Locomotive Magazine & Railawy Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 15 (1909)
Key file

No. 197 (15 January 1909)

Railway Notes.  1-3.
Great Western Ry. 1.
Nos. 2237-8 were latest engines of the 4-4-T tank class. No. 3701, a 4-4-0 with 5 ft, 8 in. coupled wheels named Stanley Baldwin after latest director of the Company, who was son of chairman. Consolidation engines [28XX] regularly hauling 65 ten-ton coal wagons from Stoke Gifford Sidings to Swindon, and 80 on to Old Oak Common on weekdays (100 on Sundays), and the balancing empties from Old Oak Common to Stoke Gifford: 100..
Royal engine driver. 1. illustration
King of Bulgaria on footplate of locomotive of State Railway in snow storm.
London & North Western Ry. 1.
Five new express passenger engines, Nos. 1457, 1686, 1739, 2009 and 2241 had entered service and 1377 and 1782 nearing completion.
New 4-6-0 express locomotive Adriatic running trial trips.
Nos. 1819 and 1837 (three-cylinder compounds) and 503 (four-cylinder compound) converted to simple engines and fitted with large boilers.
R.E. Johnston of the G.W. & L.& N.W.R. Joint lines retired at end of 1908 and maintenance of Birkenhead and Warrington and Wellington to Shrewsbury lines taken over by LNWR.
Last LNWR train between Mansion House and Earl's Court ran on 31 December 1908.

Retirement of Mr George Whale. 2.
Emphasised retirement not due to ill health, but considered that he had "accomplished his life's work" an had "weeded out and in some cases transformed into modern machines a stock of locomotives, many of which possessed historic interest only with little efficiency" and "built a large number oof first-class engines of modern power and capacity, which have reduced the "double-heading" of trains so usual before his time." Notes that Mr A.R. Trevithick "mentioned" as "probable successor".
Great Northern Ry. 2.
New standard 0-6-0STs Nos. 1281-4 under construction at Doncaster Works. They had fluted coupling rods and black splasher rims. New six-coupled goods engines (October Issue): first batch complete with No. 15 entering service.
Several of the eight-coupled mineral engines fitted with varaible blast pipe worked from the motion: first applied to No. 407. No. 417 and four-cylinder compound No. 271 fitted with Schmidt superheaters. The Vulcan compound No. 1300 based at Peterborough and frequently worked to London.

Great Eastern Ry. 2.
Nos. 176-184 new 2-4-2T locomotives with condensing apparatus. Nos. 188 and 189 renumbered as 0188 and 305. Mixed traffic 2-4-0 No. 451 fitted with Whittaker tablet exchange apparatus.
North London Ry. 2.
Although worked by LNWR and its officers it remained an independent concern with its own board of directors. The service between South Acton and Hammersmith was operated by rail motor coach No. 6.
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 2.
In addition to No. 321 four other Billinton express engines had been rebuilt: Nos. 213 Bessemer, 317, 322 and 323 and three Vulcan goods engines (Nos. 545, 547 and 553) rebuilt with similar boilers and extended smokeboxes carried on saddles. Nos. 23-5 completed series of 4-4-2Ts with 6ft 7in coupled wheels, and Nos. 34-5 with 5ft 6in coupled wheels.
Mid-Suffolk Light Ry. 2.
New locomotive under construction by Hudswell Clarke & Co. similar to No. 1. Hired 0-6-0ST Chamberlain.
"S.M.J.". 2-3.
On 1 January 1909 the Evesham, Redditch and Stratford-upon-Avon Junction Ry., the East and West Junction Ry. and the Stratford-upon-Avon, Towcester & Midland Junction Ry were amalgamated as the Stratford-upon-Avon & Midland Junction Ry.
No. 3054, London & North Western Ry. 3.
See letter by C. Williams in November Issue. There were only 46 N.E. Division engines Nos. 401-446. These were followed by Nos. 447 to 479 from the Chester & Holyhead, but "it now seems" that some of Allan's goods engines also went to the N.E. division and on the fusion of the divisions came back.
"Dublin" wrote that it was the Alpha and Omega of a long series of engines known as the Crewe Goods. It was built in 1843 in the days of the Grand Junction Ry; rebuilt in 1856 and several further times. The original number was 65. It was sold to the Lancaster & Carlisle Ry. in 1857 and eventually became 483; renumbered 1930 in 1884, and 3054 in 1889. See also letter by Cadmus on page 52; .

Eastern Bengal Ry. 3.
Kitson supplied five large 2-6-4T engines (WN 4583-7) with 18½in x 26in inside cylinders, 5ft 1½in coupled wheels, total heating surface of 1413ft2 and a boiler working at 180 psi. Running Nos. 300-304.

Obituary [Archibald Sturrock]. 3.
"one of the first to introduce high boiler pressures". 150 psi against a typical 100 psi elsewhere. "his later years were passed in the leisured ease and out-door pursuits of a typical country gentleman. He hunted with the hounds until long after reaching the age three-score years and ten, and shot and fished until ten years ago."

The Special Supplement. 3 + plate facing page [i]
Great Southern of Spain Railway 2-8-8-0 tank locomotive: see also Issue No. 196 (Vol. 14)

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 4-5. 7 diagrams.
Previous part see Volume 14 page 192. In 1872-3 engines 51, 60, 291, 293 and 294 were rebuilt by Johnson, the new boilers being telescopic. Johnson painted No. 51, 60 and 291 yellow. Figs. 121-7 all show 2-3-2 tyope except Fig. 122 which shows 4-2-2 No. 51. See also article in Midland Record No. 14 by Jack Braithwaite page 45 et seq which states that these articles on the locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway were by A.W. Lowe and H.T. Buckle.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 6-8. 6 diagrams.
Frames: the plate frame almost universal in British practice and then was slotted out of solid plate. Prior to about 1858 frames were built out of separate pieces with axleguards bolted on. Many goods engines on North Eastern and Midland still retained that form. A more solid frame was produced by welding the axleguards rather than bolting them. Fig. 2 shows a slotted out frame as used on a Kirtley goods engine of 1863. The most notable improvement in frame design was when the inside framing was extended to the back of the footplate instead of being cut short in front of and secured to the firebox. The strain of the drawbar pull was thus through the frames rather than through the firebox. D.K. Clark pointed out the weakness of "pulling by the firebox" and Ahronx believed that it was put into practice by Beyer.
The sandwich frame was almost obsolete. Large numbers of this pattern were designed by Daniel Gooch for the Great Western, by Sturrock for the Great Northern and by Kitson and Stephenson for the MSLR and North Eastern. Except on the GWR no frames of this type had been made since 1873. Sandwich-framed engines were found to run more smoothly on unyielding longitudinal sleepers. As late as 1889-91 Dean built 62 engines for passenger work with sandwich frames in which cast iron blocks were used in association with teak blocks. The bar frame had become obsolete although was present in some American imports. The last example of a British built bar- framed engine at work was GWR No. 15, a rebuilt Bury which shunted at Chester until about 1906.
Wheels: Cast steel substituted for wrought iron forgings since 1885. The LNWR and NER being first to make change. Balance weights formerly cast iron blocks secured to spokes and rim by iron plates since cast solid with the wheels. Crescent-shaped form reduced blow on the rails. Crescent-shaped balance weights also used with wrought iron wheels dating from about 1876 when S.W. Johnson began to use them on Midland. Cast iron wheels used in 1841-1850 on Stephenson's long boiler engines. Use died out, but revived by Webb with improved H-section form and applied to more than 1400 mineral and shunting locomotives (Fig. 4). The Great Southern & Western Ry (Ireland) also used the Webb form of cast iron wheel for their goods engines. The GWR used them for a large numbrr of shunting engines and the Midland built 15 shunting locomotives with these wheels in 1884, but these were replaced by cast steel.
Axles: Change in material from iron to steel and attempts to strengthen crank pins and webs. The first was shrinking on of hoops around the webs, possibly introduced by Sturrock. The Penistone accoident of 1884 renewed interest in crank axle breakage, following which hoops became more general. Johnson adopted practice of passing a bolt longitudinally through crrank pin (Fig. 5). T.W. Worsdell adopted a circular crank web in 1886 (fig. 6). See also letter from C.S. Stock on page 200.

The Drewry railway motor car for inspection purposes. 8. illus.

Goods locomotive, Caledonian Ry, 9. illustration
652 Class (No. 664 illustrated): notes the McIntosh invented spark arrestor and lists major dimensions.

New tank locomotives, County Donegal Joint Committee. 9.
2-6-4T type supplied by Nasmyth Wilson (WN 828-32) to the specification and drawings of R. Livesey. Notes standard green livery, major dimensions and intended ability to haul 120 tons up a gradient of 1 in 50. See also Souvenir with December Issue.

Walker, Herbert T. The origin of the balanced locomotive: as shown by the Diaries of John George Bodmer. 10-12. illustration (portait), 3 diagrams.
Includes a brief biography of Bodmer and notes that he was mentioned in D.K. Clark's Railway machinery and in Colburn's Locomotive engineering and the mechanism of railways, but neither work included diagrams. Bodmer's contribution is mentioned in the Minutes of Evidence taken before the Commissioners [the Gauge Commission]. Bodmer's activities in patenting were partly supported by Rothwell of Bolton. Notes that the diagrams for a locomotive in the 1834 patent showed a firebox similar to that fitted to the Rocket. The double pistons were also shown. The transverse equalisers were similar to those used in Pearson's 9ft 4-2-4T. There is no record of a locomotive being built to the design shown in the patent, but it also featured metallic packing and a system for variable gears as developed by the automobile industry. Continued page 56.

Millwall Extension Ry. 12
Three passenger engines and some of the shunting engines had been rebuilt at the East Ferry Road Engineering Co. The cylinders of the passenger engines had been enlarged to 9¾in diameter and the boiler diameter had been increase by 1?a89;in. The working pressure had been raised to 140 psi.

Tank goods locomotive, North Staffordshire Railway. 13. illustration
John Adams design of 0-6-2T with 18½ by 26 in cylinders, 5 ft coupled wheels and 175 psi boilers. No. 157 illustrated. No. 156 also in service. Nos. 98 and 99 on trial running.

Correspondence. 16.
Portraits of locomotive engineers. Charles W. Dauncey.
See earlier correspondence (A. Cunningham-Burley in November Issue. Portraits would greatly enhance the utility of the magazine.
The Mushkaf-Bolan Ry. E.H. Battley.
Whilst stationed at Quetta writer travelled on North Western line between Quetta and Karachi and also to Hyderabad. Beteen Mach and Quetta "it is a very stiff pull and trains crawl up at a snail's pace". From Sind vtrains are hauled by eight-coupled tender engines and banked by eight-coupled tanks. Wet weather added to the difficulty. Drivers claimed that if an engine slipped vat the beginning of the bank then it would slip all the way up. Care had to be taken when descending. There were watch towers along the line and gates on the tunnels. The hill tribesmen could not be vtrusted and the guards carried revolvers. An armoured train was based at Quetta. illustration of 2-8-2T No. 193 of the North Western Ry. of India built by the Locomotive & Car Works of Pittsburg.

