The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 30 (1924)

key to all volumes

Number 377 (15 January 1924)

New surburban tank locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry.– Great Eastern Section. 1. illustration
N7 class 0-6-2T built at Stratford Works: No. 960E illustrated

New 2-8-2 type Lentz valve gear locomotive for the Eskdale (15" gauge) Ry. 4-6. 5 illustrations
Second part see pp. 120-2

Progress of luxury travel. 7-14. 6 illustrations, 5 diagrams
Begins with showing a device (with diagram) for transferring the body of a diligence (road carriage) onto a flat truck on the London & Birmingham Railway; diagrams of an early Belgian Railway first class coach; a composite carriage for the Versailles Railway; an early bogie coach for the Vienna-Brun and Strasbourg-Basle; Pullman cars as used by the Midland Railway and then contemporary developments of Pullman services on the London, Brighton & South Coast and London & North Eastern Railways (latter showing interior of car named Iolanthe for the Leeds, Harrogate and Newcastle service).

Travelling cranes for railway service. 17-20. 4 illustrations, diagram

Travelling railway substation. 21-2. illustration
Supplied by Società Nazionale delle Officine di Savigliano and capable of inputting high voltages (60,000 to 102,000 volts)

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway. 23-5. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Manson 375 class 4-4-0 with larger boilers than on No. 8 class (four of which were rebuilt from) and 15 new engines built at Kilmarnock; also small 0-4-4T built for shunting at locations like Ardrossan and heavy 0-4-0ST mainly used at Greenock

Coat of Arms of the London and North Eastern Railways. 25. illustration

Questions and answers.. 25-6

No. 40.  Engine down on front end owing to irregularity oof spring adjustment or weakening of leading sprins

No. 41. Reason for off-setting trunnion pins of Walschaerts gear links forward of the centre line of the link arc on some locomotives
See also p. 118

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B. Carriages and wagons. 26-7. 4 diagrams

Obituary. 37
C.T. Broxup. Incorrect date of death given: see Broxup

A.W. Macalay of Skefko Ball Bearing Co. Ltd.

Number 378 (15 February 1924)

New 3-cylinder mineral engine, London & North Eastern Ry. 39. illus.
O2/2 built to composite loading gauge: No. 487N illustrated

Superheater locomotives for the London, Midland and Scottish Ry., Northern Counties Committee. 40-1. 2 illustrations.
4-4-0 and V class 0-6-0. Addenda p. 102.

East Indian Railway locomotive rebuild. 44-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
0-8-0T for shunting converted from an 0-6-0: 5ft coupled wheels, 18½ x 26in. cylinders

London and North Eastern Ry.—Norh British Section. 45
Superheating Reid's earlier locomotives: first 0-6-0 No. 200 had been superheated and fitted with mechanical lubriators and extended smaokebox and sandboxes. 1906 Intermediate class Nos. 890, 893, 888 and 885 superheated, but retained external admission piston valves. Non-superheater Scott class to be fitted with superheaters. The first 1911 Atlantic No. 902 Highland Chief had been superheated
North Eastern Railway 0-8-0 goods and Great Central 2-8-0 which had been wotrking between Thornton and Aberdeen had returned to England.

Another new rail motor for New South Wales. 45-6. 2  illustrations
Rail Motor No. 3 built at Eveleigh car & wagon shops in Syndey with seats for 24 second-class and 21 for first powered by a Thorneycroft six-cylinder Z6 engine with benzine (petrol) as fuel.

[J.G. Robinson]. 46
Appointed duirector of Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd.

Albert Jacquet. An old Belgian "single " locomotive. 48-7. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Belpaire 0-4-2 or 2-4-0 as tender (carrying water only) was at rear and cab was at front built in 1865 by Société de Couillet WN 123 running number 265 and known as Dragon Belge. It was unsteady and was rebuilt as a 2-2-2 in Malines Arwenal in 1871 and thereafter worked King Leopold's train, but ended its working life on light expresses connecting with the Antwerp to Harwich steamers.

The Wolverton and Stony Stratford Tramway. 48-9. 3 illustrations
Lists motive power and includes details of freight formerly carried. Information provided by Major C. Mason formerly manager of the Wolverton carriage works. See also closure.

Greatr Western Railway old tank engines. 49-50. 3 illustrations
Oruiginally built for West Cornwall Section of South Devon Railway in 1875 and reconstructed at Swindon as standard gauge 2-4-0T engines with domeless boilers. Nos. 1298 and 1399 worked  the Tiverton branches. No. 1299 was a crane tank employed in Swindon Works (all illustrated).

F.W. Brewer. The Great Northern  Atlantic type express locomotives. 50-3. 2 illustrations
Superheating and Grresley rebuild of No. 279 as a four-cyliner locomotive in 1915.

Great Western Ry. 53.
B. Giles had retired from the position of locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent at Wolverhampton after fifty-one years' service on the G.W.R. E.G. Wainwright, divisional superintendent at Newton Abbot, had been appointed divisional superintendent at Wolverhampton in succession to Giles. O. Barker, who had held the position of divisional superintendent of the Central Wales division since the absorption of the Cambrian Railways, had been appointed divisional superintendent at Newton Abbot. E. Colclough, who had acted as locomotive works manager at Oswestry for the Cambrian Rys, since 1909, and continued to hold that position since amalgamation with the G.W.R., had been appointed to succeed Barker as divisional superintendent of the Central Wales division.
The programme of new engines to be built at Swindon covered the following types :-4-6-0 (four-cylinder), 2-8-0 tanks, 2-6-2 tanks and 0-6-2 tanks. Fifty additional tank engines for working coal trains in South Wales have been authorized. To avoid changes en route engines were working through from Birmingham to Paignton (202 miles), Paddington and Carmarthen via Gloucester (245 miles) and Paddington and Chester (195 miles).

Automatic couplings in relation to transition period. 53-4..
Trials in France to establish if buffer locking occurred. Coupler designed by Usines Emile Henricot

Railways in industrial plants. 54-60. 9 illustrations. 3 diagrams
Narrow gauge locomotives supplied by Motor Rail and Tram Car Co. of Bedford: Simplex type, Baldwin petrol locomotives, Berliet petrol locomotives; Messrs Lake and Ellliott of Braintree locomotive with Fordson tractor engine, H.K. Porter locomotives driven by compressed air, Nasmyth Wilson petrol electric locomotives supplied to War Office, bolster wagons manufactured by Francis Theakston Ltd , S.J. Claye Ltd ingot bogie capable of conveying very heavy loads.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B. Carriages and wagons. 60-2. 2 diagrams

Gas mantles for railway vehicles. 62-3.
W.M. Still & Sons Ltd with factory at Old Southgate. manufacture and testing is described

An old L. & N.W.R. goods engine. 64. illustration
0-6-0 No. 1824 illustrated: originally No. 870 supplied by Fairbairn & Co. in 1853.

Number 379 (15 March 1924)

4-6-4 type, side tank locomotive for British Guiana Ry. 71-2. 2 illustrations
Hunslet Engine Works; inspected by Crown Agents; standard gauge; 4ft coupled wheels; Belpaire boiler; 923.7ft2 heating surface; 18ft2 grate area; 16 x 22in cylinders.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers Annual Dinner. 72.

[LNER three-cylinder 2-8-0s: mechanical lubricators]. 72

Empire Exhibition, Wembley. 73

Passenger locomotives for the Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry. 72; 73. 2 illustrations
William Beardmore & Co. Ltd of Dalmuir supplied 25 4-6-0 passenger locomotives: illustrated by works photograph and most of output on quayside awaiting shipment on SS Belfri. Locomotives had 21½ x 26in cylinders; 6ft 2in coupled wheels; 160 psi boiler pressure; 1846ft2 total heating surface and 32ft2 grate area.

Southern Ry. L.&S.W. Section. 73

Garratt locomotives for the Hafod Copper Works. 74-7. 2 diagrams (including side & front elevations), 2 plans + Supplement (3 illustrations of locomotive at work on 1 in 20 gradient)
0-4-4-0 type supplied by Beyer Peacock & Co. to Vivian & Sons and shows close involvement of Captain Hugh Vivian

Steam rail motor, No. 2 Jersey Railways and Tramways Company. 77-81. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams, map
Second Sentinel Wagon Works Ltd steam railcar with Cammell Laird body acquired by Jersey 3ft 6in gauge system and demonstrated to visiting engineers and railway officials on 21 February 1924. Party included C.E. Cockburn of Cammell Laird, H.V. Gaud of Sentinel Wagon Works, H. Kelway-Bamber of Cammell Laird, E.B. Renouf (Deputy Chairman Jersey Railways), C.J. Le Quesne (Director JRT), W.N. Poigndestre (General Manager JRT), J. Davis (Consulting Engineer, NSW Gov. Rlys), A.C. Carr (Consulting Engineer, Bengal Nagpur Ry), W.H. Woolnough (Consulting Engineer, Commonwealth Rys), J.S. Tritton, H. Rudgard (LMS), E. Ciroux (Paris-Orleans Ry). The rouute included a section with sharp curvature and 1 in 40 gradients.

A new seat for railway carriages. 81. diagram
Bowden Patent Seat made from spring steel strips.

Internal combustion rail coach, Barbados Railway. 82-3. illustration, diagram (including sectional side elevation), plan
Drewry Car Co. Ltd. 2ft 6in gauge seating 44 passengers. Petrol engine; trials performed on Leek & Manifold Valley Light Railway.

Recent accidents. 83

L. & N.E.R. G.N. Section.
At Boston on 19 October 1923: Collision between light engine (4-4-0 No. 1384) and passenger train (hauled by Atlantic No. 988) which led to derailment of both locomotives and injuries to crew of light engine and three passengers: caused by failure of fireman to read signals correctly.

L. & N.E.R. G.N. Section.
At Doncaster on 1 December 1923: collision in dense fog between express passenger train from York hauled by 2-6-0 No. 1691 colliding with rear of passenger train from Leeds in platform. Major Hall questioned whether signalling gave driver sufficient warning.

Heavy shunting locomotive for an American automobile factory. 84. illustration.
Outside cylinder 0-8-0 built Lima Locomotive Works for Ford Motor Company. Firebox arranged to burn soft coal had arch tubes. See letter from William T. Hoecker on page 230.

Southern Pacific RR. 84
Claimed longest regular locomotive working in world: 815 miles from El Paso, Texas to Los Angeles: passenger trains worked by 4-8-2 type. See letter from William T. Hoecker on page 230.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section V. The testing of springs. Sub-section A. Scragging and load-testing. 84-6. 2 illustrations.

Erratum. 86
Figure 219 (Issue 378): buffing spring resistance

The essential factors in steam locomotive design. 86-8.
Abstract of paper by T. Grime read before Association of Engineering and Shipbuilding Draughtsmen

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway. 89-91. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued from page 25. Manson designs. 13 4-4-0 express engines built at Kilmarnock between 1907 and 1912, known as 18 class (later 337 class): cylinders 18¼ x 26-inch; coupled wheels 6ft 9½;  1408.2 ft2 total heating surface; 22 ft2grate area; 170 psi boiler pressure. Under Drummond No. 27 of this class was fitted with a Weir pump and feed-water heater. In 1910 fifteen 0-6-0 goods engines were built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. at the Atlas Works: they had 18 x 26 inch cylinders, 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1400 ft2 total heating surface; 18¼ ft2grate area; 170 psi boiler pressure. Whhitelegg rebuilt No. 87 with a larger boiler with a total heating surface of 1361 ft2 and a grate area of 18.36ft2. The last two Manson locomotives were built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. at the Atlas Works: the superheated 4-6-0 express engines with 21 x 26 inch cylinders with piston valves; 6ft 6in coupled wheels. The boiler had 1560ft2 evaporative heating surface plus 445ft2 superheat and a grate area of 24.5ft2. The boiler pressure was only 160 psi, They were Nos. 28 and 29, subsequently Nos. 512 and 513. They had bogie tenders. No. 129 was fitted with a Weir feed pump on the left hand side of the firebox and a cylindrical feed water heater on top of the boiler between chimney and the dome. Whhitelegg lengthened the smokeboxes see Locomotive Mag., 1920,  26, 215

"The North-Western Limited." Chicago & North-Western Ry. 91-2. illustration.
Overnight Pullman car train between Chicago and Minneapolis St. Paul

Londox & North Eastern Rv. 92.
The locomotive stock is to be renumbered. The G.N.R engines were to have 3,000 added to the numbers, the G.CR, 5,000 and the G.E.R., 7,000, duplicate engines were to be entirely renumbered. The numbering of the N.E.R. engines would not be altered. The 125 2-8-0 ex R.O.D. engines purchased from the Government were being delivered at Gorton Wor ks.

The "Asquith" portable drilling machine. 92-4. 3 illustrations

Travelling cranes for railway service. 94-6. 3 illustrations
Coninued from page 20. Breakdown cranes: 100 ton capacity in USA, but rarely in excess of 40 tons in Britain. Illustrated John H. Wilson of Birkenhead 10-ton breakdown crane for the Argentine; one of two cranes supplied by Stothert Pitt of Bath for the Sara Bridge project in India — they had Hopwood boilers and Cowans Sheldon & Co. Ltd. of Carlisle 40-ton breakdown crane for the Jamaica Government Railways. Continued page 189

[Death of Wiulhelm Schmidt]. 96
Died at Bethel near Bielfeld on 16 February 1924 following long illness.

