Michael Rutherford

Michael Rutherford is now best known for his remarkable series in Backtrack known as Railway Reflections (and formerly as Provocations) which now run to over a hundred articles and must bring him into the same realm as C.J. Allen and O.S. Nock, but Rutherford is without question in a class of his own in noting his sources in sufficient detail for them to be recalled and thus puts on a par with authors like Charles E. Lee. He does, of course, have a major advantage over lesser mortals in working at the National Railway Museum with its excellent access to published information, the extensive grey literature and to private records. The pamphlet appears to suit this author's style. He is a noteworthy author about railways and their locomotives in that unlike many others he is prepared to read as well as to write.

City of Truro: main line centenarian. York: Friends of the National Railway Museum, 2003. 40pp.
Page 33 shows author and several other NRM luminaries draped around the locomotive. Author is also visible on page 2.
Great Western 4-6-0s at work. London: Promotional Reprint Co., 1995.
Originally published as two separate books: Castles & Kings at work. Ian Allan, 1982 and Granges and Manors at work. Ian Allan, 1985. The reprint is in effect two separate books (with indexes, etc) under one cover (but with a single numbering sequence). Many of the excellent features evident in the Backtrack articles were evident in this earlier publication. It may be added that Rutherford did include information about the Hawksworth Pacific..
with Blakemore, Michael
Green Arrow and the LNER V2 class. Penryn: Atlantic/Friends of the National Railway Musem. 1997. 20pp.
Partially written in respect of the locomotive preserved within the NRM collection.
Mallard: the record breaker. York?: Newburn House, 1988. 48pp.
Although only an A4 pamphlet this brings together much that is difficult to trace otherwise. Many of the pictures are unusual.

Michael Rutherford's Railway Reflections

Railway Reflections began life as Provocations (an apt title). In some respects they followed in the footsteps of Tuplin, although Rutherford's knowledge of locomotives may be greater than that of Tuplin, who in spite of his  Professorship in Engineering remained an amateur in terms of assessing steam locomotives (few of which rely upon gears - Tuplin's area of expertise). They are enjoyable journalism and frequently provoked quite intellectually challenging responses. Perhaps, Rutherford's main trains of thought were that: Webb had been excessively criticised (his great skills being ignored in this process); Bulleid's considerable defects as an engineer had tended to be overlooked by some; to an extent the same remarks were made about Gresley; most things Midland were pretty awful, that everything from Swindon, and the derivatives thereof, was wonderful, and that Riddles and his acolytes were more in the Bulleid mould than they would have recognized (the "Standards" merely added to the exisiting massive diversity and failed to propell design forward). Too little regard was paid to what was going on elsewhere, although much of it emerged from British workshops. The following abstracts exclude (1) notes on the illustartions and (2) the links to correspondence generated.

The following appeared as an Editorial in January 1997:

In Reflective Mood

January 1997 heralds the beginning of the third year of a monthly BACKTRACK and the third year of my regular articles. I wouli like to take this opportunity to thank all those who have written with corrections and comments and I would affirm that no stone remaim unturned in the search for the cyberspace gremlin that occasionally eats adds or modifies words to suit his own nefarious plan.
Some of you have written in with regard to topics that have been covered briefly (but provocatively) such as Bulleid's Pacifics and Webb's locomotives. I can promise that these topics will be dealt with in more depth later this year. A number of friends have been wont to remark that although they liked a particular article, it wasn't at all provocative With this criticism in mind and also the knowledge that researching for these contributions invariably gives me more and more ideas for further essays and that there are many, narrower, straightfoward topics I wish to address, it has been decided to rename the series. Consequently Provocations will become Reflections from this issue but there will be no fundamental change in my approach which is to try and look at old themes from new perspectives, bring apparently disparate themes together or put some specialized railway subject into a more general historical contact and this may mean reference to events and railways beyond these shores. Therefore only the name has been changed and I will certainly not shirk from being as provocative as is necessary if I wish to drive a point home!

Railway reflections: Provocations Number 1. Fuel, energy and traction. Backtrack, 1995, 9, 33-8.
Spark arrestors were needed for coke, coal, and especially wood burning. Early locomotives tended to be highly complex to burn coal until D.K. Clark of the GNoS developed fireboxes with side air inlet tubes and Charles Markham developed the brick arch. The clean-burning sperm oil was used as lamp oil, but mineral oil exploitation was developed in Pennsylvania and in the Caucasus. Thomas Urquhart developed oil burnining locomotives on the Grazi and Tsaritsin Railway in 1874. Holden used waste from an oil-gas plant to fuel stationary boilers at Stratford works and mainline locomotives. Robinson experimented with pulverized and colloidal fuel on the GCR. The Agadir Crisis caused the British Navy to develop oil-burning for its greater speed, and Churchill persuaded the British Government to acquire a stake in the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. on 17 June 1914. The SR permitted U 2-6-0 629 to be fitted with the AEG system for burning pulverized fuel: this system had been developed for brown coal and problems were encountered with hard coals. Author considered that it was a failure by BR not to develop the oil-burning system which had been developed by the GWR before nationalization. Author (see Rutherford 50 regarded this as his Opus 1)
Illus.: GWR 2021 class 2144 with a spark arrestor chimney at Ditton Priors in 1953; Stockton and Darlington no 25 Derwent given to the NER in 1898; diagram of Charles Markham's classic firebox design (Instn Mech Engrs); diagram of pioneer GCR No 966 as converted to use pulverised coal; the fuelling source at Gorton for J.G.Robinson's fuel experiments on the GCR; modernised shed yard at Colwick; refuelling a West German DB three cylinder Pacific with oil; Merchant Navy 21C19 French Line laying down a smoke blanket at Fleet (Eric Youldon asserts this must have been 21C9 see 9-163;

[Railway Reflections (Provocations) No. 2]; Thoughts about turntables. Backtrack, 1995, 9 . 67-73.
The first turnatbles were used for wagon shunting. King Louis XIV had turntables on a pleasure railway driven by servants. Roundhouse engine sheds were totally reliant upon turntables and this was a disdvantage. Centre balance turntables required a strong foundation and it was difficult to balance the locomotive, especially if the tender was empty. A better system shared the balance with the end wheels as used on small GWR turntables. Two more sophisticated designs became available latterly: the articulated turntable from Vögele of Mannheim, the patent rights for which were used by Cowan Sheldon: the 70 ft turntables at Polmadie and Camden were of this type, and the Mundt from the Netherlands which enabled flexing at the centre. These were supplied by Ransomes & Rapier. A 70 ft one was installed at Clifton, York, in 1932, and shorter versions were supplied to the LMS and GWR. The power could be electricity, hydraulic, air or vacuum (last two from locomotive). There were powered turntables in Britain (less than 10%). In the early twentieth century it was quite normal to split the locomotive from its tender and turn each in turn. This was done with Cardean and there were similar problems with the NBR Atlantics. Large tank engines, such as those used on the LBSCR got round the problem. On the MR the roundhouses with their turntables limited locomotive development Lack of a suitable turntable at Bath SDJR led to tender cabs being fitted to the 2-8-0s. Problems with Gresley Pacifics at Gateshead as the locomotives had to be turned on avery busy triangle. At first Pacifics had to go out to Hornsey to turn. Shortened designs, such as the Schools, were a success. See letter from Richard Q. Colley (222) concerning effort required to tun even small locomitives and comment on Gorton double-track layout shown on page 8. illus.: A carriage turntable unearthed when Euston station was rebuilt; A turntable at ex-LNWR depot at Wolverhampton; The original turntable design at Derby. It needed two sets of wheels due; A brand new 4-6-4T for the Furness Railway at Kitson's in Leeds; Four men struggling to turn Rob Roy no 895 at Perth; The unhappy wanderer is GE no 927, unfortunately it is someone else's; Getting a Johnson 4-4-0 out of the pit by jacking and packing sometimes it; The brand new 70 foot table put in at Wakefield in 1933; Diagram of 70 foot LNER table;

Railway Reflections (Provocations) Number 3: A question of gauge. Backtrack, 1995, 9. 152-6.
The NCB operated underground locomotives on 30 different gauges from 1'6" to 3' plus 3' 6". Railways were built to local measurements: in Spain the gauge was 6 Castillian feet. In Sweden railways were built to 4 and 3 Swedish feet gauges. The origin of the metric system is described and Rutherford wonders if the railways at Crich and Penrhyn were metric. The broad gauge enabled higher speeds and higher loads, but there were problems of transhipment, although the MR staged a pantomine for the Railway Commissioners at Gloucester. On 18 August 1846 an Act was passed which reinforced the dominance of the standard gauge, but with provision for 5' 3" in Ireland. Broad gauge was to be limited to its existing area. Sir John Rennie claimed that he would have selected 5' 6" for the L&MR, and this gauge was chosen for India and Argentina. There were many gauges in the USA and this created problems during the Civil War. The Niagra Bridge opened in 1853 accommodated three gauges. France used two gauges: 1.44 and 1.435 and only rationalized this recently. The Leek & Manifold Light Railway, whose Engineer was E.R. Calthrop owed much to the Barsi Light Railway in India.The Leek & Manifold could carry standard gauge wagons on special trucks. Hitler planned a Breitspurbahn with a 3m gauge. Australia has regauged many lines and Spain is pursuing a similar policy. The former Soviet Union provides huge potential for narrowing the gauge of railways therin. Tables show some early British gauges and maximum gauges in Europe. illus.: A broad and a standard gauge loco . Note the way the track is symmetrical; Mixed gauge at Swindon Junction; 2' gauge slate wagons 'piggyback' on standard gauge wagons; A Fairlie double engine; A locomotive built for the Barsi Light Railway; LMVLR Locomotive no 2 B Earle at Hulme End; Rye and Camber tramway A 3' petrol engined loco; Transhipment sidings on the Harrogate Gas Works Railway; Outline Diagrams of Pacifics in India;

Railway Reflections No. 4: Was there a future for steam? - Part 1. Backtrack, 1995, 9. 183-90.
This part is mainly concerned with the development of high performance steam engines for road vehicles, and the adaption of this technology to railway traction. Amongst the pioneers considered are Jacob Perkins who developed a flash boiler which was considered by F.W. Webb for application in a locomotive, but the extent of this development is not known. Pioneers of steam road vehicles included Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, Francis Macerone and Walter Hancock whom Rutherford considered to be arguably the best. Later Amédée Bollée and Leon Serpollet developed engines with flash boilers in France and the latter produced steam cars with V4 single acting engines and this technology was applied to some light locomotives sold under the Hydroleum name: some were used by the London Brick Company. Stephen Alley was the founder of the Sentinel operation associated with steam road and railway vehicles. and development might have gone much further had the financial state not been so severe during the 1920s and 30s, specially once Doble became involved in the firm. Doble's best known contribution was to high performance steam automobiles, but similar technology was applied to a railbus for the Southern Railway and a locomotive for the LMS. The author also mentions Kyrle Williams advanced water tube boilers, but the work ended with the failure of Kerr Stuart, and the Swiss Locomotive Company's high pressure locomotive with double acting Uniflow cylinders with jackshaft drive and the application of the Woolnough marine water tube boiler to Sentinel railcars. .Part 2 page 265. illus.: A triple expansion 4-4-0T using a high pressure flash boiler as schemed at; Hancock's boiler as used in 1830; A 2-6-2T built in 1927; A railcar as used on the Hungarian State Railway; Sentinel-Cammell railbus successfully used on the Brighton-Dyke service; Diagram of 1600 BHP express locomotive prepared by Sentinel; A Doble inspired Co-Co- sentinel on test in Belgium; LMS shunter no 7192; Designs of foreign railcars; Section through Woolnough boiler; Section view of a Doble 2 cyl compound steam motor; Section view of Sentinel Mk II 6 cyl single acting engine for railcars;

Railway Reflections: Provocations No. 5: Was there a future for steam? Part 2. ). Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 1995, 9, 265-70.
Part 1 on page 183. Seminal influences, according to Rutherford, included John Player of the Brooks Locomotive Works introduction of the Belpaire tapered boiler aand its adoption by Churchward. The formation of the American Locomotive Company in 1901 was key to the development of large locomotives in the USA. The extensive use of cast steel was common in the USA. One of the main shortcomings in Britain was the lack of component standardisation, not only amongst the companies but also between the companies and the private railway industry; it was essential in the locomotive export field. There does seem a case for the Government to have instigated some progress, particularly the Government of 1945 which planned to nationalise the railways but could see little beyond the political gesture. It could be argued that steam may well have had a longer life and a more dignified end had the railways not been nationalised and the companies allowed to modernise in their own way in their own time. Following the formation of the Railway Executive, the very size of the new authority precluded any outside collaboration; American manufacturing methods or Chapelon-inspired rebuilds were unthinkable. Steam locomotive design was stuck in a timewarp set in the early 1920s. Outside industry could have done better; the steam locomotive deserved better.
illus.: Bavarian Pacific no 18.472; No 102 La France; Pennsylvania K4 class; Principle of Super Power as advocated by George Basford in 1923; A Lima built 2-8-4 of the Richmond, Fredricksburg and Potomac Railway; Nord Pacific no 231E 16; A cast steel locomotive bed; LNER A3 no 2751 at Kings Cross; LNER articulated con rod; A Baltic no 232.U1; No 1500 of the Delaware and Hudson railway; US built Mikado of the 141.R class; A class 10 Pacific; A South African class 25 4-8-4;

Provocations/Railway Reflections No. 6: Eighty years of service: the express passenger 2-2-2. Backtrack, 1995, 9, 296-301
The 2-2-2 began as extended L&MR 2-2-0 Planet in 1833. Patentee built by Robert Stephenson for the L&MR: it had outside sandwich frames. A couple of small locomotive builders in Dundee developed locomotives with inside plate frames and outside inclined cylinders and this design was developed by Patrick Stirling on the GSWR and GNR. The mis-named Crewe-type was developed on the GJR by William Buddicom and Sinclair took the idea to the GER. The LNWR Bloomers and LBSCR Grosvenor type introduced by Stroudley were other significant stages in development. Almost as an after thought Rutherford mentions the influence of John Gray, as encapsulated in his patent 7745 of 26 July 1838 in which valve events are defined and whose work led to David Joy's Jenny Lind.
Rutherford concludes by stating that "Size for size and pound for pound (sterling), the 2-2-2 was developed further and better within the existing production technology and operating conditions, than possibly any other express type in Britain." illus.: Diagram of an early R&W Hawthorn 2-2-2; LBSCR No 292 Seaford 2-2-2 a very rebuilt machine; HR Crewe-type single no 32 Cluny; Crewe type single no 1848 Sefton; Furness no 37 a standard design of Sharp, Stewart and Co; No 151 Grosvenor; GW Queen class no 1117; North British no 214; Ramsbottom Problem class no 1434 Eunomia; Stirling single no 876; A Stirling single rebuilt by Ivatt;

Railway Reflections No. 7: Sages are not fixers - Science, invention and Dr. Diesel. Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 9, 377-85.
The concept of the internal combustion engine is extremely old. There are 18th century patents for devices including what may have been a gas turbine and engines had been demonstrated in time for the Rainhill trials, but engines suitable for rail traction had to wait until the end of the 19th century. This is a brief history of those, such as Otto, Deutz, Daimler and Diesel, who contributed to the development of the ic engine, plus the names of many others who also contributed. There is some mention of the application of such "early" engines to rail traction.

Railway Reflections No. 8. Measurements not mystification - the British dynamometer car. . Backtrack, 9, 436-44.
Scientific measurement of locomotive performance probably began with Charles Sylvester's measurement made on behalf of the Liverpool & Manchester Railroad Committee in 1824 when he made measdurements on the performance of locomotives at Hetton Colliery. Charles Babbage, one of the precursors of mechanized computation assisted in the development of a dynamometer carriage for the Great Western Railway at Brunel's behest. This vehicle was improved by Gooch and helped in the refutation of Dr Lardner's nonsense presented against the Railway. This early car was capable of measuring power at the drawbar and is described in Clark's Railway machinery. Aspinall made considerable advances in the design of dynamometer cars. The work of H.I. Andrews and "his" Mobile Testing Plant and Sam Ell's Controlled Road Testing is mentioned. A table summarizes details of all British cars.

Railway Reflections (Provocations) No. 9: Matchless matchboxes . Backtrack, 1995, 9,. 471-7.
Development of the pannier tank locomotive from side and saddle tank precursors under Armstrong, Churchward and Collett. Author divided GWR 0-6-0 tank locomotives into five categories:
1. Large Wolverhampton tanks with inside or sandwich frames.
2. Small Wolverhampton tanks with inside frames only
3. Large Swindon tanks with inside and double frames [57xx was main manifestation of these]
4. Miscellaneous
5. Absorbed locomotives.
Argues that Classes: 1813, 1854, 2721, 57XX and 94XX formed a single procession in design, and produced a total of 1313 related locomotives. The Dean Goods (2301 class) stemmed from the 1813 series, whilst the 94xx employed the Number 10 boiler developed for the 2251 mixed traffic 0-6-0. Argues that two divergent processes were at work: standardization and diversity wrought through improvements, or the need to meet specific conditions. Two tables illuminate both trends within the classes. Some of the diversity is demonstrated by the series numbers: 67xx were fitted only with steam brakes and were intended for shunting. The 97xx series were fitted with condensing apparatus, a special form of ATC to clear electrified tracks, and trip cocks for working over the Metropolitan line to Smithfield. The 8750 series incorporated several improvements. Suggests that the design should have been adopted as a standard by British Railways. The class combined cheapness, simplicity, reliability and versatility.
As an introduction Rutherford introduced one of his "hot under the collar" topics, namely the quest for authenticity in museum exhibits.

