of the surrounding landscape, roads, buildings, houses, etc In fact anything at all —however trivial it may seem. Other information of interest are line 'histories', passenger and goods traffic, workings, make-ups, stock used or seen, Obviously, out of pocket ex- penses will be refunded, and any items loaned will be treated with care and returned promptly, and all information received will be gratefully acknowledged.

Post-War austerity on the LNER (Vintage colour page). Eric Bruton. rear cover
A4 No. 2510 Quicksilver in black livery, as yet not renumbered, with "LNER" on tender, north of Hatfield on up express in August 1946.

Number 2 (June/July 1963)

Fidczuk, Peter. Air Ministry tank wagons. Part 2. Post War service. 60-9.

Bruton, Eric. Ex-GNR 8-ton express goods van, (The Eric Bruton album No. 6). 70-1.
No. 421829 photographed at St Albans in April 1949. Vehicle had been constructed at Doncaster in 1908. The vehicle had originally been painted in red oxide. Drawings (side and end elevations).

Kirk, Alan. Beattock station. 72-7.
Collection of drawings and black & white photographs, track layout and plans of station buildings. Station master's house and railwaymen's cottages are also portrayed. See also letter from Deric Fuller.

The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 4. Tunnel vision. 78-9.
Hindles Tunnel (Ilkley branch); Whatstandwell Tunnel; Liverpool Central Tunnel; and single track, substandard Shirland Tunnel.

Holt, Geoff. The red Scots. Part 2. 80-9.
Wonderful colour photographs of the models, and this part is mainly about the art of model construction with very little about the prototypes.

Western transition. (Vintage colour page). Eric Bruton. rear cover
Down Torbay Express hauled by Castle class No. 5058 Earl of Clancarty on seawall near Shaldon in June 1949: rolling stock still in GWR chocolate & cream

Number 3 (August/September 1993)

Campling, Nick. The Thompson class L1 2-6-4T.116-19.
"The L1 was a good all-round passenger tank locomotive" concludes the author: they were certainly very good looking in the original apple green and there is an H.N. James colour illus. of No. 9000 at Stratford in snow in early 1947 alongside a green K2. There is also a colour illustration. of No. 67708 (BR lined black) at Westerfield Junction with a train for Felixstowe on 22 May 1957. There are model makers drawings (side/front and rear elevations) and notes on differences between the prototype and batches supplied by contractors.

Brasier, Stuart. Stopping the freight. 120-7.
The author lists twenty four reasons for freight trains to be stopped and these may be summarised as picking up and detaching wagons; replenishing water; changing locomotives and/or crew; descending and ascending steep gradients; and permitting fater trains to pass. See also letters from Jim Brodie. and from Don Rowland.

Kay, Chris and Goodwin, David. Inspired by Mostyn. 128-33.
Research for a model to be set in 1977, but with many older buildings notably ther lamp shed and weighing machine office. See also page 222

Henderson, A.D.M. Bodmin North: the history of a model. 134-9.
This takes the reverse step of relating a long-established model railway to its prototype with the assistance of an aerial photograph taken on 1 June 1961 which shows a branch train leaving for Padstow and 1:2500 plan of 1908.

The Waterman Collection. 140-1.
Gauge 1 models constructed by Geoff Holt for Pete Waterman, photographed in colour by Tony Wright. With the exception of the track (where the sleepers are clearly plastic) the images probably give a clearer image of the LNWR locomotives concerned than most contemporary photographs. Webb three-cylinder compound No. 1309 Adriatic; Webb 2-4-0 compound No. 1304 Jeannie Deans and Bowen Cooke 0-8-2T No. 1189.

Millard, Philip A. The Maryport and Carlisle Railway as a prototype for modellers. 142-55.
Other than the word "modellers" this is as about as this magazine got from the world of the gentle art of deception: this is all about a very real railway including its persistent profitability. Locomotives are not covered in very great depth although it is noted that the company built many of its own locomotives and modified still more. The illustrations were especially good and included a map: 2-4-0 No. R1 (former No. 19) with short passenger train of six-wheeled coaches at Maryport station; 0-4-2 No. 3 passing 2-4-0 No 10 at Maryport (A.F. Selby); 2-4-0 No. 8 on passenger train at Maryport; plan of Brayton Junction; Aspatria down side buildings (colour); Aspatria up side buildings (colour); Dalston station buildings (colour); Brayton station house (colour); Brayton station signal box (colour); Dalston station signal box (colour); LMS Diagram of 0-6-0 goods engines Nos 29 and 30 (weight diagram side elevation); LMS Diagram of 2-4-0 passenger engines Nos 10 and 13 (weight diagram side elevation); 0-4-2 No 15 at Currock shed; 0-4-2 No 4 with additional buffing gear for chauldron wagons; nbsp;Bullgill signal box (colour); Bullgill station (colour); Dalston goods shed (colour); Water tank at Curthwaite station (colour); diagram of six compartment composite brake of 1905; 0-4-2 No 18 with brake van; 0-4-4T No 26; 0-6-0 No 14 on passenger train at Carlisle Citadel; 0-6-0 No 18 on passenger train at Carlisle Citadel; 0-6-0 No. R4; tri-composite bogie coach No. 15; horsebox No. 4 (Pickering ); Brayton Junction and signal box in 1920s; coke hopper wagon No 1631 (Hurst Nelson 1905: must have been indexed by KPJ in 1961); cattle Wagon No 720 (Hurst Nelson 1913). See also letter from Peter Bunce.

LNER 12 ton ventilated box van (corrugated ends). (The Eric Bruton Album No. 7). 156-7.
Fitted van No. 175859 at St Albans City on 26 December 1946; ventilated van No. 256331 outside St Albans goods shed on 19 Occtober 1946; official LNER photograph of No. 186548 model makers diagram (side & rear elevations). See also short article by Peter Tatlow (Vol. 4 p. 74) which corrects data concerning width: 8ft 2in or 8ft, but never 7ft 8in..

GWR siphon G van No. W1306 (The Eric Bruton Album No. 8). 158-9.
Model makers diagram (side & rear elevations) based upon Swindon drawings. The type was introduced in 1912, but this vehicle dated from 1924/5 Lot 1347. They were intended for the transport of milk and were gangwayed. Vehicle is shown at Chippenham Chippenham in March 1949.

Bunce, Peter. A brace of CCTs . 160-1.
Model makers diagrams (side & rear elevations) for Covered Carriage Trucks from the LSWR and from the Great Central Railway/Cheshire Lines Committee (GCR and CLC) as constructed 1897 to 1903

From our correspondents. 162-4.
Scots, live steam & newcomers.
Naval gazing (which did not do any long term good) from D. Rowlands, Peter Baker, Peter Tray, J.T.C. Long and Andrew J. Rice.
LNER passenger trains. A. Maclean.
Drawings (side elevations and plans) of third class saloons with centre tables intended for excursion traffic as manufactured by the NBR in 1921/2 and by the LNER at York in 1924 (the latter followed Greley NER practice): these were constructed to diagrams 1693G and 11760 respectively.
SR livery. L.A. Snelling. 164
GWR dining cars. C. Youett
Great Northern Railway fitted vans. M.J. Holland
Glasgow Highlander. D.A. Anderson.
Includes LMS official photograph ofnameplate of Class 5 No. 5157 The Glasgow Highlander

Air Ministry tank wagons — MBT Vol. 3 No. 2. A. Hall-Patch.
Comment on dimensions of the cladding required after conversion to conveying bitumen: see also letter from Paul W. Bartlett on p. 275.

GWR coaches in BR days (Colour file for Modelmakers). 165.
Dick Riley colour photographs of auto trailer built in 1933 No. W161W at Plymouth Laira in overall faded carmine livery on 17 July 1960 and No. W3955W toplight of 1919 and unidentified corridor brake composite, both in carmine & cream livery) at Patchway on 20 September 1955

LMS local passenger. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
Former Midland Railway 2-4-0 No. 20267 leaving Wellingborough with local train on 28 July 1938 (Dufaycolour image). See also letter from M.J. Holland. See also letter in Number 4 page 218 from M.J. Holland on unusual nature of the rolling stock visible in this picture..

Number 4 (October/November 1993)

No 6229 Duchess of Hamilton masquerading as No. 6220 Coronation at Flushing, New York Central Railroad on 30 April 1939 with headlamp and bell. Front cover.

David Jenkinson. The definitive 'Duchess'. Part 1. 172-86.
Includes model making drawings by Russell Carter (side and end elevations of streamlined and original non-streamlined locomotives with and without double chimneys), general arrangement drawings (side elevations, sections and plan) and many photographs which depict detail from many angles (including above and from the front and there is an especially good illlustration from the rear of ther streamlined tender fitted to No. 6225 at Perth in 1939). Part 1 is devoted to the streamlined locomotives and the original non-streamlined engines without smoke deflectors and with single chimneys. Details of liveries carried, de-streamlining and fitting with double chimneys are tabulated. Illus. (all black & white): No 46231 Duchess of Atholl in BR standard blue livery paired with a streamlined tender; first non streamlined Duchess No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch from colour painting (very odd); left hand side of No 6222 Queen Mary and right hand side of No 6224 Princess Alexandra both at Shrewsbury when new in blue livery; two views of No. 6220 Coronation (one from front and one from rear); front view of No. 6223 Princess Alice at Edgehill (Eric Treacy); No. 6236 City of Bradford showing double chimney from above; tender detail of No. 6225 Duchess of Gloucester at Perth (shows long ladder and rearward extension of body); first of the red & gold streamliners No 6225 Duchess of Gloucester actually in work's grey!; No 6229 Duchess of Hamilton in black livery with partially cut-back tender; No 6239 City of Chester as previous; No 6248 City of Leeds ex works in wartime black livery; streamlined black No 6224 Princess Alexandra paired with a non streamined tender; only streaminer to get a BR number No 46243 City of Lancaster; cabside detail of No 6231 Duchess of Atholl at Perth in 1939; left hand side of first non streamlined Duchess No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch in work's grey livery; right hand side view of same locomotive in full red livery; front end view of No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn at Crewe in August 1938; rear view of No 6231 Duchess of Atholl at Perth in 1939; No 6224 Duchess of Atholl in wartime black livery and with cut-back streamlined tender; No 6232 Duchess of Montrose at Edge Hill in 1939 (Eric Treacy); No 6233 Duchess of Sutherland at Bressingham (Norfolk); No 6233 Duchess of Sutherland in double chimney condition with smoke deflectors plates c1945, but still in red livery; No 6252 City of Leicester ex-works in plain black livery with streamlined tender, and same locomotive in pre-1946 livery (mainly dirt) and with fully cut-back tender; No 6234 Duchess of Abercorn at Thrimby Grange late in 1947 (Eric Treacy) Part 2..

Barry C. Lane. Carriage drawings made easy. 187-91.
L8YR plans prepared for Traffic Department to show passenger accommodation and van space, but not accurated in dimensional terms. Gresley corridor locker composite of 1924: side elevation abd plan. LSWR bogie gangwayed corridor coach side elevations and plan.

Sunbeam at Birkenhead Woodside. 191.
Webb Experiment class compound 2-2-2-0 No. 1104 Sunbeam on turntable.

Deeds not words, J.P. Richards: a man and his models. 192-9.
Very significant collection of models of LNWR locomotives and rolling stock to be eventually housed by NRM. KPJ has always been dubious of model railways, but these models capture in colour and in three dimensions a world which had gone by the mid-1920s: includes colour illus. by Ron Prattley of carriages and wagons, some of the most notable being spacial wagon No. 65906 for transporting plate glass; open fish truck No. 11501; open carriage truck No. 11163 and fruit & milk van No. 11897.