L. Derens. The development of the goods locomotive in Holland. 96-8. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
The oldest class of goods locomotive in Holland were built by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1860 for the Holland Railway. They were originally built for the broad gauge (6 ft) with outside frames but were modified for the standard gauge in about 1864 with inside frames. They were numbered 31-34. They had 16 x 20 inch cylinders, 4-ft 7½-in coupled wheels and a total heating surface of 877.5 ft2 including 82.5 ft2 firebox. The workinng pressure was 90 psi. In 1865 and 1867 the Rhenish Railway obtained 0-6-0 from Sharp Stewart & Co. in Manchester: Numbers 50-54 in 1865 and 54 and 55 in 1867. They had 17 x 24-in inside cylinders, 4-ft 97/8-in coupled wheels, a total heating surface of 1042 ft2. No. 50 had been rebuilt with a Belpaire boiler operating at 150 psi. Between  1865 and 1878 the State Railways Co. acquired some outside-framed Beyer Peacock 0-6-0 goods engines: they were numbered 161 to 205 and 212. They had 17 x 24-in cylinders and 4-ft 6½-in coupled wheels  The boiler operating at 120 psi and a total heating surface of 1055 ft2. Several were rebuilt with 150 psi boilers with Ramsbottom safety valves. In 1868 the  State Railways Co.  took over the Belgian Luik-Limburg Ry. The locomotive stock included three 4-6-0T with outside cylinders and boilers with 1107 ft2 total heating surface and 23.3 ft2 grate areas. They had Walschaerts valve gear. Continued page 182

An improved form of steam-driven tender. 98-9. diagram
Although does not mention Poultney this is clearly based on GB 262,360

Questions and answers: No. 42. 99
Sometimes the name Heusinger is used in connection with locomotives fitted with the Walschaerts valve gear. Is this another arrangement of the gear, and if so, wherein is the difference) The term Heusinger has absolutely the same significance as Walschaerts, and is commonly nployed in Central European countries to designate le gear invented originally by Egide Walschaerts . 1844. The gear was again invented, quite indepenently, by Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg in 1848, in a form closely approximating to that in use today, whereas Walschaerts' first conception differed materially from the later types both as employed by Walschaerts himself and others. It may be mentioned that Walschaerts' patent was claimed in the name of Fischer, hence in certain old books this gear is called Fischer's " gear.

[Felix J. C. Pole]. 99
The most interesting item in the list of honours conferred on the resignation of Baldwin's Government the bestowal of a knighthood on Felix J. C. Pole, General Manager of the Great Western Ry. This is not political honour, but a well merited appreciation of the services rendered by Pole in improving the transportation facilities of the nation, in which Baldwin has been particularly interested, as he was formerly on the board of the G.W. Ry,

The G.W.R. standard "Leitner" electric train-lighting system. 100-2. 3 diagrams.
Dynamo, battery, switcing systems under control of guard.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry.—Highland Section. 102
Engines and carriages were still being turned out of the paint shop at Lochgorm, painted the familiar Highland green and lettered "Highland Ry." On the northern section there are a number of Midland bogie carriages, early type, at work, and on the Keith section a few six-wheelers. These are lettered L.M.S. and bear a board on the end "On loan to Highland Ry." Since the introduction of dining cars on the Wick trains these were almost entirely worked by the Castles or 4-6-0 engines of the 80 class.

L.M. & S.R. Northern Counties Committee. 102
Referring to the description of the new superheater engines for the N.C.C. in our last issue, W.K. Wallace, locomotive engineer of the Railway, had sent particulars of the wheelbase and weight distribution of the 4-4-0 passenger engine and tender and 0-6-0 goods engine and tender.

Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ld., 102
Awarded contract for a 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratt articulated locomotive by the India Office for service on the North Western State Ry., 5 ft. 6 in. gauge. It was to be tried in competition with the huge Baldwin Mallet engine illustrated in our December issue. Its estimated weight in working order is about 166 tons, of which 108 tons will be on the coupled wheels. The tractive effort at 75%. boiler pressure will be 47,100 lb. The Vulcan Foundry, Ld., had on order for the North Western Ry. of India fifty-five locomotives of the 2-8-0 and 0-6-0 types, and also ten for the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Ry, This firm is also busy on twenty 0-6-0 tank engines for the London, Midland and Scottish Ry., as well as twenty engines for the Bengal Nagpur Ry., of the 2-8-0 and 0-6-0 types.

[Nitrate Rys. of Chili]. 102
Yorkshire Engine Co., of Sheffield, were building six articulated locomotives for Chile.

Great Western Ry. 102
William A. Stanier, works assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer, had been appointed principal assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer. John Auld, formerly locomotive superintendent of the Barry Ry., had been appointed docks and personal assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer.

"D.P." Kathanode" Separation. 102
Testimony of the value of D.P. Battery Co.'s Patent Kathanode Separation is contained in the report of a Colliery Company, which reads as follows:- "During the past sixteen months the average life of Accumulator Plates used for 2 volt Miners' Electric Lamps at this Colliery has been ten months. Experiments with the same type of Plate fitted with Kathanode Separators show up to the present a life of eighteen months. These Plates are still in use, and on examination, it is estimated that they will last four months longer."

Number 380 (15 April 1924)

New compound express locomotives, London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (Midland Division). 103. illustration.
First new three-cylinder superheater compound engines being built at Derby Works illustrated (No. 1045) in the photographic reproduction, for which we are indebted to the courtesy of  George Hughes, chief mechanical and electrical engineer of the L. M. S. Ry., and to Sir Henry Fowler, K. B.E., deputy chief mechanical engineer, Derby.
The engine was a replica of the existing engines of the 1000 class, with the exception that the coupled wheels were 6 ft. 9 in. diameter instead of 7 ft., the two high-pressure cylinders  were 19¾ in. diameter as against 19 in. and the low-pressure cylinder is 21¾ in. diameter instead of 21 in. At 80 per cent. of the boiler pressure the tractive force was increased to 24,295 lb. as compared with 21,840 lb. Owing to the smaller coupled wheels the inclination of the cylinders had been altered slightly. On the side sheets of the cab the new coat of arms of the L.M.S. Ry. appears, and a new pattern builder's plate giving the date and name of the works is fixed on the driving wheel splasher.

Indian Railway Conference. 103
The annual Conference of the Locomotive and Carriage and Wagon Superintendents' Committee of the I.R.C.A. was held at Coonoor, on February 25th and following days, A.M. Bell, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, G.I.P Ry., presiding. The Chairman called attention in his opening address to the items on a lengthy agenda, whieh included the adoption of standard and modified details for the automatic vacuum brake, a definite procedure to be adopted for a final effort to get the brake into working order throughout all goods trains, the adoption of drastic rules for interchange of pooled wagons, etc. The report of the Sub-Committee on Standard Locomotives was received and adopted, also that of the Standing Committee on rolling stock details. Certain parts of electric fans were standardized, and many details of rolling stock received attention with a view to modification and improvement. The attendance was a large one and the proceedings interesting and Important. F.J. Page, Locomotive Superintendent of the B.B.&C.I.R., was unanimously elected Chairman of the Conference for the year 1924/25; the Secretary remained as before T.D. Macintosh

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (L. & N.W. Section). 103
No. 2023 Helvellyn (Precursor class, ordinary) had been converted to superheater with piston valves and 20½-in. cylinders. It was now similar to the George the Fifth class and was the first of five engines of the same class which were being thus dealt with. The two Belpaire Jubilees, viz. No. 1912 Colossus and No. 1929 Polyphemus, had been rebuilt as two-cylinder simples (Renown class). The old boilers were replaced by new ones with ordinary fireboxes. Recent conversions to Class G1 (superheater) were as follows:-Class B compounds Nos. 1308, 1543 and 2080 and Class D simple No. 2525. The latter will be recognised as the first of Webb's three-cylinder compound goods type. It was originally No. 50 and was converted to simple with large boiler in 1906.
Additional engines of the Prince of Wales class (4-6-0) were being fitted with outside motion, similar to Nos. 867 and 964. These include No. 56, which is almost ready for service. Engines of the larger types as they go through the shops were being fitted with pop safety valves, and among those classes not hitherto included in the list of those so fitted  were the following :Prince of Wales" (4-6-0), Experiment (4-6-0) and George the Fifth (4-4-0). Two further ex-North London engines had been broken up at Bow works, viz., N.LR. Nos. 73 and 86, both of the 4-4-0T type with outside cylinders. They were Nos. 2859 and 2866 in the L. & N.W. list and Nos. 6471 and 6504 in the L.M.S. list. Engines recently broken up at Crewe included one of the four taken over from the Knott End Railway, viz., Knott End, a 0-6-0-T. (L.M.S. 11302). Other withdrawals all ex-Wirral engines, were as follows :-No. I (4-4-2T.), No. 7 (0-4-4T.) and No. 12 (0-6-4T.) These were L.M.S. Nos. 6830, 6774 and 6948 respectively.
The old 6-ft. 2-4-0 curved link engine, Engineer Lancaster, had been broken up and replaced by the corresponding straight link engine which was formerly numbered and named 737 Roberts.

Pacific type express locomotives Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry. 104-5. illustration
Two "exceprtionally large" two-cylinder (23 x 28in) built by Kitson & Co. to design of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton with 11-inch piston valves and Cartazzi axelboxes on rear axle.  Combustion chambers and large grates (48 ft2) were fitted to cope with poor grade Indian coal: 2-8-2 type

"Baltic" type tank locomotive, LM.& S.R.105-6. 2 diagrams. (side. & rear & cross sectional elevations), plan.
Hughes design which incorporated his patented pressure release valves and superheater

Metre gauge 4-6-0 freight locomotives, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway. 107-9; 106. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Fitted with a wide firebox to burn low grade coal; dedsigned by W.S. Fraser and built at Ajmer Central Locomotive Shops. Includes photograph of No.100 alongside Neilson 0-4-2 No. 247 built in 1876: the 4-6-0 looks huge in comparison

Converted four-cylinder engine, North  Staffordshire Section, L. M. & S. Ry. 109. illustration
No. 2367: J.A. Hookham

Southern Ry. (L. & S.W. Section). 109
Two further Adams 0-4-4T (O2) modified with Westinghouse brake: Nos. 205 and 215 to become 21W and 22W and sent to Isle of Wight.

"Garraatt" articulated locomotives for the Trans-Zambesi Railway. 110-11. illustration
2-6-2+2-6-2 built by Beyer, Peacock & Co.

New 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Southern Railway (L. & S.W. Section). 111. illustration.
H15 4-6-0 No. E473

G.W.R. Literary and Debating Society. 111
On 20 March at Paddington Station G.V.O. Bulkeley presented Bulk handling machinery at British and North American ports.

New Pacific type locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry. (North Division). 112. illustration.
Cartazzi trailing trucks fitted to this series of Raven A2 class Pacifics.

Empire Exhibition, Wembley. First Notice. 112

The evolution of passenger travel on the Great Western Railway. 113-17; 118. 8 illustrations.
Lack of communications and brakes tended to be limitations rathe than haulage power and speed on the broad gauge. This changed with introduction of electric telegraphy. Shackleford of Oxford, later Cheltenham, built te early coaches. These were upholstered in first; covered in second and open in third. Exeter was reached in 4½ hours from London in 1845 at an average speed of 43 mile/h. Standard gauge carriages were built by Wright Bros, later Metropolitan Carriage & Finance Co. of Birmingham. Bogie carriages were introduced in 1874; and these wer 45 ft long. The first corridor train was introduced in 1890; steam heating came from 1893. Electric lighting was fitted in the Royal Saloon in 1897 and on Birmingham local trains from 1900.The enforced Swindon refreshment stop was bought out in 1895. Dining cars were introduced and for a short period were unual for providing them for three classes before second class was abolished. Sleepig car services were provided to Penzance  and to South Wales. Slip coaches were a feature and the Cornish Riviera gets specific mention. Illustratiojns: 4-4-0ST Lance on initial broad gauge inspection train to Penzance at Redruth in 1866; Flying Dutchman at speed near Starcross; third class coach; standard gauge Royal Saloon; third class narrow gauge carrialge of c1865; Souuth Wales down express between Chepstow and Newport in 1885; Swindon c1885;  the Cornish Riviera; Paddington, Newport, Cardiff and Swansea express.See also letter from J.D. Thomson on page 230
Further information on photographs see letter p. 196

Questions and answers. 118. diagram
See page 25 Q&A No. 41 Derens noted that on Beyer, Peacock and Werkspoor four-cylinder engines the trunnion pins are larger to limit the jumping of the die block

C.F. Dewey. Pacific type locomotives, Tasmanian Government Railways. 119. 2 illustratios, diagram
R class

Plymouth, Devonport & S. W. Jn. Ry. 119.
The three locomotives belonging to this line, Nos. 3, 4 and 5 had been renumbered 756, 757 and 758 in the Southern Ry. (L.S.W. Section) list: No. 3 A.S. Harris, was a 0-6-0 side tank, No. 4 Earl of Mount Edgcumbe and No. 5 Lord St. Levan were 0-6-2 side tanks, all built by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., in 1907. These engines worked the traffic between Bere Alston and Callington. The remainder of the P.D. & S.W.Jn. Ry. had always been worked by the L. & S.W.R. and formed part of the main line to Plymouth.