Railway reflections (Provocations) No. 10: Heroes, villains and ordinary men. . Backtrack, 1995, 9, 528-34.
Approaches to history, one of which that is very popular (biography) concentrates upon individuals. Inevitably some important contributors fail to receive adequate atention -, others ensure that they get too much. Considers sources: Dendy Marshall (which is neither congratulated nor condemned by Rutherford: only its age is noted - which in such a topic may be an asset), E.A. Forward (Trans. Newcomen Soc), Samuel Smiles, Patents (those of Chapman, Trevithick and Hedley); the contenders (William Hedley, Trevithick, Blenkinsop, Chapman, Brunton, Timothy Hackworth and Jonathan Foster, most of whom pre-date George Stephenson. Notes call by George Stephenson on son to assist in locomotive-building enterprise. Considers locomotive remains: Puffing Billy and Wylam Billy. Emphasizes that Hetton Colliery locomotive is an early replica built by Sir Lindsay Wood, son of Nicholas Wood (collaborator with Stephenson) in 1851/2. There is no adequate biography of Charles Beyer, nor of Stanier, but Gresley and Bulleid are better served. There is a tendency to over-play the significance of the CME (much development took place on the LMS whilst Stanier was in India) Illus. (b&w): A pastiche of early locomotives; Puffing Billy from nearside and offside; early view of Hetton Colliery with Stephenson locomotives at work; Hetton Colliery shunter; Beyer 0-6-0 made for the Shrewsbury and Hereford railway but sold to the GWR before delivery; The Hetton Colliery shunter; Bert Spencer, Gresley's technical assistant; No 10000 the 'Hush-hush' with Nigel Gresley (with daughters on footplate); Teddy Windle, chief draughtsman at Doncaster; O.V.S.Bulleid and Lord Brabazon on 21C1; prototype V2 no 4771 Green Arrow at Carnforth;

Railway Reflections (Provocations) No. 11: Failure? - Part 1 - Francis William Webb. . Backtrack, 1995, 9, 582-8.
...the Webb compound era, far from wasting money for the company, did the opposite: thus, Rutherford follows Essery's assessment. In addition, Rutherford questions Cox's evaluation of Webb in Speaking of steam, considering that the paper by Webb selected for the compilation failed to demonstrate some of Webb's greatest engineering achievements: notably the Teutonics ("very good indeed"); the Alfred the Greats ("as good as anything operating on any other British railway"). Webb had to withstand pressure from Sir Richard Moon who would only spend money on safety if forced to. Rutherford considered that the Teutonic class was very good indeed and that the Alfred the Great class performed as well as any of their contemoraries on other railways. Webb's real battles came with the newer managers: Robert Turnbull and Frederick Harrison. See also Webb page.  See also Volume 10 (1) page for letters by P.W.J. Bishop and L.A. Summers and response to them by Rutherford. Illus.: Francis William Webb; Sir Richard Moon chairman of the LNWR; John Nicholson Jackson Chief draughtsman; Dreadnought No 1353 City of Edinburgh; Dreadnought No 2064 Autocrat; Teutonic No 1303 Pacific; Alfred the Great No 1952 Benbow; Webb 'Coal Engine' as LMS No 8208; Webb 'Jumbo' no 1522 Pitt as LMS no 5005; Webb 'Cauliflower' no 451 at Carnforth [this is possibly incorrect and the correct location was Greenfield (see Volume 10, page 109).

Railway Reflections (Provocations) No. 12: Failure? - Part 2 - the Kitson-still locomotive. Backtrack, 1995, 9, 657-65.
Kitson-Still locomotive and its origins: Rutherford considered that with hindsight the Kitson-Still must be regarded as one of the most successful unconventional locomotives: Rutherford is aware that the adventure was a major contributary factor in the collapse of the Kitson Company. Interesting precursors include the Dunlop hot air/steam system. Author notes that the development of the Kitson-Still locomotive was hidered by the Luddites who run trade unions. Readers who might consider that this was an impossible concept should remember that a substantial amount of electricity is produced via combined cycle systems burning natural gas. Illus.: Drawing of the New Century Engine Cos combined air and steam superheater; Diagram of Dunlop's Aero-steam engine; Diagram of Dunlop's Aero-steam engine as proposed to be fitted to a; Schematic arrangement of Cristiani compressed steam system; Diagram of compressed steam loco built in Austria; Schematic diagram of the Still principle; The main features of the Kitson-Still locomotive; The Still system as applied to Locomotives; The general arrangement of the K-S 1;

Revolutions and Manias - a forgotten anniversary. (Provocations )[Railway Reflections No. 13]. Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 1995, 10, 33-9.
Economic background to railway mania: poverty, the Corn Laws, the Anti-Corn Law League, Chartism, accumulation of capital, poor return on industrial investments, railway dividends were relatively high, the Parliamentary beneficiaries (capitalists and landowners); the boom of 1836 had led to the creation of stock exchanges in Liverpool and Manchester, and others followed. The Corn Laws were repealed in 1846. By 1847 257,000 were employed in constructing railways. The end of laissez faire was marked by the formation of the Railway Clearing House, the establishment of Bradshaw's timetables and growing involvement in Parliament with Committees and Commissions. The growth in third class travel is clearly shown. Long letter by E.R. Foulkes (page 165) on Richard Lovell Edgeworth and his "invention" of trains for conveying loads across soft ground. Portrait of George Hudson the 'Railway King' (see letter page 221/2 by Sinclair concerning this portrait). other illus.: Cartoons of railway promoters; the railway Juggernaught; and 'Off the rails'; Portrait of George Stephenson; Railway maps of 1840 and 1852;  GWR broad gauge 4-2-2 Lord of the Isles; Table 1 Mileage growth 1830-1849; Table 2 Amalgamations; Table 3 Journeys 1843 and 48; Table 4 People employed on the railways 1847-84; Drawing of Sharp Bros. 0-6-0 Sphynx;

Bulleid versus Raworth. Provocations [Railway Reflections No. 14]. Michael Rutherford. 10, 94-100.
Much of the material on Raworth has been incorporated into the biographical section (and allusion to this feature is also made in the section on Bulleid). The Reflections notes the great contribution which Raworth made to the progress of Southern electrification in spite of his subsidiary position to Jones, the Chief Electrical Engineer, and questions once again how Bulleid was able to get away with designing his complex Pacifics which were a mixture of brilliance and perversity, and the Leader class which seemed only to incorporate the latter characteristic. illus.: Picture of Alfred Raworth; A much rebuilt two car EMU (see letter by R.C. Riley on page 165); Simultaneous departures from Guildford of three EMU trains; Electric loco CC2 on test; Bulleid Merchant Navy 21C7 Aberdeen Commonwealth nearing Weybridge; Rebuilding of a Bulleid Pacific; A projected Diesel - mechanical??;

The Great Western, boilers and The Great Bear. (Provocations) [Railway Reflections No. 15]. Michael Rutherford. 10, 146-54.
illus.: No 3306 Shelburne in front of a 2201 class; No 36 built at Swindon; No 3297 Earl Cawdor at Weymouth; An Atbara no 3391; No 150 of the Great Northern; Two early schemes for GW pacifics; No 111 The Great Bear nearly as built but with front doorsteps removed as; No 111 The Great Bear in 1923; No 111 The Great Bear in post war condition at Twyford; A final scheme for the Bear; Capital expenditure of the major companies 1876-1907;

More about measurements. (Provocations [Railway Reflections No. 16]. Michael Rutherford. 10, 209-16.
Locomotive testing and the use of the measurements obtained, sometimes for less than straight forward reasons. Author argues that the 1948 locomotive exchanges were solely to support the luxury of the BR Standard designs. Rutherford strongly asserts from the data stored at the NRM that the Claughtons were far more powerful than is frequently considered, and certainly comparable with the Castle class, the tests of which on the LMS were used to reinforce exisiting predilictions. illus.: A comparison chart from the use of a dynamometer car; Graphs of superheater experiments; An indicator shelter on Atlantic no 39; No 2663 George V with Tommy Sackfield after completion and ready for testing; Claughton no 192; Pioneer pacific no 2400; Locomotive testing plant of the Pennsylvania Railroad; No 6001 King Edward VII on test at Swindon; Southern pacific No 34005 Barnstaple on locomotive exchange duty at St Pancras in June 1948; Southern Merchant Navy No 35020 Bibby Line with Sam Ell and Ernie Nutty; Test results (diagram) for No 71000 Duke of Gloucester;

Sir Nigel Gresley, the LNER and the 'Big Four'. (Railway Reflections No. 17). Michael Rutherford. 10, 242-8.
The number one problem facing the LNER was an acute shortage of finance, and this was so serious that policies implemented by the LMS and GWR could not be undertaken on the LNER. Most of the works, even the relatively modern one at Darlington, lacked the comprehensive facilities available at Swindon, Derby and Crewe. Investment in motive power depots was also stated to be poor (but probably better than GWR - mechanical coaling, ash plants and powered turnatbles - KPJ).  Records how Thompson came to rebuild the B12 along Swindon lines. Feature led L.A. Summers (page 390) to assert that Gresley failed to standardize. illus.: No 1470 Great Northern at Doncaster; No 2394 one of only two Mikados; Gresley's locomotive booster on a P1; The corridor tender under construction; No 2845 The Suffolk Regiment; The boiler for the experimental no 10000; No 10000 the 'Hush-hush' outside the erecting shop; No 2001 Cock o' the North when new; No 2001 Cock o' the North at Kings Cross station; No 2509 Silver Link with the bonnet up; No 3279 an rebuilt Ivatt locomotive; The 'Maid of the Loch'; No 61700 Bantam Cock a Gresley V4; Table 1 Steam locomotive stock of the Big Four; Table 2 Locomotives of the LNER built to pre-grouping designs [except GN]; Table 3 Locomotives of the GN/LNER built to Gresley designs; Table 4 Dimensions of Gresley locomotives;

Railways, coal and wagons. (Provocations/Railway Reflections [No. 18]). Michael Rutherford. 10, 322-9.
Mainly the transport of coal and its transhipment to sea-going steam vessels. Statistics presented include P&O bunker stocks on a global basis totalling 90,000 tons in 1853. Includes observations on private owner wagons which Sir John Aspinall called "the bane of the railways." illus.: A double headed Midland coal train; Cambridge Street coal depot; ten ton private owners wagon (Locke & Co (Newland) Ltd; Grangemouth coal drops on the Firth of Forth; seven ton CR coal wagon with dumb buffers; eight ton CR coal wagon with end & side doors; Coal stocks at Stratford; Lunchtime at Wilford Road Nottingham; Pampisford in Cambridgeshire; Coaling trawlers at Fleetwood; Goole docks; Leeds Forge-built CR bogie coal wagon; twenty ton L&YR high-sided coal wagon with end doors and vacuum brakes for Goole export traffic; A train partly of 40 ton side hopper wagons (for Stonebridge Park power station) hauled by 4F no 4150;

Three of a kind: the genesis of the Express locomotive. Provocations/Railway Reflections [No. 19]. 10, Michael Rutherford. 355-60.
The development of the express passenger locomotive by Gooch, Crampton and Sturrock. The article also contains a considerable amount of biographical material about Daniel Gooch and other members of his family. illus.: Drawings of Gooch's Firefly; Robert Stephenson's 2-2-2 North Star stored at Swindon from 1871 to 1906; Swindon engine house with several Fireflys; Great Western' locomotive after rebuilding; A painting (b&w repro.) of Liverpool at Coventry (C. Hamilton Ellis); The Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Jn. Rly. No 14 Kinnaird; Paris-Strasbourg Rly. No 80 Le Continent; Sturrock's massive no 215 which was too big for the GN, unfriendly to track; Iron Duke'; Sturrock's 264 class no 268 in original condition; Drawing of 1925 North Star; A Rover at Flax Bo

Hydraulics and Diesel-hydraulics. (Provocations). [Railway Reflections No. 20].  Michael Rutherford. 10, 432
Brief history of hydraulics as applied to lifts, cranes and in means for bridge construction. notes the replacement of towers by accumulators. Also the development of hydraulic transmission, both on miniature locomotives and on full-size locomotives, notably on the Western Region which enabled high power-to-weight ratios to be obtained, using technology which had been developed in Germany.  illus.: A diagram of a 0-4-0 with a Lentz hydroctatic transmission; Diagram of the Derby designed Diesel-hydraulic no 1831; Hunslet Clarke 4-6-2 diesel hydraulic on the North Bay Railway Scarborough; Simplified diagrams of a Torque converter and a hydraulic coupling; Diagram of the very first main-line diesel hydraulic loco; Diesel-hydraulic V200 class no V200.015 at Koblenz; A brand new D800 passing Sonning sidings; Hymek D7074; A 218 class no 218.188.1; A diesel-hydraulic Western; A DB no V60.421 at Frankfurt on station pilot duty; Diagram of a Class 69000 a 4,400 hp diesel-hydraulic;

The Jewel in the Crown. (Provocations) [Railway Reflections No. 21]. Michael Rutherford. 10, 500-7.
Author attempted to deal with a vast subject (railway development in India) in one article. Nevertheless, he was able to bring out some of the salient points, such as the massive nature of some of the bridges, supplied by British firms, the impact of the railways upon society in India (such as the relief of famine), that it was sometimes cheaper to use imported British coal than locally produced coal, and the relatuionship between British consulting engineers and the railways in India concerning locomotive design, and the evolution of the Indian Standard classes in the early twentieth century. The late J Graeme Bruce contributed a long letter on the reasons behind the gauges adopted in India (page 634) and this in turn provoked an informative response from Horne (11 51). In text there is a reference to "John" Barton Wright (page 507) - should have been William (see Corriegenda page 635). illus.: Bengal, (should have been Bombay see page 634) Baroda and Central India Railway (BB&CIR) 0-6-2T no 44; East India 2-2-2WT no 26 Fawn; Great Indian Peninsular F4 no 1208; Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR) H1 no 770; BB&CIR class H no 534; GIPR 2-10-0 No. 603 (Vulcan Foundry 1928); GIPR 0-8-4T Y3 no 41 shunting in Bombay (P. Ransome-Wallis); BB&CIR class XC no 603; GIPR Electric Locomotive for service over Ghauts (Ghats); BB&CIR class H no 347 being prepared for, and working the Flying Ranee in 1941 leaving Bombay (P. Ransome-Wallis).

The LMS, locomotives and T.F. Coleman. [Provocations/Railway Reflections No. 22]. Michael Rutherford. 10, 560-7.
See the engineering biography of Tommy Coleman which is based on this article which extends to other areas of locomotive design on the LMS. This feature produced a considerable response. Keith Horne (page 698) was critical of Rutherford's comments about the LMS Chief Engineer, E.F.C. Trench, and his education, and the fact that the Bridge Stree Committee did not report until 1928 (the Coleman 2-6-2 is used as an exemplar by Horne) ... and Rutherford replied to this in a long letter on page 284 of volume 11.  On the locomotive side van Riemsdijk contributed a lengthy letter on page 106 of Volume 11 and this led to correspondence from Doug Landau (517) and from Rutherford (163) and a not quite a last-word from van Riemsdijk (340). illus.: LMS no 14760 was CR no 942 and before that Highland No. 74 River Garry; Port Vale FC team 1909; LMS 2F dock tank no 11272; Drawing of the Stanier 2-6-0 with Swindon safety valve cover; Princess Royal class No 6200 un-named; Class 5 No 5020; No 6170 British Legion; T.F.Coleman in his office at Derby; No 6234 Duchess of Abercorn; Drawing of proposed 2-6-2 mixed traffic engine;

'Premier Line' - 150 years. (Provocations)[Railway Reflections No. 23]. Michael Rutherford. 10, 622-30.
Begins by noting the lack of serious histories of the LNWR (although this was about to be remedied through the work by Reed), and for the Caledonian Railway (this gap still exists end of 2002). Quotes Rixon Bucknall (reproduced as following: ". . it did things in the traditional grand manner. Everything on the North Western was solid and grand; the offices and waiting rooms had that cheerful aroma of highly varnished woodwork, the carpets portrayed 'Britannia' emblazoned as the Company's arms, the very station notices were cast in a massive though practical type, the spotless locomotives gleamed in shiny black lined out with scarlet (sic) while the chocolate (sic) and milk white coaches were a sheer joy to behold"). This Provocations provides an extremely skeletal history of the LNWR mentioning the amalgamations which formed the core of the system, some of the later extensions, the effects of Moon, Webb and George Coker, and the very high standard of rolling stock drawn up under him. Includes notes on the fifteen patents iled by Webb with Arthur Moore Thompson on electric signalling. Also observations on the Birmingham Canal Navigation. Horne (letter Volume 11 page 50) argues that Dickens' Dombey and Son may not have been London & Birmingham, but any one of railways to north of Euston Road. illus.:

Spoilt for choice. (Provocations). [Railway Reflections No. 24]. Michael Rutherford. 681-8.
Development of four-coupled tank engines from Gooch onwards. Note quotation from Tunstall: "The India rubber springs did not answer well and were rough for the enginemen". Reference to South Devon 4-4-0T. Locomotives discussed included Met Rly 4-4-0T; GER 2-4-2T; Kirtley 0-4-4T (also Stirling and Fletcher (BTP) of same wheel arrangement); Single Fairlies; Adams 4-4-2T; Churchward 4-4-2T; LTSR 4-4-2T; Stroudley 0-4-2T; Drummond 0-4-4Ts and NER and Met Rly 4-4-4Ts. Notes problems with derailments of 0-4-4Ts.

The GWR and Collett (Railway Reflections [No. 25]). Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 1997,11, 36-44.
An overall assessment of Collett's contribution which notes the significance of the AEC railcars introduced during the 1930s and the possible use of Beardsmore electro-diesel power units for suburban trains in London. A report from Kitsons proposed light high speed steam engines (some using a V6 engine) for light work. Smith questions the ownership of Hammersmith & City rolling stock (page 163) and Summers mildly questions the assertion that Collett lacked any real interest in locomotive design (and also adds biographical information) on page 163.

Bricks and railways. Railway reflections [No. 26]. Michael Rutherford, Backtrack. 11, 89-95.
The use of bricks in railway structures such as the superb stations at St Pancras and Longbenton, and in viaducts, the manufacture of bricks at Crewe, and the carriage of bricks.