Stan Roberts. No. 1 Hamilton Street. 200-1.
Mainly model buildings based on Merseyside prototype

Adrian Henderson. Boscarne and Dunsmere. 202-6.
Boscarne Junction and Dunsmere Halt between Bodmin and Wadebridge. Although most is about a paradigm model it is ineviatble there are rich gleanings about the prototype. It is noted rhat on 13 November two of the 2-4-0WTs were used to haul the school train up to Bodmin General. The illus. of the prototype include Beattie 2-4-0WT No. 3329 on 10.10 Mondays only Padstow to Wadebridge consisting of two LSWR coaches with lavatories plus cattle truck in 1937 (Ian C. Allen); Dunsmere Halt in late 1950s and Signalman Cottage at Boscarne Junction.

Eric Bruton. Headcode 'C' traffic: a treatise. Part 1. Parcels and van trains. 207-15
The GWR used a different headcode from that adopted by both the LNER and LMS and this was not stsandardised until 5 June 1950. Illus.: Class 5 No. 45058 heads a class C train in the Lune Gorge on Sunday 25 May 1952 (train includes a coach and two open carriage trucks loaded with horse drays presumably for a theatrical party followed by several vans and milk tank wagons; No 5989 Cransley Hall on up parcels & van train with Cordon gas cylinders and Enparts van at front at Dawlish Warren on 10 June 1949; 43XX class No 5380 on 10.53 Shrewsbury to Paddington at Wolvercote on 13 July 1953; A4 No 60028 Walter K Whigham in dark blue (purple) livery on 23.45 Edinburgh to King's Cross at Potters Bar on 4 December 1949; LMS Ivatt2-6-2T No. 41295 at Olympia on 23 March 1954; A1 No 60117 (apple green) on 23.45 Edinburgh to King's Cross at Welwyn Garden City on 5 March 1950; W1 No. 60700 at nbsp;Ganwick on evening down King's Cross to York on 2 August 1951; rebuilt Jubilee No 5736 Phoenix on 23.35 ex-Glasgow 'Horse and Cart' arriving Euston on 3 April 1948; Class 5 No. M5048 at Bushey and Oxhey with down Euston to Bletchley van train on 25 September 1948; 43xx No 9315 at Olympia on 27 March 1954, and up Rugby to Euston 'Horse and Car't behind No 44769 at Bushey and Oxhey on 25 September 1948.

From our correspondents. 218-20.

Beattock station. Deric Fuller
I was most interested in Alan Kirk's featue on Beattock station, and his excellent drawings. I was involved at this site as Architect on the WCML project, between about 1968 and 1975, and knew the building well. At the beginning of this period the station was still open and staffed, with a station-master (possibly under another title) living in the cottage at the south end. The platforms had been rebuilt, raised and lengthened to cater for the new trains; and it was at this stage that the decision was taken to close the station - one of the sillier closures in that era. There is hardly a community at Beattock, just a few cottages and a pub, the whole raison d'etre for the station being the Moffat branch.
Moffat was (and still is) a pleasant and flourishing little town, and an important centre for the farming communities around. Once the branch was closed, Beattock fell into almost total disuse. The platform walls were demolished and the ground scarped back; and this is the state shown on Mr. Kirk's lineside view.
His roof plan shows, at the south end (right-hand side of the drawing) a projecting squarish block of building, with a hipped roof which from the platform side looked pyramidal. At one time this had a large wooden louvred ventilator on the top, with a smaller pyramidal roof. I was told that this was originally built as a laundry, to deal with the sleeping car and other linen during the period when the trains terminated at Beattock, and passengers were taken on over the summit by coach.
Towards the end of the WCML project I had some difficulty in dissuading the Telecoms section from placing a radio repeater tower on this roof; it was later erected closer to the relay room at the north end of the station. This was a wide decision; at my final visit about 1983, with the Civil Engineer's representative, I had sadly to accept that the long years of neglect had taken their toll. The buildings were so riddled with both wet and dry rot that there was no alternative to demolition. I have a feeling it may have been a listed building.

Vintage colour page, Vol. 3 No. 3. M.J. Holland.
Once again this feature is full of interest and, as always, repays careful !study. As you will no doubt have already noticed, both carriages discussed appear to display little idiosyncracies that are at variance with the data published by yourself and others. Firstly, in the case of the LMS open 3rd (D1807?), the third window from the door (normally the droplight?) appears to be shallower than its neighbours. My first reaction was that the internal blind had been partially lowered but further study suggests that this is not so and that the panel between the 'Stones' ventilator and window has been deepened. If this is so, could it be that the combination of droplight and ventilator became a point of structural weakness after some years of service? Such strengthening of this panel could then be expected to be found on other vehicles of this design, possibly being halted by the war a mere year after this photograph. It would be interesting to know if any other photographs exist, showing this feature.
Secondly, the leading ex-MR brake 3rd appears to show three sets of class numerals and three door hinges on what would normally be the corridor side. Normally the Midland appeared to fit corridor side doors opposite only the first and third compartments. Furthermore there appear to be rather more window openings at the passenger end of the van section than either D1278 on D1284 show and it does not appear to be D1048 which presumably retained its parallel sided van section until withdrawal. Could this vehicle be a non-standard conversion from an ambulance, maybe, even resulting in an 'opposite handed' brake 3rd? It would be interesting to see the comments and explanations that other readers may offer and I look forward to seeing other examples from this collection in due course.

16 ton mineral wagons. Dick Riley
I am sorry this is long after publication of the article on 16T mineral wagons (MBT Vol. 1) but nevertheles hope it is of interest.
The photograph depicts a rake of steel mineral wagons stabled on the Rye Harbour branch, 21 September 1950. They were ex-SNCF Region 2 (Nord) and labelled ex-Dunkerque. Inscribed 'Charge Limite de Charbon 14t'. There were ten of these on the branch and a further ten formed into a goods train en route to Ashford. They had a variety of builders as follows: Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Smethwick 1944; Chas Roberts & Co. Ltd. 1945; Cravens Ltd., Sheffield 1944; G.R. Turner Ltd., Langley Mill 1945; Head Wrightson, Thornaby 1944; R & W Maclellan, Glasgow 1944; R.Y. Pickering & Co. Ltd. Glasgow 1944.
The flat sided wagon came from Hurst NeIson, Motherwell, 1944. One had German pattern axle boxes bearing the name of a Breslau firm dated 1914! There were also 24 twelve-ton BR Standard vans in skeleton form, with Ashford 1950 plates together with 35 General Utility Luggage Vans also dated Ashford 1950 and in similar state. These were all said to be stored awaiting material for their completion.

Private owner wagons. Bernard Holland
I am sure that many of your readers will remember the series of articles on Private Owner wagons by Peter Matthews in the model magazines some twenty or more years ago. I have been informed that Peter Matthews died a few years ago and in act of stupidity his entire collection was wilfully destroyed. Much of this information was unique and is irreplaceable. At one time Peter Matthews did sell copies of drawings to private customers, and in an effort to ensure that not all of his research should be lost forever, I would like to ask anyone who has copies of his drawings or sketches to get in touch with me so that as many as possible can be collated and placed in the safe keeping of the Historical Model Railway Society. Your co-operation in this matter will be much appreciated.'

Maryport & Carlisle Railway . Peter R. Bunce. 218-19
The article by Phillip Millard is very interesting, and contains many useful ideas, some of which can be transferred to anywhere the modeller wants them, in particular the idea of a multi-company junction. If this was placed in a 'town/city area' it may have a more complicated layout, I would think, but could well be modelled 'as is' — thus saving space, and bringing in a variety of rolling stock from different companies; don't forget that 'running powers' could also be granted, providing even more choice.
Turning to the two pictures on pages 150/151; in the lower one, with 2-4-0 No. 14, the horsebox is not Caledonian but the larger of the two Glasgow and South Western Railway designs — see my drawing in Vol.2 No.2. These are the only horseboxes that I know of that had externally framed ends, normally they were flush planked over the framing. The photograph is a beautifully clear one and also shows the two pane!s on the lower horse compartment door where the lettering was placed when built. Finally, the first coaches in both trains appear to have a multi-windowed full brake at the front of the trains, like the earlier style of London & North Western coaches (the arc roofed ones, both six wheel and bogie designs); I may be wrong for I freely admit that I am not sufficiently familiar with the Maryport & Carlisle to say. In conclusion note the Cheshire Lines covered van in the background, the same as the shorter Great Central Railway vans — 16ft long with a 9ft 6in wheelbase, (GCR diagram 12). There were two forms, one with two opening doors like the photograph and the other with single sliding doors each side; this is the first time I have seen one in the Cheshire Lines own- ership. Note the serif lettering, the 'C' under the 2-4-0's buffer and just part of the 'L' showing. Once again always look in the background of pictures, it's quite surprising what turns up.

Stopping the freight. Jim Brodie
Having been 'brought up' at a freight depot 51B I can endorse nearly all the stopping points from experience. Just occasionally we could include a stop for steam (or to get the water back in sight) then proceed or stop at a junction to be re-routed and have to wait for a conductor. On the ECML we many a time had to set back clear at 'Heck' for trains to pass and another regular setting back was at Grosmont onto the Pickering branch or into the 'bay platform' at Leomside if we weren't fast enough to outrun the higher classed trains.
Regarding the picture on page 155 of the M&C cattle wagon (Vacuum and Westinghouse fitted?), is not the lower hanging pipe from the buffer beam a 'steam heater through pipe' to allow the vehicle to be run inside passenger trains, or a parcels train where the guard needs heating?

Departmental use of GWR catering coaches. Paul W. Bartlett. 219. illustration
In his series on GWR Dining and Restaurant Cars (MBT Vol.2 parts 3 and 4) David Geen refers to the transfer of some of the coaches to departmental use. Readers may be interested in a little more information on these. This has all been taken from the series of books on Departmental Coaching Stock by Roger Butcher, especially the 1983 edition published by Lineside Publications.
Although having all of the appearance of a coach in preservation KDW150266 remained as an Engineers Saloon in BR service when photographed in April 1987 at Reading where Multiple Units were serviced. It remained there into 1990, but the subsequent history is not known to me. As mentioned in the article, this coach became a Counter Service or Buffet car in November 1952. The side shown is the same as the similar 9579 (MBT Vol.2 No.4, p_165). As can be seen, there has been a lot of changes in the mid-region of the coach, however one of the unusual narrow windows remain, as do the original 7ft wheelbase bogies.