New 2-8-2 type Lentz valve gear locomotive for the Eskdale (15" gauge) Ry. 120-2. 8 diagrams
First Part see page 4

L. & N.E.R., G.E. Section. 122
A mishap of an unusual character occured at Palace Gates on 22 November 1923, the 15.46 p.m. auto-train from Seven Sisters over running the station platform and colliding with two engines standing in the coal yard, whereby the train crew and five passengers were more or less injured, and the leading vehicle damaged beyond repair. The auto-train consisted of two bogie vehicles and a 2-4-2 tank engine, No. 1305, running bunker foremost, in the rear. The driver was, consequently, in the front compartment of the leading coach, the fireman being alone on the footplate. The train, it seems, had slightly overrun the platform at the preceding station, Noel Park, and, on receiving a signal to set it back, the driver signalled the fireman to reverse the engine. This he did and in order, as he stated, to save time he further disconnected the regulator and operated it himself. On restarting from Noel Park the driver operated the regulator from his compartment, but was unable to close it on approaching Palace Gates, and Major Hall is of opinion that the fireman omitted to again couple up the regulator control after setting back at Noel Park, and that the regulator was opened by the frictional grip of the rod and became jammed in the open position, the main responsibility for the accident resting with the fireman who had no authority to disconnect the regulator control. The Inspector further calls attention to the small proportion of braked weight in the auto-train, the percentages being 84.15, 68.42, and 48.3 for the leading coach, second coach and locomotive respectively

W.E.S. Brown. The Wirral Railway. 122-5. 4 illustrations, map
The Wirral Railway dated from 1891, but was formed from the Hoylake Railway formed in 1863 to connect Hoylake with Liscard and Birkenhead. The line changed name and absorbed other lines constructed to serve West Kirby, Wallasey and New Brighton. The article states that very little was known about the earliest locomotives which were probably second-hand. In 1873 they only had two; one being Comet, a tank engine built by the LSWR at Nine Elms in 1852: a 2-2-2 with ouutside cylinders and 5ft 6in driving wheels. In 1877 the locomotive stock had grown to four:  West Kirby and Birkenhead were 2-4-0T built by the Yorkshire Engine Co.: the latter was illustrated  (with leading dimensions) in Volume 24 page 3.
"We have every reason to believe" that the third engine was transferred from the Neath & Brecon Ry. If so, it was a 2-4-0 side tank with outside cylinders, named Miers. At this date Alex. Young and Wm. Macandrew were directors of both the Hoylake and Birkenhead Railway & Tramway Co. and the Neath and Brecon Rys., and the head offices of both were in London so that transfer would be easily arranged. Moreover, 1877 was the year the Midland Ry. began running the Neath & Brecon line between Brecon and Ynysgeinon, and therefore the engine could very well be spared. In l879 the total engine stock was down to three, and presumably the Comet was worn out and scrapped.
The Seacombe, Hoylake & Deeside Ry. took over the concern in 1881, and then the West Kirby and Birkenhead became Nos. 1 and 2 respectively, the Miers not appearing in their list. Vve understand it was sold to a colliery in the north.
The new Company added two 2-4-0 side tanks, with inside cylinders, Nos. 3 and 4, built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. (WN 2408 and 2676) in 1884 and 1885 respectively. No. 3 illustrated in Fig. 1. They had cylinders 15 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, with coupled wheels 5 ft. 0½ in. dia. and leading wheels 3 ft. 6½in. diameter. Heating surface 918 sq. ft., grate area 13 sq. ft. The tanks had a capacity of 820 gallons whilst the bunker held 1½ tons of coal. In full running order they weighed 33 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr.
Beyer, Peacock & Co then supplied a series of 0-4-4 side tanks, Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8 in 1887 and No. 9 in 1888. These may be said to represent the first of the Company's more modern ones. They had inside cylinders 16 in. by 24 in., and coupled wheels 5 ft. 3 in. dia. Heating surface 1,017 sq. ft., grate area 15·75 sq. ft. Capacity of tanks, 1,000 gallons. Weight in working order, 40 tons 18 cwt. No. 6 shown in Fig. 2.
On the fusion of the Seacombe, Hoylake & Deeside Ry. and Wirral, Ltd., Companies to form the Wirral Ry. in 1891, engine No. 1 was sold to the Hardman Chemical Co., Ltd., of Milton, Staffs., and replaced by a handsome 4-4-2 side tank engine built by Beyer, Peacock (WN 3465/1892) with cylinders 16 in. bv 24 in. and 5 ft. 3 in. coupled wheels. Weight in running order, 48 tons 2 cwt. 2 qr. Heating surface, 981·6 sq. ft. Grate area, 15·75 sq. ft. Tank capacity, 1,030 gallons. The new No. 1 is shown in Fig. 3. In 1894 No. 2 was sold to Talk o' the Hill Colliery, Staffs. It was used for working the colliers' train from the pits to Bradwell Wood Sidings on the N.S.R. near Chatterley Station. It was withdrawn from service about twenty years ago, and the cylinders, valve gear and part of the framing sold to the Crackley Colliery Co., who used these mounted on a frame as a winding engine until the colliery closed about two years ago. On the sale of No. 2 it was replaced by No. 5, which was renumbered 2, No. 5 was in turn replaced by No. 7, renumbered 5 and two new 0-4-4 side tank engines were obtained from Beyer, Peacock and Co., Nos. 7 and 10 (WN 3605-6/1894). These engines were an enlargement of the earlier type and had 17-in. by 24-in. cylinders and 5-ft. 3-in. coupled wheels. In running order they weighed 47 tons 17 cwt. 2 qr. Heating surface, 1,025.6 sq. ft. Grate area, 17·8 sq. ft. Tank capacity, 1,300 gallons. To deal with heavier trains, and to enable longer runs to be made without replenishing the coal and water supplies, E.G. Barker, then locomotive. superintendent of the W.R., in 1896, designed a four-coupled side tank engine with a four-wheeled bogie at both the leading and trailing ends, the bogies having 4½-in. side play. Beyer, Peacock and Co. built this engine, No. 11 in the Wirral list. It had inside cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., coupled wheels 5 ft. 2 in. diameter and all bogie wheels 3 ft. diameter. The boiler, which was 10ft. long and 4 ft. diameter, contained 184 17/8-in. tubes, giving 928·5 sq. ft. of heating surface, and with 93 sq. ft. from the firebox making the total 1,021.5 sq. ft. Grate area, 17·8 sq. It. Capacity of tanks, 1,900 gallons, and fuel space 132 cubic feet. Weight in working order, 59 tons 16 cwt. 1. This was the first engine of the 4-4-4 type in this country, and so satisfactory was its running on the sharp curves of the Wirral line that two more engines of the same type, Nos. 14 and 15, were built to Barker's order in 1903 by the same makers. No. 15 is shown in Fig. 4. The later engines were supplied with Belpaire fireboxes, spiral bearing springs for the coupled wheels and thicker tyres, making the coupled wheel diameter 5 ft. 3 in. on tread.

Numbering of L.N.E.R. locomotives and carriages. 125
With a view to the elimination of duplicate numbers the London & North-Eastern Railwav decided to re-number their locomotives with the exception of those built for the North-Eastern section which will retain their present nurnbers, up to 2,500.
The engines on the following sections will have the present numbers raised by the figure indicated :-
Gt. Northern Section 3000
Great Central Section 5000
Great Eastern Section 7000
North British Section 9000
The engines on the Great North of Scotland Section take the vacant numbers at the end of those on the Great Central Section. The Hull & Barnsley Railway engines which had already been numbered in the N.E.R. 3000s would now have 2500 added to their original numbers. New locomotives will, generally speaking, be allocated vacant numbers either existing in the North-Eastern Section or between 2501 and 2999.
As an illustration of the effect of this system of re-numbering, the L.N.E.R. Pacific locomotive exhibited at the Empire Exhibition, Wembley, and which was formerly numbered 1472, now bears the number of 4472. As regards carriage stock, new carriages will commence to be numbered from 10,000, but existing vehicles will retain their present numbers followed by a letter indicating the section of the railway for which they were built.

A novel type of shunting locomotive. 125-8. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Vermot Locomotor: light petrol-engined machine built by Usines de Construction Mechaniques de Villefranche de Saone in France and  in service in several countries iincluding Holland and Swizerland

Locomotive shunting crane for the South African Railways. 128. illustration
Built by J.H. Wilson & Co. Ltd. of Birkenhead

L. & N.E. Ry. North Eastern Section. 128
Among the 34 engines withdrawn from service during 1923 was No. 1275; the last of the 1001 Class mineral engines of the Stockton and Darlington Railway designed by Thomas Bouch; also No. 281, the last of the Darlington built 4-4-0 tender engines. Another famous engine withdrawn was No. 363 of the Fletcher 901 class, shown at the Stephenson Centenary Celebration in 1881..

Buckie-Keith branch. 128
The LMS was to re-open the 13 mile long Buckie-Keith branch; the rails of which were removed during WW1 for use elsewhere in the Highlands.

Heavy floor hoists for locomotive shops. 129-32. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Whiting Corporation of Harvey, Illinois, USA

The repair of locomotive cylinders.  132-3. illustration
The firm of Barimar, Ltd., of London, claimed to have perfected the process of cast-iron welding, as a result of their metallurgical knowledge, long experience, training of operators, and final testing arrangements,. that they can handle without damage and execute efficient repairs, on anything in the way of damaged cylinders, or cylinders with the bores scored which require re-conditioning. A repair which had been carried out by this firm is shown herewith. Two outside cylinder, each of which had broken flanges at each end, and one had a drain cock pap knocked off, with the other one cracked. Barimar welded the broken parts and cleaned them up, after which the cylinders were freely machined as desired, and replaced on the engine. From the Barimar point of view, this was a comparatively simple job, as locomotive cylinders have been dealt with by them which have been cracked along the bore, in addition to other damage, but nevertheless, repaired with satisfaction to the railway authorities. Many railway shops entrust work of this nature to a firm specialising therein, as in the case of Barimar, Ltd., it being felt true economy to be very certain of important repair jobs such as cylinders, and, as has been pointed out, it is only experience and knowledge which can effectively carry out cast iron welding. Many welding plants of all descriptions have been brought into use during the last ten years, and the indifferent work performed by them on cast iron has brought the process into no small amount of disrepute. The welding of steel is a comparatively easy matter, whereas the welding of cast iron is complicated by the metallurgical character of the material, and its physical property of being non-ductile, as a result of which local heating as for welding, can set up expansion stresses (and reversibly contraction stresses) which may create a new fracture in the article under repair.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 133
Paper on Modern Steam Rail Coaches, read by H. Kelway-Bamber, before the Institution on Thursday, 27 March, the author directed his remarks to a consideration of the best means of reducing operating costs on branch and lightly-worked sections of main lines. He advocated the provision of rail motor vehicles to carry passengers, parcels and light perishable traffic. Petrol coaches have under certain conditions given satisfactory results, but it is probable for range of capacity, simplicity and reliability steam will replace petrol, not only on account of the greater flexibility of the steam engine, but also by reason of the lower fuel cost. The lecturer then detailed the excellent results obtained in working of the Sentinel-Cammell rail coach Pioneer on the Jersey Railways during eight months service between St. Helier and St. Aubins. It travelled 25,000 miles, carried about 250,000 passengers, earned over £3,000, started and stopped 40,000 times, accelerated to 25 miles per hour in one minute after each of these stops, which occurred at intervals of 2½ minutes, paid a dividend of 6 per cent. at the same time permitted the introduction of a regular half-hour service throughout the working day of 15 hours, and successfully overcame the serious competition of motor transport on the roads running parallel to the lines, which was rapidly threatening the financial position of the railway. Full particulars of this vehicle and a second one recently supplied were given in our last issue with illustrations. The paper was preceded by a number of lantern views showing the shipment of the vehicles as well as in service on the railway. W. A. Lelean (locomotive department, Rendel, Palmer & Tritton) occupied the chair. An interesting discussion followed the paper, in which the following members took part:-. J. Tritton, Crombie, J. C. Sykes, Le Clair, and J. Pelham Maitland.
The next meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in London will be held at the Engineers' Club, Coventry Street, on Thursday, 24 April, when J. Pelham Maitland (Southern Ry.) will read a paper on Terminal Station Working, at 7 p.m,

Obltuary. 133
Dr. William H. Maw, who died on Wednesday, the 19 March, was senior joint editor of Engineering, and had been associated with the editorial management of that journal since its establishment on 5  January 1866. Maw was born at Scarborough on 6 December 1838, and was therefore in his eighty-sixth year. In 1855, he was apprenticed to J.V. Gooch, then locomotive superintendent of the Eastern Counties Ry., and became chief draughtsman at Stratford Works in December 1859, under Robert Sinclair, who had succeeded Gooch. In addition to his work for the E.C.R., Maw designed locomotives and rolling stock for the Luxemburg Ry. and the East Indian Ry., to both of which lines Sinclair acted as consulting engineer. He was also closely associated with Zerah Colburn, editor of the Engineer, and became his colleague in 1865 in founding Engineering, in which Sir Hy. Bessemer became interested. On the retirement of Colburn in 1870, he carried on the paper jointly with J. Dredge, and later they were joined by A.T. Hollingsworth, a son-in-law of Sir Henry Bessemer. The success achieved by Engineering was in a large measure due to the energy and progressive ideas regarding engineering practice of the chief editor and the high standard he insisted on for the drawings published in that journal. Dr. Maw also practised as consulting engineer for several important firms, particularly in the lay-out and arrangement of works. In most of the important technical institutions he took a great interest. He was President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1901- 2, and of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1922-23, when, in spite of his great age he gave a remarkably clear presidential address on recent engineering developments dealing with a wide range of special subjects. He was also on the Council of the Royal Society of Arts, and helped to initiate the Engineering Standards Committee in 1901. During the WW1 he served on the Advisory Panel of the Munitions and Inventions Department, and several Committees of the Ministry of Munitions. He was also a keen astronomer and was one of the founders in 1890, of the British Astronomical Association. He had observatories both at his house at Addison Road, Kensington, and his country house at Outwood, Surrey. In 1905 he was President of the Royal Astronomical Society. Dr. Maw held the honorary degree of LL.D. of the University of Glasgow, conferred upon him in 1909. The interment took place at Kensington Cemetery, Hanwell, on Saturday, 22 March.

London & North Eastern Ry. 133
Ordinary wagons would be painted grey, wagons fitted with vacuum brake or piped red, refrigerator wagons and meat vans white, service vehicles blue, and dock wagons green. It is proposed to paint wagons with end doors bright yellow, but this is still under consideration. Standard designs for various classes of wagons had also been settled.

Correspondence. 134.

[3-cylmder locomotives]. C.H. Swan
Referring to my previous letter on the subject of 3-cylmder locomotives and to your remarks as published in the February Issue of the I cannot accept your statement that "it is necessary to consider the driving wheels and axle as one unit. "This is the whole cause of the"' matter and that being so I rather think that the remark quoted begs the question, I am quite aware that there are many high up m the engmeenng profession to whom my theory would at first sight be unacceptable, but I am convinced that an impartial study of It would cause many to modify their views.
I must again point out that even drawbar pull does not necessarily mean even torque on the driving axle, and it is by no means evident that the imparting of six impulses to the wheels must result in a superior turning moment, always, of course, assummg that there is no slipping. From this point of view  it is easy to explain the phenomenon of the large amount of repairs required to the centre engine as compared with the left and right engines, since it does not appear that, in present design (with the exception of the L.N.E.Ry. G.N. Section Pacific type) it is realised that it is impossible to balance parts such as the centre big end by adding weights to the wheels. I cannot see that the N.E. Section class D tank engines can be anything else but local passenger engines owing to the diameter of driving wheels, capacity of tanks, and bunker, etc.