New locomotives on the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railway. 17-18. 2 illus.
Ran from Dinas Junction to Snowdon (Rhyd-ddu). The gauge was 1ft 11½in. Original locomotives described in Volume 5. The two Fairlie singles Snowdon Ranger and Moel Tryfan had been rebuilt by Davies & Metcalfe in 1902 and 1903, but Beddgelert had been withdrawn. The new locomotives were 2-6-2T Russell supplied by Hunslet in 1906 (WN 901). The main dimensions were 10¾in x 15in cylinders, 2ft 4in coupled wheels, 6¼ft2 grate area and a total heating surface of 345ft2. A further Fairlie single was supplied by Hunslet in 1908 (WN 979) and was configured as a six-coupled power bogie and a two axle bogie. The cylinders were 9½in x 14in, 2ft 4in coupled wheels, 5ft2 grate area and a total heating surface of 282ft2. The Westinghouse brake was employed on the railway. The engines were painted bright red, the same shade as Midland carriages with black panel bands edged with yellow, vermillion cranks and balance weights to the driving wheels. They had bright domes. New bogie carriages were described in Volume 12 page 135. The coaches were painted in two shades of brown, somewhat similar to that used by L&YR.

The thousandth locomotive built by the Ernest Breda Locomotive Works. 18.
Engine No. 68100, a four-cylinder compound, for the State Railways of Italy left the works in Milan on 30 November 1908. The King of Italy honoured Mr Breda and the following Department heads: Sagramoso, Cappa and Scappini.

Old inspection emngine, Graz-Koflach Ry. 18. illustration
See November Issue of 1907 where two photographs and a sketch were reproduced which had been supplied by V. Hogler of the Austrian Southern Ry. These showed the locomotive in modified condition, but illustration herein shows it in original condition with small locomotive boiler operating at 118 psi and two 2¾ x 4¾in cylinders which drove onto a shaft with two heavy fly wheels. Drive was via pulleys and straps with gearing to produce a continuous 20 mile/h.

Fire protection at Parkeston Quay. 18.
Electrically driven fire pump constructed by Merryweather & Sons installed by Great Eastern Railway.

Saloon carriage for the Khedive of Egypt. 19. 2 illus.
Manufactured by Metropolitan Amalgamated Carriage & Wagon at Saltley Works. Two compartments with an open verandah in between. Interior in Sheraton style with satinwood and leatheer upholstery.

New rolling stock, Antofagasta (Chili) and Bolivia Ry. 20. 2 illustration
Manufactured by Metropolitan Amalgamated Carriage & Wagon: 2ft 6in gauge sleeping car.

No. 198 (15 February 1909)

Railway Notes. 21-2.
Rhymney Ry. 21. illustration
0-6-0T No. 112 illustrated. Manufactured Hudswell, Clarke to C.T. Hurry Riches specification for shunting and dock traffic. Coupled wheel diameter: 4ft 4½in diameter; cylinders 18in x 26in; grate area 18ft2; total heating area 1376.5ft2.
Great Western Ry. 21.
Latest 4-4-2T No. 2239. Future series to be built at Swindon included Knight and Camel classes and some 2-6-2Ts. The Liskeard and Looe and Liskeard and Caradon Rys were worked by GWR from 1 January 1909.
London & North Western Ry. 21
In addition to No. 322 Adriatic mentioned on page 1 following new Experiment class entered traffic: Nos. 1020 Majestic; 887 Fortuna and 1490 Wellington. New mixed traffic 4-6-0s: Nos. 370, 939, 1008, 1399, 1579, 1786, 2084 and 2518. Compound eight-coupled locomotives Nos. 1286, 1813 and 1846 converted to simples and fitted with large boilers.
Great Central Ry. 21-2.
No. 1090, the three-cylinder simple Atlantic was nearing completion, and would be fitted with Walschaerts gear and balanced slide valves. Fifteen new eight- coupled mineral engines were in course of erection at Gorton: Nos. 39, 44, 48, 49, 62, 63, 212, 213, 356 and 159-164.
J.W. Hulme of Brunswick Depot (Liverpool) appointed to London District where he succeeded James Parker who was transferred to Liverpool.
Stated that improved repair facilities would be provided at Annesley to relieve over-crowded shops at Gorton.
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 22. illus.
No. 32-34 4-4-2Ts with 5ft 6in coupled wheels work through to Willesden in turn on the Sunny South Special. No. 62, formerly Windsor left the shops renamed Norfolk.
New electric train (illustrated): for Victoria to London Bridge service ran a trial between Battersea Park and Brixton on 31 January 1909. Each unit consisted of two 3rd class motor coaches with a first class coach in the centre.
North Eastern Ry. 22.
Ten three-cylinder 4-8-0Ts to be constructed at Gateshead Works. The boiler was to be similar to those used on Whitby 4-6-0Ts. Nos. 750-6 latest S class 4-6-0s then running. No. 1237 was the first R1 4-4-0 to enter service. The whole of the M1 4-4-0 class (Nos. 1620-1639) had benn rebuilt with piston valves above the cylinders. No. 1639 originally had piston valves, but the other engines had valve chests outside the cylinders workeb by rocking shafts when built.
Cardiff Ry. 22.
Three 0-6-2T for goods trains supplied by Kitson numbered 33-5. Cylinders 18in ½ x 26in; 4ft 6½ coupled wheels; 21ft2 grate area and 13012 total heating surface.
Metropoltan Ry. 22.
Owned 46 steam locomotives; 20 electric locomotives and 8 converted compartment coaches.
Waterford & Tramore Ry. 22.
John Ramsey appointed locomotive superintendent in succession to Henry Waugh (account of whose career appeared in April 1908 Issue.
East Indian Ry. 22.
D. St. C. Wedderburn appointed locomotive superintendent. His portrait appeared on page 197 of November Issue.

Rebuilt locomotive, G.I.P.R. 23-4. illustration, 2 diagrams. (s. els.)
Several members of C/5 class rebuilt at Parel shops with Belpaire boilers under supervision of S.J. Sargent with a grate area of 21ft2 and a total heating surface of 1200ft2. To save weight a heavy cast iron drag-box was replaced by a built up steel structure.

Great Northern Ry. mineral engine fitted with Schmidt superheater. 24-5. illustration, diagram
Two locomotives fitted with Schmidt superheaters: No. 271 (the four-cylinder Atlantic) and No. 417 (0-8-0 illustrated). Superheating demanded improved lubrication which was provided by Klinger Loco-Lubricators which worked automatically.

The Marconi Telegraph Co.s narrow gauge light railway in Connemara. 25-7. 4 illustration
Transatlantic wireless telegraph station at Clifden in Connemara, Ireland in February 1908 to communicate with Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. The Clifden broadcasting station was located about 2 miles from the Midland & Great Western Railway station and a 2ft gauge railway was built across bogland to connect with it and help in its construction. A Dick Kerr 0-4-0T locomotive producing 8hp and weighing 3 tons and twelve wagons with tipping skips which could be removed to provide primitive passenger accommodation.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 27-8.
The rebuilt engines, as well as those fitted with secondhand boilers, were equipped with the Westinghouse automatic brake, with the exception of Nos. 293 and 294, which had Barker’s hydraulic brake. In 1878 engines Nos. 87 to 90 were renumbered 301 to 304 inclusive, and in 1870 Nos. 51 to 53 and 55 to 60 became 275 to 283 inclusive.
These were the standard express locomotives on the GER until superseded by larger single wheelers built in Bromley’s time and worked all the more important express trains. Nos. 88, 89, 90, 284, 296 and 299 were stationed at Cambridge, 300 at Ipswich, and 53, 54, 55, 59, 60 and 285 to 288 inclusive at Norwich, the remainder being at Stratford. "In more recent times" several were sent to work on the G.N. & G.E. Joint Line, and others to Parkeston for working Continental specials, whilst 284 and 292 were at Wisbech working through with the morning express to London. Most of them finished on branch and light work in the country districts, the two last to remain in service, Nos. 0290 and 0295, being stationed at Saffron Walden. On 10 March 1863 No. 284, driven by Alexander Keir, drew the special train conveying the Prince and Princess of Wales en route for their Norfolk home at Sandringham, after their marriage in Westminster Abbey: the engine being specially painted cream colour, encircled with garlands of roses.
On 15 July 1864 No. 57, when working the up Continental express derailed near Bradfield. The train mishap was attributed to the speed being too high for the light permanent way on the Harwich branch. On 1 July 1865 No. 54 derailed between Hethersett and Trowse when working the 17.00 down express from London. On 17 October 1872 No. 292 (driver J. Larter) whilst working the 09.45 express from Yarmouth to London derailed when approaching Kelvedon at a speed of 30 or 40 m.p.h., killing one passenger and injuring 14, in addition to the driver and fireman. On 10 September 1874 No. 54 (driver J. Prior) was involved with No. 218 in the Thorpe collision: No. 54 was extensively damaged and was scrapped. On 8 December 1879 No. 294 (driver T. Hornett) derailed down an embankment about a quarter of a mile beyond Manningtree when working the 10.00 train from Norwich to London, the fireman being killed and the driver and several passengers injured. On 25 October 1882 No. 295 (driver W. Corby) derailed near Helpringham when working the 09.05 express from London to Doncaster, being followed by the whole train with the exception of the rear brake van. This derailment was attributable to the road being new, the line having only been opened in March.
On 1 October 1883 No. 285 (driver J. Cooper), whilst working the 06.45 passenger train from Cambridge to Ipswich, became derailed at the facing points when entering the station at Bury St. Edmunds.
In 1883 these engines began to be withdrawn from service, and in 1886 all those which had not already been scrapped had a cypher prefixed to their numbers.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 28-9. 3 diagrams.
Crank axles: centre stays formed of a central longitudinal frame plate extending from the cylinders to the cross stay behind the crank axle afforded an additional supporting bearing to the crank axle. Sir Daniel Gooch was the first to fit such stays as the broad gauge allowed plenty of room for them, and nearly all GWR broad gauge locomotives were so fitted. Webb adopted centre stays for locomotives fitted with Joy's valve gear from 1880. Fig. 7 shows the then latest version of the centre stay as used on the Precursor class. This type was also used on Aspinall's 1400 class.
The safest form of crank axle was probabl;y the built-up type composed of separate parts as in marine practice. These were tried by Webb and were adopted widely by Drummond on the LSWR (Fig. 8). Stroudley on the LBSCR placed the inside cranks on the same side of the crank axle as the corresponding outside or coupling rod cranks due to his experience on the Highland Railway with outside cylinder locomotives due the pull or thrust on them always being in the same direction instead of having a tendency to twist the axlebox in the horn blocks. Larger balance weights were required. Between 1883 and 1888 the Midland Railway cast the eccentric sheaves onto the crank axles, but JUohnson discontinued this as it made the crank axle too stiff. The outside crank pins of the GNR Atlantics is noteworthy as the bstroke was 24 inches, but the throw of the coupliing rods was only 23 inches. The outside portion of the pin was turned ¾in eccentrically (Fig. 9). See letters on p. 78 from Mernok and from Maurice D. Sergeant.

Bere Alston & Callington Light Ry. 29.
Arrangement whereby H.F. Stephens of the Kent & East Sussex Ry continued as engineer and manager of the branch line into Cornwall whilst the LSWR took over working the remainder of the P.D.&S.W.J.R.

County Donegal Joint Committee. 29.
The Strabane & Letterkenny Ry was opened for traffic on 1 January 1909. The line was about 20 miles long and connected with the Londonderry & Lough Swilly Ry. at Letterkenny.

Travel, Sports & Pastimes Exhibition. 29.
To be held at Olympia from 6 July to 4 August. Call for models of railway equipment.