Original number Departmental No. Departmental use Convert date Condemned from Fate Date
9580 DW150266 S&T Managers Saloon Reading Out of use 1990
9591 DW150333 CM&EE Work Study Office 10/1962 Reading Broken up 2/1967
9603 DW150329 Grounded body Swansea Landore ODM Store
9605 DW150330 Mobile Work Study Office Swindon Works NRM 6/1978
9606 DW150331 CM&EE Work Study Office 7/1962 Swindon Works Broken up 11/1967
9615 DW150336 Mobile Work Study Office Cardiff Canton Severn Valley 2/1973
9628 DW150335 CM&EE Work Study Office 12//1962 Paddington Broken up 6/1956
9629 DW150334 CM&EE Work Study Office 11/1962 Swindon Works Broken up 10/1967
9653 TDW150032 Control Train Officers Sal Craven Arms NRM 6/1980
9654 TDW150326 Control Train Officers Sal Craven Arms NRM 6/1980

Stopping the freight. Don Rowland. 219.
I think the caption to the picture on pages 126/17 is wrong in suggesting that the freight train awaiting the passing of the Up Royal Scot' is standing on the ex - NER single line from Appleby. This branch actually joined the main line at Eden Valley Junction some 77 chains north of Clifton & Lowther and the junction faced north. Trains from the North Eastern could thus get to Workington and Whitehaven via the Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway
without reversal by using a NER spur from Eamont Bridge Junction (later Eamont Junction) to Red Hills Junction. The goods train is actually standing on the Up Goods Loop which extended from Eden Valley Junction to Clifton & Lowther. What may have confused the author is that the trap points at the exit from the loop are obviously fitted with a facing point lock, the cover of which is clearly visible beside the leading coach. In fact most of the Goods Loops between Carlisle and Lancaster were available for use by passenger trains when authorised by District Control Office. This use was covered by a Local Instruction in the Sectional Appendix. To complicate matters a bit more there was originally a spur from the North Eastern at Clifton to the L&NW at Clifton & Lowther which did face south but it was lifted sometime in the last century. If one looks carefully it is just possible to see the remains from the West Coast Main Line. Could I also query the caption to the photograph at the head of page 125? I think it is highly unlikely that the signal alongside the catch point at Stobs station is a colour light. It is far more likely to be a standard Stevens ground signal, lighted by oil lamp, as supplied to the North British Railway but mounted atop a post. Local experience may well have shown that it was easily covered by drifting snow when sited at ground level as anyone who used the Waverley route in winter would appreciate. Finally, can I suggest Mr. Brasier adds high up on his list another reason for freight trains to stop, namely for examination. Regular examinations were mandatory and laid down in the Working Timetable. There were maximum distances each class of train could travel without examination; as a general rule, the lower the class the more frequent the examinations. C&W examiners were stationed at many points specially for the purpose and goods guards were expected to assist.

The red Scots . Bob Hines. 220
In response to Dave Rowlands letter on the Parallel Boiler Royal Scots (Vol.3 No.3), I enclose a couple of recent photographs of my Gauge 1 live steam PBRS, to which he refers. This model was built some 30 years ago and has seen quite a lot of service since then. Having been a devotee of these locomotives for as long as I can re- member, no doubt as a result of living my first 21 years not more than 100yd from the LMS main line at Wembley, I too was delighted with the two part series on the Red Scots. I must confess I did not research the subject as deeply as Geoff Holt has done, so I reviewed my Royal Scot with some trepidation. I leave you to draw your own conclu- sions, except to point out that the footsteps on the locomotive have flat treads, whereas those on the tender have turned up ends. The drive arm to the crosshead pump was originally fitted, but has long since fallen off. My model of course represents the 'as built' form and carries the short' lived 1927 livery. The crests on the cab sides were hand painted and on the print that I have submitted for your perusal, it is possible, with the aid of a magnifier, to read the words, London, Midland and Scottish Rly. I doubt whether I could reproduce them today. My pre-war note books reveal that I saw all the Royal Scots, except No.6102, Black Watch which seems to !. have rarely ventured south from its Scottish home. My most treasured memories of the Scots were seeing them on the night postal, which used to leave Euston at 8.30pm and was due through Wembley at 8.47pm. Our favourite viewing point was on the staircase of the footbridge, south of what is now Wembley Central. This was known locally as the Iron Bridge and has a flight of steps adjacent to the down fast. This flight of steps used to have a landing half way up so it was possible to stand on the hand rail, clutch the top edge of the girder and be no more than three or four yards from the down main line. As the track at this point is on a slight curve as well as on an upgrade, this vantage point allowed almost a head on view of the approaching down expresses. By the late summer evenings, dusk would have already arrived by 8.47pm and the down night postal, always heavily loaded with sixteen or seven- teen on and with a Scot at the front would be heading towards you at a formidable pace with a fountain of red hot cinders flying from that small and very squat chimney into the darken- ing sky. The accompanying sound is almost unimaginable today. It took a bit of nerve to stand it out perched on that hand rail, but we got used to it. An added bonus, if you could take it all in, was to watch the mailbag dis- appear from its perch about 200yds further south of the viewing point, as the coaches (with their side spot lights on) flashed past. 01 0 As the sound died away it was time to get on our bikes and head home for bed. No.6170 was also seen around quite often and even in those days when literature on railway matters was not so prolific as it is today, for these memories pre-date the arrival of the famous spotters ABCs, we were aware of its unique history. It is little wonder that I became hooked on steam and in particular the Red Scots.

GREAT NORTH MEMORIES: THE LNER ERA 1923·47 Published by the GNSR Association, 1993. 296mm X 210mm, ISBN o 902343 04 1, no index to contents or subject rno.tter The GNSR, along with the rival High- land Company, served some of the most remote and inaccessible rural areas of Scotland prior to the 1923 grouping. Unlike the more southernly Scottish companies, the Great North had neither much of a trade in mineral or coal traffic, nor in general merchan- dise and wares, relying more on agri- cultural and passenger revenues to provide a reliable income. However, this was not to make for a dull or routine railway. The LNER Era 192347 consists of 60 pages plus card cover, with a colour photomontage on the latter. Page size is A4 and high quality typesetting of the text and photographic captions has been used to provide a professional touch. A map of the company's system, quite correctly in LNER days, is in- cluded on the inside cover. Eighty photographs have been used, along with the reproduction of LNER timetables, sleeping car arrangements, half-day excursions, and details of the Royal visit to Aber- deen Joint station in 1925, to provide a variety of views and railway scenes. Content of the photographic illus- trations ranges from locomotives and passenger workings, through static views of locations such as Craigel- lachie and Elgin, to Keith locomotive shed, and, finally, the Royal Train at Ballater in August 1928. Although the views above are varied and interest- ing, it should be declared that no stationary views of either passenger or goods rollingstock, as such, have been included. However, a view of Inverurie locomotive works, with va- rious goods wagons in the foreground, has been used. The GNSR Association will cele- brate 30 years of society life in 1994. A more fitting tribute to the achieve- ments of that Association, it would be hard to find. Anyone interested in the GNSR or LNER in Scotland is strong- ly urged to invest in a copy. This work is highly recommended! ***** AT NB. The book costs £6.95 per copy plus 70p for post and packing, with all cheques/POs made payable to the 'GNSR Association' and copies are available from: Mr. R. P. Jackson, 'Craighall Cottage', Guildtown, Perth PH26DF.

Stopping the freight. Don Rowland.

The red Scots. Bob Hines. 220.

Book reviews. 220
Great North memories: the LNER era 1923-47. GNSR Association. AT. *****
Work was highly recommended, but was mainly based on photographs.

Philip Millard. Bass Brewery locomotives. (Colour file for modelmakers). 221
Illustrations of No. 11 built by Neilson, Reid in 1899 and of No. 9 built in 1901: both in turkey red livery with brass domes at Burton-on-Trent

Alan Hammond. Mostyn signal cabin. 222
Two photographs not dated but presumably 1992 or 1993. Refers to earlier feature.

Townscape [Foord Viaduct, Folkestone], Vintage colour page. rear cover
Class C 0-6-0 nbsp;No. 1723 hauling passenger train over viaduct with red East Kent coaches beneath. Sydney Perrier.

Number 5 (December 1993-January 1994)

Live Steam. Dave Rowlands. 228-35.
Entirely model: both propietray and scratch built.

The chaldron. John A. Elliott. 236-42.
Both prototype and models are discussed . The type was used on the Northumberland and Durham coalfields. Also includes box wagons which were used more widely. 4 drawings (7mm=1 ft)

David Jenkinson. The definitive Duchess. Part Two. (drawings by Russell Carter). 243-56.
Mainly prototype: post WW2 developments. three side elevations (plus relevant front and rear) (3.5mm=1ft). Table lists dates when de-streamlined/or built, when fitted with double chimney; smoke deflectors; smokebox restored to normal; original livery; and date scrapped. Another tabulates the various "BR" liveries carried. Illus.: No 6221 Queen Elizabeth de-streamlined at Crewe in 1946; No 6222 Queen Mary de-streamlined at Crewe in summer of 1946; No. 6235 City of Birmingham ex-works in plain black and de-streamlined; No 6223 Princess Alice de-stramlined, but with small front windows to cab; No 6224 Princess Alexandra view from above; No 6242 City of Glasgow.ex-works in 1947; No 46221 Queen Elizabeth on up Mid-Day Scot at Carlisle and No 46239 City of Chester on same train (BR green with proper smokeboxes (both col. illus. from Gavin Wilson); No 46220 Coronation with deformed smokebox c1953; No 6248 City of Leeds at Glasgow Central c1948; Nos 46223 Princess Alice and 46232 Duchess of Montrose side by side at Carlisle c1959 (Eric Treacy); No 46223 Duchess of Rutland at Crewe North c1961; No 46229 Duchess of Hamilton at Edge Hillc1961; No 46233 Duchess of Sutherland at Carlisle with up Royal Scot c1958 (Eric Treacy); No 46229 Duchess of Hamilton restored at Swindon in May 1976 (two views colour); No 46246 City of Liverpool c1958 at Carlisle (in maroon with BR lining: colour Gavin Wilson); No 46238 City of Carlisle at Camden on 4 August 1962 (colour: maroon: Geoff Rixon); No. 46246 City of Manchester at Euston on 14 April 1962 (colour: maroon: Geoff Rixon); No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS at Carlisle in 1962 (colour: maroon:Gavin Wilson); No 46242 City of Glasgow as rebuilt after Harrow and Wealdstone passing Elvanfoot, c1960 (David Anderson); close up detail of No 46256: trailing truck with roller bearing axlebox, cylinders and rear of tender (colour: Gavin Wilson: includes note on accuracy of colour rendered); No 46231Duchess of Atholl in BR blue (colour illus.); painting in colour of No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch: nbsp;remaining images all black & white: No 46250 City of Litchfield with cabside yellow stripe at Carlisle Upperby in 1964; No 46251 City of Nottingham (red) from the front at Crewe North c1960; No 6253 City of St Albans in works grey in 1946; No 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent c1962 (Jim Carter); No 46255 City of Hereford (BR blue) at Carlisle c1952; No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS (tender lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS) at Carlisle in 1948; No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS in red livery from the nearside rear at Lancaster and in Crewe North MPD with yellow stripe on cab in September 1964 (Jim Carter). See also letter from Geoff Holt oon cylinder inclination

John Clegg. Gauge 1 carriage stock. 257-8.
Three colour illustrations and 3 black & white illustrations of GCR Barnum coach finished in varnished teak; Sentinel steam railcar Pearl (green & cream); Clayton 6-wheel bogie Pullman Ansonia; Pullman observation car Lady of Morven; and late Midland Railway dining car.