It would appear that Swan wishes to treat the impulses from each piston as independent in their mutual relation to the wheels and axle, and also the relation of the axle to the wheels themselves Why so? We are concerned simply with the practical question as to why the three-cylinder locomotive turns its wheels round-to put it colloquially—more evenly than ordinary two or four-cylinder engines; and as it is admitted that the actual drawbar pull, is of course, more regular with a three-cylinder engine (see Swan's letter on page 70 of our February Issue), It would be interesting to know why this should be the case if it be not attributable to the more regular turning moment derived from six instead of four impulses per revolution. The authorities to which references are given in the reply to the previous letter seem to demonstrate the validity of the opinions held, as Swan remarks, " by many high up in the engineenng profession," and since these demonstrations take a mathematical form, it should be easy, if they be inaccurate, to expose their falsity by a mathematical process. Such enlightenment would be greatly valued by all engineers devoted to the design of reciprocating engines in general, as they are constantly seeking to improve them in steadiness of running.
The statement that it is impossible to balance inside parts by adding weights to the wheels hardly calls for comment, but we should like some positive evidence that the inside engine necessanly requires more repair than the external mechanisms. This may of course well be true of some particular class or classes of locomotives without the conclusion having an universal application to all three-cylinder engines.

Reviews. 134

D P. Kathanode Batteries at Wembley. 134
Some idea of the size of the exhibition is obtained when one realizes that there are about 15 miles of roadway in the grounds. As a means of transport a large fleet of Railodok electric passenger cars .wIll be Issued. These wil l be the only means of transport within the grounds, and will be fitted with D.P. Kathanode electric vehic!e batteries, as supplied to the principle electric vehlcl.e users m the country. A special charging station is being built In the grounds.

Copenhagen Muricipality. 134
Placed a large contract for complete boiler house equipment with the Vickers Spearing Boiler Co., Ltd., an affiliated company of Vickers, Ltd. The order includes boilers of 2,000 H.P. each, with economizers stokers, air heaters, superheaters and all accessories. The whole of the plant will be manufactured in Britain, The contract was obtained in keen competition with foreign firms, and was awarded on Its merits.

Mathieson's traffic tables. London: F.C. Mathieson and Sons.
These traffic tables which were discontinued at the end of 1915, after over 40 years publication, are resuscitated for comparing the weekly returns of 1924 against those of 1923. The particulars given include the four groups, the underground lines in London, and nine of the principal South American lines.

Marshall's practical workshop series. 134
No. 1 Marking out for machinists.
No. 2 Practical Hand Forging.
No. 3 Fitting and adjusting bearings.  All by R. Twelvetrees
London: Percival Marshal! & Co.
Few mechanics have time to study lengthy treatises on the principles involved in various branches of the mechanical arts, and whilst it is obviously impossible for anyone man to excel in al! the numerous forms of handicraft, it is very de- si rable that all should possess some knowledge of processes other than those in which they are specially proficient. These little books, which are convenient in size to fit the pocket, will be found useful as handbooks on the subjects indicated by the titles. They contain a quantity of practical informa- tion compressed as much as possible, while the descriptions are in simple language in all cases.

SIilvertown Lubricants Ltd. 134
The third annual Staff Dinner was held at the Trocadero Restaurant, when Arthur Stephens presided over a company of forty- five, including directors, salesmen, heads of departments, etc. Stephens in proposing the toast of "Success to the Company," stated that though 1922 was a record year, 1923 had beaten it in the quantity of lubricating oil sold, and there was every indication that the increase was being well maintained so far in 1924.
G. Brace Colt, chairman of directors, proposed the health of the Staff, and referred to the good work which was being done by the various departments to back up the efforts of the outdoor men, who now number thirty. He named particularly William Lee, chief chemist; C.A. Featherstone, secretary; and others, and on behalf of these Featherstone suitably replied. Owen J. P. Wray, senior salesman, then invited the company to drink the health of . Stephens, director and general manager, whom he described as one of the hardest workers and the best of friends. Stephens on rising to respond was received very heartily, with musical honours. An excellent programme of music, card conjuring, etc., was then rendered, and thoroughly enjoyed by all present.

Number 381 (15 May 1924)

Rebuilt 4-4-0 passenger engine, Highland Section, L.M. & S. Ry. 135. illustration
During 1908 and 1909 Peter Drummond, then Locomotive Superintendent of the Highland Railway, introduced a new class of express passenger engine of the 4-4-0 type. These were an enlargement of his Ben class, twenty of which were already in service. Six of the Big Bens, as they are commonly called, were built at the Queen's Park Works of the North  British Locomotive Co. Ltd. As built they had cylinders 18¼ in. diameter, 26 in. stroke; coupled wheels 6 ft. dia., bogie wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter. wheel- base bogie 6 ft. 6 in.; bogie pin to driving centre 10 ft. 1 in., driving to trailing 9 ft., total 22 ft. 3 in., the bogie pin being 1 in. in advance of the bogie centre. The boiler 10 ft. 6 in. in length had a mean internal diameter of 5 ft. 3 in. with its centre line 8 ft. 2 in. above rail level.
When delivered in May, 1908, Ben Mheadhoin then No. 63 Highland Railway, had a six-wheeled tender, but this was changed for a bogie tender of one of the goods engines of the 134 class. The accompanying photo reproduction shows this engine with extended smokebox, and fitted with the Robinson Superheater, latest pattern chimney and painted in the new standard colours of the L.M. & S. Ry. We are indebted to A. Bennett, Works Manager of the Lochgorm Shops, Inverness, for the photograph.

Swindon, and the Great Western Railway workshops. 135
First visit of the King and Queen on Monday, 28 April. On arrival, just after noon, a visit was paid to the Cenotaph, the Victoria Hospital, the G.W.R. Medical Fund Hospital, Surgery and Baths, the Mechanics' Institution, and afterwards a tour of inspection of the Locomotive and Carriage Works, under the guidance of C'R Collett, chief mechanical engineer. On leaving, His Majesty drove the engine of the Royal Train, No. 4082 Windsor Castle from the Works to Swindon Station, the Queen also being on the footplate. Viscount Churchill (Chairman of the G.W.R.), Sir Felix Pole (General Manager), C B. Collett, Loco. Inspector Flewellen, Driver E. Rowe, and Fireman A. Cook were on the engine also.

[Harwich-Zeebrugge train-ferry].135
On Thursday, 24 April the Harwich-Zeebrugge train-ferry service was formally opened on the British side by Prince George, and on Friday the Belgian ceremonial opening was performed by Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant. The service was operated by the Great Eastern Train Ferries, Ltd., in co-operation with the L. & N. E. Railway, the Societe Belgo-Anglaise des Ferry-boats and the Belgian State Railways. Three of the train-ferries which were employed during WW1 between Richborough and Southampton and France had been acquired for the service. At present two of the ferries are required to maintain the six sailings weekly in each direction. Special wagon stock to suit both British and Continental loading gauges has been provided by the Belgian Government for this service. The distance from Harwich to Zeebrugge is 84 miles, and the journey is expected to take 9 to 10 hours.

[John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd.]. 140
Photographs & description of naarow gauge (2-ft) 0-6-0T to burn wood or low garde coal see pp. 169-70

The Arthur's Pass railway & tunnel, Midland Railway of New Zealand. 141-2 + plate. 5 illustrations
Otira or Oteira Tunnel and railway electrified at 1500V dc with its own hydro-eelctric power house had English Electric equipment and locomotives. The line opened on 4 August 1923 and a special train hauled by two North British 4-6-2 Ab class was run from Christchurch to Arthurs Pass.  

"Batic" type tank locomotive, L.M.& S. Ry. 142-4 + folding plate. diagram (side elevation), plan.
Sectionalized diagrams included.

"Garratt" articulated locomotive L. & N.E.R. 144
Order placed with Beyer Peacock for 2-8-0+0-8-2. Item refers to a locomotive with only four 21 x 26in cylinders

Two-cylinder superheated freight locomotives, Polish State Rys. 145-9. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams (including side elevation and plan), 3 tables.
2-10-0 for Sosnowice to Warsaw line for hauling heavy coal trains. Results of tests on German Railway Administration's trial line.

W.E.S. Brown. The Wirral Railway. 149-51. 4 illustrations

G. Willans. Locomotive feed water heating and boiler feeding. 151-3

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section V. The testing of springs. Sub-section A. Scragging and load-testing. 153-5. 4 illustrations, diagram

F.W. Brewer. "Large-wheeled" British 0-6-0 tender engines. 156-8. 2 illustrations

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway. 160. illustration.
Peter Drummond large 4-4-0 built North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. at the Queen's Park Works in 1913: WN 20128-20133, original RN 131-6 but renumbered 331-6 in 1919. Total heating surface 1884ft2 and 27.6ft2 grate area. Boiler fed by Weir feed pump. Inside cylinder piston vlaves actuated by Walschaerts valve gear.

Indian State Railways. Bogie rail and timber trucks. 161-2. 2 illustrations
Built by Cravens Ry. Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd of Sheffield to IRCA standards for service on broad gauge and metre gauge sections.

Number 382 (14 June 1924)

Mikado type locomotive for the Kassala extension line, Sudan Government Rys. 167. illustration.
Ten locomotives supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd

"Mikado" type goods locomotive, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry. 168. illustration.
2-8-2 built Kitson & Co. Ltd: 4-6-2 type which shared same boiler and fittings, grate bars and ash pan, cab, cylinders, motion, pistons and crossheads, connecting rods, springs and radial trucks.. Tender held 14 tons of coal and 6200 gallons of water.

Empire Exhibition, Wembley. Third notice. 169-71. 4 illustrations.
Sir W.G. Armtrong, Whitworth & Co. stand included three-cylinder broad gauge 4-8-0 for the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway which had to be assembled at Wembley (illustrated). Photographs & description of John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd naarow gauge (2-ft) 0-6-0T  able to burn wood or low garde coal mentioned on page 140. Other exhibits mentioned include London Midland & Scottish Railway corridor coach; a model of the Royal Saloon shown by the LNWR at the St. Louis 1904 Exhibition and of the Claughton locomotive normally displyed in the Great Hall ay Euston Station; a large relief map of the Metropolitan Railway; the Southern Railway exhibit; the Great Southern & Western and Midland Great Western Raiways of Ireland exhibits; the Drewry Car VCo. and Quasi-Arc Company exhibits (illustration of last-named stand).

Indian railway exhibits. 171.
A.E. Pearce (spelled Pearse in text) in charge of exhibites (models)

T.B. Hunter. 171
Former Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent of the Wirral Railway sent to be District Locomotive Superintendent at Brecon.

Baltic type express tank locomotive, Southern Railway, Brighton Section. 172. illustration.
Billinton (but no mention of him in text) 4-6-4T No. 332 painted in Southern Railway livery

L. & N.E. Ry cardboard locomotive models. 172
Available from Advertising Manaager at King's Cross or at Wembley Exhibition

Tourist train, G.I.P. Ry. 172. illustration.
Photograph shows train leaving Bombay Victoria terminus behind 4-6-0 named Hero. Accommodation for  120 passengers and 60 to 70 attendants. Tours to Delhi or Calcutta

"Mountain" type passenger locomotives for the Southern Pacific Railway. 173-5. illustration, 2 diagrams
Design specification developed by George McCormick, Superintendent of Motive Power and Frank E. Russell, Assistant Mechanical Engineer and built by the American Locomotice Company. Designed for Los Angeles to El Paso run of 815 miles without change of locomotive. Diagram of piston and piston rod; also notes booster on Delta truck and a "constant resistance" locomotive truck.

F.W. Brewer. "Large-wheeled" British 0-6-0 tender engines. 175-7. 2 illustrations
Deeley rebuilds in 1907 of Johnson locomotives built in the 1890s with 6ft coupled wheels: locomotives concerned were Nos. 2049, 2056, 2110 which were renumbed 3326, 3333 and 3387 (No. 2049 illustrated with 6ft wheels). Both Ivatt and Gresley built 0-6-0s with 5ft 8in wheels and the author indicates that these were virtually idenntical to the six-coupled 0-6-2Ts used on suburban services..

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section V. The testing of springs. Sub-section A. Scragging and load-testing. 177-9. 5 illustrations
Vulkan of Virenna motor driven scragging machine; J. Buckton & Co. Ltd of Leeds for scragging and load testing;; and Braine-le-Comte hydraulic scrag and load test machine

"Pacific" type locomotives in India. 180. diagram (side elevation)
Composite side elevation showing Pacifics for 2-ft, 2ft 6-in, metre and 5-ft 6-in gauges: table shows leading dimensions

Compound rack and adhesion locomotive, German State Railways. 181
2-8-2 capable of running on Abt rack system with Riggenbach counter pressure braking system and Marcotti smoke elimination

Our supplement. 181 + plate
Former North London Railway 4-4-0T with train of antique rolling stock on down relief road being overtakeb by Gresley 2-6-0 No, 1667 with train obscured by smoke screen from both locomotives. Near Oakleigh Park station (caption on sepia plate states Hadleigh Wood). Photograph by H. Gordon Tidey.