Express locomotive, Austrian State Rys. 30. illustration, diagram (s. el.)
K. Golsdorf four-cylinder compound 2-6-4 with Helmholz truck (see 15 May 1907) buil;t at Floridsdorf Locomotive Works, near Vienna. There were only two piston valves: each actuated a high and a low pressure cylinder.

The Monarch automatic brake block adjuster. 31-2. 2 diagrams.
Ratchet and pawl mechanism.

Newburgh & North Fife Ry. 32.
Opened between St. Fort and Newburgh on 25 January 1909. 12 miles 75 chains in length and single throughout with passing places at Kilmany and Luthrie. Further station at Lindores and sidings at Rathillet and Ayton. Passenger service of three trains per day.

Correspondence. 32.
Old North London engine. W.B. Paley.
Illustration Volume 14 page 183. 4-4-0T: grate area 10.52ft2. Heating surfaces: firebox 65ft2 and tubes 662ft2. Engines had raised fireboxes, no flanges to driving wheels and water stowage in three tanks, main one being under bunker.
Goods locomotives with large driving wheels. John Kitching.
NB name of writer and address Branksome Hall: family home of Kitching family, sometime locomotive builders.
See page 206 in Volume 14: No. 81 Class had 5ft 8½in diameter coupled wheels. Nos. 498 and 606 were built in McDonnell's time: they had six 5ft 6in coupled wheels (the wheels had originally been fitted to three passenger engines owned by the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway..

The "Crewe" goods engine. C. Williams
See correspondent Dublin in Vol. 14: No. 3054 came from the North Eastern Division: its number was not known, but was not No. 65. The first Crewe-built No. 65 emerged in 1861 and was a DX-type named Charon. An earlier Grand Junction Railway had owned a No. 65, also named Charon. It is probable that No. 3054 was one of those built with a large firebox and dated from 1855-7.  The North Eastern Division locomotives were numbered 401-487. The Lancaster and Carlisle engines followed this. The Chester & Holyhead Railway never owned any locomotives. See letters on page 52 from Cadmus, T.J. Daffern and Clement E. Stretton..

New locomotives, Gothard Ry. 33. 2 illustration
Four-cylinder compounds supplied by Maffei. Both had two high pressure cylinders of 15½in x 251/8in and low pressure cylinders of 25in x 251/8in. actuated by two sets of Heisinger valve gear. No. 934, a 4-6-0, had 5ft 33/8in coupled wheels, 2540.33ft2 total heating surface and 35.95ft2 grate area. No. 2807, a 2-8-0, had 4ft 5¼in coupled wheels, 2735.70ft2 total heating surface and 43.81ft2 grate area. Boilers operated at 220psi.

The Selsey Tramway.  34-5. 3 illustration
Opened from Chichester to Selsey Town (7¼ miles) on 27 August 1897. There was a drawbridge over the Birdham & Chichester Canal (illustrated). 2-4-2T Selsey was Peckett WN 681: it had 2ft 9in coupled wheels and 10in x 15in cylinders. It was reboilered in 1908 and was painted in Great Eastern Railway blue with vermillion lining.

A Great Western Ry. goods engine built at Crewe. 35-6. illustration
The Manchester & Milford Railway had been absorbed into the GWR, as a consequence GWR No. 1338 was an ex-LNWR Webb Coal engine No. 1095 which had been Manchester & Milford Railway No. 7. It had been fitted with a standard GWR steel-frame tender and worked the Aberystwyth to Carmarthen goods. Two other Manchester & Milford Railway locomotives had been taken into GWR stock: No. 2 Plylimmon became GWR No. 1304 and was employed on shunting at Neath. No. 6 Cader Idris became GWR No. 1306: this worked the Newcastle Emlyn to Pencader branch. Both were Sharp Stewart four coupled eight-wheel radial tank engines. Other former LNWR locomotives acquired by the GWR included 5ft 2in coupled wheel 0-6-0s with 15in x 24in cylinders which came from the West Cornwall Railway and received Nos. 1387-90.  Another LNWR locomotive came via the Golden Valley Railway: this was like GWR No. 3054 (illustrated in Locomotive Magazine, 1908, 14, 144 (August Issue). This had "Golden Valley on its side tanks.

"Shay" locomotives at work. 37-8. 4 illustration
Invented by Ephraim Shay in 1880. First locomotive illustrated. Supplied by Lima Locomotive & Machine Co. Capable of surving derailments with little damage. See also Locomotive Magazine 1904 August.

Tube plate troubles. 38-9.
Firebox tube plate liable to experience bulging and distortion. Parctical methods to avoid this included careful staying.

Six-coupled tank locomotive, Imperial Rys. of Japan. 39. illustration
Beyer Peacock 2-6-2T to work Usui Toge incline with gradients of 1 in 40 to worked by adhesion and 1 in 15 by rack and pinion (Abt system). 3ft 6in gauge. Cylinders: 15½ x 20in for adhesion and 11¾in x 16in for rack working. Total heating surface 1268.7ft2, grate area 19.9ft2. Boiler operated at 180 psi. Holden liquid fuel system

Cleobury Mortimer & Ditton Priors Light Ry. 39.
Open for traffic.

Articulated goods locomotive, Antofagasta (Chili) & Bolivia Ry. 40. illustration
Not a Kitson-Meyer, but designed by Livesey, Son & Henderson (see page 43) and appeared to be a 2-6-6-4 with side tanks built by Kitsons for the 2ft 6in gauge line, with four 14in x 18in cylinders, 3ft 1¾in coupled wheels, a Belpaire boiler operating at 180 psi witha total heating surface of 1159ft2 and a grate area of 25.2ft2 .

No. 199 (15 March 1909)

Railway Notes. 41
Great Central Ry. 41. illustration
Atlantic 4-4-2 No, 1090 rebuilt from two-cylinders operated by Stephenson link motion to three cylinders (157/8in x 26) operated by Walschaerts valve gear. 6ft 9in coupled wheels, total heating surface 1971ft2 and grate area 26ft2. Boiler pressure 180 psi. The locomotive was rebuilt in a way that reconversion to two cylinders would be relatively simple. Noted that three-cylinder compound, three-cylinder simle and two-cylinder simple type Atlantics were in service.
Jardine, locomotive foreman at Southport and Trotter in charge of locomotive department at Leicester had retired. Neild of Nottingham moved to Leicester, and Southern of Langwith Junction moved to Southport.
Latest coaches finished in plain teak with lettering in gold shaded in black with class numerals of type used by GNR: suggests standard for the triple combine.
London & North Western Ry. 41-2.
New Experiment 4-6-0: Nos. 884 Greater Britain, 1483 Red Gauntlet, 1553 Faraday, 2625 Buckland and 322 Adriatic. Nos. 509 and 647, four-cylinder compound mineral engines, had been converted to simple engines with larger boilers. "The 2-4-2 John Hick class are going the way of the other Webb three-cylinder compounds".
C.J. Bowen Cooke of the running department appointed to succeed George Whale as chief mechanical engineer.
New line from Levenshulme to Wilmslow opened for goods traffic in early February, and would be available for passenger traffic as soon as road bed consolidated.

North London Ry. 42
Arrangement for LNWR to work railway came into effect on 1 February 1909. Managed by LNWR officers subject to approval by NLR Board.  Work found for all in running department, but some retrenchment at Bow shops. Although one set of NLR carriages sent to Wolverton for renovation statement made that no intention of closing Bow works "at present".
Great Eastern Ry. 42.
Ten radial tanks with condensing apparatus in hand of which Nos. 71 and 72 had left the shops. No. 1862 had been fitted with Flaman's speed indicator.
Midland Ry. 42.
In article (April 1907) on 170 Class built by Beyer Peacock in 1867 it was mentioned that No. 198A was last in service. The boiler from this was still in use as a portable boiler retaining the original wheels, frame and tender.
North Eastern Ry. 42.
No. 758 of S class 4-6-0 was running, and Nos. 759 and 760 nearing completion.  R1 class Nos. 1238 and 1239 in regular service and No. 1240 on trial. These were replacing some of William Bouch's Ginx's Babies (see February 1906 issue) which had been built as 4-4-0s for the Stockton & Darlington Railway but were subsequently rebuilt as 2-4-0s with 17in x 26in cylinders.

T1 0-8-0 No. 1704 fitted with variable blastpipe and ash ejector.
Ten P3 class 0-6-0s on order from R. Stephenson due for delivery.
Four large snow-ploughs built of steel constructed at Gateshead Works and two were ready for service.
N.J. Lockyer, Works Manager at Gateshead appointed head of Darlington Locomotive Works in succession to R. Kendall, who had resigned. Arthur Collinson, superintendent at West Hartlepool succeeded Lockyer at Gateshead.
Land acquired at Darlington for new locomotive works.
South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 42
Latest Wainwright 4-4-0s with Belpaire fireboxes and extended smokeboxes: Nos. 19, 36, 159, 175 and 507: similar to No. 516 illustrated in Vol. 14 June Issue. See also page 62. Further to note on page 206 (Vol. 14 December issue) in November 1902 SECR locomotive No. 487 ran through from Shorncliffe to Liverpool Street via the East London Line when conveying the German Emperor to Sandringham.
Queensland Government Rys. 42
Kitsons had completed order for twenty 4-6-0 locomotives (mentioned in Volume 14 July): these had 15in x 20in cylinders activated by Stephenson link motion, 4ft diameter coupled wheels (with blind tyres on centre axle). Running numbers 480-499: No. 492 fitted with a variable blast pipe, ash ejector and louvre spark preventer.

Coupled bogie express locomotive, Great Southern & Western Ry. 43. illustration
Coey design which differed from 333-337 series in having outside bearings to the bogie wheels. No. 340 illustrated.

Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry. 43.
R. Donaldson appointed assistant locomotive superintendent having left Great Central at Sheffield where he was acting assitant to Caine of the locomotive running department.

Antofagasta (Chili) & Bolivia Ry. 43.
See page 40: Not a Kitson-Meyer, but designed by Livesey, Son & Henderson.

The "Ejector" spike puller.  43. illustration
For withdrawing spikes or bolts from sleepers. Manufactured Midland Manufacturing Co. of Sheffield.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 44-5. 3 illustration
Figs. 128-30.

Setting a locomotive chimney.  45. 2 diagrams.
Practical method.

Rye and Camber Railway. 45.
Extended to Camber Sands.

New tank locomotives for the Alexandra Newport & S. Wales Docks & Railway Co. 46. illustration
"Very large" 0-6-0ST design supplied by Andrew Barclay WN 1154-6/1908. RN 29-31. 4ft 3in coupled wheels, 18in x 26in cylinders, 1148ft2 total heating surface. Direct staying of firebox crown. Illustrated alongside 2ft gauge 0-6-0T of "Colonial" type.

Spilsby Station, Great Northern Ry., 40 years ago. 46-7. illustration
Photograph of No. 33 on passenger train taken c1869: 2-2-2 tank engine rebuilt by Sturrock of Sharp, Roberts 2-2-2 with 5ft 6in driving wheels.

Six-coupled mineral tank locomotive, Caledonian Ry. 47. illustration
782 Class: 0-6-0T with 4ft 6in coupled wheels. No. 787 illustrated.

Mallet compound locomotives for mineral traffic, Eastern Ry. of France. 48. illustration
American Locomotive Co. of Schenectady four-cylinder 2-6-6-0 type for Longury Villerupt mining area. High pressure cylinders: 17¾in x 26in; low pressure 28in x 26in. Grate area 40.5ft2. Boiler pressure 200 psi.