Railway Reflections No. 27: The rise of the streamliner. Backtrack. 11, 128-36.
Mainly development in the USA with both early i/c engines and steam. illus.: A Bugatti high speed railcar (see Erratum concerning horsepower error in caption and letter by Edmonds on page 340 for note on engines); Two GWR locos emerged from Swindon works a sort of streamlining. No5005; A4 no 2509 Silver Link; GWR railcar no 6; Diagram of the Burlington 'Flying Zephyr'; Diagram of the McKeen railcars; Diagram of General Electric petrol-electric railcar; No 6229 Duchess of Hamilton renamed and numbered as no 6220 Coronation; Diagram of Class A Atlantics of the Milwaukee; The 'Crusader' of the Reading railroad; Class J3 of the New York Central streamlined for the 'Twentieth Century; Coronation [alias Duchess of Hamilton] on the Thomas viaduct outside; Coronation [alias Duchess of Hamilton] at Chicago alongside Loco no 55; Graphs showing passenger traffic trends in the USA and general increase;

The Bury influence. (Railway Reflections No. 28). Michael Rutherford. Backtrack. 205-12.
Brief biography of Bury: Rutherford provides strong justification for Bury's use of small locomotives (in particular trains were light). The Bury haystack fireboxes saved having a dome which involved cutting a hole in the boiler plates. Notes the development of the long boiler type with the firebox behind the rear axles. Standardization at the Clarence Foundry was one of his achievements. Led to lengthy letters by Harry Jack concerning the improbable existence of "records" relating to the firm. on page 460 and 689. The former follows from a letters by Hughes (on the lost records) and Martin ( the Bury locomotive under the ocean) on page 340. Rather different view (possibly from the more "imaginative Robin Barnes) on page 576. Yet, another letter on this topic by Rowley (Vol. 12 page 116) on re-assembly of records from published sources. I

Safety, detonators and ATC. Railway Reflections [No. 29]. Michael Rutherford. Backtrack. 11, 265-72.
Skeletal history of railway safety in Britain: signalling; negative response of management; the significance of the Board of Trade's Railway Inspectorate; fog signalling (including dentonator placement machines); Vincent Raven's cab signalling systems; the GWR ATC system; the Reliostop system on the GCR; the Hudd system on the LMSR; LNER and British Railways. Fatal accident statistics for the four main lines are compared. illus.: Automatic signalling installed between Basingstoke and Woking; Diagram of an electro-mechanical fog signal; Great Central class 9N no 128; Raven's mechanical train stop equipment; Diagram of the treadle operated bell in the GWR Snow Hill tunnel (diagram printed upside down see page 341) [N.B.; The Reliostop system diagram; Castle class no 4037 South Wales Borderers with an experimental ATC; Hall class no 4986 nearing a GWR ATC ramp; The contact shoe for the GW ATC shown on no 4700; No 2510 fitted with Hudd equipment for testing on the LTS line; No 2510 fitted with Hudd equipment; the cab installation; An A4 with a prototype of the BR AWS system;

A brief survey of railways and locomotives in South Wales. Part 1. (Railway Reflections [No. 30] ). Michael Rutherford. Backtrack. 11, 321-7.
Development of waggonways, plateways and railways within the overall industrial development in South Wales. Includes the involvement of canals and ironmasters. The development of locomotives is also considered. illus.: Drawing of an early locomotive built by the Neath Abbey Iron Company in; Drawing of Trevithick's Penydarren locomotive of 1804; Drawing of Britannia of 1829; Drawing of St David's; A later view of Neyland c 1905; The South Wales railway's terminus at New Milford in early GW days; The Marquis of Bute's West Dock in Cardiff in 1884; The view from the same spot in 1924; Loco 53 of the Rhymney railway in east dock; No 15 of the Monmouthshire railway in GW days as no 1306; Taff Vale Treherbert a general view of the railway lay out; Alexandra Docks and railways no 7 Pontypridd; Burry Port and Gwendraeth Valley Fairlie no 8;

A brief survey of railways and locomotives in South Wales - Part 2. Railway Reflections [No. 31]. Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 1996, 11, 385
This part deals with competitors to the TVR, notably by the LNWR which tapped trafic via its Heads of the Valleys route, the Rhondda & Swansea Bay, the Barry Railway (which was engineered on a grand scale), the Cardiff Railway (which failed on an equally grand scale) and the MS&LR through Watkins' Chaiirmanship of the Neath & Breton which eventually fell into allegiance with the MR. The Barry Railway was the protegy of David Davies. During WW1 the railways had to adapt to a northward movement of coal to replace coastal shipping and serve the Royal Navy (on "Jellicoe Specials" to Grangemeouth). When the diverse stock was inherited by the GWR there was an immeedioate attempt at standardization which "Collett managed the job very well" according to Rutherford. Ultimately this policy was replaced by one of substitution by the 56xx, 57xx and 42xx classes. There is a brief note on the development of the 0-6-2T type in South Wales via the conversion of the long-boiler 0-6-0 by the addition of a Webb radial axlebox. The LYR may have been involved: Kitsons certainly were as they supplied the Class M to the TVR in 1885, and similar locomotives to the R&SWBR and Cardiff Railway in 1886. Other builders also became involved. Two unusual types are also discussed: GWR No. 795 an 0-4-0PT based on a Powlesland & Mason 0-4-0ST (this was sold for industrial use in 1929) and the designs developed by George Robson at Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds from 1901, namely a heavy (57.5 tons) 0-6-0T and a 40 ton 0-4-0T,

Railway Reflections No. 32: O.V.S. Bulleid and his work - a bibliographic survey. Backtrack, 1997, 11, 445-51.
This is an extremely useful guide to Bulleid's own publications (patents excepted of course), which includes some of Bulleid's contributions to discussions on other's work and an evaluative listing of the very considerable bibliographty relating to Bulleid and his work. See also Bulleid. Geoffrey Hughes adds an interesting point concerning Swift (page 688). The distinguished librarian of the British Library was sharply critical of Rutherford's failure to cite patents and many other key sources of information (12 page 60). illus.: Channel Packet no 21C1 when new; Cock o' the North' no 2001; The 'Hush-hush' being built at Darlington; No 35017 Belgian Marine with LMS tender at King's Cross; Maunsell class N no A816 fitted with Anderson's patent condensing system; No 35018 British India line; No 34059 Sir Archibald Sinclair; No 35022 Holland America line on test at Rugby; No 35008 Orient Line; No 35010 at Eastleigh; No 35026 Lamport and Holt line; Drawings of an electric loco, a diesel-electric and a 'Leader'.;

The era of Sir Henry Fowler. (Railway Refections [No. 33]). Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 1997, 11, 501-9.
Fowler is examined in the usual Rutherford style. Several sources are listed which fall outside the period covered by Jones, notably an appreciation by Baldwin, and an important paper by James Clayton. On the other hand it was written prior to Chacksfield's biography. "Direction in new design, if it came, was more by accident and lack of interference than by purpose. It certainly didn't come from Fowler. The Garrats (Anderson's variant) were an example of where the CME should have put his foot down..." illus.: A pair of Fowler class 4 goods engines at Elstree; Sir Henry Fowler with Dr H.H.Bemrose Scout commissioner for Derbyshire at; Fowler 483 class / class 2 rebuild no 557; Proposal for a 2-6-0 goods engine; Big Bertha, the Lickey banker; The Somerset and Dorset class 7F no 13802; Fowler 483 class / class 2 no 353; LMS standard 4-4-0; Royal Scot no 6102 Black Watch; Preliminary design for no 6399 Fury; Design for a 2-4-0 auto train locomotive; Class 3 no 40033 at Farringdon; 7F no 9531 at Toton;

Railway Reflections No. 34: In the beginning. Backtrack, 1997, 11, 539-45.
Concludes by stating that was "something of a first attempt" at describing the earliest rail ways and their gradual evolution into the S&DR. Includes an examination of definitions of what constituted a rail way or railway. Rutherford favoured the Dendy Marshall definition. Notes that the Murray/Blenkinsop rack engines were far more successful and influential than is usually stated. At least nine worked regulalry in England; an example was tried in Belgium and two were constructed in the Royal Iron Foundry in Berlin. Trials were made of a rack locomotive on the Kenton & Coxlodge Railway and three were in use at Orrell Colliery near Wigan. Argues that a Trevithick locomotive was assessed at Wylam Colliery in either 1811 or 1813. Cites contributions from E.A. Forward in The Engineer and from Richard Daglish in J. Rly Canal Hist Soc. (see Blenkinsop page)..

Railway Reflections No. 35: The 'Prairie' - a survey of the 2-6-2 type - Part 1. . Backtrack, 1997, 11, 622-8.
Survey of developments across the world, including in New Zealand, the United States and by Gölsldorf for Austria and other countries in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Includes notes on the development of the Wootten firebox and the Krauss-Helmholtz bogie. British development is confined to an Ivatt proposal and to a possible Churchward design (he participated in a discussion on a paper by Cowan on American locomotive design). See also letter by Chester in Volume 12 page 116. ill

Railway Reflections No. 36: The 'Prairie' - a survey of the 2-6-2 type - Part 2. . Backtrack, 1997, 11, 677-84.
Includes the Paget locomotive, the Gresley V2 and V4 classes and several designs from Eastern Europe, including Jugoslavia, Serbia and Poland. Gölsdorf 329 mixed traffic class, built as compounds, but rebuilt as simples.After WW1 these 2-6-2s were distributed over many countries. Czech designs were developed from it. Bagnall developed a 2-6-2 for 2' 6" gauge Larkana Jacobabad Railway in NW India under its Chief Draughtsman W.S. Edwards and the consulting engineers Molesworth & Molesworth. This formed the basis for the standard ZB class of Rendel Palmer & Tritton in 1928. Mentions early Gresley 2-6-2 design subsequently replaced by A1 Pacific, and Maunsell and Coleman's abortive designs. In Japan 427 of the C58 class were built by Kawasaki between 1938 and 1947. The DB built 105 of class 23 using modern construction techniques. Half-scale versions of these work on the Bure Valley Railway. See also letter by Chester in next volume.

Railway reflections [No. 37]. Churchward's classification scheme. Backtrack, 1998, 12 50-6.
In Rutherford's usual wayward way, the feature discusses both things in general (such as locomotive numbering systems) and the more specific: notably the topic of the title. Some railways were systematic in their numbering (the GWR attempted such in 1912), but others (notably the LNWR and NER, and Southern Railway were midly chaotic). The Whyte notation was invented by Frederick Methuen Whyte and was quickly adopted by Churchward to organize the drawings of the locomotive stock. Table gives summary of GWR classifications for locomotives, boilers (both initial and as modified by mid-1950s), wagons (1905) and carriages (1910).

Railway reflections No. 38: What's in a name? Kitson's of Leeds. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 97-103.
The firm produced 5,400 locomotives over 101 years, and could trace its origins back to James Kitson and Charles Todd to supply locomotive components in 1836.

Railway reflections [No. 39]: GWR double-framed 4-4-0s. Backtrack, 1998,  12 153-61.
Problems with former Brunel baulk road as had very little resilience. Gooch-style ssandwich frames helped as tended to flex. Dean had to face the problem of gauge change. Had relied upon 2-4-0 for express work, but not easy to convert to 4-4-0 or 4-2-2 as slide valves were under cylinder block. The 0-4-4Ts used for express work were criticised in the wake of the Doublebois derailment on 16 April 1895 were converted to 4-4-0s (3521 class). Boiler evolution is described, as is the contribution of F. G. Wright, Chief Draughtsman from 1892 to 1896.

Railway Reflections 40: the Signalling Revolution. Part One. Backtrack, 1998, 12 222-8.
Development of power signalling from 1882, althouggh much had been anticipated in Rapier's paper to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1873. From 1882 George Westinghouse introduced combined hydraulic compreesed air systems, whilst Bianchi & Servettaz introduced fully hydraulic systems which were widely adopted in Italy and France. This syetm was licensed to Saxby and Farmer who developed an electro-pneumatic system. In 1894 Siemens & Halske developed an all-electric system in Germany. In 1899 a Webb and Thompson all electric power frame was installed at Crewe, and in the same year an electro-pneumatic frame was installed at Granary Junction Whitechapel on the GER using Union Switch & Signal Co. equipment. Track circuits were developed by W.R. Sykes and introduced at Brixton in 1864, but this was premature. Development took place in the USA under Robinson & Pope. On the LSWR, after a successful experiment at Graveley, 24 miles of four track mainline were controlled by electro-pneumatic signalling which lasted for sixty years. The NER used automatic signals powered by carbonic acid gas. The GWR used all-electric signalling following the reconstruction of Snow Hill, Birmingham whilst the CR introduced the huse electro-pneumatic system at Glasgow Central. Bernard Peter, the innovative and young signal engineer to the District Railway introduced illuminated panels at Mill Hill Park (Acton Town).. Article is informative about Nock.

Railway reflections [No. 41]: The signalling revolution - Part 2. Backtrack, 12 , 278-84.
The article covers a number of topics including the development of the engineering institutions (including the formation of the Institution of Railway Signal Engineers in 1910. It also describes the position of the railway signal engineer to other senior engineers. Several senior signal engineers are discussed. Arthur F. Bound started with the British Power Railway Signal Co. where he was associated with the low pressure pneumatic system used on the LSWR. He went with Sam Fay to the GCR where he became Signal Superintendent in 1906 at the age of 28. In a paper to the IRSE he castigated lock and block and advocated speed signalling, cab signalling, track circuits and upper quadrants, He was responsible for installing three-position signals at Keadby (the other three-position signals were at Victoria, SECR, using General Railway Signalling Co equipment from Rochester (NY).The LOR was the first to use colour light signals, but the GCR was the first mainline company to exploit them (between Marylebone and Neasden). W.J. Thorrowgood, the Signal Engineer to the SR, would have opted for single colour lights with route indicators, but his contemporaries were against this.  R.G. Berry of the L&YR introduced the idea of a single lever performing more than one function at Southport and Blackpool Central. Route setting was introduced at Winchester Chesil by R.J. Insell, Sinal Engineer of the GWR and L.M.G. Ferreira of Seimens. A fuller implementation of this type was installed at Newport (Mon) but the GWR took no further interest in modern signalling. Arthur Ewart Tattersall came to be the Signal & Telegraph Engineer of the North Eastern Area of the LNER under John Miller, having worked under Bound in the Southern Area/GNR since 1921, prior to that he had worked for the Metropolitan Railway. Bound left the LNER in 1919 to become the firts Signal & Telegraph Engineer on the LMS where he introduced speed signalling at Mirfield, developed the Hudd system of ATC/AWS, and the tubular signal post with upper quadrant signalling. Elsewhere Tattersall developed electric interlocking at Goole (to control the swing bridge) and then at Thirsk, Hull Paragon and Northallerton using searchlight signals and route indicators. The most advanced installation of this type, the one at York, cost nearly £500,.000 and was delayed by WW2. The modern signal concept was born and fifty years later Bound's upper quadrants still remain in far too many places.

Bogie steam locomotives - Part 1. [Railway Reflections No. 42]. Michael Rutherford. 12, 333-40.
This article covered a lot of ground: Chapman obtained a patent for a bogie locomotive on 30 December 1912, and in 1814 a double bogie locomotive was built by Phineas Crowther at the Ouseburn Foundry on Tyneside to work on the Lambton Colliery Waggonway. The construction of a railway over the Semmering Pass was undertaken under Matthias von Schönerer. It had 1 in 40 gradients and severe curvature. The Chief Engineer was Karl Ritter von Ghega. John Haswell was Works Manager and constructed Norris engines for the line, initially 2-4-0 and subsequently 4-4-0. The Semmering locomotive trials of 1851 included bogie locomotives being entered: Wiener Neustadt by Günther (an 0-4-4-0) and Seraing a double bogie with double boiler by John Cockerill of Belgium. Baron Wilhelm Engerth developed bogie locomotives for the Semmering route. Back-to-back locomotives were one alternative, but the Fairlie was another. John Cross & Co. built Fairlie locomotives for the Neath & Brecon Railway (Progress December 1865) and Mountaineer for the Anglesey Central Railway, and a highly unsuccessful locomotive for a railway in Queensland. The Hatcham Ironworks became the Fairlie Engine & Steam Carriage Co. and the Festiniog Railway obtained an 0-4-4-0 Little Wonder from there in 1868.The French Péchot-Bourdon locomotives were very similar to the Fairlies and were intended for 60cm gauge military lines. Oil-fired Fairlies were highly successful in Russia (constructed by Sharp Stewart and later at Kolomna) and in Mexico (Vulcan). The latter weighed 138 tons. J.J. & A. Meyer of Mulhouse developed the 0-4-4-0T type and L'Avenir (a demonstartor) was built at the Compaigne de Fives in Lille. Further Meyers were built in France and Belgium, but steam leakage was a problem and campound Mallets tended to capture this market. Nevertheless, 98 of the Meyer had been built by Richard Hartmann of Chemnitz for the Royal Saxon State. Meyers were built by Bagnall, including Monarch (WN 3024) for Bowaters. Gaston du Bousquet was responsible for 0-6-2+2-6-0T freight locomotives for the Nord and Est lines. Jean Jacques Heilmann produced a Do-Do steam electric locomotive Fusée which was originally intended as a source of power for multiple unit trains and was equipped with a Lentz boiler. Two further steam electric locomotives (8000 and 8001) were acquired by the CF de l'Ouest. They had conventional boilers coupled to Willans & Robinson steeple compound engines. .illus.: Detail from a Chapman's patent of 1812; Engraving of bogie locomotive from Wood's Treatise on Railroads; Neath Abbey Ironworks design for a bogie design locomotive; Design for an articulated engine; Festiniog Little Wonder with C.E. Spooner on footplate; Seraing built for the Semmering contest; A broad gauge double Fairlie locomotive leaving Baku with an oil train; A Fairlie woodburner; Meyer-type 99.535 in Saxony in 1967 (P. Ransome-Wallis*); Design for the Weiner Neustadt; Kitson Meyer for Nitrate Railways of Chile constructed by Yorkshire Engine Co; French du Bousquet 0-6-2+2-6-0 articulated engine seen at Bobigny in 1951 (*); Monarch in 1954 (G. Alliez); Heilmann Do-Do steam electric locomotive.