L. Derens. The development of the goods locomotive in Holland. 182-3. 4 illustrations.
Continued from page 98 In 1869/70 the Rhenish Railway bought Nos, 56 and 57 from Sharp, Stewart & Co. They were 0-6-0 with 17½-in cylinders and a 1061ft2 total heating surface. No, 57 was rebuilt with a Belpaire boiler with 962.8ft2 total heating surface with 150 psi boiler pressure. In 1859 an ex-contractor's locomotive No. 58 was acquired.  It was a Beyer Peacock 0-6-0 with 16 x 24-in cylinders, 4-ft 7-in wheels and 895.6ft2 total heating surface and 120 psi boiler pressure. In 1871 the Holland Railway purchased two 0-6-0 from Borsig Nos. 40 Handel and 41 Zeevaart. This supplier was used until 1888 when a return was made to English suppliers. In 1889 two locomotives with 18 by 24-in cylinders, 4ft 63/8in wheels, 1145ft2 total heating surface, 110 psi boiler pressure and 16.3ft2  grate area. In 1889 the State Railways bought six Beyer, Peacock 0-6-0 Nos. 206-11 with 3-ft 9½-in coupled wheels, 18 x 24-in cylinders, 1200ft2 total heating surface; 183ft2  grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. They were intended for the steeply graded (1 in 32) Tongeren-Liége-Flèmalle line. Three more were acquired in 1880? From 1920 tey wer e converted into 0-6-2T for shunting.

Railway development in Angola. 183.
Portugal was then a Portuguese Colony. The 630 km Loanda Malance Railway was being re-equipped by Robert Hudson Ltd as a light railway. 40,000 tons of material had been shipped so far.

A.R. Bennett. Supplement to the Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. 184-6, illustration, 3 diagrams
Mainly concerns Fowler's Ghost. This concerns a design proposed by Robert Stephenson & Co. of Darlington for a broad gauge 4-2-2ST using firebricks. Cites Benjamin Baker paper Civil Engineers Chapter 19 1923 (long after his death: from some collected papers?). Illustrates Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST Helena.

Myles Brown. Locomotive fuel.  186
Any investigation or discussion of the fuel question, as regards locomotive practice, carries with it some consideration of the furnace or combustion chamber. The object of applying heat energy of the fuel to the boiler plates and thence to the water is the production of steam. It is well, however, to bear in mind that the quantity of steam generated in a given time under actual working conditions is not always a criterion to the evaporative power of the fuel used. To a certain degree fuel tests should be independent of the practical evaporative results. It is quite clear that the evaporation is very greatly influenced by the working conditions of the boiler and the quantity of the water. In arriving at the practical heat value of any fuel careful attention should be given to the combustion of the fuel; this necessitates investigation of the furnace in which the combustion takes place.
The practical efficiency obtained from the fuel fed into the furnace will depend on the composition and temperature of the resultant chimney or flue gases; and the composition of the solid residue from the furnace, which chiefly passes through the grate bed. A locomotive boiler should be considered as consisting of two distinct units, i.e., the furnace or combustion chamber and the boiler or evaporation vessel. The working of these two units gives rise to three important factors, namely: fuel efficiency, furnace efficiency and boiler efficiency.
Solid Fuels—Coke.
In the early days of fuel combustion for steam raising there was a strong public feeling against the production of smoke. Coke being practically smoke-less was the first fuel adopted for locomotive purposes, and for almost fifty years coke kept its place as a locomotive fuel.
About sixty years ago strenuous efforts were made to substitute coal as a locomotive fuel, and eventually this was successfully accomplished by the introduction of the brick arch in the firebox.
In the days when coke was the principal fuel used on railways, many railway companies manufactured their own coke. Records of those early days speak of engines being spotlessly clean, and of drivers and firemen clad in white clothes during the summer months.
To-day, comparatively few locomotives use coke as a fuel. In this country there are still a few industrial locomotives using coke fuel. At one colliery in Durham the locomotives are fired with coke, and this has been the practice at this particular colliery for many years. It is also used on the 15-in. gauge Eskdale Railway. In the United States a few suburban railways use coke fuel. A number of coking plants in the United States produce coke entirely for steam generation and domestic purposes. One plant with an output of 1,400 tons per day disposes of the coke as follows :-
Railway locomotive fuel 700 tons.
Steam plants . 350 tons.
Domestic purposes 350 tons.
Total 1400 tons.
Under suitable conditions, and with care in the selection of the coke, the number of industrial or works locomotives using this fuel could profitably be increased. In many stationary locomotive type boilers coke fuel is used with success. On the Lake Steamers in Cumberland coke is used in locomotive type boilers, and the running of these boats on this class of fuel gives very satisfactory results. The disadvantages of coke fuel, which are particularly marked when using this fuel for main line work, are :-
(a) Bulk for heat units carried. 1 ton of coke heaped equals about 80 cubic feet, whereas 1 ton of coal requires only a space of about 45 cubic feet.
(b) High rate of consumption necessary with coke to maintain steam pressure. The heat units of first-class qualities of these fuels are: Coke-12,500 B.T.U.'s per lb. Coal-14,000 B.T.U.'s per lb.
(c) The difficulty of getting sufficient coke consumed to maintain steam pressure under the running conditions of a main line engine.
The advantages of coke fuel are :-
(a) Smokeless in combustion.
(b) Not liable to spontaneous combustion or weathering when in storage.
(c) Relatively uniform in quality.
(d) The composition of coke makes the combustion process relatively simple.
The class of coal available for locomotive purposes will depend to a great extent on the geographical position of the railroad. For instance, railways in India draw their supplies from the Indian coalfields, and much of this coal is of a very low grade quality. Yet in most cases there is scope for careful selection, so as to secure the most suitable grade or quality for locomotive use.

London & North Eastern Ry. 186
The following Locomotive Department appointments announced: R.A. Thom, District Mechanical Engineer, Gorton, to be Mechanical Engineer, Scotland; T.E. Heywood, Mechanical Engineer and Running Superintendent, Inverurie, to be Mechanical Engineer, Gorton; K.S. Robertson, Works Manager, Inverurie, to be Assistant Carriage and Wagon Works Manager, York; L. Hyde, Works Supervisor, Springhead, Hull, to be Works Manager at Inverurie ; S.L. Baister, Shop Manager's Assistant at York, to be Locomotive Works Manager at Gateshead; J.H.B. Jenkins, formerly chemist to the G.E.R, to be Chief Chemist; and Mr. H. Gripper, of the GCR, to be Deputy Chemist; H.W.W. Richards, of the Southern Railway, to be Electrical Engineer of the L. and N.E.R. for the Southern Area. The retirement is announced of W. Chalmers, Mechanical Engineer, Southern Scottish Area on 30 June.

The Cornwall Minerals Ry. and its engines. 187-8. 2 illustrations
That part of the Great Western Ry. which extends across Cornwall from Fowey to Newquay, was formerly known as the Cornwall Minerals Ry., and rlS such, was opened for mineral traffic on lst June, 1874. The line, therefore, attains its jubilee during the present month, and to commemorate the event, an account is given of its history and locomotives. Although formally opened in June, 1874, as a locomotive-worked railway, some portions of it are much older, having existed previously as privately owned mineral lines, worked by animal power. Thus, the section from Roche to Par Harbour, the property of J.T. Treffry, dated from 1842. On this line occurs the celebrated Treffry Viaduct at Luxulyan, a description of which appeared in the Locomotive Mag. for June. 1922. Another.Iine, owned by Mr. Treffry, was that extending from East Wheal Rose Mine to Newquay, with a branch from St. Dermis. Opened on 28th January, 1849, it crossed the Trenance Valley at Newquay by means of a fine viaduct (illustrated) which measured 98 ft. in height and 630 ft. in length. This line terminated at Newquay Harbour and the approach thereto was (and still is) remarkable in being constructed on a falling grade of 1 in 4½, and through a short tunnel cut in the cliffs (tunnel entrance illustrated). A third line was the Newquay and Cornwall Junction Ry., which had been incorporated by Act of 4th July, 1864. Extending from the main line of the Cornwall Ry. at Burngullow, the original intention was to join the St. Dennis-Newquay section of the Treffry Ry. This line was opened as a broad gauge line from BurngulIow to Drinnick Mill (2! miles) on 1st July, 1869, and the missing link between Drinnick Mill and St. Dennis was afterwards filled in by the Cornwall Minerals Ry., who also "mixed" the gauge of the first named section.
The Cornwall Minerals Ry. was incorporated for tile purpose of linking up these railways so as to form a continuous line between Fowey and Newquay, with branches to the various iron ore mines, china clay works, etc. A lease was taken of the Harbours at Par and Newquay, and special facilities were exercised for shipping traffic at Fowey, It was also proposed to absorb the Newquay and Cornwall Junction and Lostwithiel and Fowey Rys., but financial and other difficulties presenting themselves, it was not until some years later that these Companies were taken over. The Lostwithiel and Fowey Ry., which had been opened from Lostwithiel as far as Came Point, near Fowey, on 1 June 1869, will be referred to later.
Tile Cornwall Minerals Company received its Act of Incorporation on 20 July 1873, and so rapidly was progress made that mineral trains started running less than twelve months later, viz., on 1 June, 1874. Sir Morton Peto was the contractor, and the works comprised the renewal of about 18 miles of track so that locomotives could travel thereon; and the construction of 26 miles of new railway. Several of the previously existing sections had to be abandoned and deviations made, the most important of which was a 3! miles' length between St. Blazey and Luxulyan. This section superseded that which included the rope- worked Camears Incline and the Treffry Viaduct; the new line passing under the latter. Between Fowey and St. Blazey occurs the Pinnick Tunnel, which, with a length of 1,173 yards, is the longest in Cornwall. The first chairman was Alexander Clunes Sherriff, M.P., formerly a well-known railway officer. He had been Traffic Manager of the North Eastern Ry. from 1854 to 1856 and afterwards General Manager of the Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton, and West Midland Rys., as well as a Director of several railway companies.
The estimated yearly traffic was 860,000 tons of iron ore, china clay, granite, coal, etc., to the value of £ 169,250. Of this sum, the Cornish Consolidated Mines Corporation guaranteed to pay £70,000 per annum for the carriage of 350,000 tons of iron ore, etc. But from the first the Mines Corporation failed in their agreement and put very little traffic on the line, giving as a reason the depression of trade. Whilst admitting this state of affairs, the railway company contended that the mines had not been worked efficiently, and they instituted legal proceedings against the Corporation, with the result that the latter were compelled to wind up. This placed the Cornwall Minerals Company in an unfortunate position, as by not receiving the guaranteed amount of traffic, they were unable to fulfil their obligations to their shareholders, as well as to those of the Newquay and Cornwall Junction and Lostwithiel and Fowey Rys., and a legal dispute with those Companies was the outcome. The Company was also hard hit by the stagnation of trade and by the discovery that iron ore could be produced cheaper elsewhere.
In the meantime, the railway had been opened for passenger traffic, such trains running between Fowey and Newquay on and from 20 June 1876. Financially, the undertaking was far from being a success and very soon a receiver was appointed to manage its affairs. An agreement was entered into with the Great Western Ry. for the latter to work the line for 53 per cent. of gross receipts, and this arrangement became operative on 1 October 1877. At that date, the Cornwall Minerals Ry., being of standard gauge, was entirely isolated from its neighbour, the broad gauge Cornwall Ry. St. Blazey station, on the former railway, was only a short distance from Par, on the Cornwall Ry. main line, and all transfer traffic between the two systems was taken by road. This arrangement not being satisfactory, the Great Western Ry. opened, on 1 January, 1879, a double line spur (37 chains) between Par and St. Blazey, but the difficulty of break of gauge continued to exist until May, 1892, when the broad gauge was abolished. The Cornwall Minerals Ry. absorbed the Newquay and Cornwall Junction Ry. in 1884, and the Lostwithiel and Fowey Ry. in 1893. The Goonbarrow branch was also opened in 1893. Extending from near Bugle station to Carbean, a distance of 3½ miles, it was intended to serve a new china clay district. The Lostwithiel and Fowey Ry., previously referred to, was incorporated on 30 June 1862, and opened as a broad gauge line on 1 June 1869. Its career, however, was unfortunate. When the Cornwall Minerals Company was in course of formation, it agreed to take over the Lostwithiel and Fowey Ry., but owing to financial difficulties the agreement was never ratified. At the Fowey end, the Lostwithiel line stopped short at Carne Point, half-a-mile from the Cornwall Minerals terminus, and until the extension was made, it was obvious that the traffic could not be developed. Lack of funds prevented the extension from being carried out, and finally the whole line was closed in January, 1880. In this condition it remained for some years, and when, in May 1892, the broad gauge was abolished elsewhere, this line, being derelict, was not converted. The Cornwall Minerals Ry. then acquired the property; the half-mile from Carne Point to Fowey was constructed and the line re-opened throughout on the standard gauge on 15 September 1895.
The Cornwall Minerals Ry. ceased to exist as a separate undertaking on 30 June 1896, when it was purchased by the Great Western Ry. for the sum of £380,000. For some years receipts had been steadily improving; the mineral traffic almost wholly consisting of china clay. In recent years this traffic has grown to a remarkable extent, and only last year the Great Western Ry. provided improved facilities for its shipment at Fowey, where over 600,000 tons are annually exported.
At the date of transfer, the Cornwall Minerals Ry. system was 52½ miles in extent and consisted of the following sections, all of single line :-
Lostwithiel to Fowey
Fowey to Newquay
Goonbarrow Jcn. to Carbean
Bugle to Carbis Wharf
St. Dennis Jcn. to Burngullow
*St. Dennis Jcn. to Melangoose
Tolearn Jcn. to Treamble
Since the Great Western Ry. acquired the line, alterations have been carried out, including deviations at several places to avoid sharp curves. On 2 January 1905, was commenced a passenger service between Newquay and Truro, via Perranporth and Chacewater. This was made possible by constructing a new line from Shepherds, (on the mineral branch from Tolcarn Junction to Trearnble), to Perranporth, the continuation thence to Chacewater having been opened on 1 July, 1903. In recent years the Shepherds-Treamble section had become disused, and during the war the rails were removed. It was an old extension of the original Treffry Ry. from Newquay to East Wheal Rose Mine which dated back to 1849. For the most part, the line from Fowey to Newquay is single track, with crossing places at all stations except Bugle and Quintrell Downs (Halt). A double line now exists between Tregoss Moor and St. Dennis Junction (1 mile 59 chs.). This work, put in hand before the war, was not completed until the summer of 1921. Gradients are very severe, there being a rise at I in 40 from Fowey to the south end of Pinnick tunnel, thence a fall at I in 48. From St. Blazey to just beyond Roche the ascent is practically continuous at 1 in 37, 39, 41, 47, etc. From the Roche summit the line falls sharply towards Newquay at 1 in 41, 66, 80, etc. St. Dennis Junction, with its numerous sidings, is an important centre, but only for mineral traffic, the nearest passenger station being at St. Columb Road, 11 miles away. The mineral line from Burngullow to St. Dennis Junction is single track (as are all the other branches) with passing places at Drinnick Mill and Kernick. This line is heavily graded, mostly at 1 in 40 and 50, but there is a short length at 1 in 28 between Burngullow and Drinnick Mill.
* Since extended to Melldor Mill.