Philip A. Millard. An outline of L&NWR passenger train working. Part 1. 262-8.
Illus.: 4-6-2T Superheater tank No. 962 on a Buxton train departing Manchester London Road c1912; large Jumbo 2-4-0 No 1525 Abercrombie on up express near Stowe Hill tunnel, Weedon, c1904; Cauliflower 0-6-0 on local train at Farington Curve Juunction c1922; Jumbo No. 864 Pilot at Radcliffe-on-Trent with Nottingham to Market Harborough train in 1921; Large Jumbo No. 868 Condor on Bushey troughs with Euston to Northampton stopping train formed of lavatory stock introduced for this service in 1906; special two compartment brake third for Liverpool-Newcastle service to meet restricted clearances on NER (built 1917); London suburban train c1900 near Kenton; 2-4-2T No 402 shunting coaches (Manchester to Birmingham set) at Manchester London Road c1921; Royal Scot No 6161 King's Own arriving Manchester London Road on train formed of ex-LNWR stock, c1930; Precursor No. 639 Ajax on Carlisle to Crewe slow passenger train at Farington c1921; George V class No 2220 Vanguard at Tamworth with semi-fast with LYR fish van at front c1925; Renown class No 1949 King Arthur at Tamworth with semi-fast c1925; inter-district coach set formed from former four-wheelers; Large Jumbo No 1748 Britannia heads Liverpool to Southport train; 4-4-2T No 2077 leaving Rugby with a local train which included full brake vans and horsebox; George V class No 1583 Henry Ward on secondary passenger train c1922; Precursor No. 734 Celtic leaving Stafford on down slow with a stopping train.

Eric Bruton. Headcode 'C' Traffic: a treatise. Part Two. 269-74.
Text refers to some traffgics which were not relected in the illustrations: ntably horseboxes and cattle wagons, including special wagons provided by the GWR and Southern for conveying show animals, circuses, ballast trains on the Southern and using HERRING on the GWR. The evhicles used for carrying fish and milk are also described. Illus.: Stanier Black Five No 45249 leaving Llandudno Junction. on down train including nine horseboxes on 9 June 1948 (notes tall lattice girder signal); V2 No 60915 on down Scotch Goods north of Hadley North tunnel (notes sheeted open wagon and severl container wagons in formation on 22 Apeil 1950; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 2798 on long train of empty milk tank wagons near Napsbury on 10 July 1948; Star No 4054 Princess Charlotte on down empty milk tanks and parcels train on seawall at Teignmouth on Sunday 29 May 1949; class 5 No M4520 on down empty milk tanks and single van near Harpenden on 24 August 1948; Austerity No 77388 on potato special on seawall at Teignmouth on 2 June 1949; Hall class No 5991 Gresham Hall on strawberry special formed of cattle trucks passing through Teignmouth station on 8 June 1949; class A2/3 No 60500 Edward Thompson in apple green on down perishable train passing Marshmoor Hatfield on 22 June 1949; Castle No 4032 Queen Alexandra leaving Penzance on 18.45 milk and parcels for Kewnsington on 27 August 1949; K3/2 No 61954 on 17.40 Aberdeen to King's Cross fish train at nbsp;Potters Bar on 4 December 1949; class 5 No 45305 passing Clifton & Lowther on up milk and parcels on 11 June 1950; Jubilee No 45595 Southern Rhodesia on down milk and parcels near Shap on 8 June 1950; BR class 4MT 4-6-0 No 75034 on 15.35 Swindon to Grimsby empty fish wagons at Wolvercote Junction on 15 July 1953; and Jubilee No 45623 Palestine on down express milk and parcels picking up water at Dillicar troughs on 28 May 1952.

From our correspondents. 275/7

Air Ministry tank wagons. Paul W. Bartlett. 275

GNR covered vans. M.J. Holland

LNER L1 tanks. J.F. Aylard

Maryport & Carlisle. Peter Robinson

Maryport & Carlisle. Ian Middleditch.

Dent, Stephen (phot.). Weathering and winter (Colour file for modelmakers). 277.
Views of freight trains near Northenden Junction in January 1968 with Class 5 No. 44663 (without smokebox numberplate) and 9F No. 92249

The definitive 'Duchess'. John Bolton. 278
Writer had worked in Crewe Works and had encountered Arthur Edleston at Derby who had sketched out a non-streamlined Duchess and called it Lady Godiva.

Great Central express: Vintage colour page. rear cover
C4 Atlantic No. 6086 passing Wendover on up expres in 1939 (also reproduced with greater contrast in LNER locomotives in colour, 1936-1948).

Number 6 (February/March 1994)

Stan Roberts. Letter boxes. 284-7.
Rich variety illustrated by examples then extant in the Liverpool, especially the Wirral area.

Philip Millard. An outline of LNWR passenger train working. Part 2. 288-95.
Most services were provided with a basic set formation that had very strict paths and augmentations as fixed by the timetable. Illustrated by 07.20 Liverpool to Leeds stopping trains which detached two vans at Manchester Exchange in exchange for an additional 57ft third.

David Ibbotson. The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 5. More tunnels. 296-7
Moorcock tunnel; Christleton tunnel (with water troughs); Doveholes tunnel and Thackley tunnels (northern portals)

Stan Roberts. An afterthought on telephone kiosks. 306-7.
National Telephone Company's kiosks at Liverpool Exchange below map of L&YR system and telephone cabinets at Liverpool Central station.

Paul W. Bartlett. LMS/LMR brake vans. 308-15.

David Goodwin and Bob Miller. Wagons of the Salt Union Limited. 316-25.

Bob Shephard. City of Truro: a livery survey. 326-30.

Classic Great Western: Viintage colour page. rear cover
No. 2937 Clevedon Court at Birmingham Snow Hill on 20 February 1939; also visible short Siphon, Toad brake van and gass cylinder wagon

Volume 4 (1994)

Number 1 (April/May 1994)

H15 No. 30491 stopping at Hinton Admiral with 11.36 Bournemouth to Southampton train on 28 June 1957. R,C, Riley. front cover
Maunsell set in carmine & cream livery: station signage still Southern Railway

'Whisky on the wagon' - the operational history of the BRTE bulk grain wagons. 4-10.
Predominantly prototype. Traffic to Burghead near Elgin for the automatic maltings owned by Scottish Malt Distillers (a subsidiary of the Distillers Co Ltd) from Eastern England. Enclosed steel hoppers suplied by Rootes Pressings, with welded all-steel hopper bodies, in 1965/6; from Pwell Duffryn in 1966-8 and BRE at Doncaster in 1971. Company trains tabulated: in 1966 from Doncaster to Elgin; 1975 Doncaster to Burghead, Dufftown and Muir of Ord, and in 1980 to Burghead and Muir of Ord from Doncaster. The wagons carried advertisement boards. Eventually the vehicles were used for alumina traffic to Fort William. Drawings. Illus.: Colour: BRT 7750 and T7611 at Millerhill on 6 November 1982 (Don Rowland); remainder b&w: 40192 at Doncaster with train on 28 October 1980 (Trevor Scott); 5864 (with Haig board) at Doncaster in 1969 (David Larkin); 6028 (with The Malsters Association of Great Britain); 6054 (Grant's Stand Fast); 6112 (Good Old Johnnie Walker) at Millerhill in April 1969 (Don Rowland); 47380 at West Blyth on 20 June 1984 with Alcan compnay train (Trevor Scott); 7746 with pedeestal suspension at Stoke in 1987 and 7785 at Birkenhead in March 1987 (David Ratcliffe).

L.G. Warburton. Tamerig station signal gantry. 14-18.
Tamerig does not exist: model only. 4mm scale. Prototype (page 17): former LNWR signal gantry at Preston

Adrian Henderson. The Urie H15 4-6-0s (the engines that won the First World War?). 19-27.
Includes drawings for model makers. nbsp;Primary source cited Bradley.

John Bateman. NER timber structures in Yorkshire. 28-35.
Especially the influence of William Bell, architect of the North Eastern Railway between 1877 and 1914. Many illustrations of station buildings. Colour illus.: Hutton Cranswick (22 August 1969); Flamborough (19 August 1968); Hemingborough (15 August 1967); Howden (15 August 1967); Hambleton (14 April 1968); Seamer goods shed (7 August 1969); Scarborough station signal box (13 August 1970); Scorton (7 April 1969); York station tea room (1 August 1975); Starbeck (15 August 1966). Black & white: Drax Hales (29 August 1965); Barlow (29 August 1965); Weeton (27 August 1965); nbsp;Knaresborough goods shed on 2 August 1966 and waiting rooms on 2 September 1963; Poppleton signal box on 14 April 1987; Bilton Junction hut on 16 October 1966; Wetherby on 3 April 1965; Melberby on 17 May 1964; Lowthorpe on 20 August 1965; Nunthorpe station shelter on 29 September 1966 and Church Fenton waiting room on island platform on 4 August 1988.

Raymond Moss. Edward Exley and his coaches. 36-42.
O and OO gauge models: includes a biography of Edward Exley who was born in Bradford on 23 March 1896.

Barry C. Lane. L&YR horse boxes. 43-8.
Includes 7mm scale drawings.

David Ibbotson. The Ibbotson portfolio. Number 6. Rural charm.
Black & white illustrations.: Helpston station in 1963; Hykeham station entrance; Hathersage station entrance; Frocester station.

Inter-Company working:: Vintage colour page. rear cover.
Schools class No. 929 Malvern in Maunsell livery with GWR stock on Bournemouth to Birkenhead through train at Eastleigh c1937

Number 2 (June/July 1994)

No. 7022 Hereford Castle with double chimney and (part visible) red No. 46251 City of Nottingham on shed at Swindon. J, Edgington. front cover
On 9 May 1964: the Pacific had arrived on an enthusiasts special from the Midlands.

David L.O. Smith. Gas holder tanks. 60-2.
Based on gold medal winning model (1992 Model Engineering Exhbition): 7mm model based on LMS vehicle No. 278472 (illustrated in colour). Diagram and black & white illus. of prototype vehicles alongside LYR 2-4-2Ts Nos. 50636 and 50795 at Manningham and single cylinder gas tank wagon alongside LYR railmotor steam railcar No. 10617 at Horwich. See also letter from J.B. Horne on page 222 (V. 4)..

Bob Essery. Railway topics. 63-6.

Arnold Tortorella. Modelling the Glasgow and South Western Railway. 67-72.

Geoff Williams. Perspective modelling #150; an afterthought. 72-3.
Illustration from Bucks Herald in 1963 which reproduced a photograph taken in 1915 of 3rd Bucks Territorials marching past Aylesbury High Street station and passing a milk float owned by Cartwright.

Peter Tatlow. Great Northern and LNER covered vans #150; a tailpiece... 74-5.
See article in Vol. 3 page 156: corrects width quoted for LNER vans with corrugated ends (8ft or 8ft 2in, but never 7ft 8in)

David Jenkinson. An introduction to the Southern Railway main line EMUs. 76-91.
Mainly that constructed for the Brighton electrification of 1933.

David Garrick. The steam shed. 92-8.

Keith Horne. Switching trains. 99-108.

Peacocks at Peel. Colour file for modellers. 109.
Colour photo-feature: Isle of Man Railway Beyer Peacock 2-4-0Ts Nos. 1 Sutherland and 5 Mona in very different shades of Indian red in August 1964.

King's Cross departure: Vintage colour page. rear cover.
A1 class No. 2557 Blair Atholl departs King's Cross in 1937.

Number 3 (August/September 1994)

Jubilee No. 45566 Queensland at Shipley on St. Pancras to Bradford Forster Square train with LNER vehicles at front. B.C. Lane. front cover

Bourne, T.W. (Smokey). Back to reality. 116-18.
Critical of the concept of Chief Mechanical Engineers, notably Webb, but Stanier is also condemned. In both cases their approach to standardisation is condemned: Webb because Crewe Works were unable to adept to change, and Stanier for his application of a standard tapered boiler to a poor design as in the class 3 2-6-2T. He also condemns the 8F type for being too slow. Illus.: 5552 Silver Jubilee in original condition in black livery with chromium plated boiler bands and numerals; 45555 Quebec with narrow tender on Shrewsbury shed in 1951, preserved 75078 passing preserved 45596 Bahamas at Keighley in 1991.