Bennett, Alfred Rosling. Early locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 48-9. 2 diagrams.
Continued from page 88 in Volume 14 and is a commentary upon, revision to Burtt's. This part refers to two long boiler locomotives with running numbers 8 and 9, but the latter was seen as "Number 18". Fig. 28 in the original text was not correct in all its details

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 49-51. 3 diagrams.
Bogies: generally believed that began with application by R. Stephenson and Vulcan to locomotives exported to American railways in 1830s and the idea returned to Britain via Norris engines supplied to Birmingham & Gloucester Railway in 1840. But the first major application was by Sir Daniel Gooch to two large broad gauge tank engines in 1849, followed by a large number of similar engines between 1854 and 1872. These employed ball and socket joints (Fig. 10), but these were not used on express engines other than the Pearson 4-2-4 9ft singles for the Bristol & Exeter Railway. A number of swivelling bogies with outside frames were supplied to the North London Railway from 1855 (see Volume 13 page 183 for illustration). A similar bogie with ball and socket joint was designed in 1860 for outside-cylinder express locomotives supplied by R. Stephenson to the Stockton & Darlington Railway. The Adams bogie of 1868 for the North London Railway was originally fitted with rubber springs, and these were later modified with metallic springs. The first inside-cylinder bogie express 4-4-0s were built by Wheatley at Cowlairs for the North British Railway in 1871. The British 4-4-0 in "finally attained its present form" in 1873 with James Stirling's 7ft coupled engines for the Glasgow & South Western Railway, and these were followed by Johnson designs for the Great Eastern and the Midland, D. Drummond's designs for the North British. The Patrick Stirling 8ft bogie singles had preceded most of these designs in 1870. Fig. 11 illustrated the type of bogie used prior to the adoption of the swing link type as used on Brighton-built engines. The swing link type was indtroduced from North America by Aspinall to the Great Southern & Western Railway and thence to the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, and via Ivatt to the Great Northern Railway.

East and West Junction and Stratford-on-Avon, Towcester and Midland Junction Ry. 51.
Purchase of Merryweather Valiant steam fire and pumping engine..

The "Crewe" goods engine. Cadmus.
See page 3 under heading No. 3054: "Very many erroneous particulars and statements have been made about the early engines built at Crewe, and these have been repeated time after time until they have been generally accepted as correct. The North Eastern Division of the LNWR had 87 (not 46) when it fused with the Northern Division. Nos. 447 to 479 were never Chester & Holyhead engines, "in fact , the C. & H. Ry. " did not own a single locomotive when the L. & N.W. Co. leased the line" [KPJ a remarkably ambiguous statement: "single" as in solitary, or as in 7ft, etc!].  The dates given by Williams for No. 483 are quite correct: it was one of the latest of the series of Crewe Goods built with a large firebox and 16in diameter cylinders. It was one of the very first to be converted into a side tank and was transferred to the NE Division to wotk the Oldham branhc, performing there for twenty years before being moved to the High Peak line. It was never numbered 65 (the original No. 65 was built by R. Stephenson in 1841 and was not sold to the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway at that time. The first new engine of the Crewe type was not 65 Charon, but 78 Lonsdale.
The "Crewe" goods engine. T.J. Daffern
See page 3 under heading No. 3054 and letter from C. Williams on page 32: argues that No. 3054 was built at Crewe in 1843 and was the first engine to be built there as Grand Junction Railway No. 65 Charon: the large firebox being fitted in 1856 when rebuilt. 46 North Eastern Division locomotives entered the Crewe list as Nos. 401 to 446: this occurred on 1 August 1857 when John Ramsbottom assumed command at Crewe. The Chester & Holyhead Railway did possess locomotives: "On March 18th 1859, the C. & H. line was sold to the L. & N.W. Company, and before next morning every C. &  H. engine had a L. & N.W.  number painted on it. 
The "Crewe" goods engine. Clement E. Stretton.
See letter from C. Williams on page 32: the Chester & Holyhead Railway did possess locomotives: "engines were built at the Vulcan Foundry, sent by sea to Holyhead and erected an put in steam at the Company's engine shed". 
Midland engines. Diamond.
Reply to Investigator: No. 6 was No. 104A rebuilt in 1896; No. 7 was No. 105A rebuilt in 1896; No. 17 was No. 161A rebuilt in 1899; and No. 18 was No. 38A rebuilt in 1897.

Metre gauge locomotive for Assam. 53. 4 illustration, diagram (s. el.).
Six Mastadon 4-8-0 locomotives supplied by Nasmyth Wilson to the Assam Railways & Trading Co. under the supervision of Rendel & Robertson, consulting engineers.

The Selsey Tramway. 54-5. 2 illustration
Chichester, an 0-4-2ST "was said to have" been built by Longbottom, the father of the late locomotive superintendent of the North Staffordshire Railway at  the Railway Foundry in Barnsley in about 1847.  It originated as a six-coupled tank engine with haystack firebox and was damaged in an accident on the GWR in the 1860s and repaired at Swindon Works. It then worked at a colliery near Merthyr before passing into the hands of Peckett who overhauled it for the Selsey company. It had 3ft 6in coupled wheels and 11in x 18in cylinders. An 0-6-0ST Sidlesham was built by Manning Wardle in 1861 (WN 21) and was originally Henrietta supplied to J. & J. Charlesworth of Rothwell Haigh, near Leeds and then sold to Meaking & Dram, contractors of Birkenhead.  In about 1900 it was working on the Blagdon Waterworks and in 1907 was overhauled by Hawthorn Leslie. It had 11in x 18in cylinders and was painted in North Eastern Railway green. The passenger rolling stock was supplied by Brush (three cars) and (one car) by Hurst Nelson. The livery was crimson lake. There were fifteen open goods wagons, four covered wagons and a cattle truck. The article acknowledged the assistance of H.F. Stephens, the engineer of the line, and J.R. Belcher, the locomotive foreman at Selsey. 

A new mechanical light-feed lubricator. 55. diagram
Manufactured by C.C. Wakefield & Co.

Walker, Herbert T. The origin of the balanced locomotive: as shown by the Diaries of John George Bodmer. 56-8. 2 diagrams.
Feature began on page 10.  There were 32 original drawings of locomotives 1 to 3 in existence. Locomotives ran on the London & Birmingham and South Eastern Railways.  The earliest was 14 February 1844 and latest 7 May 1845. Benjamin Cubitt was Locomotive Superintendent of the South Eastern and Brighton & Croydon Joint Railways Committee and gave a favourable report on the working of No. 2 on the South Eastern in July 1843. Fig. 4 is an elevation of a 2-2-2 with 5ft driving wheels and 12 x 24 in. cylinders. Valve motion probably as in 1841 patent. Evidence to Gauge Commission: Bodmer appeared before on 25 October 1845 and wrote to it on 29 August 1845.

The paint shop and carriage painting. 58-9.
This part considers the design of the paint shop with north lights, even temperature, the elimination of draughts and cleanliness. Consideration of paint mixing. Danger of lead poisoning and the need for washing fascilities. Prepartion of surfaces. Actual painting and varnishing. Washing once in traffic. Life five to six years.

Reviews. 60
Valve Setting: simple methods of setting the plain slide valve, Meyer Cut-off: Corliss and poppet types. By Hubert C. Collins. London: Hill Publishing Company.
Compiled from material originally in articles in Power: gives simple, but practical, instructions for the setting of slide valves for all types of engines.
Stokin' and other verses. By Will Lawson. London: Gordon & Gotch, 1908.
Lawson is a poet of the school which has Rudyard Kipling as its high, priest, which shows, the poetry and romance innate to the stern actualities of daily toil, even such prosaic occupations as stoking on an ocean tramp, pulley hauling on a wind jammer, and firing on a freight train or shunting a gqods yard.
The life of Roger Langdon, by himself with  additions by his daughter. Elliott Stock.
The autobiography ceases soon after he joined the Bristol & Exeter Ry. in 1850. The story of his life of self-taught astronomer and stationmaster at Silverton on the G.W. main line is then continned by his daughter. [Ottley 3962].
Japanese Patents, by H. S. Bickerton Brindley. British Press, Ltd.,
Practical handbook to the Japanese laws relating to patents, utility devices, designs arid trade marks.
Catalogue received
Sheffield-Twinberrow Steel Wagons.. McKerrow & Co., of London,
Proprietors of patent system of wagon construction issued, a, sumptuous volume containiug 26 full page half-tone and 49 full page outlme Illuustrations.

No. 200 (15 April 1909)