Travelling cranes for railway service. Breakdown cranes. 189-91. 4 illustrations
Continued from page 96. 40 ton capacity manufactured by Craven Bros. Ltd of Reddish, Stockport for the Egyptian State Railways. Interesting features included Walschaerts valve gear for the crane enging and cast steel outriggers. The arrangement is shown in an illustration of a similar arrangement of a crane supplied to the South African Railways. A 125 ton maximum capacity manufactured by Societe Anonyme John Cockerell of Seraing in Belgium for the Belgian State Railways is also illustrrated. It was carried on a massive frame which was supported by two six-wheel bogies. The engine had a Field boiler and employed Walschaerts valve gear. A ten ton Ransomes & Rapier crane for the 5-ft 6-in Madras Railway had a petrol engine and like the others mentioned is illustrated.

Metal cutting by hack saws,  191-3. illustration, 2 diagrams
E.G. Herbert Ltd of Levenshulme, Manchester and their range of Rapidor blades

Great Western Ry. 193.
"Went into Swindon shops for repairs and rebuilding. It is to be fitted with new cylinders and boiler and reconstructed similar to the "Castle" class"

Portable crank pin turning machine. 193. illustration.
Manufactured by Beyer,Peacock & Co. Ltd

[Woolwich Arsenal]. 193
Twenty of the 2-6-0s to bve purchased for South Western section of Southern Railway and another twelve to be sent to Ireland with axles modified to suit broader gauge.

New block train for the Calcutta suburban service, East Indian Ry. 194-5. 3 illustrations
Train fitted with automatic sliding doors for East Indian Railway services between Howrah and Burdwan. Provision for 1st, 2nd, intermediate and third classes.

Tank wagon for conveying hydrochloric acid, Castner-Kellner Alkali Co. Ltd. 195-6. illustration.
Built Charles Roberts of Horbury Junction. Tank lined with Vulcanite; underframe of English oak.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 196
No. 1969 Dominion former compound passenger engine rebuilt as a two-cylinder simple (Renown class). The 4-4-0 No. 1642 Lapwing had been converted to superheater (George the Fifth class). There were four Princes running, re-built with outside motion, the most recent one to appear being No. 2340 Tara, which was at Rugby. No. 2564, a B class 0-8-0 compound, had been simplified and superheated and classified G1. Recent cut-ups included two further ex-N.L.R. engines, viz., Nos. 2647 and 2820, both of the 4-4-0 tank type. The former had 5 ft. 11 in. driving wheels, with inside cylinders, and the latter 5 ft. 5 in. wheels with outside cylinders. Three additional Wirral engines had also been scrapped, as follows:—Nos. 9 and 10 (0-4-4T) and No. 16 (2-4-2T). Wirral No. 6 (2-4-2T) had been painted red with crest and renumbered 6762. The only other Wirral engines then in service were Nos. 4 and 11 (2-4-2T) and No. 3 (0-4-4T). All others, with the exception of Nos. 14 and 15 (4-4-4T) and No. 17 (2-4-2T), which were in the Works, had been broken up.

Great Western Ry. 196
A correspondent points out that our illustrations on pages 115-116 (April issue) were not quite correctly described. On page 115 the train shown is the old 7-50 a.m. train from Swindon to Neath, which was the only train taken at that time by the 2,205-2,210 engines stationed at Swindon. The coaches were always six-wheeled on this train, as shown. The expresses generally had a number of clerestory-roofed eight-wheeled coaches in them. The photo of Swindon station on page 116 was taken by Mr. Bleasdale in 1888. It shows the morning trains at about 9-0 a.m. Another reader who remembers the broad gauge carriage stock states that the 2nd and 3rd class compartments seated six passengers each side and the 1st class four on each side. The open-sided carriage illustrated on page 114 was a broad gauge 3rd class and these were converted later into milk and fish vans and ran as such until 1892, on the night trains into Paddington from Plymouth and the West. He is also of opinion that the seats for the guard on the carriage roofs was not the G.W.R. practice except in a few instances. Usually the " travelling porter " rode in the " sentry box " provided at the back of the tender.

E.R. Notter, District Superintendent of the L.N.E.R., King's Cross. 196
Retired after 48 years of railway service, of which about 20 years have been spent at King's Cross, and 5 at Colwick, Nottingham in, the Great Northern service.

Number 383 (15 July 1924)

Heavy tank locomotives, Nitrate Rys. 199. illustration
4-8-4T with bar frames built Yorkshire Engine Co. capable of operating over 1 in 25 gradients

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section V. The testing of springs. Sub-section A. Scragging and load-testing. 201-3. illustration, 2 diagrams
W. & T. Avery equipment

The Cardiff Railway. 204-5. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Continuous brakes for goods trains. 206. illustration
Trials conducted by the PLM in 1921

The Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers Railway at Swanscombe. 208-11. 7 illustrations

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway. 212-14. 2 illustrations
Drummond big goods 0-6-0 and 2-6-0 based upon it.

Travelling cranes for railway service breakdown cranes. 214. illustration.
Stokes' Patent crane for Great Indian Peninsula Rly built by Ransomes & Rapier Ltd.  

Empire Exhibition, Wembley. Fourth Notice.  215-20. 7 illustrations
Drewry Car Company: petrol locomotive, petrol rail car and Alpha detachable unit inspection trolley. Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company exhibit of five passenger vehicles: three cars for the South African railways on track adjacent to South  African Pavilion with Metropolitan-Vickers electric locomotive for the Glencoe to Pietermaritzburg electrification. The other two cars were to be shown in the Palace of Engineering and were Pullman cars Minerva and Cynthia, parlour and buffet cars. Charles Roberts showed a sectioned 12-ton wagon designed for rotary tipping. On the New Eccles Rubber Works stand were showing a model of a Charles Roberts tank wagon with ebonite lining for conveying hydrochloric acid

Our supplement: Great Indian Peninsula Railway: climbing the Ghaut inclines.. 220 + plate

Converted Pullman cars, London and North Eastern Ry. services. 221-2. illustration, 3 plans

E.A. Forward. An early Stephenson locomotive drawing. 223-6. illustration
Drawing probably produced by George Staepenson in the Science Museum Collection; having been given to William Howe (inventor of the link motion) and given to the Museum by Mrs Howe when she became widowed.

Jacks for lifting motor omnibuses. 229
London General Omnibus Company had been experimenting with schemes for lifting a motor from the ground in case of emergency. The result of these experiments has culminated in the production of a 10 ton Duff jack by means of which an omnibus can be raised from the ground in a remarkably short space of time.

Rail motor train, Selsey (West Sussex) Ry. 229
As it was found inconvenient to carry luggage on the roof of the motor carriage, an intermediate truck had been constructed. The 20 H.P. motor dealt with the load quite easily and it widened the'use of the cars.

Obituary. 229. illustration (portrait)
Edwin Rose, who retired from the position of divisional locomotive superintendent of the Furness Ry. at Moor Row, Cumberland, in March, 1912, died on 30 May 1924, in his 83rd year. He was born at Tipton, Staffs., and at that time his father was on the engineering staff of Messrs. Fox & Henderson. In 1848, Rose, senr., was appointed manager of the Ashford Locomotive Works of the South-Eastern Ry. E. Rose, like some of his brothers, served his apprenticeship to locomotive engineering under his father at these works. About 1864 Rose, senr., was appointed locomotive superintendent. of the Whitehaven & Furness Junction Ry., which extended from Whitehaven to Barrow in Furness, where it joined the Furness Ry. He also acted in the same capacity to the Whitehaven Junction Ry. from Whitehaven to Maryport, and also for a time to the Cockermouth and Workington Ry. When the first-mentioned railway was taken over by the Furness, and the two latter by the L. & N.W., Rose, senr., retired, and E. Rose, who held the position of manager of the locomotive shops at Preston Street, Whitehaven, continued to act until early in 1880, when he was transferred to Barrow, under R. Mason, locomotive superintendent of the F.Ry. In May of the same year, Rose was given the position of divisional locomotive superintendent at Moor Row, which he held until his retirement. At Moor Row the locomotives under his control worked the lines of the original Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont Ry. This line was owned by the L. & N.W.R. for one year, after which it became a joint line with the Furness, as that line threatened to build a railway from Seascale through Gosforth to Cleator Moor to join the Cleator and Workington Junction Ry. if not permitted to run over the W.C. & E. section of the L. & N.W. The W.C. and E. Ry. system extended from Mirehouse Junction, near Whitehaven, to Sellafield Junction (F. Ry.) and Moor Row to Marron Junction (L. & N.W.), etc., and a branch from Parton to Ullock. Locomotives from Moor Row depot also worked between Whitehaven and Bootle on the F.R. as well as all traffic from Moor Row to Siddick and to Linefoot Junction on the C. & W. Junction Ry., as the latter owned only a few locos for the branches. Rose also acted as consulting mechanical engineer to the original Ravenglass & Eskdale Ry. for about twenty years previous to its being placed in the hands of a receiver. He was offered a similar position by the C. & W. Junction Ry. in connection with their locomotives but the F. Ry. were not agreeable that he should accept. Rose had been in failing health for a few years.

Obituary. 229.
W.J. Scott will be remembered as a prolific writer on railway matters, and for several years was President of the Railway Club. He was a very keen observer, and his records of express train timing were remarkably reliable. A number of interesting historical articles were contributed by him to the Great Western Railway Magazine from time to time. For the past ten years Scott had lived in retirement, and previously was incumbent of St. Saviour's Church, Sunbury Common.

Reviews. 230

[Death of W. Parker, manager of the Railway Magazine]. 230
We regret to hear of the death of VV. Parker, manager of the Railway Maqazine, on the 2 July, at the age of 55 years. Parker was for a time on the Great Eastern Railway at Cambridge Station, and left to join the puhlishing firm of Messrs. Nelson. He became associated with the Railway Magazine about 25 years ago. Parker was president of the Railway Club for several years, and took a great interest in its affairs

Oil burning installations, C.C. Pounder. London and Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
During the past few years the great increase in the number of liquid fuel installations for steam raising, with the high stage of efficiency its use has now reached, and the absence of a practical book which covered thoroughly the whole subject, has led to the writing of this treatise. With the object of keeping the work within the limits of price and size imposed, the writer has avoided all ancient history, as well as all dis- sertations on the advantages of oil over coal, etc. Any complete installation of oil burning necessarily comprises apparatus for its storage, pumping, filtering and heating of the fuel, its final delivery to the burners, and provision for starting up the plant when the boilers are cold. All these matters receive full attention. Liquid fuel is much more suitable for raising steam in marine than in land plant, and several chapters are devoted to the arrangements to suit the requirements and conditions in both small and large vessels. Readers interested in land arrangements can readily discard those sections appertaining solely to marine work. Regarding locomotives the author points out the mistake in assuming that a boiler designed for the burning of coal, and giving the best results possible with this fuel, will work with equal satisfaction on oil. With boilers designed specially for oil, the design can be made satisfactory, but it needs careful calculation, not only in furnace capacities, but in such details as size and pitch of smoke tubes. The book will be most valuable to all who may be called on to arrange, erect or supervise the running of an oil burning plant. Practically all the 200 illustrations have been drawn specially for the work.

Saw mills, their arrangement and management, bv M. Powis Bale, Sixth edition, revised and enlarged by A. Powis Bale, London: Crosby Lockwood & Son.
As a standard work of reference the demand for this book has necessitated yet another edition. Owing to the sound engineering basis on which the author treated his subject, in the original edition, the bulk of the work has not required alteration. The sections which have been re-written and added to are those dealing with the use of internal combustion engines for power; ball and roller bearings for shafting and machines; chain mortise machines, etc. Descriptive notes are also given on improved types of circular cutter blocks for surface and similar type planing machines. There is also a chapter on the new Home Office Woodworking Machinery Regulations. In these days of competition it is very essential that railway wagon builders and other wood works, should have their saw mills and wood-converting works arranged on the most approved basis to obtain the best results as regards output and working expenses, and we are confident they will find it advantageous to carefully consider the arrangements recom- mended in this book, when remodelling their plant.

Die lokomotive in kunst, vvitz und karikatur (The locomotive in art, humour and caricature)
Book published in commemoration of the completion of the 10,000th locomotive built by the Hanover Locomotive Works, formerly George Egestorff (Hanomag), of Hanover-Linden. Its contents give an idea as to what extent the illustrative arts, sculpture and poetry have in a way been influenced by the locomotive. This well-got-up publication of 130 pages contains not only articles of earnest appreciation and short sketches, but a goodly portion is devoted to the humorous and artistic side of locomotive engineering. Well nigh every humorous article and sketch published with regard to the iron steed are shown, and more than 200 illustrations, carefully assorted, help to make the book a work of exceptional merit. It is to be had from the Hanomag-Nachrichten-vertag G.m.b.H., Hanover-Linden (Germany),

Yorkshire: a sketch book. Fred Taylor, with a preface by Sir Lawrence Weaver
Published by the London &.North-Eastern Ry., Kings Cross Station (Advertising Department). Artistic addition to the holiday publications of the L. 8.: N.E.R strikes quite an original note in railway advertising. It forms a most attractive album of reproductions of charming pencil drawings and water colours of the characteristic beauty spots and historical and architectural interests of our largest county. It should lure many tourists to seek its fascinating centres as a holiday ground during the summer months. But for the initials " L.N.E.R" in a small panel on the back cover the book is entirely free from advertising matter of any kind.