Essery, Bob. Passenger traffic: Railway topics. Part 2. 119-24.
Classifies trains into expresses, slow trains and suburban trains. There were three timetables per annum. The LMS regulations for mixed train operation are quoted. There were also excursion trains and the hire of complete trains.Illus.: Class 5 No 5043 at Northfield in down direction (exprerss headlamps, G&SWR non-corridor third at fron); Royal Scot No 6147 passing Tring c1931 on down express formed of pregrouping stock; Horwich 2-6-0 No 13018 on excursion at Millers Dale in 1934; Class 5 No 5066 on stopping (ordinary passenger) train; Stanier 2-6-2T No 96 near Dore and Totley with eight coaches on 24 May 1936; former HR 0-4-4T No 15054 at The Mound with mixed train; Class 5 No 5033 approaching Hunton Bridge with up horsebox and carriage wagon train in September 1948, and Royal Scot No 6136 near Boars Head with up milk train in late 1930s.

Banks, Steve. Passenger trains and formations on the LNER. Part 1. Expresses 125-9.
The heart of the express train formation was the restaurant car: the LNER operated restaurant firsts, a few restaurant thirds, and some restaurant composites, plus the articulated triplets which might include a kitchen car as the centre vehicle. A few unclasified cars were used to provide meals on sleeping car services. The restaurant cars tended to be coupled to dedicated open firsts, and more rarely with open thirds (which tended not to be dedicated catering vehicles). There were also some semi-open firsts,, pantry thirds and buffet cars, but few of the last were used on express trains. Illus.: A1 No 2595 Trigo on the ECML at Granthouse with up express; D49 No 62757 The Burton entering Doncaster with Hull portion c1952; A3 No 2750 Papyrus near Hatfield c1937; Gresley restaurant 1st No. 6119; A3 No 2500 Windsor Lad arriving Edinburgh from west, c1937; Gresley open 3rd dining car No. 61705; Gresley pantry 3rd No. 1189.

Heavy metal. The Eric Bruton album No. 7. 130-1.
Black & white photographs: 21 ton iron ore hopper No. E253564 at Tebay (constructed G.E. Turner in 1941); 21 ton steel mineral wagon (with two side doors) at Hatfield in March 1950 probably E300531 (constructed Darlington in 1948); 27 ton iron ore tippler B382833 at Gloucester in May 1953 (constructed Shildon); 16 ton Ministry of Transport wagon No. 47600 (constructed Cambrian Wagon Works 1948) at Teignmouth in September 1949; LNER gas tank wagon with Mansell wheels at Lowestoft in September 1948.

Jenkinson, David. An introduction to the Southern Railway main line EMUs. Part 2. 132-9.
4-COR, 4-RES and 4-BUF corridor multiple units for express services to Portsmouth and Bognor.

Bartlett, Paul B. ENPARTS. 140-4.
Nos. ADW 198; ADW 199; ADW 150356; ADW 150422; ADB 957157; ADB 975043; ADB 975775; ADW 150197 and ADB 975784: vehicles included Swindon long wheelbase vans, bogie siphons, BR Mark I brake seconds, also DENPARTS nbsp;based on horsebox frames.nbsp;

Hammond, Tony. Denbigh Viaduct. 145-6.
On the Denbigh, Ruthin & Corwen Railway: illustrations and drawings.

Horne, Keith. "Indian country". Making tracks. No. 6. 149-52.
Laying in points and crosings to meet the needs of freight.

Hogarth, Colin and Kirk, Alan. The Killin pugs and their territory. 153-62.
Drmmond 0-4-2STs of 1886. Also detailed survey of line including engine shed at Loch Tay and signal box at Killin JUnction.

From our correspondents. [Letters]. 163-4; 166

Pullman Colours. Charles Underhill
Your correspondent Charles Long (April Issue) ought perhaps not to be quite so lightly dismissive of the green/white Pullmans on the Great Eastern. The evidence for this livery is there, as it is for the 1914 Pullmans for the Caledonian also.
If the original Pullman Company could be said to have had a standard livery it was green (hence Pullman Green, which is a shade included in most if not all American makes of model paints). It is indeed an olive shade. The Pullmans introduced into the UK by the old company were not all painted the standard colour. The earliest imports were finished, according to Hamilton Ellis, in "greenish brown" or "oily brown", but later cars seem to have been painted usually to match in with the operating companies' own stock, e.g. lake colour on the Metropolitan and South Eastern, and umber/white on the LBSCR. Probably these operating companies wanted their train sets to look homogeneous, (it is interesting that the older Brighton cars were repainted around 1906 when umber/white became the Brighton's own standard) but the colours were certainly non-standard for the original Pullman company.
It was after Davison Dalziel took over the Pullman company in UK and Europe that it was decided to make umber/white (later cream) the standard livery. The Caledonian cars were repainted around 1924, and it seems likely that the GER cars also got redone around this time, probably coinciding with their transfer to the GN Section.
As a footnote, it is interesting that the first Hornby Pullmans came out in green/white colours. Frank Hornby had quite frequent contacts with German manufacturers, travelling via Hook of Holland, so he may well have seen the GER Pullmans on his travels! Hornby changed from green to brown about 1925, too. See response from Charles Long page 276.

Rake. Philip A. Millard
Re Chris Smith's letter in MBT Vol.4 No.1 in which he mentions the use of the term 'rake' to describe a set of coaches. I do agree that this is a most unrailwaylike expression, but I see that the recent prospectus for Eurotunnel's rights issue refers to groups of carrier wagons as 'rakes'. Another case of the prototype following the model, perhaps?

North Eastern cranes: colour file for modellers. John Bateman. 165.
5 ton crane at Driffield on 22 August 1969 and water cranes at Milford Junction on 9 August 1967.

10.00am from Edinburgh Waverley. (Vintage colour page). rear cover.
15 August 1939: up Thames Forth Express hauled by No. 2747 Coronach departs at same time as up Flying Scotsman hauled by A4 No. 4490 Empire of India. J83 No. 9830 shunting in between.

Number 4 (October/November 1994)

S15 4-6-0 No. 30501 on 15.54 Waterloo to Basingstoke on 20 June 1959. R.C. Riley. front cover

Something old, something new, something different. B.C. Lane. 171.
Editorial noting the great variety of rolling stock which was used in 1950s train formations.

S.G. Allsopp. Tenders. 172-7.
Notes how the LNWR had fewer tenders than locomotives and that when 7 the LMS increased productivity at Crewe it was necessay to acquire former ROD tenders (GCR-type) and that these were used on some of the Claughtons. Provided that the buffing gear and drawgear were compatible it was simpler to switch tenders if they were vacuum braked (the vacuum cylinders perched at the rear provided a clue) or were Westinghouse braked. On the GWR all tenders were vacuum braked and this made switching simple. It is noted that the tenders used on the BR and LMS "standard" class 2 2-6-0s could not be exchanged. Steam-braked tenders had to be modified if the boiler pressure was changed. Notes the use of combination valves where steam brakes were used on the tender and vacuum brakes on the train. Tenders with poor brakes were considered to be those of the LNWR locomotives and the Midland compounds. Most tenders used a bar coupling to join to the locomotive and this was normally difficult to disconnect . On the LNER Gresley used vacuum braked tenders on his larger locomotives whereas Thompson and Pepppercorn used steam brakes. Notes on water scoops.

John Horne. Not to go. 178-9.
Load (gas valve) had punched a hole in floor of wagon (LMS side door five plank No. 163889): valve probably from Dempsters of Elland for Southampton Gaslight & Coke Co. Also noted on Edrow RR steel and its use in containers for LMS (built Birmingham Carriage & Wagon Co.) and in 20 ton steel four side door open wagon for Stephenson Clarke & Associated Cos. See also letter from John Horne on p. 331 and from Chris Crofts on p. 332

Steve Banks. Passenger trains and formations on the LNER: Expresses. Part 2. 180-8.
The LNER numbered its rolling stock according to section: the prefixes were 1 for ECML; 2 for North Eastern; 3 for North British; 4 for Great Northern; 5 for Great Central; 6 for Great Eastern; 7 for GNoS and 8 for M&GN. Thus transfer of stock between sections involved renumbering. On the Great Central Gresley ordinary corridor vehicles were introduced from 1925, but Gresley catering vehicles were not introduced until 1928. The Flying Scotsman received new complete sets in 1924 and 1938. The East Anglian and Hook Continental also received completely new sets. On the ECML and on the Great Eastern sets were formed with first class accommodation at the London end, but on the Great Central Manchester was regarded as the premier destination and the firsts were at the front on leaving Marylebone. Trains could include through carriages or be based on through portions as with 16.00 ex-King's Cross which divided at Doncaster with tthe front portion going forward to Leeds and the rear portion going onto Newcastle. The latter added through coaches from Bournemouth and Bristol which might include LMS and Southern stock. On the Great Central there was a through carriage from Halifax to Marylebone which had been begun by the LYR and continued under the LMS. The 15.35 York to Glasgow included through coaches from Oxford for Newcastle; Harwich to Glasgow; Oxford to Glasgow; Southampton to Glasgow and Scarborough to Glasgow. Illustrations:
P. 180 down non-stop Flying Scotsman behind No. 4472 Flying Scotsman
p. 180 No. 2509 Silver Link with up Flying Scotsman near York;
p. 181: B3 No. 6165 Valour with Manchester to Marrlebone express near Woodhead (train formed of Gresley corridor stock with Great Central composite restaurant car at centre (H. Gordon Tidey);
p. 181: A1 Pacific No. 4481 St. Simon on up Scarborough Flyer near York (brake first at front, followed by Great Northern first restaurant car and LNER third pantry;
pp. 182-3: Great Eastern first restaurant car built in 1907 (diagram: side & rear elevations & plan)
pp. 182-3: Great Eastern first restaurant car built in 1898 with clerestory roof (diagram: side & rear elevations & plan) see letter from John Watling
p. 184: ACFI-fitted B12 No. 8510 passing Stratford on express for Cromer formed of Great Eastern coaches at front; GER catering vehicles and Gresley stock at rear
p. 184: A3 No. 2751 Humourist with plain double chimney and small deflector plates with ECML express strengthened by ex-GNR corridor third
p.185: A4 No. 4465 Guillemot leaving King'ss Cross with express with through coaches at front
p. 185: C4 No. 5263 at Rugby Central in 1932 with Manchester to Marylebone train with LMS through coach from Halifax at front;
p. 186: D49 No. 318 Cambridgeshire with through service from Glasgow to Southampton leaving Darlington*
p. 187: V2 No. 837 hauling ECML express formed mainly of Thompson stock but with Gresley triplet catering vehicles and 1920s parcels van
p. 188: A4 No. 60025 Falcon with up ECML express c1950 near Helpston

Duncan Burton. Caledonian locomotive blue. 189-90.
Illustrated by colour photograph of 7mm model of Dunalastair 4-4-0 constructed by Geoff Holt and painted by Keith King. Burton, who died in 1993, knew James McEwan served an apprenticeship at St. Rollox beginning in 1936 and was able to inspect the preserved 4-2-2 No. 123 which had been painted in 1935 by painters who had been applying Prussian blue routinely prior to the Grouping. Burton argues that it was a very dark blue. During WW2 the locomotive was stored outside and following the War was painted in a much lighter shade. The Glasgow trams used Prussian blue to indiacte the route on some vehicles.