Railway notes. 61.
Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 61
New George Hughes four-cylinder simple 4-6-0. 6ft 3in coupled wheels, valves on top. Nos. 1506-1522 then complete out of an order of 20. See also page 85. Five 0-8-2Ts in service with Nos. 1501 to 1505. Illustration of 4-4-0 No. 1112 which had been rebuilt from a Hoy four-cylinder compound (see 1901 October) which in turn had based upon an Aspinall 4-4-0. No. 1112 featured a larger boiler with extended smokebox, but retained Joy valve gear. Nos. 1098, 1104, 1105 and 1110 also received the enlarged boilers and Walschaerts valve gear.
London & North Western Ry. 61-2
Latest Experiment type built at Crewe: 1361 Prospero, 1571 Herschel, 2076 Pheasant, 2116 Greystoke, 2621 Ethelred, 2622 Eunomia, 2623 Lord of the Isles, 2628 Banshee, 2629 Terrier and 2630 Buffalo. A further order for sixty in progress. New series of 4-4-2T Precursor tank engines under construction. No. 647, converted to 2-8-0, provided with large boiler, but remained four-cylinder compound. No. 1819, former three-cylinder compound now a simple with large boiler.
Midland Ry. 62
Decision to fit no further large round-top boilers: Belpaire type with extended smokebox being regarded as standard. 4-4-0 No. 323 rebuilt with new frames and boiler with extended smokebox. No. 338 also being reboilered, similar to No. 386. No. 990, first of a new series similar to No. 999, now running: fitted with Deeley's valve gear.
Great Eastern Ry. 62
Nos. 185-189 latest radial condensing tank engines.
Great Northern Ry.
Nos. 1285-1290 latest standard six-coupled saddle tanks from Doncaster Plant. Petrol railcars Nos. 3 and 4, which had worked a supplementary service from Hatfield to Hertford, had been withdrawn from service. The bell from Baldwin Lovett Eames which had served as a call to duty at King's Cross locomotive shed had been replaced by a buzzer and the bell transferred to Hornsey to serve same function. First section of Enfield to Stevenage line to open to Cuffley for freight on 19 April. Passenger engines fitted with spark arresters: Nos. 207 and 209 with McIntosh type and No. 1064 with Notter type. Relaying in London area now performed on weekdays rather than Sundays.
Great Central Ry.
No. 39, first of a new series of eight-coupled mineral engines completed at Gorton. No. 509, 2-4-0 with radial leading wheels and 18in x 26in cylinders and 6ft 9in coupled wheels rebuilt with Belpaire boiler. Originally No. 509 had been intended to be exhibited at Manchester Jubilee Exhibition in 1887 but was displaced by Kitson-built 4-4-0 No. 561. Nos. 506 and 507 were similar to No. 509; Nos. 508, 510 and 511 had leading bogies instead. Thomas Parker introduced the Belpaire boiler to the MSLR in August 1891 with No. 7 (later No. 515). No. 1097 Immingham stationed at Grimsby.
South Eastern & Chatham Ry.
See also page 42: other Wainwright 4-4-0s fitted with Belpaire fireboxes and extended smokeboxes were Nos. 67, 179 and 547. There were also fifteen 6ft 6in express locomotives in service with Belpaire fireboxes but without extended smokeboxes: 157, 160, 165, 166, 176, 273, 275., 491, 497, 504, 506, 511, 514, 515 and 587. 
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry.
Timing of 17.00 Victoria to Brighton reduced to one hour.
Midland & Great Northern Joint Ry.
Another 4-4-2T, No. 20, completed at Melton Constable, similar to the No. 41 illustrated in Locomotive Mag., 1905, 12, (15 Sep.)., but new locomotive fitted with extended smokebox. It took place of one of the Hudswell Clark bogie tanks, although last of these, No. 9 retained to work engineer's private saloon (Mariott's Chariot?)
North Eastern Ry.
G.T. Glover, works manager of wagon dept at Shildon became works manager, Gateshead. A. Collinson remained at Middlesbrough. Robert W. Worsdell, manager of carriage works at Heaton became works manager of wagon dept at Shildon; H. Copperthwaite succeeding at Heaton. Nos. 759 and 762 completed order for S class 4-6-0. Nos. 1049 and 1050 first two of series of P3 class 0-6-0 type built R. Stephenson.
Nidd Valley Light Ry.
Hudswell Clark secured order for locomotive.
Soudan Government Rlys. 63.
Five Mogul 2-6-0 3ft 6in gauge tender engines built by Kitson: 4ft 3in coupled wheels, 16½in x 22in cylinders actuated by Walschaerts valve gear, bar frames, and Belpaire firebox. Livery black lined with red and gold. Nos. 100-104.
Colliery engine
Bolckow Vaughan opened coal mine in Richmond District of Yorkshire: Kitson supplied six-coupled tank engine with 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 18in x 26in cylinders with Belpaire firebox to work traffic to NER: numbered 114 Airedale.
Ravenglass & Eskdale Ry. 63. illustration
Line into receivership, but notes Bill deposited to reconstruct the line: illustration six-coupled locomotive Nabb Gill.
Locomotive fuel and performance.
Fuel costs 25 major United Kingdom railways: second half year 1908 compared with (1907): £3,219,137 (£3,320,589); train miles 186,300,005 (190,908,085)
Messrs Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co.
Orders for locomotives from Moss Bay Iron & Steel Co. and from Hickmans Ltd of Wolverhampton.
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Death of William P. Henszey, partner in Burnham, Williams & co. on 23 March 1909.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 64-5. illustration (port.), diagram (s. el.)
Last Sinclair designed locomotives were the Class V 2-4-2Ts known as “Scotchmen,” built by Messrs. Neilson & Co., of Glasgow. Shown in Fig. 131 they were a considerably larger class than preceding tank engines. The design included outside cylinders, with the standard cab, chimney and other details usual on Sinclair’s engines. They were constructed by Neilson & Co. in 1864-5: WN 1083-1102, running numbers 140-159.
These engines are noteworthy as being amongst the earliest, if not the very first, of the 2-4-2 type of tank engines which subsequently became popular on a large number of railways. Their chief dimensions were: diameter of coupled wheels 5-ft. 7-in., diameter of leading and trailing 3-ft. 7¼-in., the leading being on a Bissel truck; cylinders 15-in. diameter by 22-in. stroke. grate area 11.7 ft2.; total heating surface: 1034.76 ft2., working pressure 120 psi.; total weight in working order 36 tons 6 cwt. 1 qr.
In July, 1880, engine No. 150 was rebuilt with a boiler of similar design and dimensions to the original, but none of the others were rebuilt. No. 141 was, however, fitted with Ramsbottom safety valves. Nos. 140 and 152 had their cabs altered after the original ones were destroyed in mishaps, the latter by running off the road on the Maldon branch in 1869 and No. 140 after being in collision with No. 196 at Stratford in 1873. Plain weather boards were substituted without roofs, those of No. 140 having rectangular windows like the Johnson tanks, whilst No. 152 had round windows. When new they were employed on the Enfield service, whilst others replaced the Sharp singles on the Brentwood service and some were sent to work on the country branches.

The Hasler Speed Recorder & Indicator. 65-7. 2 diagrams.
Operated by movement of the connecting rod and recorded on a dial and on a paper record.

Locos. of the Chester & Holyhead Ry. 67 diagram
Information provided by Vulcan Foundry of six locomotives supplied in 1847: WN 263-8 and named Britannia, Menai, Bangor, Carnarvon, Flint and Chester. They were sold to LNWR Southern Division in 1859 becoming Nos. 176-181 without names. They were long boiler loacomotives with two leading axles and a single driving axle (6ft diameter driving wheels) at the rear with outside cylinders (15in x 22in); a grate area of 10.25ft2 and 9812 total heating surface. THe item ends with a statement condemning correspondents who claimed that the line did not own locomotives.

Reviews. 67
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution., for the year ending June 30th 1907.
Railway working and appliances. E.S. Hadley. Longmans Green
Originated as lectures to the clerical grades on the Great Western Railway on topics like signalling, brakes, goods traffic, slip carriages, etc.
Cassell's Cyclopaedia of Mechanics; edited Paul N. Hasluck.
5 volumes
Notes on the automatic vacuum brake. Locomotive Publishing Co.
Additional material on slip coach working.

New locomotives, Leopoldina Ry. 68. 2 illustration
Metre gauge railway in Brazil. Two locomotives supplied designed by Livesey Son & Henderson. A 4-4-0 supplied by Robert Stephenson with a steel firebox, 3ft 11in coupled wheels, 13in x 18in cylinders and a total heating surface of 662ft2. There was also an articulated 2-6-6-4 supplied by Kitson with side tanks and "tender" which had four 14in x 18in cylinders, 2ft 10¾in coupled wheels, 1291,12ft2 total heating surface, a grate area of 25.2ft2 and a maximum axle load of 9½tons.  It had a Belpaire firebox and a working pressure of 175psi.

Magnesia sectional locomotive lagging. 68-70.
85% magnesium carbonate and 15% asbestos produced in blocks. Invented by Keasbey & Mattison of Amber Pennsylvania. illustration shows as applied to an Ivatt large Atlantic. See also page 122..

A souvenir of the broad gauge. 70. illustration
0-6-0 Zetes built at Swindon in 1855. Photographed at Gloucester in 1866 with Fireman D. Drinkwater, Driver Hood, and J. Bridges, shunter. The locomotive had 5ft coupled wheels, 1574ft2 total heating surface and the boiler ran at 120psi. Notes series on broad gauge locomotives in Locomotive Magazine Vols. 6-8.

W. Marriott, "She won't steam". 70-2
Nominally identical locomotives would steam differently. Causes include smokebox drawing air, mislocated or damaged blower and coal quality (Derbyshire preferred to South Yorkshire).

New express locomotive, N. E. R. 73 + folding diagram. illustration.
Includes a sectionalized cross section. Notes on intended York to Edinburgh workings (non-stop from Newcastle), also notes that fitted with patented variable blast pipes coupled with a device to reuce accumulation of ash in the smokebox..

Notes on the Westinghouse brake. 73-5.
Continued on page 92.

Views on the N.W.R. (India). 75-6. 2 illustration
4-4-0T rebuilt from 4-4-0 at Quetta workshops to design of L.E.H. Yates, Locomotive, and Carriage Superintendent. The locomotive was intended for working shuttle trains and another rebuild was intended to follow. 5ft 1¾in coupled wheels; 16in x 24in cylinders, 969.5ft2 total heating surface. Also illustration of Kach station with snow plough fitted locomotive on Sind to Pishin section.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 76-8. 3 diagrams., table
The two-wheeled bogie or pony truck was an entirely American invention. The first to be built so-fitted for use in Britain were the Beyer Peacock tank engines constructed for the Isle of Man Railway in 1873. Fig. 13 shows one of these trucks. The first main line locomotives equipped in this way were the 15 Mogul 2-6-0s constructed by Neilson for the Great Eastern Railway in 1879. Six heavy 2-6-2Ts for the Mersey Railway had pony trucks at both ends. Other locomotives were built by British firms for export. The essential feature of the truck was its pivotting at a centre some distance from the truck: a long beam or radius bar connected the truck with the pivot. It is argued that the outside cylinder 4-4-0Ts built for the Metropolitan Railway featured a two-axle pony truck rather than a bogie. The GWR was making extensive use of pony trucks at that time: 80 2-6-0 mineral engines, 31 2-8-0 mineral engines, and 112 2-6-2Ts. The Great Northern 4-4-2 passenger tanks of the 1501 class and the 0-8-2Ts designed by Ivatt had trailing pony trucks (although some commentators incorrectly called these radial axles.
Radial axles: First locomotive built with a radial axle was the Cross locomotive built for the St. Helens Railway in 1863. This was followed by the Bridges Adams patent applied in 1864-6 to tank engines on the Great Northedrn and London, Chatham & Dover Railways. Up to 1873 some 60 radioal tank engines were at work in Britain. All had outside bearings to the radial wheels. The hornplates instead of being parallel were constructed to a circular arc. These engines had a tendency to lateral unsteadiness. Webb introduced a modified design in 1880 in which the radial guide was much longer and vthe hornplateson the opposite sides of the engine were connected by a long box. Fig. 14 showed the Webb type of radial axle and a table showed locomotives fitted with it on the LNWR and other railways. Also mentions a GWR small tank engine (0-4-2T) No. 535 in which the trailing axle lacked hornblocks and the axleboxes lacked guides. The lateral movement of the axlebox was controlled solely by the spring hangers formed of strong chain links. The system worked moderately well on the small locomotive, but did not translate well to the larger 3521 class where it caused

Correspondence. 78

British locomotive design. Mernok.
Your contributor, Mr. E. L. Ahrons, on page 29 of the February issue, states that Mr. Wm. Stroudley was the only locomotive engineer who set the outside cranks on the same side of the crank axle as the inside cranks. This statement may be true, so far as England is concerned, but I wish to point out that the same practice was adopted by M. Mayer in many of the express engines of the Western Ry. of France. M. Mayer was a contemporary of Mr. Stroudley. By-the-bye, this previous practice resulted in the adoption of the present Martin crank-axle, as used on French compounds.

British locomotive design. Maurice D. Sargeant.
I notice on page 29 in Ahrons' able article on "Historical points on the details of British locomotive design," the statement, that Wm. Stroudley was the only locomotive engineer who ever placed the inside or driving cranks on the same side of the crank axle as the corresponding outside or coupling rod cranks.
Wm. Dean, when locomotive superintendent of the G.W.R., adopted a similar plan in his 4-4-0 express engines of the Atbara type. As Ahrons points out, with this arrangement of cranks much larger balance weights are necessary, and when, as in the G.W.R. engines in question, outside bearings with the necessary outside cranks are used, the size and weight of the balance weights is considerable, as witness the very large balance weights in the above-mentioned engines. These weights are clearly shown in the photograph of No. 3410 Sydney, reproduced on page 195, Vol. 6. There can be no doubt that the "hammer blow." effect on the rails when the engirre is travelling- at high speeds must be very detri- mental to the permanent way, and go far to nullify any saving due to feel decrease in the wear of the driving wheel axleboxes from this arrange- ment of the cranks, especially should the whole of the balancing be done in the first pair of coupled wheels.
Of course, in the case of outside cylinder engines, such increment of the weight of the balanced weights is unavoidable, but as such engines usually have crank pins set directly in the wheels, and inside bearings only, the conditions are not so unfavourable as when double bearings and inside cylinders are used. See also letter from Henry Dearberg on p. 116..