Railway Reflections [No. 43]: Bogie Steam Locomotives - Part 2. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 387-93.
Covers much ground: including the statement about Churchward: "Churchward's purchasing of the French compound 'Atlantics' and the almost complete copying of Brooks Locomotive Works (USA) in his 4-6-0 No. 98 that makes him so unique". Bogie designs considered include: the Reid-Ramsay Elctro-Turbo locomotive (NBL 19266/1910) and as rebuilt with direct drive to design of James MacLeod and exhibited at Wembley Exhibition in 1924, and the enorrmous Norfolk & Western Railway No. 2300 Jawn Henry Co-Co+Co-Co built by Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton in 1954 with a Babcock & Wilcox water tube boiler and a Westinghouse turbine and electrical equipment: a mobile coal-fired electricity generating station. The Shay type was invented by Ephraim Shay in 1873, and its competitors were developed by George Gilbert known as the Climax type, and by Charles Heisler with a Vee-type engine and built by Stearns Manufacturing: similar locomotives were constructed by A.&G. Price of Thames in New Zealand: all of these were intended for logging.Avonside developed a twin-bogie design for the plantation market: seven were built plus a further three by Hunslet following the collapse of Avon. Others were developed by L. Schwartzkopff of Berlin.. The Garratt type and its devlopment by Beyer Peacock, including the involvement of Samuel Jackson and W. Cyril Williams is described at some length, most is presumably based upon the studies by R.L. Hills.the feature notes that Garratt had written to F.G. Wright at Swindon on 21 March 1910. , the Sentinel bogie locomotive developed by Stephen Alley for use in Colombia and subjected to trials in Belgium in 1934 (see illus. for illustrious British party) and letter from Geoff Hughes. There is slso consideration of Bulleid's Leader design and its peat-burning Irish successor and a very brief mention of the Velox boiler developed by Brown Boveri, but Rutherford cites a key paper, but not the Trans. Newcomen Soc. paper by Duffy. See letter (page 520) by Geoffrey Hughes concerning Sentinel locomotive and LNER

Railway Reflections No. 44: Fifty years on: the 'glorious years' or heads-in-the-sand; the railways and steam after nationalisation. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 445-53.
The man "responsible" for the railway nationaization may have been Wilf Cannon who worked at Scours Lane Yard near Reading - his proposal to his local NUR branch put to the Labour Party Conference in December 1944 was the one which led to Nationalization [Peter Hennessy: Never again: Britain 1945-51. London, 1992]. Rutherford is highly critical of the Bond, Cox, Riddles (and Rudgard) team, both for its LMS cant, and the attitudes of Cox and Riddles. "There is nothing in the Riddles, Bond, Cox triumvirate to confirm the general thesis of Alfred Chandler of the modern rational decision-making manager. He is critical of the failure to build Beyer Garratt locomotives to ease the problem of poor fuel and to obviate double-heading [some of which was routinely scheduled on the paradigm LMR - even at a time of shortages of both labour and materials, including fuel KPJ]. The neglect of modern traction is also castigated: the DMU was not developed until after the demise of the Railway Executive; GWR and NCC experience was ignored; no extensions to the Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification weer sought in spite of calls for this from the operating side. Rutherford considers the EM2 class to be "one of the best designs to come out of the nationalised railways' drawing offices": the bogie design was based on Ivatt's 10000/10001 DE locomotives. Rutherford's Utopia would have been modern traction on the Great Central mainline due to its link with the electrified railway at Sheffield, and proxmity to AEC/BTH at Rugby. Notes success of Britannia class on Great Eastern, but considers that this could not have been sustained. Nevertheless, three locomotives exceeded 100,000 miles per annum. Very interesting communication by Tayler page 688. . Letter by Oxley (13-53) states political impossiblity of burning fuel oil in any way at the time of a serious financial crisis created by the USA. Letter by Tufnell refers to frustrations of electrification work on LMS (page 637).
Illus.: Britannia no 70002 Geoffrey Chaucer; R A Riddles about to ride on the footplate of the unique class 8 no 71000; The triumvirate of Robert Riddles, Stewart Cox and Roland Bond; A railcar of the Northern Counties Committee; A South African class GF Garratt locomotive; SR no 34004 Yeovil pilots LMS no 6159 The Royal Air Force out of Euston; A prototype streamlined railcar; GWR railcar units 35, 36 and a trailer car between; LMS no 10000 diesel electric prototype; LMS nos. 10000 and 10001 on the up Royal Scot; Diesel locomotive no 10800 on test near Kilburn; A pair of EM1 class Bo-Bos; EM 2 no 27000; An EM 2 bogie frame; The bogies for 10000 and 10001 under construction; Table 1; locomotive stock 1937 and 1950; Table 2; Locomotive utilisation LMR 1937 and 1950. See letter from Orrell concerning English Electric (13-164). .

Prologue to 'Pugs'. Railway Reflections [No. 45.] Michael Rutherford. 12,  501-9.
The 0-4-0 type, predominanty saddle tanks, used by the mainline companies, but usually purchased from outside builders (even by the GWR and LMS), and used much more widely on industrial railways. Cites Bennett's Chronicles of Boulton's Sidings.

Northern Counties Committee - the LMS in Ireland. Railway Reflections [No. 46]. Michael Rutherford. 564-72.
Surveys development of railways in Ireland, and the eventual involvement of the Midland Railway. Also notes the involvement of the LNWR in the Dublin & South Eastern Railway and how the LMS came to be represented on the Great Southern Railways of Ireland, and how the LNWR had nearly obtained a stake in the MGWR. The LNWR had its own facilities at North Wall in Dublin. Locomotive development on the NCC tended to be an improvement upon Derby practice: notably the magnificent 2-6-0s. GNR(I) between Strabane & Londonderry is stated as being on incorrect side of Foyle (see Readers' Forum page 688). illus.: Map; Northern Counties Committee lines; NCC headquarters at York Road Belfast; NCC engine shed at York Road Belfast; NCC engines nos. 51 and 56; Ballymena station; NCC engine no 101; A narrow gauge 8 ton hopper wagon; NCC engine no 70 in dismantled condition for transport purposes; NCC loco no 74 Dunluce Castle; The Greenisland loop viaducts; NCC loco no 90; NCC petrol driven railcar no 1 and trailer; NCC headquarters at York Road Belfast following clean up after a WW2 bombing; The wooden roof of York Road caught fire and fell on top of rolling stock in 1942,; As a result, the NCC was very short of rolling stock so the old goods; NCC no 7;

Charles Fredrick Beyer and his influence. [Railway Reflections No. 47]. Michael Rutherford. 12, 623-31.
Rutherford considers that Beyer made a seminal contribution to British steam locomotive design. and to the appearance of the British steam locomotive.illus.: East Lancs railway No 36 Milo; Locomotive No 19 for the Great Southern and Western railway; Photograph; Charles Fredrick Beyer; Dublin and Drogheda railway 2-2-2; Edinburgh and Glasgow railway as North British No 227; Shrewsbury and Chester No 14; GWR No 105 ex Birkenhead railway; GWR No 211 ex West Midland railway; Cambrian railways No 59 Seaham; MSL class 15; A standard Gorton Foundry design; a 0-4-2ST; Ballemena and Larne railway No 4; Ballemena and Larne railway No 5; Cambrian Small bogie [class 16] No 21; Isle of Wight Central railway No 8; Isle of Wight railway Ventnor; State railway no 993 of the P/2 class; State railway no 1383 of the P32 class;

Electric Light Railways - A lost opportunity? (Railway reflections [No. 48]). Michael Rutherford.  12, 680-9.
Interesting analysis of the problems of classification which leads to some things being left out. For instance, when the Museum of Transport at Clapham was closed most of the exhibits were sent to York and those relating to London eventually formed the Covent Garden collection, but some exhibits fell into a sort of limbo. Furthermore, the NRM excluses certain forms of related transport, such as urban tramways. Rutherford notes that "demarkation is somewaht arbitrary". The history of lighter railways in Britain began with The Railway Construction Fascilities Act of 1864, The Regulation of Railways Act of 1868 which recognized the light railway concept, the 1870 Tramways Act (for street tramways), and the Light Railways Act of 1896 which was used for many urban tramways. Refers to a study by Peter Bosley (details not given but see books). Electrification was manifested on the Volks Electric Railway, Portrush and Bushmills, Bessbrook & Newry, Manx Electric Railway, Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroad, Liverpool Overhead Railway, Llandudno & Colwyn Bay and Kinver Light railways, and on the Tyneside electrics. The Electroliners on the North Shore line took the concept to its limits. illus.: Bessbrook and Newry with motor car no 7 and trailer no 6; The Manx electric railway; Wantage tramway c 1892; Car 171 of the Blackpool and Fleetwood tramway; Liverpool overhead railway; Pier Head station; Llandudno and Colwyn bay toast rack car no 20; Mail transfer at Derby Castle; Mail van on the Manx Electric railway; A trolley pole locomotive at Terenure; Burton and Ashby light railway car no 4; Burton and Ashby light railway car no 6; Swansea and Mumbles railway's cars nos. 11 and 42; PCC street car design in use in Holland; Diagram; Electroliner 4 car set

Railway Reflections No. 49 A brief introduction to the East Coast express locomotive design on the North Eastern Railway. Backtrack, 13,38-47.
Development of East Coast route: Influence of Edward Fletcher; McDonnell; Henry Tennant; the Worsdells; W.M. Smith; Raven, and their locomotives.

Railway Reflections No. 50: Snow Hill Station, Birmingham. Backtrack, 13, 89-97.
The first article to be actually numbered. Describes the development of railways in the West Midlands, and in particular those based on Snow Hill station. Also notes his own personal affection for the station.

Railway Reflections No. 51: In praise of the ordinary 0-6-2 tank engine. Backtrack, 13,118-25.
Includes the development of the spring-loaded radial axlebox by Edmond Joy, a Frenchman, William Bridges Adams, and F.W. Webb. Ahrons noted that over 1300 0-6-2Ts had been fitted with radial axles by 1914. The design was built for many railways and after the Grouping Gresley continued to construct both his own N2 class and the Great Eastern design (with smaller driving wheels but without the Belpaire fireboxes), and the GWR introduced the 56xx class mainly for working in South Wales. Coleman sketched a desin during WW2.

Railway Reflections: No. 52. Drawings, designs and who did what. Part 1. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 200-7.
Historical development of railway drawings and the career of draughtsmen. Boulton & Watt and the Soho Manufactury were key elements. Considers the status of engineers in class-ridden English society. Quotes from an extraordinary correspondence in Engineering in 1890 between Edward Snowball of Neilson and the highly unreliable Charles E. Stretton.

Railway Reflections 53: Drawings Designs and who did what. Part 2. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 236-43.
Standardization: Ramsbottom and Webb at Crewe, Churchward at Swindon. Notes development of 43XX from standard components with involvement of Harold Holcroft. Evolution of British Standards Institution from the Engineering Standards Committee. Influence of F. Wolley Dod on Indian standard locomotives. See also Bulleid.

Railway Reflections 54,: Masterpiece of mediocrity. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 320-9.
4F 0-6-0: "it was not a shining example of innovation when it first appeared, yet 772 built by MR and LMS". Two 2-6-0 replecements of 1920 and 1937, and two 0-6-0 are shown. The former 1941 is an LMS 2251 whilst the latter is an LMS Q1. "perhaps the most remarkable thing about the 4F saga is the almost total lack of attempts to improve the design." Horne attempts to show that the state of bridges on the MR lines may have precluded any locomotives which could run (page 453 Backtrack, 13,).

Railway Reflections 55: The eternal question: blastpipes and chimneys. Backtrack, 1999. 13, 369-77.
Includes notes on development of the US Master Mechanics layout by Churchward, the Lemaitre, Kylala/Kylchap and Giesl arrangements. Draughting was the weakest link in LMS design procedure. This Reflections is highly critical of Tuplin's obervations. See letters by Hugh Phillips on page 569, by Ian Macdonald on page 625 and by D.H. Landau on page 626 .

Railway reflections No. 56: 100 years on: some locomotives and events of 1899. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 441-8.
A ramble to celebrate the hundredth issue of the jounal measured by both the great (the rise of the USA and its railroads) and in minutae, such as the high rating of Bury as a football team [far simpler to support Arsenal]. Far more lasting in value is Rutherford's listing of key references to locomotive development relating to this time [although Ahrons is not included tut tut]. See letter by Low in Backtrack 13 page 569 . illus.: Lake Shore and Michigan railroad no 602; The prototype S class no 2001; Illinois Central railroad no 640; Locomotives; Table 1; World railways in 1899; A Highflyer no 1397; Philadelphia & Reading Atlantic; A later Highflyer no 1419; Diagram; Aspinal's low degree smokebox superheater; ; R class no 2011; Greyhound no 702; Jubilee class no 1903 Iron Duke; Dean single no 3078 Shooting Star; No 2601 Princess of Wales; Table 2; Dimensions of selected locomotive types;

Railway Reflections No. 57: Société Alsacienne, Alfred De Glehn and his compounds. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 495-501.
Considers the influenec of Alfred George de Glehn, an Englishman, who spent most of his life in Mulhouse working for Société Alsacienne des Constructions Mécaniques (SACM) in Belfort. The article places SACM within its historical context, that is the loss of Alsace to Prussia following the Franco-Prussian War, and of compounding during this period.

Railway Reflections No. 58: More thoughts on Compounding. Backtrack, 1999,  13, 553-61.
Previous thoughts extended to the French compound Atlantics and their influence upon the GWR under Churchward (Number 57). Sixteen British designs (including proposals) are considered. The proposals include a McIntosh compound Atlantic, the Deeley 4-6-0, the Fowler 4-6-0 and 4-6-2 designs, a compound version of the Lord Nelson class, a compound version of the D49 class 4-4-0 of 1926, a compound version of the Castle class, and a large Chapelon-inspired Pacific on the LMS in the late 1930s. The designs from the mid to late 1920s probably all foundered on the acute shortage of finance available at that time. There is a list of papers relating to compounding, although the citations vary in the amount of information presented.

Railway Reflections No. 59: The World of the Timetable. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 611-19.
The historical evolaution of timetables, including Bradshaw's and those produced by the railway companies for their own use (Working Timetables) and for the public.

Railway Reflections No. 60: Timetables and Traction. Part 1. Backtrack, 1999, 13, 668-76.
The power required, and to some extent the fuel/water inputs, to operate both trains in general, and some specific services, notably the LNER streamlined services.

Timetables and traction. Part 2. Railway Reflections No. 61. Michael Rutherford. Backtrack, 2000, 14, 50-8.
The German high speed test vehicles which reached speeds in excess of 200km/h in 1904, the development of high speed, articulated diesel-elecric railcars of the Flying Hamburger type during the 1930s, the Gresley steam high speed trains of the 1930s, and the possible involvement of R.P. Wagner in their introduction rather than diesel railcars, the intensive Great Eastern suburban service operated by steam and the introduction of the Britannia class on the Norwich expresses. Part 3 on page 113 et seq. illus.: A three cyl compound 'Furniture Van' no 561, Germany; Diagrams; German railcars that beat the 200 kph barrier, Germany; Cartoon; What steam men thought of railcars!, Germany; Class O5 200 kph streamliner, Germany; The Flying Hamburger prototype, Germany; No 2512 Silver Fox at Northallerton on Silver Jubilee in 1939; The Jazz at Bethnal Green, London; J69 no 7267 at Chingford, London; Train running chart morning up service to Liverpool Street; The Brighton Belle on 30 June 1935; The Brighton lines departure board at Victoria, London; Diagram; The Direct admission valve used by the GWR; No 6000 King George V on the Bristolian at Bathford in late 1930s; Coronation Scot no 6223 Princess Alice at Thrimby Grange on the Coronation Scot in 1937 (Eric Treacy), Shap; Table 1; Typical braking distances; Britannia no 70040 Clive of India at Bethnal Green on 16 February 1957 (R.C. Riley), London; Table 2; Britannia diagramming on the GE section 1952; Provocations / Reflections index

Timetables and Traction. Part 3. Railway Reflections No. 62. Michael Rutherford. 113-19.
Part 2 was on page 50 et seq. See letter from Adrian Tester on page 254 comparing effort of stoker on a ship with that of a fireman on a locomotive (including observations made by one who had filled both roles). illus.: AEI 3,300 HP no 3004 at Liverpool, Merseyside; Graph; Hand firing steam locomotives according to BR; Graph; Minimum coal consumption per drawbar horsepower; Deltic no D9002 at Doncaster; Intercity railcars at Birmingham; Intercity railcars at Birmingham; Western Pullman at Leamington Spa, Warwick; E3162 piloting another of the same class at Rugby; Page 117: pair of EE type 3s with XP64 set: see letter page 254 by Alan de Burton noting that train was heading east not west; Prototype Hawker-Siddeley 4000hp prototype Kestrel; A pair of EE type 4s at Carnforth; Timetable compilers guide from Swindon

The Eye of the beholder: the beauty of steam. Railway Reflections No.63. Michael Rutherford. 170-7.
Other than a concluding note on Eric Gill's fascination with railways and the adoption of Gill Sans typefaces by the LNER, most of this article discusses the exterior proportions of locomotives produced by the major private firms, such as R.&W. Hawthorn and by the railway companies, and the architects (draughtsmen) of such designs. These people were well aware of the need to produce objects of distinctive beauty. See letter by Rod Garner on insurance against boiler explosions on page 491. illus.: Reconstruction of Novelty; Reproduction of Locomotion; Diagram of external styling features peculiar to particular firms; LNWR 'sternwheeler' Liverpool; GNoS class 19 No. 29; Midland railway no 42; GER No. 43; North Staffordshire 0-6-0; CR 66 class no 91; Stroudley 2-2-2 no 151 Grosvenor; CR no 50 Sir James Thompson; Midland Railway No 1757 Beatrice; Midland railway no 1852; Bulleid's Q1 class C18 (caption suggests as candidate for Turner Prize); GW Achilles class no 3031 Achilles

Pavo Christatus Vectis:- The Peacocks of another island. (Railway Reflections No. 64) Michael Rutherford. 14, 208-15.
Map; The railways of the Isle of Wight and their motive power, especially those 2-4-0T engines supplied by Beyer Peacock to the Isle of Wight Railway and Isle of Wight Central Railway. Ryde should have been preseved but was cut-up during WW2. Table gives dimensions, mileages and withdrawal dates of all Isle of Wight Beyer Peacock locomotives.  Letter concerning similar locomotives supplied to Australian railways (Darryl Grant page 430). Sketch; Prototype for the Isle of Wight Peacocks, 486 class Isle of Wight Railway Sandown on 29 March 1910, Ventnor being serviced at Ventnor on 29 March 1892, 486 class (WN 2408) for Seacombe Hoylake & Deeside Railway [Wirral Railway] no 3, 2017 class Ryde & Newport Railway Osborne at Freshwater in August 1891, 486 class (WN 1239) LYR no 518 , M & SWJ no 7 of the 3450 class (supplied originally to IWR) at Andover Junction , No 43 of the Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford railway , Osborne now unnamed and in the Isle of Wight Central railway livery on Ventnor Town train, IWR Bonchurch (engine was recovered from the bed of the Solent) at Ventnor on 11 June 1894 , No 5003 of the Dutch National railway, in June 1935, IWCR 2017 class as Southern Railway No 8 at Ryde , Ryde as W13 in Southern days , Wroxall as W16 before its rebuild.