A. Henderson. The South Western's heavy goods engine #150; S15. 191-9.
Illustrated in part by colour photographs of the preserved No. 506 at Ropley. There are also drawings for a model locomotive. Other col. illus. all by R.C. Riley: 30511 at Vauxhall on down passenger on 20 June 1959; 30510 at Reading South on 19 July 1959; 30500; and 30506 passing Worting Junction on down freight on 18 May 1963.

Philip A. Millard . Midland Railway signalbox safari. 200-4.
Illustrations.: colour: Guild Street and High Street Crossing (both Burton-on-Trent); Durran Hill Junction; Streetley Colliery Sidings; Desford Colliery Sidings; black & white: North London Incline; Mortimer Street Junction; Fiskerton; St. Paul's Road Goods Junction; Watling Street Junction; colour: Coalville Crossing and Newark. See also letter from Chris Crofts.

Bob Essery. Goods on the move (Railway topics No. 3). 205-9.
Coal and iron industries: where they were located and tonnages of coal consumed by various industries, and exported. There is a very brief consideration of coal by type, such as long flame required for firing pottery. Illustrations: down freight headed by Geoge V 4-4-0 No. 238 F.W. Webb south of Watford (train included many sheeted wagons); LYR 0-6-0 No. 12182 on empty mineral wagons and one tank wagon passing Mirfield c1939; LYR 0-8-0 with trainn of mineral empties for Silkstone Colliery; 13 ton open wagon (8 plank, end & side doors) lettered Gibson; Sholts end door private owner wagon discharging its load into ship's bunker; LYR end door 20 ton wagon for conveying coal for bunkering; Caledonian Railway dumb buffer end & side door 7 ton wagon; Caledonian Railway 30 ton bogie mineral wagons; Caledonian Railway 8 ton swivel timber wagons (with load); ex-Caledonian Railway 15 ton wagons for pig iron.

Andrew B. Mould. Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Simplex engine No. 1. 210-13.
Three Simplex were supplied to the LYR by the Motor Rail & Tramcar Co. of Bedford in 1919.

S.T. Turner. Early goods stock on the LB&SCR. 214-19.
Considers two brake (break) vans (of 1851 and 1859); covered goods wagons of 1851 and coal wagons with dumb buffers of 1850-60. Article includes drawings by the author in 7mm scale and photographs of break van and freight rolling stock at Lewes c1865.

From our correspondents. 220/2.
Gas holder trucks, J.B. Horne. 222
See article on page 60 (V. 4): questions the quantity of gas which could be discharged from tanks without the use of pumps and shows a gas tank trunk built by Ashburys in about 1908 for the broad gauge in India: this had a pump located in a corrugated iron shelter on the vehicle. The GWR used pumps to assist discharge.

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway occupation bridges. Colour file for modellers. 221.
Contract drawing of 1874 for bridge at Strake (latterly Cowgill) between Chatburn and Hellifield; also colour photograph of another similar bridge on route.

Variety at Neasden:. Vintage colour page. rear cover
Line up in August 1938 headed by B17/4 No. 2864 Liverpool; F7 2-4-2T No. 8307; D11/1 No. 507 Gerard Powys Dewhurst plus unidentified N5, J11 and A5 locomotives and a further B17.

Number 5 (December 1994/January 1995)

Bob Essery. Delivering the goods (Railway topics No. 4). 228-39.
A statistical examination of freight traffic during the Inter-War period by all the main line companies with usual bias towards the LMS. It was surely morte suitable for publication in the main Journal. Coal traffic is considered first and its transport by all modes. This is based on the LMS Handbook of Statistics for 1938. A considerable quantity was moved by waterways, most of which were nor railway-owned. Most of the coal for London arrived by sea; much of which was consumed by industries and utilities on the Thames.There are two maps: one shows coal in the North East where many collieries had their own transport arrangements and the former industrial core of England wwhich includes ironfields. Then proceeds to potatoes, milling (and the dependence upon imported grains), and livestock. Includes a plea for information about mixed train working on Northern Division. Illustrations: Northbound express freight near Shap Summit in August 1958 (B.C. Lane, colour, a sort of appropriate sepia); Dewsbury goods yard on 26 March 1939; panoraic view of Hebden Beidge Great Northern Railway 10-ton mineral wagon No. 46030 of 1905; Great North of Scotalnd Railway locomotive coal wagon No. 1614; Clayton Wagon Co. 12-ton wagon for LNER; wheat in sacks loaaded onto L&YR grease lubricated low-sided wagon; GNR calf van No. 8275 of 1898 marked "return to Derby"; delapidated Highland Railway double-deck sheep truck; Great Northern medium cattle van of 1900; large cattle van of 1909 with oil lubrication and: LNER vacuun braked fruit van based on cattle wagon format; LNER wagon for prize cattle (KPJ: Brickendonbury Pearson Estate correspondence was full of mentions of transport by rail of prize animals)'; GNR horsebox marked "P. Whitaker Esq, Royston"; diagrams: Midland Railway long cattle wagon 1921; high sided goods wagon, 1923 see letters from D.P. Rowland and D. Massey and Mike Williams on page 331.

Eric Bruton. The Eric Bruton album No. 8. 240-1.
A1/1 No. 60113 Great Northern in blue livery on Great Northern Centenary Special with headboard at York on 16 July 1950; Darlington on 16 June 1950 see photographer's comments on page 331: overall view and A3 60030 Colombo on up Queen of Scots Pullman

Keith Horne and Barry Lane. Nether Bradford. 242-7.
The complex and congested approach to Bradford Exchange and its trackwork which reflected both LNER and LMS practice. Illustrations: Broomfield level crossing on Caledonia Street with L&YR 0-6-0 No. 158 built in 1871; engraving of L&YR original station; Bradford Exchange Platform 1 "country" end c1901; Bradford Exchange interiot of train shed. See also long list of errors and corrections

The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 7. 254.
Trackwork (points) and tunnel/bridge at Wirksworth Quarry

Stan Roberts. Letter boxes. Part 2. 255-7.
Mainly wall-mounted, but also post mounted. Most examples from Wirral. See list of errata on page 331.

Barry C. Lane. Sharp Stewart Manx miniatures. 258-61.
2-4-0Ts for the Manx Northern Railway. Illustrations: MNR No. 2 Works photograph; No. 1 Ramsey at work with Hurst Nelson bogie coach and Cleminson six-wheel coach; MNR No. 2 Northern at Ramsey; Southwold Railway Southwold;

Philip A. Millard. London and North Western Railway 32ft 0in carriages. 262-8.
Designed by Richard Bore at Wolverton and built in two distinct phases; 1878-80 and 1881-5. Few pre-1886 Wolverton drawings remain and drawings by John Watling in 1962 had to be based on photographs and measurements based on grounded bodies. These wer published in J. Historical Rly Soc. 1962, 4. Illustrations: Jubilee class "4-4-0" No. 1925 Warrior at Kenton on up fast with 32 foot in train post-1903; 18 inch goods 0-6-0 (Cauliflower) No. 461 at Greenfield station with train of 32 foot long coaches on 26 April 1907; 2v side elevation drawings; diagrams (side & rear elevations and plan; Whale Precursor and 19 inch goods 4-6-0 leaving Buxton with Canadian troop train containg 30 and 32 foot coaches in 1919.

Keith Horne. Curving switches. Making tracks. No. 7. 269-75.
Based mainly on LNWR and L&YR practice. Included use of bridge chairs and block chairs. Illustrations: Blackpool Central c1920; Southport Chapel Street c1920 with electro-pneumatic point operating mechanisms.diagrams, Manchester Victoria in 1959; Edinburgh Princes Street c1947

From our correspondents. 276/8.

Pullman colours. Charles Long
May I assure Charles Underhill (August/September issue) that I do not 'lightly dismiss' contemporary published statements that the 1921 Great Eastern Pullmans - or, before them, the 1914 Caledonian cars - were finished in green and cream? I was, in fact, persuaded (a word I chose very deliberately in my April letter) that such testimony could not be accepted at its face value both by responses to an article I contributed to the January 1988 issue of Railway World (in which I had unquestioningly accepted that the GER cars, at least, were delivered in a distinctive livery), and by further research on my own account.
Well-known though it subsequently became in the USA, 'Pullman Green' was not introduced until as late as 1900, when - as recalled in the April 1925 issue of the (US) Pullman News - it supplanted the previously standard 'Pullman Brown' at the personal behest of Thomas H. Wickes, the company's then Vice-President and General Manager. Arthur D. Dubin, the noted American authority on Pullman, told me that 'Pullman Brown' was indeed an umber brown, and that the basic colour was relieved not only by elaborate gold lining (applied by stencil) but by red window frames and doors. This scheme is reflected in the colour-washes applied to large-scale drawings of pre-1906 American-built Pullman cars included in a London, Brighton & South Coast Railway album of carriage diagrams (last updated c.1910), which is now in the Public Record Office (file ref: RAIL414/745). Brian Radford has also written that 'Pullman Brown' was a stock Midland Railway paint colour. That 'Pullman Green' did not cross the Atlantic would appear to be confirmed by the livery details recorded for the last three American Pullmans built for service in Britain (Chicago Works Lot No.3223). Delivered in the winter of 1905/6, these were the only American-built cars to be purchased after the livery change in the USA. The official 'Descriptive Report' (specification of materials) for these vehicles — a copy of which was kindly supplied to me by Mr. Dubin — defines the exterior finish as "Pull. std. in England to belt rail [waist], upper panels cream color", Since the description that subsequently appeared in the Locomotive Magazine for 15th February 1906 confirms that their lower panels were umber, there can surely be little doubt that this colour, elsewhere known as "Pullman Brown", must still have been the existing 'Pull. std. in England'. It was at around this time that the financier Davison Dalziel was negotiating for control of the British Pullman Company (and there is a well-known photograph of him standing in front of one of the 1906 cars soon after its delivery). Thereafter, all connection was severed with the American Pullman group. Later contemporary published accounts of new cars for the Dalziel company, plainly based on official releases, frequently mention the "standard Pullman colours" of umber and cream — the latter sometimes referred to, more genteelly, as "ivory tint" or, less accurately, "white". Such reports cover not only cars built for service on the LB&SCR, but those for the Metropolitan (Locomotive Magazine, 15th June 1910; and Railway Magazine, July 1910), and the Caledonian Railway (Railway News, 20th June 1914; Railway Magazine, August 1914 - although in this case what is surely a simple misprint has rendered 'umber' as 'amber'; and Railway Gazette, 13th October 1922). In the face of this body of evidence, how could it be that a supposed scheme of 'special Pullman olive green and cream' also represented the British company's 'standard colours', as stated in the almost identical Locomotive and Railway Magazine descriptions of the 1920 cars for the Great Eastern? An equally puzzling reference in the August 1914 issue of Models, Railways and Locomotives to the "dark green" lower bodysides of the Caledonian's initial batch of Pullmans is flatly contradicted by the previously noted accounts of the same cars in both Railway News and Railway Magazine (both acknowledged to have been based on information supplied by Thomas Powell, the Pullman company's Secretary and Manager). The late Alistair MacLeod, an expatriate Scot once employed by the LB&SCR, personally assured me that, in his recollection, the finish of the Brighton and Caledonian Pullmans was identical. In a letter published in the May 1988 issue of Railway World he further claimed that the Pullman lower-body colour matched the LB&SCR's "burnt umber" (a rather darker version of the railway's own main livery colour, used for panel-edging) which "had a distinct greenish tinge". This, he suggested, could explain the occasional published references to "green" Pullmans, particularly if the vehicles had been seen in strong sunlight. Allowing, too, for some variation in different batches of colour mixed from natural pigments, the effects of varnish, and individual perceptions of the same basic colour, this thesis seems to me to offer a more likely solution to the mystery than does the contention that different liveries were deliberately chosen for different lines. (Plainly however, 'Pullman Brown' must have differed somewhat from the unequivocal chocolate colour used in the British company's final years.) True, Pullmans for the South Eastern & Chatham Railway were finished in non-standard crimson lake in order to match SE&;CR carriage stock. In this case however, the operating contract — uniquely, I believe — originally placed responsibility for the cars' external paintwork and its maintenance on the railway (PRO file ref: ANI09/741). But such an arrangement could in no way account for liveries that were wholly unlike those of any other Pullmans or the host railway's own stock. My understanding is that the Metropolitan cars latterly adopted an all-over dark red livery because extensive tunnel working caused rapid discoloration of the original cream upper panels.
The green-and-cream paintwork of the earliest Hornby Pullmans does present another conundrum — but was Hornby's rendition of current railway liveries that accurate at this early date?