Midland Ry. — Metropolitan bogie tank engines. 79. illustration, diagram.
In 1867 the Midland Railway ordered ten 2-4-0Ts from Beyer Peacock to work between Kentish Town and Moorgate Street. They were numbered 230-239. On the very first day that the line opened (13 July 1868) it was found that the wheelbase was too long to cope with the curves on the Metropolitan Railway. To assist the Midland the Metropolitan sold six of its 4-4-0Ts (WN 775-9 and 852). The names were removed and MR Nos. 204-209 were allotted. By 1909 all had been withdrawn except No. 204, by then No. 1198, which was used for shunting in the Derby locomotive yard. This locomotive retained its Bissell truck, although on the Metroplolitan Railway these had been replaced by Adams bogies. The ten tank engines (Nos. 230-9) were converted into tender engines and worked between St Pancras, Luton and Northampton. See also Volume 14 page 208..

Re-built goods locomotive, L. B. & S. C. R.. 80. illustration.
Cites what is now known as Burtt's Locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. to note the Billinton Vulcan 0-6-0 locomotives. No. 545 (illustrated) had been rebuilt by Marsh with a new boiler and extended smokebox and modified suspension. It had a total heating surface of 1288ft2.

Steel snow plough, N.E.R. 80-1.
Designed Wilson Worsdell: weighed 27 tons.

Smoking saloon and ladies' boudoir coaches, Paris-Orleans Ry. 81+ 2 illustrations.
76ft long vehicles for luxurious Bourdeaux expresses. Inetriors illustrated.

12-ton narrow gauge hopper wagons, Harrogate Gas Co. 82, 83. illustration., diagram (side elevation)
Three steel 2ft gauge wagons supplied by G.H. Sheffield built to design of Sheffield-Twinberrow system.

Goods wagons, Bengal-Nagpur Ry. 83-4. illustration
Built by Hurst Nelson to design of Sir John Wolfe Barry; steel open-sided bogie wagons for 2ft 6in gauge. Also supplied 45 carriage underframes with pressed steel bogies.

To contractors. 84.
The London Railway Wagon Co., had for disposal a number of registered 10-ton, English-made, secondhand mineral wagons. The framework is of English oak, and the tops, ends and sides are of American red deal 3-in. thick. They were being overhauled in the shops at Nottingham, where they can be inspected, and will be delivered free to purchasers anywhere in the United Kingdom, painted and lettered, on very reasonable terms.

North British Ry. 84
The system of hauling trains from the Queen Street (High Level) Station at Glasgow to Cowlairs by means of a wire cable and stationary winding engine, which had been practised for over half a century, is now definitely abolished. The Cowlairs incline rises 150-ft. in 1 mile 450 yards, the greater part being a gradient of 1 in 41, and half the distance being tunnelled through rock. Engine and train together were hauled up the incline by a hemp, afterwards an endless wire, cable to which a "messenger" rope was attached, the operator, of the winding engine being. controlled 'by the locomotive's whistle signals. At the summit the rope was detached without stoppthg the train. For the descent, special brake vans took the place of the locomotive, and controlled the train. The cost of maintenance and working this system was about £5,000 per annum, and considerable saving is expected by the substitution of banking engines, which was the method originally tried on this incline and abandoned owing to the lack of adequate engine power.

Correspondence. 84.

The "Crewe" goods engine. Loco
No. 65 Charon was the first Allan goods engine built at Crewe and 73 Prince Albert was the first Crewe passenger engine. They were both built in 1842 before the formal opening of the works. When Prince Albert died in 1861, the name at the wish of the Queen was removed from the engine. In. 1875 the engine was named Locomotion, and was sent to the Darlington Jubilee. It is true that the Grand Junction had a Charon in 1840, but that one was sold and replaced by the Crewe Charon in 1842. The Board of Trade return dated 28 October 1841 shows the Grand Junction Co. had 67 engines, of which only three had outside cylinders, and these were the three converted [italics in original text] by Mr. Allan at the Edge Hill shops; but in 1845 the Gauge Report shows that there were then 27 "outside" and 46 inside cylinder engines. In 1853 every engine belonging to Crewe had "outside cylinders" and so this remained until the N.E division engines were hrought into the Crewe list on 1 August 1857, by Mr Ramsbottom.

Nasmyth's first locomotive. R. Wright.
Re article on James Nasmyth reference is made to the first locomotive constructed by Nasmyth, Gaskell & Co., named the Bridgewater. This locomotive was of the 2-2-2 type with a four-wheeled tender, and the principal dimensions were as follows: Cylinders 12½-in. diameter by 16-in. stroke, driving wheels 5-ft. diameter, leading and trailing wheels 3-ft. 6-in. diameter. boiler barrel 8-It. long by 3-ft. 4-in. diameter, copper firebox 3-ft. 7-in. by 2-ft, 11-in., tubes (brass) 72 2¼-in. outside diameter and 8 13/8-in. diameter, double crank axle of best Blackbarrow iron.
After remaining on stock in N asmyth, Gaskell  &, Co.'s works for over two years, during which time it made occasional trips on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway, it was eventually sold in April, 1841, to Mr. John Waring, the contractor to the Manchester & Birmingham Railway, and despatched by canal to his headquarters at Sandbach, near Crewe. Where it went after Mr. Waring had finished his work on the Manchester & Birmingham Railway I cannot trace, but perhaps it was taken to Liverpool, as Mr. Waring was contractor to the Albert Dock there in 1843. It would be interesting to know whether any of your readers can trace the later history of this locomotive or whether anyone possesses a photo or other illustration of some antique, but unknown. loco which could be' identified with the "Bridgewater."

Number 201 (15 May 1909)

Railway notes. 85
Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 85. illustration
George Hughes eight-coupled radial tank locomotives (0-8-2T) Nos. 1501-1505 for specific purpose of banking and heavy coal shunting at Aintree and Fazakerly sidings, Liverpool, and at Accrington. 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 21½in x 26in cylinders, 2198ft2 total heating surface and 25.6ft2 grate area. Total weight 84 tons.
Error in description of Hughes 4-6-0
(see page 61): four cylinders did not drive on to a single axle, but outside cylinders were actuated via rocking shafts from the inside valve gear.

London & North Western Ry. 85.
New engines of Experiment class: Nos. 2624 Saracen, 2626 Chillington, 2627 President Lincoln, and 1135 Prince George. The first five of the new series of ten 4-4-2T engines expected: Nos. 920, 935, 1164, 1219 and 1523. Nos. 1836 and 1865 former three-cylinder compound 0-8-0s converted to simples and fitted with larger boilers. Two eighteen inch goods engines Nos. 710 and 930 reduced to 17 inch diameter cylinders. New Levenshulme to Wilmslow relief line opened to passenger traffic on 2 May and four of London to Manchester expresses diverted on to it

Midland & Great Northern Joint Ry. 85.
0-6-0 No. 69 reboilered with large boiler similar to that on No. 62.

Great Eastern Ry. 86
Ten new 2-4-2 radial tank engines, Nos. 71-80, completed. Much damage. caused to the locomotive shed at Ilford by a. fire which. broke out on the night of 2 May.

Midland Ry. 86
There are now in service 45 of the three-cylinder 4-4-0 'compounds, bearing running Nos. 1'000-1'044. Apart from these, and the 4-4-0 engines with Belpaire fireboxes, which range from No, 700 upwards, the whole of the, 4-4-0 tender passenger engines are now re- numbered from 300-562 inclusive, their original numbers being 1312-1321, 1327-1331, 1333-1345, 1562-1581, 1657-1666,. 1738-1757, 1808-1822, 80-87,11,14, 2183-2202,156-160, 2203-2217, 2183-2217, 184-199, 161-164; 230-239, 2581-2590, 1667-1676, 150, 153-155, 204-209, 2421-2440; 60-66, 93, 138,139, 67-69, 151, 152,165-169, 805-809;  2636-2640,and 2591-2600. A large number of these engines had been rebuilt with larger boilers, some round-topped, of the standard type now abandoned in favour of the Belpaire pattern. Two new  standard cast-iron chimneys were being  introduced, of the same general type, but differing in details,for Johnson type and the round-top and Belpaire boilers respectively.

North Eastern Ry. 86
No. 1241 of the R1 class, illustrated in last issue.was running; and No..1242 was nearing completion. Leading dimensions of new X class, 4-8-0 tank engines, then in course of completion at Gateshead: cylinders (three) 18-in., by 26-in.,of which the inside cylinder drives the first pair of coupled wheels, and the two, outside d:rive the second. pair; diameter of bogie wheels 3-fi. 1½-in., and, of eight-coupled drivers 4-ft. 7¼-in·. total heating surface 1310 ft2.; grate'area 23 ft2

London Tilbury & Southend Ry. 86
R. Stephenson & Co. Ltd., of Darlington, were building four tank engines of the 4-4-2 type, practically similar in dimensions to No. 37 and the others as rebuilt at Plaistow by Whitelegg, illustrated and described in our issue of January and February, 1908. .It is intended to exhibit one of these engines at the forthcoming exhibition at Shepherd's Bush.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 86
The wagon-building shop at Brighton was being converted into a supplementary locomotive shed to accommodate about 15 tender enginese on two sets of rails. A large Desrumaux water softening plant was being installed. No. 210, four coupled bogie express engine had been rebuilt similarly to No. 321, 'but with thee numbers in.large gilt letters on the cab.side sheets, No. 466, six-coupled, radial tank, had been fitted with an extended smokebox. Nos. 298 and 299 had been renumbered 698 and 699. E class tank No. 99, and; No. 638, A class had been allotted to shunting in: the yard at Brighton, and have Locomotive Department Brighton painted in white on the side tanks.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 86
The latest engines put in service were No. 315, 4-4-0 expr .passenger with. Belpaire firebox and extened smokebox , and Nos, 162, 164 and 177, 0-4-4T passenger tanks.

Great Northern Ry. 86 illustration
Illustration of the pioneer of the large Atiantic type, No. 251 fitted experimentally in 1907 with. a stove pipe chimney. No: 988 of-the 990 had been fittedv with Schmidt superheater and large cylinders. Ten eight-coupled mineral engines (0-8-0) were ton be built, five with superheaters. Nos. 41 and 42 were new new members of 1326 class.

Dublin & South Eastern Ry. 86.
Nos. 4 Lismore and 5, 0-6-2 tank. engines built by Kitson & Co., Ltd.,'in 1897 had' been rebuilt as 0-6-0 tender engines, with 18½in by 26-in. cylinders, and 4-ft. 6-in. wheels.

Railway exhibits at Shepherd's Bush. 87. illustration
Ivatt Atlantic No. 1442 and Stirling Single No. 1 exhibited at the International Exhibition. No. 1 had been partially dismaantled when withdrawn in 1907, but was given a thorough overhaul for the exhibition. The track on which the exhibits stood represented the best practice of the periods: 80lb rail for No. 1, and 100lb rail for the Atlantic. The Atlantic also incorporated a section of water trough beneath the locomotive. The London Tilbury & Southend Railway exhibited a 4-4-2T and the Central London Railway had a section of tunnel to demonstrate to visitors how they would alight from a disabled train.

Mallet articulated freight locomotive, Southern Pacific Railroad. 88. illustration
2-8-8-2 Mallet compound manuafactured at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Oil- fired for working between Reno in Nevada and Sacramento. Cylinders: 26in x 30in high pressure and 40in by 30in low pressure. 4ft 9in coupled wheels. Total heating surface 6393ft2 and a grate area of 68.42.