The Ghost in the Machine. George Armstrong and the Wolverhampton heritage. (Railway Reflections No. 65). Michael Rutherford. 14, 294-302.
The Great Western way of using old designs for new manufacture (as in the case of the 54XX and 48XX classes for auto-train work). illus.:850 class No 987, the first 0-4-2T No 517, 2021 class no 2104 at Stourbridge, Birmingham, Diagram; Steam railcars, Rebuilt 517 class No 1425 at Wood End, Birmingham, No 1426, No 2062 was rebuilt to make a prototype no 5400 for a new class, No 1925, No 5415 at Kensall Green, London, 58xx no 5813 at Bearley, Stratford on Avon, No 6422 on an autotrain at Windmill End, Birmingham, 74xx class no 7409 at Blaenau Ffestiniog, Railcar no 21 at Monmouth (see letter by York (page 430) and illustration of Winchcombe station (page 283), 16xx class no 1646. Extra information of 4-wheel passnger with electric lighting and (page 298) of auto-trailer No. 1 which was never a steam railmotor. (John Lewis page 430),

When Britain was a contender. Some pioneer Diesel-Electrics before La Grange. Part 1.. (Railway Reflections No. 66) Michael Rutherford. 351-8.
Illus.:Diagram; An early if not the first main line oil-engined proposal, The first main line diesel locomotive, The first oil engined locomotive, GC petrol-electric railcar, GWR petrol-electric railcar, A proposal for the trans Australian railway, The first diesel railcar, A CNR railcar, Diagram; A metre gauge railcar, A 375hp Bo-Bo locomotive, The first multiple unit diesel electric train, A 350hp Bo-Bo delivered to the NW railway of India, CNR 2-Do-1+Do-2 twin unit, Advertisement; Beardmore high speed diesel engines, Advertisement; Armstrong -Whitworth main line diesel electric locomotives. See correspondence by Allsopp (on nature of multiple units) and Michael J. Smith on GC petrol-electric railcar and on Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives. Part 2 page 416.

When Britain was a contender. Some pioneer Diesel-Electrics before La Grange . Part 2. Railway Reflections No. 67. Michael Rutherford.14, 416-21.
Part 1 page 351 et seq. Part 3 page 479. Rutherford is highly critical of C.J. Allen's misunderstandings concerning the burning of oil fuel, citing a feature in Railway World. Also considers British developments at Beardmore and at Armstrong Whiworth and especially that in Argentina. illus.: A 2,660 hp twin-unit locomotive, Canada (page 416); A 400hp twin railcar, Canada (page 416); A Beardmore engined 300hp railcar (page 416); A proposal for a 150 hp railcar (page 417); Advertisement; Beardmore 1330 / 1500 BHP engine (page 417); A proposal for an eight wheeled goods engine (page 418); Diagram of the ex Bury to Holcombe Brook four car set as converted to diesel / electric operation (page 418); A Danish 2-Do-2 locomotive, Denmark (page 419); A freight locomotive of 1924, Russia (page 419); A proposed lightweight three car articulated unit of 1933 (page 419); A Sulzer 420 hp engine of the LV series (page 420); BAGSR Weight diagram, Argentina (page 420); Diagram; A BAGSR built locomotive, Argentina (page 421); Railcar Tyneside Venturer at Middlesborough (page 421)

When Britain was a contender: some pioneer diesel-electrics before La Grange. Part 3. Railway Reflections No.68. Michael Rutherford. 479-86.
Part 2 page 416, part 1 page 351. Hugh Macdonald MacIntyre had been apprenticed at the North British Locomotive Company, but moved to the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway in Argentina in 1922, then under the command of  P.C. Saccaggio, its CME: became involved in diesel traction in 1929, initially with an unsuccessful diesel hydraulic locomotive, and subsequently with the mobile power houses (like the Eurostar sets, the adjacent passenger vehicles had power bogies to assist traction) manufactured by Armstrong Whitworth in Newcastle with Sulzer engines built under license. The power houses (CM 210) ran on bogies and were far more successful than the rigid frame type of locomotives tested on the LNER and exported to Egypt and Ceylon. Article is constructed around papers written for Institution of Locomotive Engineers which had a thriving Argentine branch. The diesel electric and diesel railcars evaluated and bought by the LNER are also mentioned. Unfortunately, development by Armstrong Whitworth was brought to a close in 1935 when the Scotswood works were switched back to armament manufacture. Development at General Motors is sketched in, as is development in Denmark and the USSR. Eventually MacIntyre returned to the UK and joined English Electric. H.S. Smythe had also encountered the powerb houses and was responsible for the Southern Region's Hastings units (DMUs) which led to the similar 70 and 80 classes on Northern Ireland Railways. Illus.:Diagram; A larger capacity power station, Diesel-electric twin sets as delivered, Main line diesel-electric locomotive, BASGR official weight diagram for CM210, Tractive effort graph for CM210, Graph; Investment in the railways in Argentina, Sulzer advertising, Diagram; Lightweight Diesel-electric train, Lightweight Diesel-electric train, Diagram; Universal 1'Co1' of Armstrong Whitworth & Co, Northumbrian railcar, Diesel-electric railcar at Lahore, Diagram; (1A)'Co2' machine, A 1800hp box cab Bo-Bo unit.

Railway Reflections No. 69: The Railway: Britain's gift to the world. Backtrack, 2000, 14, 541-8.
Re-examination of 1975 Shildon S&DR 150 Anniversary celebrations, notably the type of railway which grew out of the introduction of the HST (prototype was exhibited at Shildon). The HST led to a reinvigouration of train services, yet this was only 7 years after the end of steam. Also considers the position of George Stephenson, George Hudson, and Samuel Smiles' biography of Stephenson and his son Robert. Edward Pearse was far more important to the success of the S&DR than George Stephenson as Pearse organized the capital and land acquisition. Nevertheless, the S&DR and L&MR did influence railway building overseas, much of it involving British capital and skill. Notes the significance of Robertson's The Origins of the Scottish Railway system. . See letter on page 675 by Pearce critical of Rutherford's stance on Hackworth, and on current research. Illus.:Barentin viaduct, Ebbw vale viaduct, Foord viaduct, William Jessop, A horse drawn Stockton and Darlington from the share certificate, A restored 'Locomotion' at Darlington [The name is a later addition], Diagram of main railway lines suggested by Thomas Gray in 1820, Edward Pease, Brassey's French railways, George Carr Glyn, George Hudson, Joseph Locke, Thomas Brassey, Locomotion at the S&D centenary celebrations, moved by a petrol engine in the tender!, Restoration of Hackworth 0-6-0 Derwent, GWR no 4700, LNER P1 no 2393, LNER prototype electric locomotive no 13, Prototype HST in August 1975 (John Edgington), Table; Development of the World's railways 1840-1910, The reproduction Locomotion in two views at its home of Beamish Museum,

God's wonderful branch lines. (Railway Reflections No. 70) Backtrack, 2000, 14, 560-9.
Mainly an examination of a GWR Report into the economics of 59 of their branch lines: data tabulated includes total and passenger receipts, expenditure, length of line and ruling gradient. Text examines some of the potential savings identified in the Report. Col. illus.: An unidentified pannier at Fairford in September 1961 on local passenger (Paul Strong), No 7404 in August 1959 on local passenger (T.B. Owen), No 1450 on an auto trailer in March 1963 on auto-train on Exe Valley line (T.B. Owen), No 7404 in July 1959 on local passenger train at Whitney (J.J. Davies). B&w: 517 class no 202 in July 1901 on Abbotsbury branch freight, Small prarie no 5571 in July 1956 on passenger train at Blue Anchor with author sitt6ing of the fence (a characteristic pose?), 517 class on auto-train at St Agnes station soon after opening, Hannington station in c1908 on local passenger. More col.: No 2538 in April 1954 on freight at Kerry (P.B. Whitehouse), Nos. 1421 and 1450 in February 1963 on auto-trains at Tiverton (Peter W. Gray), 14xx no 1471 in February 1961 near Brampton Speke on Exe Valley auto-train (L.F. Folkard), No 1421 in November 1962 on single LNER coach at Culmstock on Culm Valley line (Peter W. Gray), Small prarie no 4574 in October 1962 on local passenger crossing Bickleigh Viaduct (Peter W. Gray). B&w: Goonhavern Halt, Mitchell & Newlyn Halt, Star runs into Savernake [Low level] with a Small Prarie on the Marlborough branch train, Sentinel locomotive on the Derwent Valley Light Railway on freight at York Layerthorpe, Blue Anchor station in July 1957 with author climbing slope onto platform.

Crisis? What Crisis? Coal, Oil and Austerity. Part 1.. (Railway Reflections No. 71) Michael Rutherford. 665-74.
Following a very brief analysis of the development of coal burning (from coke burning) and the problems of coal supply, especially during strikes and in the immediate Post WW2 period the author introduces oil-consuming traction on the GWR (i.e. the pre-WW2 railcars and post-WW2 steam locomotives) and the influence of Sir James Milne (a thumbnail biography is given). Letter by John Pearse (Vol. 15 page 242) states that only two sets of troughs between Liverpool Street and North Walsham (not three) also amplifies information on relationship between Fisher and Churchill. Illus.:Drawing; Robert Stephenson Planet, Timothy Hackworth's Derwent, Diagram; Early coal burning fireboxes, Diagram; An early coal burning firebox, The Holden oil burning system, An oil fired 2-10-0 built for the Great India Peninsular railway, An oil fired 4-8-2 / 2-8-4 Garratt, No 3813 renumbered 4855 when converted to oil firing, Diagram of the GWR installed equipment in the engine, Diagram of the GWR installed equipment in the tender, Diagram of the firebox showing the extra brickwork and air inlets, The cab of 3904 aka 4972 showing the fireman's padded seat ? It also had electric light!, Col.: GWR no 3711 at one time oil fired in May 1963 (W. Potter), Oil-burning Castle no 100A1 Lloyds in April 1947 on express at Reading (H.N. James), 9F no 92167 also fitted with a mechanical stoker in July 1961 on freight train leaving Appleby (D. Cross), BR blue livery Merchant Navy no 35005 Canadian Pacific fitted with a mechanical stoker in May 1950 on LMS Mobile Test Plant (SC Townroe),

Crisis? What Crisis? Coal, Oil and Austerity part 2.. (Railway Reflections No. 72) Michael Rutherford. 14, 724-31.
Further consideration of replacement of coal by oil: including the Great Western/National Programme instigated in 1947. Illus.:GWR proposal for a wide firebox 2-8-0, GWR no 2839 as oil burner no 4808 in May 1948, Fig 1 Increased use of mechanisation in the coal industry, Hall class no 3904 [previously 4972] Saint Bride's Hall, Hall class no 3952 [ previously 6957] Norcliffe Hall at Birmingham on 16 April 1948 (John Edgington), Table 1 Steam locomotive Maintenance and running costs, 1938 (John Edgington), Fig 2. Increasing coal consumption and cost per mile, L11 no 437 at Southampton on 16 April 1947, T9 no 722 at Eastleigh on 26 June 1948, Table 2 Renewals of locomotive stock 1922-47, ex-WD no 3152, Oil burning pacific of the Argentine railways, Diagram; A firebox designed for oil burning, Diagram; The Swirlflo oil burner, The future as seen in 1947, Diagram; A mechanical stoker, Diagram of an underfeed stoker developed for the Pennsylvania Railroad. See letter from L.A . Summers (15, 183) on "Hawksworth Pacific".

Locomotive standardisation and standard locomotives - Part one. Railway reflections No.73. 15, 46-52.
Part 2 on page 102. Tables: builders of Bury-type locomotives and builders of Gooch standard designs. Development of machine tools. Notes influence of Marc Isambard Brunel and Maudsley developed mass production methods for the production of pulley blocks in 1809. Describes influence of Railway Fondry and of American production methods. Illus.: Bury engines of the London and Birmingham railway from contempary drawings; Lithograph: one of Daniel Gooch's diagrams supplied to several builders; Crewe type No. 18 Cerberus and No. 17 Caliban; large Jenny Lind supplied to the Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway; selection of E.B.Wilson's standard designs; special DX No. 1571, a rebuild of a DX; Ramsbottom's DX of 1858 No 111; central material stores; Ramsbotton 2-4-0 No. 1480; Great Southern and Western Railway 101 class No. 152; GS&WR 38 class No. 1500; John Aspinal Horwich standard No 733; Baldwin Works in Philadelphia; Brook's 4-6-0 for the Great Northern; Webb Precedent built as No 2190 Beatrice and became LMS No 5000 Princess Beatrice; Churchward's No 98 based on Brook's practice

Locomotive standardisation and standard locomotives. Part 2. (Railway Reflections No. 74). Michael Rutherford. 102-9.
Part 1 on page 46. The activities, and effects of, the Salt Lake City Conference of 1902, and the Edward H. Harriman conglomerate: the Associated Lines. The effect of USRA, ARLE, the Indian standards, and the great vision of Churchward. Workshop standards could be low, especially on the LNER. Rutherford is critical of the lack of boiler standardization on the LMS: the class 5, Jubilee and 8F boilers were not interchangeable [KPJ unlike comparable LNER classes!]. Furthermore, each LMS class had two non-interchangeable versions. See letter on tolerances and attainable mileages on page 243 by M. Johnson. Illus.:A 2-8-0, Specification; Passenger standard engine and tender for 5'6" gauge, The biggest steam engine ever; An 0-10-0 E class of Lopushinskii, Diagram; Alignement equipment, Specification; A pair of ARLE schemes, Diagram; A US built Mikado built for military use in India and the Far East, LMS 8F 2-8-0 no 8600. The type became WD standard engine, A 141R of the SNCF, A 4-6-0 built by the Vulcan Foundry, Britannia no 70004 William Shakespeare at Leicester on 18 July 1958 (John Edgington), No 62070, a Peppercorn K1, A 9F no 92132 at Halesowen on 20 June 1957 (John Edgington), Standard class 5 no 73022 at Bournemouth on 5 September 1965 (John Edgington), No 72001 Clan Cameron at Glasgow on 25 August 1952 (John Edgington),

An Extended family: the Cornwall Minerals Railway tank engines and their relatives. Railway Reflections No. 75. Michael Rutherford. 172-81.
The Cornwall Minerals Railway tank engines were intended to work back-to-back and were supplied by Sharp Stewart. Some of the 0-6-0Ts were eventually sold to the Lynn & Fakenham Railways where they were converted into tender locomotives, and some were rebuilt still further as 2-4-0s. Those that remained in Cornwall were to form the basis of a Churchward 0-6-0ST (1361 class) and a Collett 0-6-0PT (1366 class), probably Collett's ultimate achievement.  Letter from Treloar (page 363) concerning the involvement of Francis Trevithick in design, and further information on Cornwall Minerals Railway. Highly informative letter from New Zealand (Grant page 482) augments information about back-to-back and Fairlie locomotives in Peru/Chile (location changed following war) and Fairlie locomotives in New Zealand. Illus.:Diagram; a proposal for a Lickey banker c 1910, Mechanical connections of a Baldwin pair of 1901, One of a pair of engines delivered by Sharp, Stewart & Co, The first back to back locomotive proposal, CMR no 4 became GWR no 1395 at Swindon, The Cornwall Minerals railway engines were directly derived from the Swedish engines, Outline sketch; Three 0-6-0 proposals, Churchward's prototype 1361 class at Swindon, CMR no 10 as Haverhill, no2 loco of the South Hetton Coal Co., Collett's 1366 class; 1367 brand new at Swindon, CMR no 13 on the Eastern and Midland railway, CMR no 15 as 3A of the Lynn and Fakenham railway, CMR no 10 as Haverhill, here being cut up at South Hetton, CMR no 16 on the Midland and Great Northern, No 1361 stored at Swindon it was cut up in Oct '61, Table 1; Some examples of back to back designs, Table 2; Dimensions of CMR tanks and related classes, Table 3; Summary of CMR's 0-6-0T's, 1361 class no 1363 now preserved at Didcot at Plymouth, 1361 class no 1364 at Plymouth, 1361 class no 1365 at Faringdon, 1366 class no 1369 at Boscarne,

All the chief's men - the forgotten army. Railway Reflections No. 76. Michael Rutherford . 228-36.
Railway civil engineering, especially the low key mainteance of the permanent way. Includes biographical notes on Thomas Elliot Harrison (who engineered the formation of the North Eastern Railway), George Grove (better known for his Dictionary of Music), and John Miller. Rutherford notes the significance of the Ruston Steam Navvy in the construction of later railways such as the Melton Mowbray to Nottingham line. See letter by Rob Hines on greater flexibity of older track (page 422). Illus.:Engraving; Swindon junction, Lambley Viaduct, Plan of Euston station of 1937, Track relaying at Wickwar, A permenant way gang at work at King's Heath, A steam navvy at work, A permenant way gang at work at Fenchurch Street, Machinery to power drill chairs to sleepers, Pre-assembled track panel being laid at Church Fenton, Theating sleepers with preservative. Probable site Beeston in Notts, A wider view of the work at Church Fenton, An early petrol engined permanent way gangers trolley at Hawes, An later petrol engined permanent way gangers trolley, A single line Morris track relaying machine, The first mechanical tamping machine, A diesel-electric twin boom tracklayer designed and built at Swindon in 1950,

Some notes on the 4-4-0 type and its final fling. Railway Reflections No. 77. 15, 292-9.
Henry R. Campbell was granted a US Patent for the type on 5 February 1836. Robert Stephenson had suggested the type to engineers from the B&O in the USA in 1828. The 4-4-0 was to become the standard type in the USA. In Britain D. Gooch used the 4-4-0T from 1849, and Robert Stephenson & Co. supplied 4-4-0Ts to the V of NR in 1851 and to the NLR in 1855. In 1858 a 4-4-0 design was supplied by the same firm to the Smyrna and Aiden Railway in 1858, and similar o/c locomotives were supplied to the LCDR, S&DR and GNoSR. Following disaastrous designs by Beattie for the LSWR Adams perfected the o/c 4-4-0 on that railway. The i/c 4-4-0 was developed by Thomas Wheatley at Cowlairs, by James Stirling at Kilmarnock and by Dugald Drummond. The superheated i/c 4-4-0 gave excellent service. Includes a Smith (HR) design for an enlarged Loch class and a Stanier design for an LMS County class 4-4-0 (Stanier was very rude about Churchward's County class and this is a most intriguing might have been).