Pullman colours. Charles Underhill
I am sorry Mr. Long is unwilling to accept the evidence suggesting a green colour for the CR-based Pullmans, nor, it seems, for the GER ones (though they are of much less interest to me).
When I asked Graeme Miller, who had a remarkably accurate memory for things Caledonian, especially to do with carriages, he had no inkling that there was any controversy about the livery. His immediate answer was "They were green to start with, though they got repainted brown about 1924. I'll show you how they were lined, in gold." He thereupon took a pencil and paper and drew out the lining on the vehicle ends. His sketch tallied with the photographs I had, but which he had never seen. Up to that time I had doubted the statement in MRL, as being some kind of error or misprint, but Graeme's evidence convinced me that it was in fact most likely correct. Similarly, the story I had from Nelson Twells was that he had said to the ex-Paint Shop Foreman from Cravens that there was a rumour going round that the CR Pullmans had been green, but he (Nelson) was sure they could not have run in that colour in Scotland. The reply he got was to the effect that, whilst his informant could not vouch for the colour they ran in in Scotland, he could say that when they left Cravens they were green. As Cravens had built other Pullmans which went out painted brown, presumably he knew the difference. either of these two contemporary eye-witnesses had any reason to falsify evidence, so I find their statements pretty convincing. Turning to the paragraph in MR& L, I think that Greenly was actually quoting a CR press release. He appears to have had good contacts in the CR, probably dating from when the Bassett-Lowke organisation supplied publicity models of 'Cardean' and a wqs coach, which were heavily advertised in the magazine. The apparent errors regarding names are easily explained, because the names were all chosen to cover the number of cars (seventeen) to be supplied under the 1913 Agreement between the Pullman Co. and the CR. The outbreak of war in the summer of 1914 prevented full implementation at that time, and only eleven cars arrived. The remainder under this agreement, plus others covered by supplementary agreements of 1922 and 1923, came into service 'after hostilities had ceased. The war also prevented, of course, the introduction of the full service pattern intended and referred to.

There seems to be a stalemate on this subject with both parties appearing to be right. If only an old coach body was available so that the paint could be rubbed down to the first livery, we would all be much wiser. Does anyone else have information available? Ed.

Rail over road and water. Colour file for modellers. Stephen Dent.
Viaducts on closed railways near Coldstream and at Appersett Gill on MR Hawes branch.

Narrow gauge Great Western:. Vintage colour page. rear cover
Welshpool & Llanfair 0-6-0T No. 823 Countess shunting at Welshpool.

Number 6 (February/March 1995)

Final thoughts and last words. B.C. Lane.
Editorial obituary for this short-lived journal.

Caledonian locomotive blue. 284.
Colour photograph taken by Brian Monaghan of model of Lambie 4-4-0 No. 18 constructed by Peter Westwater of Kirkcaldy and painted by Duncan Burton. Charles Underhill commented upon the accuracy both of the photograph and of the original paints on the model.

Tony Watts. The Wigan Coal and Iron Co. 285-92.
Wagon fleet of the company named and its successor the Wigan Coal Corporation. Bibliography. Illus.: aerial view of Kirkless works complex in late 1920s; Clockface Colliery, St Helens with four wagons in view, c1900; Alexandra Pit about 1908 with 0-6-0ST Manton; Golbourne Goods Yard LNWR anbout 1908 with Tarmacadam surface (Wigan Coal & Iron by-product); Wellington Dock, Liverpool with Wigan Coal & Iron ten-ton wagon 2305 (5-plank, dumb buffer) being held by crane to lower coal into hold of sailing ship (Elizabeth Robbins?) in April 1911; 5-plank half end-door wagon 2680; Wigan... wagon No. 590? with dumb buffers and Morley Coal & Cannel Co No. 191 with dumb buffers (both 4-plank?) at Blaenau Festiniog; Wigan Coal & Iron No. 172 (4-plank dumb-buffer end-door) drawing; No 415 also lettered Newcastle Main, Manton Colliery and brake van (7mm scale); Newcastle Main wagons at Manton Colliery, Worksop, c1908; Fleetwood docks October 1910 with grease lubricated wagons; Wigan Coal & Iron wagon being tipped into Company's Pagefield lorry built by Walker Bros of Wigan (picture probably taken by Eric Mason); 12-ton wagon built Pickering February 1923: A147, 7-plank, end-door; Wigan Coal Corporation 6-plank wagon built Ince Waggon & Ironworks Co in 1902, Wigan Coal Corporation 6-plank wagon lettered 8245 (7mm drawing); Wigan Coal Corporation 6-plank wagon at St Andrews in June 1945, and remains of brake van.. See additional information, especially about brake vans, from letter by Philip A. Millard in BackTrack 9 p.219.

R.J. Essery. Small locomotive sheds. (Railway Topics No. 5). 293-8.
Text notes primary funtions performed: coaling, watering, cleaning fire, smoebox and ashpan, lubricating and turning when available. Illus.: 15210 and 15229 at Dalry Road coaling stage (tub-type) in July 1947; 2-6-4T being coaled with difficulty from wagon at coaling stage at Chester (LNWR) in May 1938; Nottingham (ex-MR) ash plant on 26 June 1964; West Bridge, Leicester shed on 23 September 1937; Tipton (ex-LNWR single-road) with ex-MR 0-6-0T 1818 on 29 August 1938; coaling crane at Manningham in May 1966; smokebox cleaning at Rugby in 1960s - 45723 Fearless; Highbridge (SDJR) shed in 1934 with two ex-MR 0-4-4Ts including 1327 and coaling crane.

Bob Miller. Early Cheshire Lines twelve wheel carriages. 299-302.
Built for Liverpool to Manchester expresses by Ashbury Railway Carriage & Iron Co. Incorporated both MR and GCR influence. Illus.: five-coach set at Fulwood tunnel c1900 drawn by Sacreacute; o/c single; two of 1881 vehicles at Hough Green; No. 289 (Diagram 8) tricomposite; colour detail of carriage transfers showing lettering and CLC armorial device; No. 323 first second composite of 1884 for Southport service; two 4mm scale drawings.

Nelson Twells. Railway road vehicles. 307-10.

A Henderson. Wadebridge – the end of the line. 311-20.
Illustation.: Beattie 2-4-0WT No. 30586 on station pilot duties in June 1960; station exterior and goods shed in July 1982; 2-4-0WT No. 30585 on shed, and 4569 with a B set in June 1960. Drawings of station and goods shed.

S.T. Turner. Early wagons on the LB&SCR: postscript. 321-3.
p. 219: Lewes goods shed c1865: remarkable photograph from Reeves Collection which loos more like a model rather than the real thing!

T.T. Sutcliffe. Standard LYR signal boxes: a brief historical survey. 324-30.
Design due to George Edwards.

From our correspondents. 331-2.

Railway topics No. 4. D.P. Rowland.
See feature on page 228 (Vol. 4): quotes from LMS Northern Division Sectional Appendix for regulations relating to Dornoch branch
In response to Bob Essery's cri de coeur I have been through the LMS Northern Division Sectional Appendix only to find it adds very little to what we know about mixed trains on the Dornoch Branch. Apart from an entry confirming that shunting by tow rope was allowed at The Mound —which is not really relevant — the only other specific reference is a local instruction about opening and closing the crossing gates at Skelbo. This states that;
"After up trains have passed over the level crossing they must be brought to a stand and not proceed until the porter has opened the gates for the roadway and joined the train. Down trains must stop short of the level crossing to permit of the guard opening the gates for the passage of the train".
From this it would appear that the guard travelled in the passenger brake and a porter travelled, presumably in a goods brake, at the rear, as required by the regulations.
Towards the end of the Sectional Appendix there is an instruction headed 'Conveyance of Tank wagons by Mixed Trains'. This applies to the Dornoch line, amongst others, and states;
"When such wagons are conveyed by mixed trains they must be marshalled next but one to the rear brake van, and in all cases an ordinary goods wagon (or wagons) must be placed between any vehicles containing passengers and the tank wagons".
There we have it then, I can find nothing in the Sectional Appendix which removes the need for a goods brake van (or vans) to bring up the rear of all mixed trains on the Dornoch branch and indeed the two specific references to the line assume this is the case. And yet there is a nagging doubt in my mind for I cannot recall seeing any photographs showing goods brakes on the tail of Dornoch branch trains. However strictly speaking it was the Dornoch Light Railway and it could just be that the Light Railways Act allowed some dispensation. Certainly the overall speed on the branch was limited to 25mph.
On a different subject, on pages 238/9 Bob features a drawing of an LMS Standard thirteen ton High Goods Wagon dated 12 May 1923 ... which correctly should be D1666 and not as marked D166. Some of your less ancient readers may not appreciate that when the drawing was issued it was a twelve ton wagon. At the beginning of WW2, along with thousands of similar vehicles, its carrying capacity was increased by one ton simply by painting over the two in 12T and replacing it with a three. I find it surprising that in the darkest days of the war the Drawing Office got out the GA and amended. it to reflect the change. Presumably some apprentice got the job!

Railway topics No. 4. D. Massey.
See feature on page 228 (Vol. 4): quotes from Highland Railway Working Timetable Appendix of May 1920 (recently republished by HRS), concerning brake vans on mixed trains.
which provides that in a mixed train, a brake van shall be provided every ten goods vehicles and trains on the Fochabers, Hopeman, Fort George, Aberfeldy, Dornoch and Lybster branches/ Light Railways shall be limited to ten goods vehicles.

Letterboxes. Stan Roberts.
Long list of errata to feature on page 255.
Page 255 top right ': This example in the wall of the Childwall Abbey Hotel, Liverpool photographed on 26 July 1994.
Page 256 bottom right outside Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral. 6 June 1993.
Page 257 top left should read 1940 pattern lamp letter box used as well box. Bidston Road/Beresford Road, Wirral 24 March 1993.
Page 257 top right should read Second style of round top lamp letter box. It has words LETTERS ONLY instead of LETTERS as on the original 1896 design. Wettenhall, Cheshire 31 July 1993.
I have enclosed the photo of the current lamp letter box to complete the story. 1940 pattern lamp leiterbox, Heygarth Road, Eastham, Wirral. For 29 years this was my local letter box, but since the photo was taken on 2 February 1993 it has bem replaced by a pillar letler box down the road.