Correspondence. 230

[0-8-0 switcher used by Ford]. William T. Hoecker. 230
United States Railroad Administration standard 0-8-0 switching locomotive and tender. These engines are not confined to industrial service, but may be found at work in many railway yards throughout the United States. The tender is the U.S.RA. standard 8,000 gallon type, with reduced coal capacity. The water capacity is 6,667 instead of 3,200 Imperial gallons.
Also comments on claim by Southern Pacific RR: Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railway ran 4-6-2 between Franklin, Missouri abd San Antonio, Texas: 872 miles.

The evolution of passenger travel on the Great Western Railway. J.D. Thomson.
Re mistakes on page 115: it is stated that from 1908 to 1910 the G.W.R ran the only three-class corridor trains in the country. Three-class corridor trains were introduced on the L.S. W.R. in 1901 and were standard until the 2nd class was abolished many years later; they were described and illustrated on page 160 of Vol. vi. I also think the statement that "when dining cars were introduced in 1896 ready access was afforded thereto," is somewhat misleading, as it suggests that the cars were open to all classes; I speak from memory, but I think these cars were for 1st-class only, and it was not until the L.S.W.R introduced their three-class restaurant corridor trains in 1901 and ran them to Devon and Cornwall that the G.W.R. first extended restaurant facilities to 2nd and 3rd classes.

Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Co., Ltd.. 230
An illustrated catalogue (Section S9) describes their system of "double wire" signalling and its advantages. This system of mechanical signalling utilizes two wires as the operating transmission for the working of points, locking bars, derailers, turntable or bridge locks, and signals from the interlocking frame. It is employed almost universally on the Continent, and also on the South African Rys., and to some extent on one of the English Rys. It is the cheapest method of operating a mechanical interlocked system; it eliminates the use of heavy weights often used on locking frames to assist the signalman; points and signals can be operated at a greater distance than with other mechanical systems, and it is particularly suitable for countries where unskilled labour predominates.

Number 384 (15 August 1924)

2-8-2 type locomotive, Peking-Mukden Ry. China. 231. illustration
Built by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.

New and rebuilt locomotives, Great Southern & Western Railway. 232-4. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
J.R. Bazin designs: 500 class 4-6-0 and rebuild of Coey 4-4-0 with Belpaire boiler. Also includes illustration of wooden model of 500 class completed by T. Brady, a pattern maker at Inchicore Works and exhbited at the Wembley Exhibition.

Internal combustion locomotive with Lentz hydraulic transmission. 235-8. illustration, 3 diagrams

New six-coupled goods tank engines, London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 238-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Orders placed with outside locomotive builders for 0-6-0T to "design" of George Hughes and Sir Henry Fowler: 20 to be supplied by Vulcan Foundry, 15 from Hunslet Engine Co. and 15 from North Britsh Locomotive Co. No. 7100 illustrated.

The Cornwall Minerals Ry. and its engines. 241-2. 3 illustrations

Empire Exhibition, Wembley. Fifth notice. 247-8. 3 illustrations

The Bleasdale Collection of locomotive photographs. 249-50. 2 illustrations
General account of R.H. Bleasdale's approach to photographing locomotives. the two photographs reproduced were of Dundee, Perth & Abedeen Junction Railway Crampton Kinnaird built by Tulk & Ley in 1848 and Kitson & Co. Midland Railway 4-4-0 No. 1312  

Engineering and business considerations of the steam locomotive. 250-4. 4 diagrams

Travelling cranes for railway service. 255-6. illustration, diagram
Bucyrus Co. 160-ton breakdown or wreck crane for New York Central Railroad.

Number 385 (15 September 1924)

C.B. Collett. World Power Conference. Testing locomotives on the Great Western Railway. 267-70. 2 illustrations
Abstract of paper: described dynamometer car and indicator tests made oh No. 4074 Caldicot Castle on 19 and 20 March 1924 between Swindon and Plymouth.

Number 386 (15 October 1924)

New express engines, L.M.S.R. — Northern Counties Committee. 295-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built by North British Locomotive Co. at their Queens Park Works: WN 23096-23100. Class U2.

2-8-0 freight locomotive Imperial Japanese Railways. 296.  illustration
Built Kawasaki Dockyard & Engineering at Hiogo Works, Kobe,

Locomotive for the Bridgewater Collieries. 297. illustration.
Outside-cylinder (18 x 24 in) 0-6-0T supplied by Hunslet Engine Works with nameplate Bridgewater

Railway Museum, York. 297.
Additions to collection: four-wheeled first and second class carriage of Stockton & Darlington Railway, built at Carlisle. Last long-boiler 1001 class to remain in service No. 1275 built by Dubs & Co. in 1874. 901 class Fletcher 2-4-0 No. 363 to be preserved.

Early railway relics. 297-8.
Early rails from 1797 preserved in the garden at Farlam Hall, near Kirkhouse, home of Lacy Thompson, grandson of James Thomson who knew the Stephensons and who had acquired the Rocket

Locomotives built at Woolwich Arsenal. 298. illustration
No. 830A illustrated alongside mechanical coaling plant at Feltham

The Danish State Railways. 299-302. 8 illustrations

The first locomotive in Colombia.  306. illustration.
Through the courtesy of John Fowler and Co. (Leeds) Ltd., Leeds, we are able to publish the following copy of a letter and photograph recently received by this firm from P.C. Dewhurst, Colombia, South America. May 20th, 1924.
Having recently taken charge of the Mechanical Department of the Ministry controlling Railways in this country, I found on a recent tour of inspection over one of the lines—the Ferrocarril del Pacifico—a very interesting old locomotive constructed by you.
This engine bears your makers' plate dated 1879, is an 0-4-2 outside cylinder tank engine, and now stands at Cali Station as a monument, where I took the enclosed photograph. From the date, it seems that this engine must have been the first locomotive in Colombia, and I expect was landed at Buenaventura to commence the construction of the railway inland from that port, then under an engineer named Cisneros, which railway afterwards became known as the F.e. del Cauca, and now is the F.e. del Pacifico.
I shall be greatly obliged if you will kindly give me the leading dimensions, for whom built, and any other information of interest; also, if possible, a photograph or diagram showing the original condition of the locomotive. Yours faithfully, (Signed) P. C. Dewhurst.
In reference to the photograph reproduced herewith, it should be stated that the rear wheels, the cab and the chimney are not those originally supplied.
Fowler have kindly supplied us with the original particulars of this old locomotive. Shop No. 3815 of the year 1879. The gauge of the railway is 3 ft. 6 in. The cylinders are 9 in. diameter by 14 in. stroke. The coupled wheels are 2 ft. 9 in. diameter, and have a wheelbase of 4 ft. 3 in. The bogie wheels are 1 ft. 9 in. diameter, and the total wheelbase is 9 ft. The capacity of the water tank is 360 gallons and the capacity of the bunker is 15 cu. ft. The boiler is arranged for a working pressure of 100 lb. per sq. in. The grate area is 6 sq. ft., and the total heating surface is 289.8 sq. ft., made up of firebox 32 sq. ft., and tubes 257.8 sq. ft. The weight of the engine empty is ten tons, and when in full working order 12½ tons. A separate four- wheeled fuel tender was also supplied with the engine—to carry wood—the capacity of this tender being 175 cu. ft. The engine bore the name-plates " Ferro-Carril Del Cauca, Cali."

Rail motor coach for Brazil. 306. illustration.
A light motor coach for twelve passengers was recently sent out to the Estrada de Ferro Arnarracas a Campo Maior of Parahyba, Northern Brazil, for service on the metre gauge Central Piauhy Ry., by the Drewry Car Co., Ltd. The seating accommodation was arranged for six in the centre compartment and three on each of the outside seats. A four cylinder 20 H.P. engine is fitted, running on petrol. The cylinders are 4-in. dia. by 5-in. stroke and are cast with their water jackets in pairs. An ordinary crank handle is provided for starting the engine. A dynamo provides current for electric lighting and the electric horn. The gearbox is arranged to give three speed changes with a neutral position. All three speeds are available in either direction. Control levers are provided at each end of the car. The car was designed to run at a speed of 35 to 40 miles per hour.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section V. — The testing of springs. Sub-section A.  — Scragging and load testing. 307-8.. 2 diagrams
Mechanical hysteresis

Questions and answers. Explain the construction of a "Zara" type of truck... 308
Development of Helmholtz tuck as used in Italy whereby the leading coupled axle is linked to the truck on a sub-frame to give a degree of side play. An advantage on a  2-6-2 is the ability to be able to incorporate a wide firebox on a short wheelbase.

The Dick electric train lighting system. 309-12. 4 diagrams

Travelling cranes for railway service. 312-15. 5 illustrations, diagram
Crane locomotives supplied by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. both 0-4-CT and 0-6-0CT with crane mounted centrally; similar locomotive built by Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd for the Central Argentine Ry and two crane locomotives with crane at rear: Beyer Peacock 0-6-0CT for the Nippon Ry. of Japan and a Vulcan Foundry product for the Eastern Bengal Ry,

Improved friction draft gear.  315. diagram.
American design capable of absorbing severe shocks of 150 tons.

[Trains for Harwich Continental services]. 315
Two new trains for services connecting with ferries to Antwerp and Hook of Holland

An automatic cut-off or governor for locomotives. 316-18. 2 illustrations, diagram.
An American device

Railway accident. 318
Error caused by signalman at Euston No. 4 box on 26 April whereby electric train from Watford ran into the rear of a Cup Final special from Coventry in the Park Street Bridge covered way leading to five deaths on the excursion train and about seventy seerious injuries including the motorman of the electric train. Col. Pringle investigated.

Tank wagons for carrying beer. 320. 2 illustrations
Built at the Birmingham Works of the Midland Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. with an aluminium tank constructed by Aluminium Plant & Vessel Co. for conveying Bass from Burton-on-Trent to Southampton via Cheltenham and the M. & S.W.J.R. route

New restaurant car trains for the East Coast Scotch service. London and North Eastern Ry. 321-4. 3 illustrations, diagram (elevation and plan)
Train included triplet articulated dining car with electric cooking: included details of a press run from London to York and back, before placed in service on the Flying Scotsman

Reviews.  328

South African Railways and Harbours. Issued by the Publicity Department, S.A. Rys., Johannesburg. London: The High Commissioner for South Africa, Trafalgar Square.
With the object of showing what the railways of South Africa have done, and are doing, towards the development of the country, which is six and a half times the size of Great Britain and Ireland, as well as the nature and magnitude of their operations, this very interesting book has been compiled.
A brief historical sketch of the railway system from the opening of the pioneer lines in the Cape and Natal to the present day forms the opening chapter, and this is followed by an account of the working and administration of the Harbours. Particulars of the mileage controlled, new lines and increase during the past twenty years, the civil engineering features, including tunnels, viaducts, etc., are detailed before the Mechanical Engineering Department receives attention. On 31 March last the mileage open for traffic was 11,747. South Africa's configuration presents many problems from the rolling stock point of view. All lines from the ports converge on the high table-land of the interior, necessitating very heavy gradients in places, with a constant series of sharp curves. On the Natal section grades of 1 in 30 are met with, with curves of 300 ft. radius. On other routes the grades are not so severe, the heaviest being 1 in 40. Combined with a gauge of 3 ft. 6 in. these facts show that the Administration is to be congratulated on possessing locomotives and stock nearly as heavy, and quite as powerful as any on the English and many of the American lines. Speed on the lower sections certainly has to be sacrificed in favour of increased haulage power, but the results are eminently satisfactory.
The development of the locomotive on the systems of the four provinces, prior to the establishment of the Union in 1910, is described in some detail, both as regards goods and passenger engines. Since the Union, and the appointment of one Chief Mechanical Engineer, all new locomotives have been designed on standard lines. The new locomotives may be divided into four divisions (a) for passenger working, (b) for goods working only, (c) for working either passenger or goods trains over the heavy grades, (d) articulated locomotives for goods traffic. Illustrations and data are given of each type. On 31 March 1923, there were 1,790 locomotives in service on the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, and fifty-two on the 2 ft. lines.
Passenger coaching stock has been developed to meet all requirements on the long main line runs, a special feature being the dining cars, most of which are 60 ft. 3 in. long and 8 ft. 9 in. wide. To cope with the demand, "twin diners," consisting of two cars each 60 ft. long, are being built at the Durban and Pretoria shops. Special vehicles have to be provided for the conveyance of gold and diamonds. These are of exceptionally strong construction and carry large safes in the centre of the vehicle, with special accommodation for the guards.
On such a large system the wagon stock in use includes a variety of types for special classes of traffic, such as live stock cars, which can also be used for carrying coal, frozen meat wagons, maize wagons, tank cars, etc.
The various workshops are controlled from the headquarters of the Mechanical Dept. at Pretoria, and are located at Cape Town, (Salt River), Durban, Pretoria, Uitenhage (21 miles from Port Elizabeth), Bloemfontein, East London and Pietermaritzburg, each of which is under the supervision of a mechanical engineer directly responsible to the Chief Mechanical Engineer. There are also shops in South West Africa. Other chapters are devoted to the harbours, grain elevators, development of traffic on rural districts, statistics and finance, stores dept., publicity dept., comfort of travel, catering dept., and indirect services.

Supplement to the register (1922 edition) of London axd North Western locomotives, showing corrections to June 30th, 1924. C. Williarns,
Williams' lists are now so well known that it is unnecessary to dilate on their accuracy and value to those interested in the locomotives of the late London and .:\orth Western Ry., and this supplement will be appreciated, not only as an addition to the series, but also as bringing the category of these locomotives to what may be regarded as its final phase, future engines turned out from the Crewe Works being probably of types general to the whole system. Full particulars are given of all engines added to stock, converted to other classes, named, scrapped, or renumbered, since the publication of the last list down to June 30th last. Whether intentionally or otherwise, we note that engine No. 5845, now on exhibition at Wembley, although dated March, 1924, is not included. In his preface, Williams regrets the discontinuance of the system of naming the passenger engines on this line which has obtained since its inception in 1846, and this is perhaps the more remarkable in view of the fact that its chief rival, the L. & N.E.R., has been recently so impressed with the publicity value of this practice as to introduce the naming of express engines on sections where it has hitherto been almost unknown. It is to be hoped that Williams will still find matter for further registers of the amalgamated system.