Pocket pugs from Jack Lane: Quarry engines and their cousins, Part 1. (Railway Reflections No. 78). 15, 349-55.
Narrow gauge locomotives for quarries and similar industrial uses, especially those produced in Leeds by such firms as Manning Wardle, Part 2 on page 412. illus.: Diagram; Isaac Watt Boulton's Little Grimsby (page 349); Diagram; John Ramsbottom's Tiny (page 349); Diagram; Manning Wardle & Co's loco for the Festiniog railway (page 349); Hunslet's Dinorwic No 51 loco for the Festiniog railway (page 350); Manning Wardle & Co's loco for the Festiniog railway on Gelly viaduct (page 350); Diagram; Manning Wardle & Co's loco Lord Raglan for the Royal Arsenal (page 351); Diagram; Manning Wardle & Co's locodeveloped from Lord Raglan (page 351); Hunslet's Blanche at Port Penrhyn, Bethesda (page 351); Hunslet Penrhyn Port class Lilian at Port Penrhyn, Bethesda (page 352); The prototype quarry engine built in 1882 (page 352); Hunslet small quarry engine Velinhedi at Dinorwic, Bethesda (page 353); Clarke's Culverin class (page 354); The last Manning Wardle for Woolwich was Arquebus (page 354); Hunslet no 754 Oldbury at Nuneaton, Coventry (page 355); Mills or Tram class Cackler at Llanberis (page 355)

Railway Reflections No. 79: Pocket pugs from Jack Lane: Quarry engines and their cousins, part 2. Backtrack, 2000, 15, 412-21.
Hunslet locomotives for the North Wales slate quarries. First locomotive supplied in 1882. Author also takes a sharp look at what he describes as the commisar of English Heritage, Sir Neil Cossons, who is in overall charge of NRM and his distaste for railway enthusiasm. Rutherford also supplies details of Nock type driving on Bala Lake Railway! Part 1 on page 349.

The twentieth century steam locomotive. Was there any progress? Part 1. (Railway Reflections No. 80) 15, 468-75.
Part 2 page 494: Part 3 page 554. The feature begins with a brief look at the contrast in the running of Royal trains for Queen Victoria with those of her successors in the 1900s, who commanded fast non-stop journeys odf considerable length. These were provided by the GWR to Kingswear and to/and from Plymouth. Clearly, Royalty expected more, but was there any real progress in locomotive development Considers Brooks Locomotive Works 4-6-0s with 6ft 10in driving wheels used on Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad for Chicago to Buffalo trains. These 34 ft2 grate locomotives averaged 100,000 miles in first year in service. The question was often expressed by Tuplin: whose somewhat eccentric (Rutherford uses the term iconoclastic) style coloured many enthusiasts view of steam locomotive development. Rutherford stresses that the style masked a man who was charming and devout (and did not add "green" in the environmental sense long before such ideas were cast more widely). Tuplin's views tended towards rugged simplicity: the Saints were just about right, especially if the boiler pressure had been lowered (Hughes must have been a key hidden influence on Tuplin). Rutherford attempts to refute Tuplin's assertions and that there was some development in the basic Stephenson type of locomotive, especially in the United States. See also letter from John Knowles (page 667) which asserts that Sam Ell did not rearrange Lomonossof formula for the cost of the net ton mile. Illus.:Caledonian Cardean no 903, GWR no 4108 Gardenia and 3402 Halifax on a boat train at Fishguard on 30 August 1909, GWR no 103 later named President at Old Oak Common on 30 August 1906, Prototype Fat Annie in 1907, GWR no 4003 Lode Star at Hayes, Superheated T14 no 443 at Raynes Park in May 1931, LNW no 2221 Sir Francis Dent at Stalybridge, LYR no 1508 in July 1908, GC 9Q no 5458 at Nottingham, LNER No 3279, Fig 1; The Lomonossof Formula for the cost of the net ton-mile, Fig 2; Allocating the costs, Darlington works foundry, Fig 3; Pie chart of steam heat content, Slab milling machine, A cast steel engine bed, New York Central Hudson no 5200, Table 1; Pre-grouping, multi-cylinder, 10 wheel designs, Table 2; Express passenger boiler trends 1900-1930, Table 3; Power outputs of a selection of passenger locomotives of the New York Central railroad,

The twentieth century steam locomotive. Was there any progress? Part 2. (Railway Reflections No. 81). Michael Rutherford. 15, 494-501.
Failure in Britain to work locomotives as hard as they were worked in France and USA. This was partially due to risk of slipping (due to poor design) and to the Anderson Midland philosophy. Autocratic behaviour by management was far too common. Table 1; Saving by higher superheat, Table 2; New York Central Railroad engine performance, Table 3; Modes of working of de Glehn 4-4-2 compound, Fig 1; Improvement in cylinder performance in US two cyl locos, Fig 2; The importance of reducing back pressure,

The twentieth century steam locomotive. Was there any progress? Part 3. Railway Reflections No. 82.  15, 554-62.
Part 1 was on page 468; Part 2 page 494: Further evidence for progress: André Chapelon's contributions: Kylchap double chimney reduced back pressue in exhaust, higher superheat could be achieved with Houlet elements given better lubricants and poppet valves. Enlarged steam pipes reduced throttling. Thermic syphons increased circulation and evaporation. These features were applied to a Paris Orleans Pacific 3566 and vastly improved performance. Many of the ideas were incoroprated in Cock o' the North which Rutherford regarded as a near miss. In 1910 SLM manufactured Pacifics for the 3ft 6in line in Java bewtween what was then Batavia and Surabaya and these four-cylinder compounds and 29ft2 grates enabled journey times to be halved. Very high speeds for the gauge were attained. Rutherford correctly queries why such designs could not have been constructed in the 1920s for railways in Britain. Super power in the USA originated under William E. Woodward. A 2-8-2 No. 8000 was built for the Michigan Central in 1922: it featured a booster, a very large superheater, feed-water heater, mechanical stoker, free steaming and light reciprocating parts. Alco's eventual response was the 2-8-4 Berkshire type with 100 ft2 grate and vanadium steel cyclinders to save weight. The development of the trailing truck enables the 4-6-4 and 4-8-4 types to be constructed. Gresley derived motion was used on some of Alco's output. Timken had to fight hard to get roller bearings installed and this was achieved via Alco demonstrator No. 1111. This led the way for the high speed Mallets developed on the Union Pacific by Otto Jabelmann. Rutherford argues that the Duplex 4-4-4-4 on the Pennsylvania Railroad were the "fastest steam locomotives of all time". In Britain the Castles were "little more than Churchward's Stars slighly enlarged", but they influenced the output from all the other companies. The great success of the Duchess Pacific class is noted, and especially its lack of major components in common with the Princess Royals. Illus.:A locally designed Pacific by the british CME P.C.Dewhurst for use on gradients as steep as 1 in 23, Prototype 2-10-0 no 100-01, Diagram; A proposal for a 2-14-4, Graph; Drawbar pulls, Colour: No 4062 Malmesbury Abbey at Twyford in October 1953 (T.B. Owen), No 46251 City of Nottingham at Shrewsbury on 21 June 1964 (Rodney Lissenden), Czechoslovakia 498 class, Gresley's no 2001 Cock o' the North (Locomotive Publishing Co type coloured plate), B&w: Missouri Pacific Lines 25 Berkshire, Gresley's conjugated valve gear used by Alco under licence, LNER P1 no 2393, 9000 class of the Union Pacific, A 4-8-8-4 Big Boy of the Union Pacific, A crankshaft roller bearing, New York Central Niagra, Pennsylvania T1 4-4-4-4,

Emerald Isle innovation: Dieselisation in Ireland - Part 1. Railway Reflections No. 83. 15, 652-9.
Includes early diesel railcars on the County Donegal Railways, on the GNR(I) and NCC. Illus.:Diagrams of some pre-war railcars, GNR railcar C3, GNR railcar G, NCC railcar no 2, Diagram; Harland and Wolfe 1930s Co-Co design, NCC railcar no 4, Shunter diesel no 1001, GN[I]R railcars posed at Belfast station, UTA built railcars posed at Queen's Quay, Sulzer powered Bo-Bo diesel-electric locomotives nos 1100 and 1101, A class A. AIA-AIA no 13, A Crossley C class Bo-Bo and an AEC railcar,

Emerald Isle innovation: Dieselisation in Ireland - part 2. (Railway Reflections No. 84). 15. 676-85.
Strong emphasis on the Crossley two-stroke diesel engine debacle, The two-stroke engine was invented by Joseph Day of Bath (first patent granted to him in 1892). Was taken up in USA and was highly successful. Crossley developed a heavy duty diesel engine and exploited his in locomotives with Metropolitan Vickers for the Western Australian Government Railways (48 2-Do-2) and with Metropolitan-Cammell for the CIE, with the involvement of Bulleid. British Railways also ordered some. Like many British products of this period there were problems, but the Crossley engines were especially unready for railway traction. The Hunslet locomotives built for NIR are also mentioned. Illus.:CIE Crossley A17 in silver livery at Youghal on 26 April 1956 (John Edgington*), Ex GNR AEC-Park Royal railcar no 111 at Belfast Great Victoria Street in June 1964 (*), SL&NC railcar B at Sligo on 29 May 1957 (F.W. Shuttelworth), Diesel loco no C209 in black & tan livery on street in Cork (*), General Motors Bo-Bo no 122 in grey & yellow livery on 8 June 1961 (*), Diagram: two-stroke engine Crossley diesel engine, Advertisement for British United Traction the Leyland AEC joint combine, Advertisement for Crossley diesel engines, A rebuilt A3 no 003 in May 1990 (author), NIR class 80 diesel-electric multiple unit at Cork (author), An 071 class no 082 in May 1990 (author), Hunslet Bo-Bo Merlin and rebuilt CIE C class in May 1990 at York Road, Belfast in May 1990 (author), Heavy shunter E413 at Dublin Amiens Street in April 1964 (*), UTA railcar no 5 at Belfast Queen's Quay on 23 April 1951 (*), Diminutive no G601 in May 1958 (*), Statue of William Dargan (author), Railcars 616 and 617 at Clones on 25 April 1956 (*),

A Century of Pacific Locomotives. Part One. Railway Reflections No. 85. Michael Rutherford. 16, 10-17.
Suggests that first true Pacific design (that is rather than extended 4-6-0 designs) was the Q class supplied by Baldwins to New Zealand. Similar locomotives were supplied to Queensland, Western Australia, Tasmania and the Cape Government Railways in South Africa. Earlier the Lehigh Valley Railroad had constructed an experimental Pacific in 1886 which had aimed at eliminating firebox stays through the use or corrugated construction. The first US Pacifics were built by Alco for the Missouri Pacific Railroad, which is possibly how the type received its name. This was in 1902, and this was closely followed by the Salt Lake City Convention where the railroads under the control of Edward H. Harriman developed standard designs, including Pacifics introduced in 18903/04. By 1907 the "modern" Pacific emerged in the USA, the same year in which the type emerged in Europe.  See letter on page 174 concerning origin of 3' 6" gauge. Illus.:LMS no 46225 charging up Beattock Bank in the late 50's, A 4-6-2 exhibited at the Colombian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, An experimental Pacific design for the Lehigh Valley Railroad, New Zealand Q class pacific, New Zealand Q class pacific diagram supplied with the initial specification, Diagrams of locos used in South Africa round the turn of the century, A 1903 pacific of the Chicago and Alton line in the USA, Diagrams of various trailing trucks, Line diagrams of two US Pacifics, The Erie 'Big Liz' no 2509, Bassett-Lowe class 60 now on the Ravenglass & Eskdale Rly. and called 'Colossus', Pacific no 111 The Great Bear leaving Paddington in almost as built condition. Parts 2 begin on page 64; part 3 on page 166 and part 4 on page 275.

Railway Reflections No. 86: A Century of Pacific Locomotives. Part 2. Backtrack. 16, 64-73.
Part 1: page 10. Part 3 page 166. The development of the true Pacific, rather than 4-6-0 with extra trailing axle, on WAGR, and the eventual adoption of the wide firebox for it. In Argentina narrow firebox continued in use for oil-burning Pacifics. Evolution of large boilers on GWR by Dean/Churchward. Speculates on possible intended uses for Great Bear: comment and additional information by Johnson page 295. The installation of water troughs at Restormel in Cornwall was considered and might have enabled non-stop running to Truro from Paddington. The full development of Fishguard and its approach lines was never completed, but if it had been commercially successful then non-stop running would have been needed. Ocean liner traffic from Plymouth might have become heavier. The proposed 4-cylinder McIntosh Pacific, Ivatt's 2-6-2 design of 1907, Gresley's 4-cylinder application to an Ivatt Atlantic, and the proposed Hughes Pacific, as well as the actual GNR and NER designs are all considered somehat concisely. Useful tabulated data for early narrow gauge Pacifics, with and without wide fireboxes, and early European Pacific designs (up to GNR/NER designs). See letter by Gottfried Wild on page 535 concerning proposed Austrian design for Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn. Illus.:LNER A3 no 2528 Sir Hugo at Grantham, A commercial version of The Great Bear on the Cornish Riviera Express, An F.Moore painting of The Great Bear, Midland Railway of Western Australia C class, Western Australia Government Ec class, 4501 Pacific of the Paris - Orleans Railway, Pacific built for the Western Railway of France in 1908, A cardboard cut-out model of 'Princess Royal', Publicity material featuring the Stanier pacific no 6201 Princess Elizabeth, A cigarette card of the 'Princess Elizabeth', A 'Princess Royal' on the cover of a magazine, Layout of a proposed pacific, drawing 17168, Layout of cylinders etc. of the Atlantic no 279 rebuilt as a test bed by Gresley for a 4-cyl pacific, Narrow fire bed version of a new Gresley pacific proposal, No 6200 Princess Royal very brand new and not yet named, Pioneer NER pacific later named City of Newcastle and seen here at King's Cross at Kings Cross,

A Century of Pacific Locomotives. Part 3. Railway Reflections No. 87. Michael Rutherford.16, 166-73.
Part 1 page 10. Part 2 page 64.  Part 4 : page 275. The primary themes are the Gresley Pacifics on the LNER and early Pacific locomotive development on the LMS (Fowler's activities were fruitless), including the improved Great Bear design from Stanier, but this is concluded in mid-stream see Part 4. Illus.:Gresley Pacific no 1471N on the turntable at King's Cross, No 4079 Pendennis Castle at King's Cross at Kings Cross, Gresley's right hand man at King's Cross drawing office. Mr Bert Spencer at Kings Cross, No 4475 Flying Fox at King's Cross at Kings Cross, Originally an A1, no 2580 was rebuilt as an A3 and used on the first 'Scotsman' non-stop run, The first A3 no 4480 which was rebuilt with a higher boiler pressure in July 1927, A 387 class Pacific of the Czech Railways, An S class Pacific of the Victoria State Railways of Australia, The last order for an A3 built as an A4 no 2509 Silver Link, Drawing of the Belgian State Railways 10 class of 1910, LMS no 6200 The Princess Royal in original condition on Bushey troughs, LMS no 6200 The Princess Royal having a bigger superheater fitted in 1936 at Crewe, The CF du Nord no 231E.7 Pacific in 1963, The German Reichsbahn no 03.094 Pacific at Cologne, King's Cross looking toward Gasworks Tunnel with A1 no 2550 ready to leave for Leeds at Kings Cross, LMS no 6201 Princess Elizabeth at Crewe, État 231.501 Pacific at Le Harve in 1966, Merchant Navy no 21C12 United States Lines at Nine Elms.

A Century of Pacific Locomotives. Part 4. Railway Reflections No. 88. Michael Rutherford. 16, 275-82.
Part 3 page 166. Part 1 page 10. Pacific locomotive development is sketched for North America and India, the development of the later LMS Pacifics, the Bulleid Pacifics and the Duke of Gloucester is also lightly covered, and the whole is intended as a trailer for a book by the same author on the same subject which was still "fortcoming" at the end of 2002. See letter by Brian Orrell (page 415) on Vulcan/NBL contribution to output for Indian State Railways.

The Experimental spirit. Part 1. Railway Reflections No. 89. Michael Rutherford. 16, 395-403.
Considers advances made by Norfolk & Western Railway in steam traction between 1925 and 1940. Considers N&WR steam turbine electric John Henry, Willans and Robinson central valved high speed steeple compound engines, turbines (with and without electric drive), water tube and flash boilers, the innovations of Kyrle Williams at Kerr Stuart, and the Paget locomotive. Considers how steam traction could be improved in terms of: siz/weight/power, boilers (especially Woolnough), condensing, turbines, and fuel and firing. Part 2 page 455. Illus.:A experimental steam electric on the CF de l'Oest in 1897, Table; How gadgets improved efficiency, Diagram; Willans and Robinson central valved high speed compound engine, Diagram; Old Crewe type 2-2-2, Diagram; Proposed triple-expansion of a Metropolitan type 4-4-0T, A post office van cum railbus of the CF du Nord in 1897, A stem driven light railcar of Ganz (Hungary) design at Loughborough, An unusual high speed gear driven 2-6-2 locomotive, Diagram; Schematic of the workings of the Perkins closed circuit hot water tubes, Diagram of the 2-6-2 on page 399, Diagram of the boiler of the 2-6-2 on page 399, A proposed water tube firebox for an LMS pacific designed for 350 psi working pressure, The boiler for the 'Hush-hush' LNER no 10000, An early sentinel railcar no 4149 at Blackrod, Sentinel 100hp shunter no 47183 at Clee Hill, Graph: progress with steam turbines.