Sheep vans. Mike Williams. 331
Bob Essery may be over-generalising in his comment about sheep vans, certainly so far as the LNWR was concerned: The well-know Ackermann prints showing Liverpool and Manchester Railway trains in 1837 include both a cattle wagon and a double deck sheep waggon, both open to the elements. Although a little diagrammatic, these illustrations are probably fairly accurate. From various minute books we know that in 1840 the London and Birmingham Railway had four double sheep wagons (and 200 cattle wagons), whilst in July 1861 the Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway had eight sheep vans and 24 cattle wagons (out of a total wagon stock of 432). In 1848 Mark Huish undertook a survey of all LNWR stock and reported 117 sheep vans and 382 cattle wagons. From these quantities it could be assumed that cattle was carried around far more frequently than sheep. However, traffic returns for July 1844 to July 1845 show 8,500 cattle; 18,000 sheep and a massive 108,123 pig movements. So, perhaps our model cattle wagons should all be full of pigs!
A drawing of LNWR Southern Division double deck sheep wagon (roofed) appears in Railway Machinery by D. K. Clarke, published in 1855. Now Bob was probably referring to the twentieth century in has article, in which case how long did these early sheep wagons/vans last? Well, an LNWR Locomotive Committee minute of 1885 authorised the "middle floor to be removed from sheep vans". Incidentally, the use of the terms wagon or van for livestock may also stem from this early period. In the 1860s it was minuted that cattle wagons were having their ends boarded up and roofs added. Clearly they were therefore open before this date, perhaps explaining the term 'cattle wagon'. Sheep vans on the other hand were presumably normally closed, hence the 1885 minute does not mention the need to provide roofs, only the removal of floors. Another minute as late as 1901 refers to "five open cattle vans condemned or replaced" and the earliest surviving detailed records of wagon stock, in 1902, make no mention of them.

GER coach. John Watling. 331
Steve Banks in Part 2 of his article on LNER formations chose his words well in describing the GER 1st restaurant car No.684 as having a chequered history. Built at Stratford in June 1898 as Supper saloon, No.l l, it seated twenty 1st class passengers, served from a small self contained kitchen at one end with a pair of toilets at the other.
Early in 1914 it became a restaurant car, the kitchen was enlarged at the expense of the saloon which lost four seats and one toilet. Corridor connections were added to give access to adjoining dining cars. In August it became a kitchen and sleeping coach as part of Home Ambulance Train No.3. Following release from war service during 1920 it was further altered to the condition shown in the diagram accompanying the article, as first class No.273, later LNER No.684. The Vacuum brake and electric light replaced the original Westinghouse equipment and gas lighting. In this form it was finally withdrawn in March 1938 after nearly 40 years of main line service.

Darlington Station. E.D. Bruton. 331
In that part of the article, on p.240 it has stated that: ... "Thus we have a station of grand proportions but with just four through platform faces." Therein I am afraid that an error has occurred in the notes, as Darlington has only TWO through platform faces. Possibly the four tracks between the bay platforms, seen vanishing under the overall roof, caused that confusion, but I can assure you that no way could that have been possible for just beyond the buffer stops of those four tracks stood the plinthed S & D locomotive Locomotion and beyond that the bulk of the station buildings and offices! This station was built as a huge island platform with the bay platforms at each end, very much as Edinburgh Waverley Station, although that was probably longer, although Darlington shares with it in having an outer pair of non-platform roads each side, just by the main outer walls supporting the ends of the overall roof. These lines may or may not have intermediate scissors crossovers half way, as I have never checked for that there, but Waverley station certainly has. Incidentally, the bays are quite long and held a double headed rail tour train on one occasion, in the up bay without exceeding the length of the platform.

Not to go. John Horne. 331
Several readers have added useful comments. Firstly, the location of the picture. Michael Dunn spotted that the track was of LNWR origin, so the wagon must have been stopped before it reached its destination of Southampton. Huddersfield was suggested but Chris Crofts had already seen this photograph, having obtained his copy from the NRM (DY25812). Because John Edgington had put the details on the back, we now know from the LMS Derby negative register that the photo was taken at Nuneaton; no wonder the Southampton Gas Light & Coke Co. was getting impatient. The date was 12 June 1939.
The NRM print has the advantage of less cropping, so we can see that the rails are only thirty feet long and therefore quite old. And rather more of the cement van shows, enough to justify this enlargement. Mr. Crofts also springs to the defence of the LMS wagon, which is not at all boring, he says, and twelve ton rather than eight ton. The Earl of Dudley has not yet been in touch with MBT but its true I called him 'His Grace', rather than 'His Lordship'; for which I must apologise. The covered goods wagon with the roof door is identified as ex-North Eastern Railway.

More not to go. Chris Crofts. 332
I cannot agree that the wagon is boring. Visible planks have been renewed on two or more occasions, and some of the lettering has been touched up. The LMS built 70 of these wagons for every 4F it owned, and they would have found their way into every goods yard in the country, except those on the Isle of Wight. Turning now to Bob Essery's Goods on the Move, the train shown at the top of page 206 is not likely to be going to "Silkstone Colliery." The date is 1935 or later (new-style shed plate on smokebox door). At this period there does not seem to have been a Silkstone Colliery. Old Silkstone Colliery and Silkstone Fall Colliery were both owned by the Old Silkstone Colliery Co., whose wagons were quite different from those in the photograph. I believe the wagons shown are Rothervale; the main lettering seems right for "The United Steel Companies Ltd.," used on these wagons since c.l931. The wagons would, therefore, be going home to Orgreave, Thurcroft Main, or Treeton Colliery.
The wagon shown at the bottom of page 206 was built and originally owned by Arthur Gibson & Son Ltd. of Hull. The only written record I have of their wagons is of 101 (tare 7-5-2),102 (7-6-0) and 103 (7-6-2), all registered by the LNER on 9 January 1939. I suspect that these were the first three wagons the company built for themselves, and that they were trying to break into the wagon-building business at that period. They are reported (Model Railway News, August 1964) as having built some for Bannister of Grimsby in 1938. Ten years previously they had been supplying paint to the Derbyshire Carriage and Wagon Company. I have another photograph of one of these wagons (H.C. Casserley No.44275). It appears to be No.109 (tare 7-7-0). It is not of the same batch as the one shown in Gordon Coltas' photograph; the side knee washer plates are not bent round and the G and the O are more rounded.
I cannot accept the dimension given for the ex-Caledonian Railway pig iron wagons, especially the width. The dimension over solebars would be 6ft 11in., and there is obviously (on the wood frame wagon) 4 or 5in of headstock sticking out beyond the solebar face, giving a width over headstocks of.say, 7ft 7in. With 24in sheering, this would give an inside width of 7ft 2in, which is, perhaps, what has been read from a diagram.
In the case of No.323013, I think the new lettering has simply been applied (in 1937) over the old worn grey livery, rather than the large LMS showing through new bauxite paint.
Lastly, the Midland signal-boxes. Steetley Colliery Sidings box was on an embankment and was from an early period, so it may not have had a cement base—Ribblehead, erected two years later, certainly didn't. I used to pass the Steetley box regularly and I was not aware of subsidence problems in the area. And shouldn't Desford Colliery Sidings box be type three, with the deeper windows in the end?

Duchesses. Geoff Holt 332
The articles describing the LMS Duchess 4-6-2 class were indeed interesting and informative and the drawings by Russell Carter provided answers to a number of questions. However, I do suspect a common error in all of them with regard to the outside cylinders. Is it not correct that these cylinders, when viewed from head-on, were actually angled inwards from the top by some three degrees from the vertical? All the drawings show them to be vertical (the streamliners excepted) whereas many of the photographs do indicate a definite incline, the picture on page 253 being a typical example. This inclination is small but I suggest these cylinders were mounted and aligned in a similar manner to the production batch of the Princess Royals which were three degrees from vertical. The editor of MBT has been known to remark that few models of the Duchess class he has seen have been 'convincing'. As a fairly keen modeller of the LMS I would agree they are the very devil to get right but it is small detail such as the foregoing that can make all the difference.
Finally, as a contributor to MBT since its launch in 1991 it is indeed sad to see it go. To me it seemed to be a nice balance of prototype and 'model' and where no models were featured at least the articles were aimed towards that branch of our hobby. It could always be relied on to provide something different than the usual three-quarter front views of trains, trains and more trains. The presentation of the coloured sections have been superb and it is one magazine that will be sadly missed. I wish the new team well and that also goes for D.J. himself.

Although I have studied the Duchesses' for over 30 years I had not spotted the point Geoff makes about the inward angling of the outside cylinders, but having re-examined many pictures, I am convinced that he is correct. Whether the angle is exactly the 'three degrees' he suggests, I cannot say, but what seems certain is that the width across the bottom of the cylinders is somewhat less than at the top and I have a 'gilt' feeling that to include such a taper in a model would certainly help to capture the character of the prototype. Clearly, we never stop learning in this game. Thank you too Geoff, both for your many helpflll contributions to MBT and for the general sentiments expressed, which echoes those of many correspondents; and it seems appropriate that my final words in this last issue should be abollt one of the most fascinating prototypes 1 know. In the broader sense (and as the instigator of MBT) 1 am delighted that our efforts have been appreciated during our brief four year nll1. 1 can also assure you that the basic philosophy of this firm will not change with the amalgamation of our two magazines - indeed, the first issues of the 'new look' BACKTRACK are already peppered with drawings for those who may have doubted ...

Curving switches. D.K. Horne. 332.
Page 244, centre column: which sidings? It seems to me that we have missed the central purpose about which the design of this Bradford layout revolves. I said that the diverging tracks, were a puzzle.
In the new layout there were four roads with a siding between each pair.
This is reinforced by your photograph at Croft Street which shows (reading left to right): two dolls for the LMS, Down Outer Homes through the scissors; one doll for Siding Starters, left and right; one for the LMS Up Starter with a Distant; two for the Down LNE; and the next will have been the LNE Siding Starters. The whole layout is explained by this gantry with the lower end of the sidings just beneath it. The running lines and Sidings appear to be laid out to roughly the standard six foot and do not conform to MOT requirements, suggesting the minister having the power ... until he was asked for the funding! A copy of the L YR strip diagram reproduced shows it all.
Page 247, picture caption: the lower part refers to the explanatory sketch which we have not published. It makes no sense as it is. Incidentally, Robert Daglish — of Darcy Lever fame —was a Director of the L&Y when this bridge was conceived?
Page 272, 1st column line 9: 483 feet should read 482 feet - as in the tables.
Page 274, 1st column line 33: 30iil spaces plus two feet for the joints. 3rd column last sentence: should read 'He would then deduct the joint spaces: .. .'
Chair spacing table, A column: 3G and 27G should read 3½ and 27½
On page 275, I have explained what came after the A switch, where these types would be used, and even the likely speed limits. We have given the sleeper layouts for these switches. But we have not given the angles and the natural turnouts which these switches were designed to suit. The two pages from the LMS Handbook 'Standard Railway Equipment-Permanent Way' give these details at Page 1 and their application is exactly as I have described it for the A switch. The way they were modified for compound curves is explained by Page 7 - for the A switch; and I have given the limits of the other tables in the middle column of Page 275. Given these details, I would have no trouble in reproducing every turnout in the LMS Handbook

Liveries in transition. Colour file for modellers. Trevor Owen.
D5506 in original green livery and D5578 in blue livery: both at Stratford Depot on 1 April 1963.

3F in the snow: Vintage colour page. rear cover
3F 0-6-0 hauling empty coal wagons north passed St Albans in 1937 with snow on tracks and in cutting (Dufaycolour).