G.N., G.C. and G.E. Combine. 88.
Decision to abandon Bill which would have led to a working agreement between the three companies.

Football Cup-Tie specials. 88.
Saturday 24 April at Crystal Palace: LNWR ran 34 specials; the GWR 26, the GNR 25, the Midland 20, the GCR 9 and the GER 2.

Rhymney Ry. [boiler explosion]. 88.
On 21 April 1909 0-6-0ST No. 97 blew up at Cardiff Docks killing three men and seriously injuring a further three.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 89-90. 5 diagrams. (side.elevations.)
Mr. S.W. Johnson was chosen. See also Volume 45 page 56

Turkish Railways. 90-1.
Review of the thinly developed Turkish railway system and its expansion mainly with German assistance. Inclues some comment on the Orient Express.

J.W. Cross. Notes on the Westinghouse brake. 92-4. 3 diagrams.
Previous Part began page 73. This part includes the steam pump and the main reservoir fitted to the locomotive.

Reviews. 94.
Engineering Wonders of the World; edited Archibald Williams. Part 1. London: Thomas Nelson. Fortnightly.
Part work: the first issue included an articles on the White Pass and Yukon Railway, and on the Rotherhithe Tunnel.
General Directory of Locomotive and Carriage Department Officers of India. Locomotive Publishing Co.
Intended to be annual.

[LNWR post cards]. 94.
Five new sets (Oban and the Trossachs, the Scotch Express, Watering Places on the Clyde, On the Caledonian Canal, and the Isle of Man) brought the series up to No. 60)

Coloured post cards. 94
Locomotive Publishing Co. cards based on oil paintings of: broad gauge express engine Great Western; GCR train hauled by thre-cylinder compound No. 258, an Atlantic locomotive on the East Indian Ry, and NER steel snow plough No. 21.

New locomotves, Manila Ry. 95. 2 illustration
Locomotives supplied by North British Locomotive Co., Queen's Park Works for 3ft 6in gauge Manila Railway: 0-6-2T with 3ft 4¾in coupled wheels, 13in x 18in cylinders, 588ft2 total heating surface and 9ft2 grate area. 4-4-2 with 5ft coupled wheels, 16in x 24in cylinders, 1080ft2 total heating surface and 16.5ft2 grate area. The 4-4-2 had a Belpaire firebox and a tender cab. Both locomotives operated at 180psi.

Fanghanel, W.P. Deterioration of tube plates. 96. 3 diagrams.
Smokebox tube plate made of mild steel. Two ways of fixing the plate to the barrel: by an exterior angle ring or by internal plate or drum head. The tube pllate deforms due to the expansion of the copper tubes and grooving takes place which is exacerbated by corrosion due to eltrolytic action.

4-4-2 side tank locomotives, Ballycastle Ry. 97, illustration
Two locomotives supplied by Kitson & Co. to the design of G.T.M. Bradshaw, locomotive superintendent and resident engineer. Running Nos. 3 and 4. These 3ft gauge locomotives had 14¾in x 21in cylinders, with balanced slide valves actuated by Walschaerts valve gear, and a Belpaire boiler with a total heating surface of 852ft2 and a grate area of 12ft2. the engtinesx ran easily rouund 4 chain curves.

Six-coupled passenger tank locomotive South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 98. illustration
Wainwright P Class 0-6-0T (No. 754 illustrated) intended for use on light branch lines. They were fitted with a patent louvre spark arrester. The coupled wheels were 3ft 9in diameter, the cylinders 12in x 18in, the total heating surface 439.03ft2 and the grate area 9.1ft2.

Centering locomotive chimneys. 98-9. illustration
Simple apparatus for ensuring that locomotive was truly level to enable a plumb line to be fixed between the bottom of the chimney and the top of the blast pipe

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 99-101. 5 diagrams.
Axleboxes: the then contemporary practice was to fit axleboxes with sponges to improve lubrication. Johnson had applied the practice to tender engines in the 1880s, but French railways had adopted them earlier.
Springs and spring gear:The LNWR had modified the plate spring to incorporate a bent claw to hold the plates together, and the L&YR had modified this to incorporate a clip as sometimes the plates had fallen out. The GWR favoured open plate springs, but employed longer (4ft 6in) plates  which led to smoother running, especially on baulk road. Fig. 43:
Volute or spiral springs replced plate springs on the driving axleboxes. From 1897 the L&YR adopted eliptical plate springs, and the GNR also followed this policy. Nevertheless, Pearson had used eliptical springs on the bogie wheels of his 4-2-4T engines. Compensating levers were used from 1851 by R. & W. Hawthorn. One major disadvantage was that if one spring broke then the whole side collapsed. Fig. 19 shows the radial wheels of an Irish railwaay 2-4-2T with patented conical spiral Timmis springs. Volute springs were not common, but Fig. 20 shows them as applied to a light 2-4-2T.

The Rye & Camber Steam Tramway. 101-2. 2 illustration
Two miles long, 3ft gauge: possessed two locomotives and two coaches. Ran on flat bottom rail. The locomotives were supplied by Bagnall: WN 1461 Camber and WN 1511 Victoria. The former had 5½in x 9in cylinders, the latter 6in x 10in: the former had 1ft 9½in coupled wheels, the latter 2ft 0½in, the former had a total heating surface of 63.5ft2. Covers were provided to protect the piston rods and cross heads from sand and the lowness of their position. There were two bogie cars: one built by Bagnall and the other by E.P.S. Jones of the Rother Ironworks of Rye. H.F. Stephens was the engineer of the line.

Saloon carriage for H.M. Queen Alexandra. 103-4. 4 illustration
Wilson Worsdell luxury Royal vehicle built at Holgate Carriage Works. 65ft 6in long vehicle which ran on six-wheel bogies, with Doncaster features to match the King's saloon built at Doncaster in 1908.

Correspondence. 104.

Birmingham and Gloucester engines. Loco.
In Volume 14 p. 70, there is a list of the "B and G" engines. Engine No. 5 was named England, built by Norris & Co., not by Nasmyth & Co. There was no engine on the line named Camilla, but there was an engine named Camp Hill, No. 11. No doubt CamilIa is a misprint for Camp Hill.

Early Midland tank engines. Loco.
In 1868, before the Nos. 204 to 206 class of tanks came, the Midland Company had four tank engines, Nos. 200 to 203. Nos. 200, 201, 202 had the leading and driving wheels coupled, and a small trailing pair of wheels and cylinders inside. No. 203 was built by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1865, and had a pair of leading wheels, four wheels coupled behind, and outside cylinders. About thirty-five years ago No. 201 was in a serious collision at Elmsthorpe. Can any photograph or details be given of these interesting engines?-

Early Midland tank engines. Loco.
She won't steam. W. Marriott. 104.
The author of the article bearing the above heading, which appeared in our April issue, has been good enough to forward to us the following letter; We have pleasure in inserting Mr. Deeley's appreciative letter, though it is not our usual practice to publish correspondence which is commendatory and not critical of our articles.
Midland Railway, Locomotive Department, Derby; Feb. 12th, 1909
Dear Mr Marriott. I have read your article through carefully. It is very interesting and I feel sure that there are many workers in running sheds who would be the better for readmg it and remembering it. As you point out, bad steaming is very often due to some small defect which. has escaped detection,
Yours very truly, (Sgd.) R. M. Deeley,

"Crewe" engines. W.D.S.
Re letter in April issue, signed "Loco." will the writer be good enough to give his authority for the statements made in the first two sentences in respect of Charon and Prince Albert? Will he also set forth some proof of the allegation in the third sentence that the name of the latter engine was removed" when Prince Albert died in 1861" The Prince's demise occurred on 15 December of that year, leaving only sixteen days of 1861 to run, and it is desirable to ascertain when and how the Queen's wish was so promptly expressed, and whether there is any record of the Company's acquiescence. Many of your readers have a deep interest in the history of these -famous locomotives, and would be glad to have such statements fully verified.

No. 202 (15 June 1909)

Railway notes. 105

Great Western Ry. 105. illustration
A new series of 4-4-0 locomotives, of a slightly modified Bulldog type, had been put in order, five being already built and ten more in course of construction. Known as the Bird class, bore the following numbers and names: Nos. 3731 Blackbird, 3732 Bullfinch," 3733 Chaffinch, 3734 Cormorant, 3735 Flamingo, 3736 Goldfinch, 3737 Jackdaw, 3738 Kingfisher,3739 Nightingale, 3740 Peacock, 3741 Pelican, 3742 Penguin, 3743 Seagull, 3744 Skylark and 3745 Starling. The chief differences of design from that of the Bulldog class as originally built, consist in providing the standard taper boiler, with an extended smokebox 9-in, longer than in the Bulldog, and in a considerable deepening of the frame plates around the coupled wheels. The boiler has nearly 200 sq. ft. less heating surface, and the grate area is 3-ft. less, but working pressure has been raised to 195 psi.
A new four-cylinder simple 4-6-0 locomotive was out: No. 4021 King Edward.

London & North Western Ry. 105
Following were first six of a new series of 4-6-0 Experiment type locomotives: Nos. 1406 George Findlay, 1413 Henry Cort, 1477 Hugh Myddelton, 1498 Thomas Savery, 1566 John Penn and 1661 Wordsworth. Nos. 1536, 1551, 2077, 2223, and 2228 completed the order for ten new 4-4-2 passenger tank locomotives. There were now only six engines of the John Hick class, the others having been withdrawn from service.
Nos. 1821 and 1864, three-cylinder compounds, had been converted to simple, with larger boilers. Nos. 1263 and 2328, 18-in. goods, had their cylinders reduced to 17-in. diameter. Several 0-6-0 saddle tank engines, hitherto numbered in the duplicate list, had been transferred to the capital list, as Nos. 388 and 1548. On 1 June the branch line from Holland Arms to Pentraeth was extended to Red Wharf Bay and Benllech, with an intermediate station at Llandbedrgoch. A.C. Feiron had entire charge of the advertising department of this line, an office formerly conducted by C.E. Grasemann.

Midland Ry. 105
Nos. 991-993 were new 4-4-0 passenger engines similar to No. 999, fitted with Deeley's valve gear. Nos. 328, 335, 340 and 350, older 4-4-0 engines, had been rebuilt with the new standard boiler. The Baldwin 2-6-0 goods engines. were being withdrawn from service

Great Central Ry. 106
After undergoing extensive trials, the 3-cylinder simple .Atlantic No. 1090 was receiving its service coats of paint, and No. 44, the second of the new, series of 8:coupled mineral engines, is also in the paint shops awaiting completion.
No, 16, a standard 6-coupled goods engine, had been fitted with the Schrnidt superheater and piston valves, and the frames had to be lengthened at the leading end to give clearance for the tail rods of valves and pistons. This engine was also supplied with a Ritter's six- piston force lubricator.

North Eastern Ry. 106
Nos. 1243 and 1244 of the R1 Class, illustrated in April issue, were nearing.completion, Nos; 1217, 1236,. 1026,.and 1042 of the R. class had been fitted, with raised fronts to their chimneys, as also No. 2007 of the S class (4-6-0). Nos. 1053, 1056 and 1060 of the P3 class had been delivered by R. Stephenson & Co., Ltd.
No. 1700 of class T (with piston valves) and Nos. 527, 1002 and 1709 of class T1 (with flat valves) had been fitted with the combined variable blastpipe and ash-ejector.