The Experimental Spirit. Part 2. Railway Reflections No. 90. Michael Rutherford. 16, 455-62.
Part 1 page 395. Part 3 see page 515. See latter from Harry Liddell (page 535) concerning reason for rapid displacement of steam from Norfolk & Western Railroad. See letter from David Jenkinson (page 594) requesting more information about sounds made by LMS turbine locomotive. Roland Bond did not like Turbomotive name: My Lifetime page 108: "The turbine locomotive, often known as the 'Turbomotive', an abbreviation almost as offensive as 'British Rail', was, I think, the most successful unconventional steam locomotive ever to run in this country." Illus.:The Ramsey-Armstrong Whitworth condensing turbine-electric locomotive at Southport, The Ramsey-Armstrong Whitworth condensing turbine-electric locomotive at Lostock, The Ljungström-Beyer, Peacock turbine, Drawing of three British turbine designs, Fury's cab layout, Schmidt-Henschel no 6399 Fury at Derby, Crewe erecting shop with no 6202 under construction, Fury's smokebox, Schmidt-Henschel built by Alco for the New York Central, The Turbomotive no 6202 at Euston, The Turbomotive no 6202 at Nuneaton, The Turbomotive No 6202 as built at Camden, Table 1; Summary of Schmidt-Henschel high pressure locomotives, Table 2; Selected steam turbine locomotives, The Turbomotive no 46202 in its final form, Pennsylvania Railroad no 6200,

The experimental spirit. Railway Relections No. 91. Michael Rutherford. 16, 515-23.
This specific series began on page 395; previous part was on page 455 and final part is on page 575. This very complex account digs up many treasures which are liable to remain undetected. Rutherford notes that D.C. Urie, son of the well known CME of the LSWR was "a thorn in Stanier's side" during the Jubilee steaming crisis when they were incapable of keeping time on the two hour expresses to Birmingham. Urie and Byrom put pressure on Stanier via Lemon. The class 5 was successful due to the involvement of Coleman and the Vulcan Foundry. Rutherford suggests that Chambers died prematurely due to the stress caused by the design failings in the Royal Scot, Jubilee and Princess Royal classes. The recruitment of Fairburn, the brilliant electrical engineer, is considered as "something of a catch for the LMSR", but it introduced friction with Hornbuckle. Notes an intension to streamline the turbine locomotive, and considers Stamp's excessive fraternization with Nazi Germany. German ideas were to influence experimentation on the LMS: a the Germans were developing a turbine condensing locomotive with a La Mont boiler and it is probable that the LMS would have rebuilt the turbine locomotive in this form. Rutherford also considers the Bugatti high speed train project both in its eight-cylinder petrol engine version and with an 8-cylinder steam version fueled via a Velox boiler. At this steam time control systems were becoming available which enabled steam engines to operate with far less attention: the Norfolk & Western introduced switchers in 1947/8 which could operate continuously for 24 hours. Stephen Alley, in association with Doble, of the Sentinel Waggon Co. used such engines for road trucks, and in railcars for the SR and LNER, and in an advanced shunter for the LMS. Sentinel railbus no 6 at The Dyke at Brighton, The Experimental Spirit part 3, Diagram of La Mont boiler, Diagram of proposed locomotive with a La Mont boiler, Diagram of proposed rebuilding of Turbomotive, An LMS proposal, Diagram of the Bugatti high-speed train, Section view of PLM 4-cyl compound rebuild, Section view of the Sentinel engine, Sentinel railcar no 29 Rockingham, Cheshire lines committee railcar no 600 at Cheadle, Sentinel shunter no 7164, Sentinel shunter no 7192, Stephen Alley's radicl idea formain line steam, A nose mounted Doble steam engine, A selection of locomotive engineers inspecting a metre gauge Sentinel in Belgium, A proposed standardised one man shunter,

The Experimental Spirit - Part four. (Railway Reflections No. 92). Michael Rutherford. 16, 575-82.
Part 3 was on page 515 and Part 1 on page 395. This part discusses developments at Sentinel including the development of a Bo-Bo steam locomotive with a Woolnough boiler which attracted both the LNER and the GWR. It was intended for light branch lines and the ordrs appear to have been cancelled fue to financial problems at Sentinel. At this time Doble was involved at the Sentinel Waggon Works in developing advanced steam lorries with mechanical stokers and SMUs (steam multiple units) were manufactured for Egypt. Describes No. 10000, the water-tube boiler for which was patented by Harold Yarrow and Gresley, and was linked to a four-cylinder compound engine. Originally it had been intended to build two of the D49 class as compounds and S.J. Symes brought drawings from Derby to King's Cross to assist with this project. No. 10000 was a very poor steamer, but some (too late) improvement was achieved by fitting it with a Kylchap chimney in 1935. It had been intended to name this locomotive British Enterprise. The two Southern Railway experimental locomotives are described: A629 which burned pulverized fuel and A816 which involved innovation by H.P.A. Anderson in association with the Steam Heat Conservation Co. (both are discussed in Holcroft's Locomotive Adventure). Finally, the extraordinary swan song of steam in the USA was realised in turbine electrics built for the Chesapeake & Ohio to haul streamlined passenger trains, and the less unsuccessful Jawn Henry built for the Norfolk & Western which produced steam in a semi-flash boiler with a chain grate to feed a turbine to produce electricity.

Handing on the Baton. Part One. Railway Relections No. 93. Michael Rutherford. 16, 635-43.
Excellent biography of Webb preceded by a very concise account of the merging of the functions of locomotive design and construction at Crewe under Ramsbottom, formerly of Longsight; the cessation of locomotive manufacture at Wolverton, formerly under McConnell, and the translation of Francis Trevithick (who had been responsible for Frank Webb's training at Crewe) to Wolverton. Rutherford emphasises the significance of Moon upon all LNWR activities. Rutherford is also highly critical of Hamilton Ellis's appraisal of Webb, and castigates Vaughan's assessment.. Part 2 page 695. Congratulatory letter Vol. 17 page 114 by Liddell.

Handing on the Baton: from Frank to George. Part Two. Railway Reflections No. 94. Michael Rutherford. 16, 695-703.
Part 1 page 635: More on Moon's policy which sought to reduce costs and wasteful competition. Small engine policy was dictated by Moon's criteria. The latter led to co-operation with the GWR. Wherever possible the Company manufactured its own materials: thus rails were rolled at Crewe. Rutherford emphasises that the chain brake policy had emerged under Ramsbottom, and that Webb might have been less antagonistic to the air brake had Westinghouse not attempted to offer incentives to Webb. Whereas Moon was parsimonious on the question of brakes, he could perceive the value of signalling in its reduction of accidents and its aid to increasing capacity.

Handing on the Baton: from Frank to George - Part three. Railway Reflections No.95. Michael Rutherford. 17, 6-15.
Sadly this was the last of this series. An extensive re-evaluation of F.W. Webb: his far from rapacious earnings from his many patents, his recognition of Joy, the many great engineers who had "graduated" via Crewe under Webb, his frequently kindly nature, the many beneficiaries from his will, and his final defeat under the hands of Frederick Harrison. Churchward was in effect defeated by the Management very shortly afterwards. Also considers position of Maunsell whose output combined much which stemmed from Crewe and Swindon, and who had the ability to be able to adapt to Management's needs.

The LMS in later days. Part 1. Double chimneys. Michael Rutherfod. (Railway Reflections No.97). 18, 38-47.
Attempts to show that in the late 1930s the LMS was acquiring a new corporate identity and cites the Coronation Scot, articulated rolling stock including the streamlined DMU, the electric multiple units for the Wirral and Southport lines and Leeds City station concourse. Rutherford then considers as the cutting edge of late 1930s steam technology and the LMS approach to their use then and following WW2. Inevitably Frank Webb had been there somewhat earlier with Patent 29240 which was accepted on 6 November 1897. This arrangement was applied to Princess Royal 6201 in 1934, but was soon replaced by a single chimney. The turbine locomotive 6202 was fitted with a double chimney with a complex system of cowls to minimize back pressure. The Kylchap type of double chimney was introduced to Britain by Maunsell on Lord Nelson 862 Lord Collingwood and by Gresley with the P2 class (and eventualy on some A4 class), and on the LMS on Jubilee 5684 Jutland where high power outputs were obtained during dynamometer car tests during November 1937, but the results appear to have been somewhat like the battle which the locomotive commemorated, that is far from decisive. 6245 City of London was built with the Kylchap arrangement, but it was alleged to interfere with servicing and was removed. The SR adopted the Lemaitre multiple blastpipe and sold the Kylchap arrangements to the LNER. The LMS had meanwhile demonstrated that high outputs could only be achieved with double chimneys during tests with 6234 Duchess of Abercorn on 26 February 1939. Subsequently, all the Duchess class, and the rebuilt Royal Scot, Patriot and Jubilees were fitted with double chimneys as were an assortment of the experimental non-standard standard class 5s following WW2. Rutherford is surprised that all the Jubilee class were not so equipped. See letter by D.H. Landau on double chimneys (page 188).

The LMS in later days. Part Two. Modern traction and rolling stock developments. (Railway reflections No.98). Michael Rutherford. 18, 84-91.
Includes a table of electric traction systems instaled by LMS and its constituents. Note on Tommy Hornbuckle who had a considerable influence on electric motors employed within Derby Works to replace belting systems, and on diesel traction.

The LMS in later days. Part Three: modern traction and motive power developments. (Railway Reflections No. 99). Michael Rutherford. 172-9
Stamp wished to stamp-out the wastage associated with steam shunting and replace this either by an internal combustion engine or by an advanced steam locomotive with a Doble boiler. Gravity marshalling had begun at Tyne Dock in 1859, and was adopted by the LNWR at Edge Hill in 1875. The GCR introduced power-signalling at Wath in 1907, and the LMS eventually introduced power at Toton marshalling yard in 1939, using Frölich rail brakes. A prototype disel shunter is described in LMS Journal Number 2, but Rutherford castigates the lack of detail about the engine. The LMS ordered protypes with both hydraulic and electric transmission, but following the appointment of Fairburn there was a loss of interest in anything other than electric transmissions, and the work of Tommy Hornbuckle failed to be acknowledged.

Foleshill – the land of lost content: Railway Reflections No. 100. Michael Rutherford. 212-19.
Like all great Authors Rutherford seeks to place himself within the context of his birth place which happened to be Foleshill, an industrial settlement near Coventry on the Coventry to Nuneaton line where his father was a permanent way ganger. For other great authors within the area he does not turn to the Bard, but to George Eliot, alias Mary Ann Evans. Rutherford considers that the London & Birmingham Railway treated the City with contempt in placing its station to the south of the City, thus forcing Foleshill to be on a branch line.A lot of this article is devoted to the development of the bicycle and the automotive industry and might more aptly have been published in Archive, but he does observe that the LMS had considered quadrupling the Rugby to Birmingham line with Government money, but were too slow off the mark. Includes some notes on industrial railways in the area.

Nuneaton and railways in the Warwickshire Coalfield. Railway Reflections No. 101. Michael Rutherford. 295-303
Considers the development of the Warwickshire Coalfield and its associated road, canal and rail transport links. Includes a clear coloured map which shows such back tracks as Watling Street and Foss Way, the Coventry and Oxford Canals, and specific colliery railways, as well as the focus of the Author's attention the railway which links Nuneaton with Coventry and associated lines, such as the WCML. See further references to the railways of this area in letter by Author on page 380.

Into the melting pot – Great Western absorbed engines (Railway Reflections No.102). Michael Rutherford. 420-8.
For once Rutherford returns to well-trodden ground as the absorbed into Great Western stock are covered in the RCTS Locomotive History (Volume 3 and Part 10), and in Jim Russell's Pictorial record of Great Western absorbed engines. Nevertheless, this writer did not disappoint and both clearly covers the Great Western's policy of standardizing boilers for this relatively motley collection and considers how these locomotives could form an interesting collection for a model railway layout. He also has some cogent remarks about Tracy Emin's so-called art, and implies that some model railways are more worthy of preservation than that (KPJ: it could be argued that the best model railways are comparable with the Boyle Family's exploits).
The historian and the footplate. Part One. (Railway reflections No. 103). Michael Rutherford. 486-93.
In part the article is used as a vehicle to attack the Jack Simmons' "school" of railway history which tended to ignore the skill required to drive the steam locomotive, and the poor working conditions imposed upon such "railway servants".  Rutherford especially objects to a statement made in the Foreword (not Forward) to Frank McKenna's The railway workers, 1840-1970. (Ottley 11050) wherein the late Professor was guilty of writing "That nobody should have tried to do this before is not to be attributed solely to blindness or indifference. Real difficulties lie in the way of anyone who attempts the task. Very few ordinary railwaymen have ever been articulate, able to record their experience and to pass any useful judgement upon it. The great majority of them have lived and died unknown, and it is no easy matter to recover their histories, as individuals, now." The italics were applied by Rutherford. Incidentally Simmons (The railways of Britain) did cite McKillop's The lighted flame (history of Aslef). Rutherford also introduces some of the richness contained in the Transactions of the Newcomen Society. Part 2 page 550.
The historian and the footplate — Part Two (Railway Reflections No. 104). Michael Rutherford. 550-8.
Part 1 began on page 486. Mentions a wee bit more on Driver Norman McKillop, something about J.M. Dunn, and a considerable amount about some Camden drivers: Driver Button who began as a cleaner in 1864 and had become a driver by 1872 at the age of 26. He was especially associated with Webb Teutonic three cylinder compound No. 1304 Jeannie Deans. Two later stars were Fred Bishop (with Fireman Carswell) who travelled to the USA with a Duchess Pacific No. 6220 Coronation, and Driver Laurie Earl.
The historian and the footplate. Part three. (Railway Reflections No.105). Michael Rutherford. 594-601.
Failure to train British footplate staff; lack of official watches and speedometers; poor motive power depots; badly designed grates; correct firing methods for specific designs (such as Lord Nelson class); failure to fit electric lighting on British Railways standard classes; variable blastpipes; back pressure gauges; Ashcroft Cut-Off Control Gauge (indicated steam chest pressure and blastpipe back-pressure) fitted by GWR to 6015 King Richard III in May 1929; more sophisticated version linked to mechanical stoker by Polish engineer, Juljan Madeyski (Rly Gaz., 1939, 28 July, pp. 316-18); a Loco Valve Pilot was fitted to Jubilee 5654 Hood in January 1939, but this had been preceded by work on the blast nozzle as an indicator of footplate work by the LMS Research Department on Patriot 5533 (between Crewe and Carlisle) and Royal Scot 6158 The Loyal Regiment. Difficulties caused by variation in firing techniques led to the development of 'Controlled Firing' using a back-pressure gauge: the LMS coal-weighing tenders were developed in association with this work.

The Drummond Age. Part One. (Railway Reflections No. 106). Michael Rutherford. 18, 688-94.
This part begins by setting the scene having dismissed some of the myths associated with the Scots and especially those which may attach themselves to Drummond and his associates including the possibly over-rated William Stroudley. In his broad stroke manner Rutherford argues that locomotive construction was influenced by Hawthorns and Stephenson on Tyneside, Beyer Peacock in Manchester and by the development of a locomotive works at Cowlairs on the magnificently engineered Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway. Rutherford detects clusters of engineers and names the Drummonds (father and brother plus Dugald), Stroudley, the Stirlings, Sturrock as well as Walter Montgomerie Neilson and their draughtsmen.
The Drummond Age. Part Two. (Railway Reflections No. 107). Michael Rutherford. 18, 754-60.
This part contains an extensive bibliography and notes, includes an assessment not only of Dugald Drummond's early work, but assessments of those with whom he can be associated, notably Stroudley. It begins with noting the influence of Robert Hawthorn, who Rutherford considers has received too little attention. He also notes the significance of William Symington with his steam powered Charlotte Dundas on the Forth & Clyde Canal in March 1803, and of Henry Bell with his Comet on routine sailings on the Clyde. Illus.: Drummond NBR 2-2-2 No, 475 Berwick as built in 1876; 2-2-2 No. 474 as modified by Holmes; Drummond NBR 0-6-0 No. 513; CR 294 class 0-6-0 No. 686 (Neilson 1884), subsequently 57265;
The Drummond age - Part Three. Michael Rutherford (Railway reflections No.108). 19, 46-53.
Some of this part is given over to the development of Glasgow as an industrial centre (the Author claims that he was not able to trace a major study on this topic). This precedes an account of Drummond's contribution to locomotive development on the Caledonian Railway and his very considerable financial rewards for this. Rutherford rightly considers this period to have been the zenith of Drummond's career. Drummond's failed Australian venture and his unrewarding experience as an independent locomotive manufacturer in Glasgow are but lightly sketched
Railway reflections No.109: The Drummond age. Part Four. Backtrack, 19, 102-10.
Dugald Drummond on the LSWR and Peter Drummond's work for the HR and GSWR. Includes an extensive section on Dugald's extremely light weight steam railcars, and the influence of these on the motive power on other railways, notably the GWR (which developed far more powerful vehicles) and the TVR, and the subsequent development of the C14 2-2-0T and later 0-4-0T (S14) for push & pull working. The delay in the opening of the Locomotive Works at Eastleigh is noted and there were problems in that old machine tools were transferred from Nine Elms. There was a shortage of accommodation at Eastleigh and many of the staff employed there were Scots .Rutherford indicates that Dugald Drummond's stay of seventeen years with the LSWR was the longest of any of his periods of employment and that his salary of £1500 per annum was considerably less than that of the £2400 paid to him by the CR. Rutherford states that John Reid was responsible for the design of the T9, 700 and M7 classes, but eventaully appears to have left under a cloud. Subsequent Drummond designs are more controversial: the 4-2-2-0 design is linked to James Tolman. Whilst the D15 class 4-4-0 once superheated was one of the very best of that type the 4-6-0s (which are but lightly sketched presumably due to the major contribution made by Swift below) are considered to have been very poor and are compared with Robinson's similar lack of success with multi-cylinder 4-6-0 designs. The author does note that Drummond's designs were greatly admired by the enginemen and that some of the LSWR types lasted almost to the end of steam. Rutherford records that Drummond's death was due from a scald, but not from locomotive, but from putting his feet into excessively hot water to warm his tootsies.
Peter Drummond's designs for the HR are given some attention: the Castle class was developed from the Jones goods but did introduce the passenger type 4-6-0 to Scotland. Furthermore, fifty of this type were supplied by NBL to the Chemin de fer de l'Ouest. Several of his designs, notably an 0-8-0 failed to materialize because of HR frugality. His period on the GSWR was marked by a large 4-4-0 and a 2-6-0, but Rutherford fails to enthuse to any extent on these designs. Rutherford claims that William Paton Reid's and John McIntosh's designs were essentially part of the Drummond philosophy and as a very large order for McIntosh types was supplied by Neilson's to the Belgian Railways thus extending the Drummond influence still further.
Railway reflections No. 110: Comparisons and revision: the Grouping and early LMS locomotive policy - Part One. Bactrack, 2005, 19, 150-6.
As usual the Author challenges the "accepted view" of locomotive development during the first few years of the LMS and compares this with what happened on the other mainline railways at that time, notably on the Southern Railway where the motive power was managed as on the LMS outwith the direct control of the CME. A concise description of the Grouping is included with mention of the extent of Government involvement and the stamp of Sir Eric Geddes.The findings of the Bridge Stree Committee enabled the four-cylinder Claughtons to be used on the Midland lines and accentuated their failings. J.H. Follows (portrait), the General Superintendent of the LMS had a considerable influence on motive power policy. The Divisional Motive Power Superintendents were: F.W. Dingley (Western Division at Crewe); F.W. Attock at Hunt's Bank in Manchester, L.C. Geach at Derby and the redoutable J.G. Barr in Glasgow. The Divisional Mechanical Engineers were Beames at Crewe, G.N. Shawcross at Horwich, D.C. Urie at Glasgow and E. Sharples was at Barrow. Mentions involvement of Jimmie Anderson (see Presidential Address to Instn Loco. Engrs) and visit by Fowler and Edward Gass to France (with Bulleid as translator) to France to study French compounds leading to paper by Gass (not yet cited by Rutherford) and projected 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 compounds thrown out by Follows.