Great Western Ry. (London) Lecture and Debating Society. 328
The programme of lectures for the Winter session is to hand from the Secretary, Mr. L. Williarns. A varied selection of subjects are down for discussion, but mainly they touch on topics of interest to railwaymen. Many of them WII! be illustrated by lantern views, and are intended to be instructive as well as entertaining. On the 9th inst, the opening lecture was given in the General Meeting Room at Paddington Station by Messrs. Roger T. Smith and H. E. Hedges, entitled "Notes on a visit to the Sudan." An account, illustrated by lantern slides, of the journey up the Nile was followed by descriptions of the working of the Sudan Government Rys., the building of the Kassala Ry., the Malcwar Dam, and notes on Port Sudan Harbour, life at Atbara, the gum industry, etc. The Chair was taken by the President of the Society, Sir Felix J. C. Pole, General Manager of the G.W.R.

[Contracts]. 328
Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd. secured a contract for five 2-8-0 superheater locomotives for the Nizams Guaranteed State Rys., and the Vulcan Foundry, Ltd., have an order for two 2-6-0 tender locomotives for the same system. Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. are to build thirty express locomotives for the 5 ft. 3 in. gauge of the South Australian Government Rys., and four three-cylinder 2-8-2 superheater locomotives for the Nigerian Government Rys. The Burma Rys. have placed an order with the Rhein metal! Fabrik of Dusseldorf for seven J class locomotives. The Laurenco Marques Ry., of Portuguese East Africa, has ordered two Mikado type locomotives from the Baldwin Loco. Works.

London, Midland And Scottish Ry. (L. @ N.\"'. Section). Two further 4-4-0 passenger compounds have been rebuilt as two-cylinder simples, "Renown" class, viz., No. 1954 "Galatea" and No. 1964 "Csesar ." The 0-8-0 class "B" compound mineral engine :\0. 2557 has been simplified and superheated, and is now class "G I ." Other modifications incl ude direct motion and replacement of the former steam brake by the vacuum brake.
Several engines have recently appeared in service fitted with new boilers having Belpaire fireboxes, including the following : 0-8-0 "GI" class, Nos. 931 and 1329; 0-8-0 "G2" class, No. 134; and 0-6-0 18 in. cylinder goods, Nos. 1499 and 1719. The new boilers have the same diameter and pressure as the old ones, but are provided with "pop" safety valves as per standard.
The e x-Wir ral engine :\0. 3, a 0-4-4 tank, built by Beyer Peacock @ Co. in 1914, was recently repaired at Crewe, and is now in service again on the Wirral section. Recent withdrawals include No. 2647, one of 't he few re- maining ex-N.L.R. inside cylinder 4-4-0 passenger tank engines ("S I "class).
No. 1627, 0-6-2 passenger tank (18 in. cylinders), has been fitted with slide \"alves in place of the former piston valves. From the Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Co., Ltd., of Egyptian House, Piccadilly, we have received pamphlets referring to quicker and cheaper riveting with the new Boyer hammers, and also describing their latest pneumatic drill known as the No. 36 Red Giant Drill, a new tool WIth new features.

Number 387 (15 November 1924)

Great Western Railway—reconstruction of "The Great Bear" No. 111. 329. illustration

The latest type of "mogul" locomotive, L. & N.E.R. 329-30. illustration
K3 type built to composite loading gauge

Rebuilt passenger engine for the M. & S.W.J. Section of the G.W.R.. 331. illustration, diagram. (side elevation)
Originally Tyrrell design of 4-4-0, built by North British Locomotive Company in 1913 and given No. 3, rebuilt with standard taper boiler and driving position changed to right hand and new number 1121. See also letter from T.S. Lascelles on pages 395-6

A German turbine locomotive. 332-3. 2 illustrations
Krupp Works at Essen with two turbines, one for forward and the other for reverse, with drive through gears and jack shafts and the exhaust sent to a condenser on the tender. The turbines were of  the Zoelly type supplied by Escher, Wyss & Co.of Zurich. The locomotive boiler operated at 185 psi. Draught was provided via a fan located on the side of the boiler

Railway Centenary. Private collection at Doncaster. 333-4.
At the Municipal Art Gallery: items iincluded original letters, maps, autographs and books owned by the Briggs family of engineers and railway contractors owned than by Isaac Briggs of Wakefield.

"Mountain" type passenger engines, Canadian National Rys. 334. illustration
Sixteen 6000 class 4-8-2 manufactured by the Canadian Locomotive Co. of Kingston, Ontario

Lentz poppet valves for locomotives.  335-40. 5 illustrations, 5 diagrams
By 1924, in Austria, horizontal Lentz valves had been adopted as a standard for all new locomotives and were being fitted rapidly to older locomotives because of the country's pressing need for fuel economy at that time. First recorded Paxman order for Lentz valve gear for a standard gauge locomotive was for Holland. Ordered in January 1924 and despatched in February 1925, the gear was for a 4-4-0 express passenger engine of the Dutch State Railways. Reported that a powerful 4-8-0 belonging to the Madrid, Saragossa, Alicante Railway had been fitted experimentally with Lentz valves and had run for twelve months without attention. As a result "the railway company contemplated the installation of these valves to a number of their locomotives".

Oscillating turntable for portable railways. 340. illustration.

Steam motor coach trials on the London and North Eastern Railway. 359.
Sentinel steam railcar with Cammell Laird bodywork evaluated: trial running from York to Whitby; Whitby to Scarborough (described as the supreme test); over the old Hull & Barnsley section to North Cave and Kirk Smeaton; thence to Wath and onto Nottingham. Notes the use of rubber in "building up the wheels" which adds to the quietness and smoothness of the running [KPJ had missed this].

Number 388 (15 December 1924)

New Pacific type locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry. 363 + supplement (illustration)
One of series of twenty built by the North British Locomotive Co. No. 2563 William Whitelaw was built to lower height of 13ft 1in to operate in Scotland. No. 2563 was based at Haymarket and was working north to Aberdeen. Some of the batch fitted with Westinghouse brake to work former North Eastern Railway stock.

New tank locomotives, Great Northern Ry. (Ireland). 363-4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Series built Nasmyth Wilson & Co.: inside-cylinder (18 x 24in) 4-4-2T with 5ft 9in coupled wheels, 863ft2 total heating surface, 18,3ft2 grate area and 193ft2 of superheat; designed G.T. Glover. RN 21, 115, 117, 139, 143 and 148

"Garratt" locomotive, Burma Railways. 364-6. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & front/rear elevations)
2-8-0+0-8-2 for metre gauge capable of working on 1 in 25 gradients supplied by Beyer Peacock. H.A. Craig Locomotive Superintendent. They had Belpaire fireboxes with 1735ft2 total heating surface, 43.9ft2 grate area; 365ft2 superheat; 3ft 3in. coupled wheels, and four 15½ x 20in cylinders.

Electric locomotives, Victorian Railways. 366. illustration
Two 1500V dc machines built in Newport, Australia to work freight on the Sandringham line: Nos. 1100 and 1101

R. Hope. Lucerne to Chiasso by the electrified St. Gothard Railway. 367-9. 5 illustrations.

"Mikado" type tank locomotive, Paris-Orleans Railway. 370-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-8-2T (No. 5632 illustrated) for fast freight and suburban traffic: Nos. 5616-5740

2-8-2 locomotive, Katanga Ry. 372. illustration.
Supplied by Société Anonyme des Atiliers de la Meuse for 3ft 6in gauge railway in the Belgian Congo.

Santa Fe type lcomotives, Canadian National Rys. 372-4.
Order for five 2-10-2 from Canadian Locomotive Co. of Kingston; designated T-2 class for service between Mimico and Danforth with gradients of 1.2% easttbound and 0.6% west.

The Cardiff Ry. 374-6.  5 illustrations.
Continued in Volume 31 page 23

Petrol rail van for delivering newspapers Chilian Rys. 376. illustration
Drewry Car Co. product.

London & North Eastern Ry. 376.
Fifty 0-6-2T suburban tank locomotives to be built at Gorton Works to Stratford design

Travelling cranes for railway service. 377-9. 5 illustrations.
Hudswell Clarke standard gauge 0-4-0CT sith outsside cylinders and 2-ton capacity crane named Stobcross and 5ft 3in gauge 0-6-0CT with outside cylinders named Victoria; Andrew Barclay & Sons 0-4-0CT with a derricking jib; Neilson 0-4-0CT with inside cylinders and crane mounted on chimney and lettered Stobcross No. 1; and North British Locomotive Co. 0-4-0CT for New South Wales Government Railways with a 6-ton capacity crane.

Questions and answers. 379.
Asked if split axles rather than wheel sets would ease railway vehicle's movement through curves and replied that coning of the wheels performed this function, although at  that time value of this was being queried; also considered that a divided axle would be disastrous.  

Southern Ry. 379
Twenty 473 class 4-6-0 ordered from North British Locomotive Co. 

New Zealand Government Railways conversion of tender engines for shunting duties. 380. 2 illustrations.

Mr. A.W. Sutherland Graeme. 380
Appointed Locomotive Carriage & Wagon Superintendent Federated Malay States Railways.

[W.J. Tomes]. 380
Joined George Turton, Platts & Co. Ltd. as joint London Manager (with G. Percy Wainwright) of Sheffield supplier of spring steels and forgings; formerly Locomotive Superintendent East Indian Railway.

Mr. C.L. Mason. 380
Appointed Divisional Carriage Superintndent of the LMS at Wolverton in succession to F.E. Gobey.

Steel and Robert F. Mushet. 381-3.

L. Derens. The development of the goods engine in Holland. 383-4.

High power battery locomotive Italian State Railways. 385-6. illustration, diagram (elevation and plan)

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section V. — The testing of springs. Sub-section B.  — Fatigue tests and remarks thereon. 386-7. illustration, diagram

Reopening of the City & South London Ry. 387.

Railway passenger stock. 388-91.

Systems of locomotive classification. 391-2.

Reviews. 395

Indian railways. K.V. Iyer. Oxford University Press (series on India)
Although the author was Secretary to the Indian Railway Board errors were noted

The book of the locomotive. G.G. Jackson. Longmans Green. 240pp
Intended for general reader

London and Londoners in the eighteen-fifties and sixties. Alfred Rosling Bennett. Fisher Unwin.
These reminiscences of a Londoner, who is well known to our readers in connection with the Chronicles of Boulton Siding, recall a good many things which were quite familia years ago, and are now almost forgotten. The condition (affairs Mr. Bennett vividly describes, which were met with nearly three-quarters of a century ago, seem well nigh impossible to-day. Then, London had no underground railway, no mechanical traction, no trams, no telephones or electric light, no cinemas or tea shops; the only fire engines were worked manually by volunteers and there were nearly 20 toll-bars on the main roads, through which pedestrians and perambulators only passed free. The traffic problem was in some places quite as acute as it is to-day. At times th footways of London Bridge were solid masses of humanit while the roadway was packed with vehicles. For those who did not walk the only cheap transport was by the old knife board omnibus. As an engineer, Mr. Bennett has a good deal to say about locomotives and steamships. His First Railway in London the London and Greenwich— has been read by many of ou readers, and as Greenwich was his home in his boyhood, his recollections of the old town are most interesting. Being calling place for the steamboats, when the Thames was th main highway of the metropolis, Greenwich offered opportunities for noting the many peculiarities of the boats employee He also recalls the hospital with its pensioners in blue coat and three-cornered hats, the old three-decker Dreadnought moored in mid-stream and the exciting sculling regattas. At the Greenwich terminus of the first London railway he remembers seeing on the turntable, engine No. 5 of the S. E. Ry. built in 1839. The London Terminus was then "located in a back slum in Bermondsey," near where Spa Road Station now stands. Mr. Bennett had a trip on the Metropolitan railway soon after the opening in 1863, when it was worked by the G. W. Ry. by broad gauge stock. Whilst waiting fo his train at Bishop's Road at the end of the up-platform, where a capital view of the entrance to Paddington is obtained he had his first view of the famous Lord of the Isles. Twenty seven years later, when in charge of the locomotive exhibit at the Edinburgh Exhibition of 1890, this engine was actually consigned to the author, and his name affixed by the careful packers to the various parts. A curious little line was that worked by the Crystal Palace Company to Norwood Junction. They possessed one locomotive and employed only one driver and fireman, and when on one occasion the former had to go to Lewes to give evidence at an inquest, they had to borrow a man from the Brighton staff. We are inclined to think the curious Sharp single drive tank bought by the Colne Valley Ry., and illustrated in thi journal for Aug. 15th, 1911, was the blue painted engine of the Crystal Palace Co. which he mentions. We notice one little slip on page 87. The Braithwaite, who built locomotives in the New Road, and the one who became engineer to the Eastern Counties Ry. were not one and tlu same individual. They were, however, brothers, See also letter from J.B. Atkinson on page64 of Volume 31

Correspondence. 395

The driver's place on the footplate. T.S. Lascelles.
The Swindon rebuilding of a former MSWJR 4-4-0 with right hand drive was "progressing backwards". The following adopted left-hand drive: the Scottish lines, LNWR, LBSCR, L&YR, LSWR, GS&WR in Ireland. The French, Belgian, Italian and Swedish railways all adopted left-hand drive. The advantage [colour] light signals give is nullified. Signal sighting more important than firing convenience.

London & North Eastern Ry. 396
Quadrupling Great Northern main line: from Ouse Box to Huntingdon andf from Fletton to Peterborough including an additional viaduct over the River Nene tested by multiple locomotives running at speed.