Comparisons and revision: the Grouping and early LMS locomotive poliey. Part Two. (Railway reflections No. 111). Michael Rutherford. Bactrack, 2005, 19, 276-84.
Places the "period of ineptitude on the LMS" within the context of what was really going on elsewhere: such as the real lack of need for the Castle class (which was not as successful on introduction as sometimes portrayed) and the failure to fit the Star class with a Number 7 boiler, the construction of further Directors under Gresley, and Maunsell's incomparable D1 and E1 classes. Much of this is squeezed into a most interesting chronology. Anderson is once again placed in the stocks. See letter from Dennis Lorriman (p. 572): comments on the 4P compounds: queries how a locomotive with one high-pressure cylinder could work at short cut-offs, Also suggests that Rutherford had quoted E.S. Cox for describing a footplate journey (on a stopping train from Liverpool to Crewe) in which he advised the driver to increase the cut-off of a compound to 45% to achieve good running as the low pressure cylinders provided the steam expansion (this rather improbable episode has not been traced: sounds more like Powell). Also cites Poultney's contribution to the discussion of Cox's A modern locomotive history wherein he argued that many of the firemen liked the Webb compounds as they were economical, although the drivers feared their complexity..

The 'Scots' and their weans. Part One. (Railway Reflections No. 112). Michael Rutherford. 356-65.
Considers locomotive policy in general on the LMS, including the purchase of ex-ROD 2-8-0s, the Claughtons and the Bridge Stress Committee before turning to the influences which were worked into the Royal Scot and Patriot classes (and the differences between them).  External influences included that of the GWR Castle class and to a minor extent the Maunsell Lord Nelson class. Internal influences were drawn mainly from the three-cylinder compounds and the 2-6-4T then under development at Derby. The role of Herbert Chambers and Eric Langridge is noted (the former in liaising with NBL on the design of the Royal Scot). Sir Henry Fowler's involvement is also noted. Rutherford notes some of the disadvantages associated with the introduction of Pacifics which included the provision of larger turntables and the greater "grip" provided by a 4-6-0 when hauling trains on steep gradients (tests with A1 2573 Harvester on restarting on Cockburnspath incline in June 1925 are cited against Pacifics as 2573 failed to restart with a load of 520 tons). KPJ: worst slipping ever seen by him was rebuilt Royal Scot which erupted like Mount Etna whilst attempting to restart from Greenfield station on 16.47 ex-Manchester Exchange. Part 2 page 424. References in Part 3 on page 487.Illus.: 6152 Royal Scot at Crewe North shed in 1936 (W. Potter); 356 lower 46148 The Manchester Regiment climbing Shap northbound with heavy train of carmine and cream stock plus two vehicles coupled inside front of train (cattle wagon and a horse box (see letter from Terry Tracey on page 574); 6149 The Manchester Regiment outside Crewe Works in 1937 (J.P. Mullett); 5531 Sir Frederick Harrison at Edge Hill shed in 1939 (W. Potter); 45511 Isle of Man crossing Castlethorpe wwater troughs in August 1958 (T.B. Owen): black & white:

Rutherford, Michael. The 'Scots' and their weans. Part 2. (Railway Reflections No. 113). 424-32.
Part 1 began on page 356. Concluding part begins page 487. This is a somewhat wayward contribution and includes a fair amount which is only indirectly related to the Royal Scot class. This includes the relatively slow evolution of LMS publicity activity, but it does note that this led to an exhibition of Royal Scots at Liverpool, Manchester, Crewe, Glasgow, Dundee and other venues, and 6161 The King's Own was exhibited at Wavertree for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway Centenary in 1930 alongside 6029 King Stephen and 850 Lord Nelson. Booklets and colllectables were also produced. Sales of posters are quoted but these not relate to locomotives. A table lists named expresses running in the summer of 1927, although not all of these would be suitable for haulage by Royal Scots. Notes that C.J. Allen in his Locomotive Practice & Performance series in Rly Mag. was critical of the early performance of the class. But Sir Henry Fowler gave details of coal and water consumption from dynamometer car tests made between Euston and Crewe with the class in response to a paper by Lawford Fry presented to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in1928. Rutherford notes that it was these tests which prompted Gresley to verify the LMS dynamometer car against the LNER vehicle. The final batch (Derby, 1930) were fitted with modified piston valve heads. Many Derby practices and details were incorporated into the NBL design as co-ordinated by Herbert Chambers and (probably) James Anderson. The resulting amalgam of practices led to a number of inherent faults. Some could be rectified by modifications during shoppings (it is considered that the locomotive sent to the USA included them all), and the locomotives became highly reliable and more work was given to them, both in trailing loads and mileages in the working diagrams, until the inherent design faults began to make themselves known with a vengeance. Modifications became more drastic, time-consuming and costly (eg new frames) and eventually all the engines were converted to taper boiler engines which Stanier had perceived this as an early task. Of the problems with the 'Scots' when built, the two that were potentially dangerous were drifting exhaust obscuring the driver's view of the road and signals and the tendency to rough riding - either on poor track or after a high mileage since shopping. Both were cited as the reason for accidents (Leighton Buzzard and Weaver Junction respectively). The former was aleviated with large deflector plates; completely flat at first, later curved inwards at the top. The ride was an inherent problem with 4-6-0s: a King had derailed at Midgham and a Lord Nelson at Kent House and the bogies required modifications to the springing. In Table 3 it is shown that the distance from the bogie to the first coupled axle was only 8ft 11 in as compared with 10ft 9in for the Lord Nelson. but would have been 11ft 6in for the Derby proposed compound 4-6-0. Illus.: colour: 6100 as painted by F. Moore and M. Secretan; last unconverted Royal Scot No. 46137 The Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire) near Brinklow with an up Liverpool express in June 1953 Train in carmine & cream, locomotive in green, low evening light) (J.B. McCann); Patriot No. 45519 Lady Godiva passing Longsight station with up express in June 1957 (W. Oliver); 45542 climing to Shap with down express in July 1958 (J.G. Wallace), B&w: Patriot No. 6000 under construction at Crewe in July 1933; No. 5547 climbing Grayrigg bank (H. Gordon Tidey); 5551 departing Crewe on long Manchester to London express; 5500 Croxteth with smoke deflectors sometime beetween May 1934 and February 1937.

Rutherford, Michael. The 'Scots' and their weans. Part Three. (Railway Reflections No. 114). 487-95.
Part 1 began on page 356; Part 2 on page 424. In spite of silly title for feature (the weans were not manufactured in Glasgow!) the references are listed within a highly sensible classification: drawings and official photographs; contemporary accounts; retropsective accounts; performance (mainly from Nock); train services and names. Notes that Jack Francis, a leading draughtsman at Crewe, designed the enlarged boiler for the Claughton and Patriot classes: this became the G9½S: Francis was moved to Derby, but continued to live in Crewe. (see also letter page 636 from C. Taylor) The illus. on page 492 of Royal Iniskinning Fusilier is important for showing the vacuum pump drive; the coil springs fitted to the crank axle and second driving axle (the latter were replaced by laminated springs during rebuilding. The Patriot class was characterized by variations in bogie and chassis types, and only the last series were selected for rebuilding with larger boilers. The frames used for the Patriots were stronger than those for the Royal Scot class as they lacked the cut-outs for lightening. Furthermore, the cylinders were smaller and frame cracking was not experienced. The weight quoted for the Patriots was 83 tons 8 cwt as aginst 84 tons 18 cwt for the Royal Scots, but the CME had claimed 80 tons 15 cwt in the case of the former. Annual milegaes are quoted for both classes. Col. illus.: 45543 Home Guard at Bay Horse on Manchester to Windermere express in July 1962 (A.R.E. Cope); 45519 Lady Godiva at Bromsgrove on express heading towards Bristol on 20 June 1959 (T.J. Edgington); 45511 Isle of Man at Crewe in June 1956 (T.B. Owen); 45519 on express at Dore & Totley (P.J. Hughes); 45509 The Derbyshire Yeomanry on Marple Viaduct with carmine & cream stopping train (severe colour degradation) (E. Oldham). B&w: 46158 The Loyal Regiment fitted with indicator shelter in 1930; 46146 The Rifle Brigade at Camden mpd (unrebuilt) (see letter p. 636 from George W.F. Green concerning caption error); 45542 and 45500 (minus name) at Carnforth; 45537 Private E. Sykes V.C. climbing Madley Bank with up express from Barrow on 20 June 1948; 6142 undergoing piston valve examination in Edge Hill shed; 45504 Royal Signals puffing up Lickey incline with sanders working hard in August 1960 (T.J. Edgington); 45506 The Royal Pioneer Corps passing Preston on fitted freight in September 1955; 45538 Giggleswick stored outside Rugby works on 3 June 1962 (G.L. Wilson).

Rutherford, Michael. 1905 and Churchward's revolution on the GWR. (Railway Reflections No.115). 616-26.
Begins with an anecdote concerning the writer's failure to see the 0-10-0 Big Bertha working on the Lickey Incline and his introduction about fifty years ago to the writings of O.S. Nock and to the RCTS series Locomotives of the Great Western Railway seen in reference libraries (what hope now of that). Also roundly condemns British steam railways and how they shaped our history, No. 5, 6100 Royal Scot for its inaccurate statements. This is given as a pretext for the writer returning to Churchward's remarkable revolution before the rug was pulled from under his feet probably by the resignation of Earl Cawdor from the Chairmanship and his eventual replacement by Viscount Churchill who demanded tighter financial control. Rutherford argues that Churchward's great advances were carried on the back of a huge capital investment programme which followed the end of the broad gauge and the emergence of strong external competitive pressures: this programme included the South Wales direct line; the new mainlines from the Midlands to London and the South West and the development of Fishguard. These new lines needed new motive power to haul the improved rolling stock (corridors, dining cars, and fitted freight) to ensure that traffic growth matched the capital invested. As usual with Rutherford theree are many illuminating small comments (on Churchward's intimates for instance) and in useful tabulations: Table 2 Experimental and prototype boilers; Table 3 Protype locomotives and Table 4 Production of Churchward standard locomotives and total GWR stock on an annual basis 1902 to 1926. Rutherford sadly comments that within sixty years the products of the revolution had gone to scrap (and some of the vast new works had either gone or were under-used).Illus: (colour): F. Moore: No. 175 Viscount Churchill and 2949 Stanford Court on up express from Birmingham near Ruislip with crimson lake train. B&w: 2907 Lady Disdain at Bristol Temple Meads, 2-6-2T No. 3112 in post-1911 condition on Severn & Wye Excursion. Drawings of 5ft 8in 4-6-0 and 6ft 8½in 4-4-4T (unfulfilled) and 4ft 1½in 2-6-2T (not quite as fulfilled) and 5ft 8in 4-4-2T (to become No. 4600)

Railways around Whitby (Railway Reflections No.117). 46-57.
An historical survey of railways which serve/d Whitby including the Whitby & Pickering Railway with which George Stephenson was associated and which in its genesis Rutherford calls an anchronism. The ferocious gradients on the lines aproaching the port led to two specific locomotive designs: the Whitby bogies (No. 1809 is illustrated in the Whitby shed yard c1890 and the W class 4-6-0Ts known as the Whitby Willies (No. 695 is illustrated in workshop official and as a 4-6-2T on a freight at Sleights c1920).

Railways and iron and steel developments around Teesside (Railway Reflections No.118). 110-16.
The primary thrust of these Reflections is the development of coal movement from the Durham coalfield to the North Sea for carriage by collier or for use in the iron and steel industry which was able to exploit iron ore deposits in the Cleveland Hills. Railways associated in this activity included the Stockton & Darlington Railway (although Rutherford directs the reader to more extensive sources of information, notably Tomlinson and also Maurice Kirby), the Clarence Railway, the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway (not authorised by Parliament until after its opening); the Hartlepool Dock & Railway Co. where the docks suffered from failure of the gates and infilling by sand. This failure led to the creation of the Hartlepool West Harbour & Dock Co. and the creation of West Hartlepool. As George Hudson feared that a competitor to his mainline interests might take over some of these local lines became part of the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway from 9 July 1847. This part also describes the beginnings of Port Clarence and of Middlesbrough

Railways and iron & steel developments around Teesside. Part Two (Railway Reflections No.119). 236-47.
Extraction of ironstone (iron ore) from the Cleveland Hills; the Leeds Northern Railway opened between Thirsk and Leeds on 3 July 1851; developments at Leeds Central station; attempts to lure the LNWR into Teesside; the Cleveland Railway; railway to Rosedale; incline at Ingleby; Ingleby Junction changed name to Battersby Junction; severity of winters on North Yorkshire Moors; locomotive repairs at West Rosedale to limit taking locomotives up and down incline; tables of ironstone and pig iron production statistics by district from 1855 to 1885; blast furnaces at work in Cleveland in 1860 including at Middlesbrough and at Normanby. Involvement of Henry Bessemer in steel manufacture. See also letter from Bill Gathercole on page 446 describing extant remains of Ingleby Incline and observations made by local farmer who claimed that his mother had travelled as passenger on incline..

Express eight coupled — some notes on the Gresley 2-8-2 and Chapelon 4-8-0. (Railway Reflections No.126). 724-32.
"The most remarkable British express locomotive introduced in the period was undoubtedly the London & North Eastern Railway 2-8-2 No. 2001 Cock o' the North and in France (and perhaps the world) André Chapelon's 4-8- No. 4521 for the Paris-Orléans system..." In the case of the British design, the author also considers Gresley's two P1 freight 2-8-2s which were based upon the A1 Pacific boiler and front end and No. 10000 (mainly from the point of view of styling, and of Chapelon's Kylchap exhaust system which reduced back pressure in the cylinders. Sometime between 1941 and 1943 Kevin watched in awe as the streamlined Cock o' the North pulled into Dundee Tay Bridge: it remains his most memorable experience of any steam locomotive. Thus this abstract is bound to be biased, although he is well aware that Norman McKillop, who drove the mighty beasts, had reservations about them, but they matched the mighty Forth Bridge in a way that most of the buses on steel wheels fail to do. Sequel in Volume 21 page 44 et seq.See also letters in Volume 21 page 125 from Paul Ross who suggests that the coloured picture of Cock o' the North was based upon a painting by Murray Secretan; L.A. Summers who suggests that the Gresley streamilining originated through the shape of the Yarrow water-tube boiler; was extended in the Cock o' the North and in this form not only influenced the "shape" of Belgian locomotives, but also the Spanish MZA 1801 series on RENFE in Spain; and Peter J. Rodgers on how the costs of development of the W1 Hush Hush locomotive were covered at Darlington Works..

Rutherford, Michael. More eight-coupled: a miscellany. (Railway Reflections No.127). 44-51.
Previous part (No. 126) appeared in last Volume Issue 12 pp. 724-32: this part concerns further eight-coupled designs which were mainly intended for hauling express passenger trains and includes 4-8-0; 4-8-2 and 4-8-4 types constructed for use in South Africa, New Zealand, India, both North and South America, and for several European countries. The USRA (United States Railroad Administration) introduced 858 Mikados in 1918/1919 as well as a major political storm: the man in charge, William Gibbs MacAdoo was married to President Woodrow Wilson's youngest daughter! The Hudswell Clarke 3ft guage 4-8-0s built for the Burtonport Extension Railway (Londoderry & Lough Swilly Railway) are stated to have been designed by James Connor (cites Carling's 4-8-0 tender locomotives). Porta's metre gauge compound 4-8-0 is briefly mentioned. Two unfulfilled designs for the British mainland are briefly considered: the Beames 4-8-0 (mentioned by Cox) and the Maunsell 4-8-0 intended for hauling Kent coal. F. Wolley-Dod was introduced to Backtrack by Keith Horne (16 p. 215) and Rutherford considers his contribution to locomotive standardization in India: he presided over a conference of Indian locomotive superintendents held in Calcutta in December 1901 and this led to the Engineering Standrads Committee with standard 0-6-0s and 4-4-0s emerging in 1903, and later a line of standard 2-8-2s. During WW2 Baldwin and Canadian 2-8-2s were supplied to India and these formed the inspiration for the WG class 2-8-2 designed at NBL (one was exhibited on the South Bank in 1951 as part of the Festival of Britain: this is illustrated) and was a key design to be turned ot from the new Indian locomotive manufacturing works at Chitteranjan. Eventually 2450 WGs entered service to form the largest locomotive class in the British Commonwealth.. .