North London Ry. 106
Eight engines were stationed at Willesden Sheds (L. & N. W. R.), and one at Camden. Presumably the South Acton (N.L.R.) Shed was to be closed. One of the inside-cylinder engines, No. 109, has been sent to Crewe for repairs.

London, Tilbury & Southend Ry. 106
New 4-4-2 tank engines had been delivered by R. Stephenson & Co., Ltd., bearing Nos. 79 Rippleside, 80 Southend-on-Sea (this engine was at the Imperial International Exhibition, Shepherd's Bush), 81 Aveley, and 82 Crowstone (WN 3366-9). These engines had 19-in. by 26-in. cylinders and 6-ft. 6-in. couplrd wheels, and were fitted with steam reversing gear and a patent variable blast pipe worked in conjunction therewith.

Great Eastern Ry. 106
On Friday, 4 June representatives of the Press, and others interested, were invited by the directors to take part in the inaugural run of the summer express train frbm Liverpool Street to Hunstanton, via Ely, Downham, and Lynn. The train consisted of vestibuled stock, the Cromer section of the Norfolk Coast Express, and comprised six vehicles—it left Liverpool Street at 10.25 and arrived at Hunstanton at 13.05. The return journey on Saturday, 5 June, was as follows :-left Hunstanton at 13.15 and arrived at Liverpool Street at 15.55. Hunstanton is quite close to some of the most charming scenery in the Eastern Counties and Sandringham is within an hour's drive.

Great Northern Ry. 106. illustration
Six of the new series of 4-4-0 passenger engines (1326 class) were at work, Nos. 41-46.
The accompanying illustration shows No. 144, one of the 0-8-2 mineral tank engines with I7½-in. cylinders, without condensing gear. These engines were all working in the Nottngham and Leeds districts, so that the condensing apparatus which was fitted for working through the Underground to Moorgate is no longer necessary. The cylinder diameter has also been reduced.
No. 1185, one of the Baldwin 2-6-0 goods engines, had been withdrawn from service.

Brecon & Merthyr Ry. 106
J. Dunbar, late works manager of the Oswestry shops of the Cambrian Rys., had been appointed locomotive superintendent of the B. & M. in succession to G.C. Owen, who was killed on the line near Machen on 18 April.

Cardiff Ry. 106
The new line from Treforest Junction, via Pontypridd, to the Bute Docks, Cardiff, was opened on Saturday, 15 May, the Marquess of Bute and other distinguished passengers being on the inaugural train.

O. Winder. 106
Manager of the Horwich Works of the L. & Y. Ry. had been appointed chief of the Oldbury Works of the Metropolitan Amalgamated Ry. Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 107-8. 4 diagrams. (side elevations.)
Figs. 137-40.

Ten-coupled locomotives, Servian State Rys. 109-10.
Borsig built 0-10-0 Golsdorf compound locomotives with first, third and fifth axles having 1-inch of side play. High pressure cylinders 22in x 25in; low pressure 33¾ x 25in; coupled wheels 4ft 3¾in. Boiler pressure 200 psi. Firebox designed for light Serbian coal.

Testing a locomotive. 110.
Tests for new locomotives at works without a suitable length of test track. Locomotive placed on packings so that coupled wheels were clear of the floor. Steam was raised with assistance of temporary blower, then locomotive tested at low speed in forward and reverse checking that motion did not run hot. After fitting brakes further tests could be conducted to ensure that jointing, glands, etc were sound.

Walker, Herbert T. The origin of the balanced locomotive: as shown by the Diaries of John George Bodmer. 110-13. 5 diagrams., plan

G.N. and L.&N.W.R. expresss locomotive trials. 113.
LNWR locomotive No. 412 worked from Doncaster GNR shed for a month commencing 10 June 1909. On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays it worked the 06.10 Doncaster to Leeds; 07.50 Leeds to London; 13.30 King's Cross to Doncaster. On Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays worked 12.19 Doncaster to London and 17.45 return.

The first locomotive, Buenos Ayres Western Ry. 114. illustration
La Portenta built by Manning Wardle for service in Crimea on the military railway from Balaklava to Sevastopol. Used with La Argentina to haul trains on opening day29 August 1857. See also letter from W.E.S. Brown on page 200.

Tank locomotive, No. 4, Waterford and Tramore R. 114-15. illustration
Andrew Barclay 0-4-2T with Cortazzi trailing truck. It had 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 15in x 22in cylinders, a total heating surface of 918ft2 and a grate area of 12ft2. It replaced a Bury single (see Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 15 April)

Automatic vacuum and steam brake combination release valve. 115. diagram.
Gresham & Craven.

Correspondence. 116

Some historical points in the details of British locomotive design. Henry W. Dearberg.
I have taken extre~ely great interest i,n reading your correspondent's views on Mr. Stroudleys practice of placing the coupling rods on the same. axis as the connecting rods, instead of m direct opposition as is usual. He states that,"there can be no doubt that the hammer blow effect on the rails when the engine is travelling at high speeds must be very detrimental to the permanent way, and go far to nullify any savmg due to decreased wear of the driving wheel axleboxes from this arrangement of cranks, especially should the balancing be done in the first pair of coupled wheels." Now. this statement of Sargeant's contains matter with which I, as an engineer, must totally disagree. First, I think it easy to see that the weight moved from one side of the wheel to the other, namely, the couphng rod, is a revolving weight; therefore It only requires an additional amount of revolving weight to balance It. This seems to me so very obvious that I am much surprised at anybody entertaining views about increased hammer blow and extra wear of tyres. At any rate "the proof of the pudding is in the eating," and Stroudley found that he was able to run his 0-4-2 tank engines as much as 100,000 miiles before requiring then tyres re-turning or axleboxes truing up. In fact, some engines built in 1871 had, up to the time of Stroudley's memorable paper of 1883, read before the Institute of Mechanical [Civil see letter page 144] Engineers, been running with their original gunmetal bushes still remaining in service on the coupling rods. I should think this a fair test of the practice, and his engines stilt running at the present day are, I am sure, not any more destructive to the road than their newer brethren. As regards the question of double frames affecting the results, here again I cannot agree. Stroudley himself built several at the outset of his career on the L. B. & S. C. R. Those, so far as they went, answered their designer's expectations. Of. course if balancing is not carefully done with the extra-sized balance weight, very bad results must ensue, but if ordinary care is exercised I see no cause for indifferent results. Now as to the latter part of Sargeant's statement. No respectable engineer would sanction the dividing of balance weights in a high speed locomotive .. I am aware this has been done, but the practice is not mechanical. Of course in mineral. engines this is sometimes a necessity on account of the smallness of driving wheels; then of course it is excusable, but on no other grounds.
With respect to outside cylinder engines, here agam, the extra weizht to be balanced is a revolving one, hence it can be perfectly balanced, so Sargeant is. in error again. I shall be very pleased to near the cnticrsm of others on this interesting subject, and answer any question put forward.

Automatic couplers at Milan. (Count) A. Miglioretti Di S. Sebastiano.
The list of entries by designers of automatic couplers for trial at the Concours International, Milan, had closed. The Committee had for its Honorary President, H.M. the King of Italy, who wished to be personally identified with a matter on which depend the lives of many railway employees, and the present competition was the most important that had, so far, been held.
When it is considered that 60 per cent. of the casualties arnong railway servants are directly due to coupling operations, the delay in obtaining a solution of the problem of efficient automatic co?phng seem,s almost inexplicable. It seems that the railway authorities. while admitting, theoretically, the desirability of such a course, are nearly all opposed to it in practice:. It is to be hoped that the Concours now opened m Milan will bring the matter to a successful solution, There are more than 400 competitors, and a public exhibition of the models will shortly be opened. Some of the models. particularly those of Italian, English, German and Swedish competitors, are excellent. Unfoitunately, there is a practical difficulty before the Jury appointed to judge the exhibits in that it is well-nigh impossible to give the different systems a complete trial under service conditions. For this purpose it would be necessary to supply' and equip as many trains as there are systems submitted. for competition; and to do this, and to test the working of the various appliances in actual service, would be practically out of the question. At the present time there is only one train fitted with automatic couplers in service on the State Railways system. This is the Paria-Casalis Coupler, here illustrated, the joint invention of — one of the chief engineers of the State Railways—and Casalis, a foreman of works. The system has, so far, given excellent, results with a tram running at a maximum speed of 75 miles per hour—even the side oscillations being apparently well provided for, which constitute the chief difficulty in automatic couplers.
The Jury of the Concours will award two prizes only, and I shall, with pleasure, keep you informed of the course of events.

Past and present locomotives, Austrian State Rys. 117. 2 illustrations.
Contrast between 0-4-2 of 1841 with Golsdorf (portrayed alongside) 4-cylinder compound Series 210 2-6-2. The 1841 locomotive had been supplied by Jones, Turner & Evans and had 14in x 20in cylinders, 5ft 1½in coupled wheels, 660ft2 total heating surface, 11½ft2 grate area and operated at 95 psi.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 118-19. 2 tables, diagram.
Tables list outside cylinder locomotives built for railways within the United Kingdom since 1898 and locomotives built for railways within the United Kingdom with three or four cylinders since 1893. In 1898 it had seemed that inside cylinders had become the norm for British railways, but a changed pattern was beginning to emerge. Earlier outside cylinders had been popular on some railways. At the end of 1882 the Caledonian Railway "whose locomotives were direct derivatives of Allan's early Crewe practice" had a total of 725 engines, of which only 13 had inside cylinders. In 1866 the stock of 416 locomotives on the Great Eastern Railway was almost entirely outside cylinder; furthermore, Adams and Bromley added a further 55 before 1882. The London & South Western Railway also employed outside cylinders for passenger engines until 1887. In 1897 the Highland Railway had only four inside cylinder engines, as compared with 133 outside-cylinder. On the GNR the Ivatt Atlantics showed a return to outside cylinders.
Valve position
: Stroudley placed the valves beneath the cylinders, and this practice was followed by Holden on the Great Eastern, Dean on the Great Western (from 1887). The position made it simple to drain condensed water, but led to heat loss. Between 1889 and 1892 Worsdell fitted outside steam chests, but these suffered from air cooling. See also letters on page 144 from Mernok and J.F. Gairns.

A special train of engines, G. N. R. 120. illustration.
Photograph of sheeted locomotives Nos. 1 and 1442 en route from Doncaster to the Imperial International Exhibition at White City, Shepherd's Bush. Route taken was departed Doncaster at 09.00 on Friday 23 April and arrived Hornsey on same day at 20.20. On Sunday 25 April No. 1201 left Hornsey at 06.00 and travelled via Canonbury to Kingsland where a NLR locomotive took over for the journey via Hampstead Heath to Acton, where a GWR engine  completed the journey to Uxbridge Road on the West London Railway. 

Broad gauge goods and tank engines, Northern Counties Committee. 121-2. 4 illustrations.
Belfast & Northern Counties Railway 0-6-0 No. 30 (illustrated) supplied by Beyer Peacock in 1880. It had 17in x 24in cylinders, 5ft 25/8in coupled wheels and a total heating surface of 972.3ft2. No. 42 was an outside-cylinder 0-4-0ST with 16in x 22in cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels and 821ft2 total heating surface. Nos. 25 and 47 were 2-4-0Ts and Nos. 48 and 49 were 2-4-0STs converted from 2-4-0s which shared the same overall dimensions and Beyer Peacock origins: 5ft 25/8in coupled wheels, 15in x20in cylinders and 726.46ft2 total heating surface.

Magnesia sectional locomotive lagging. 122-3.
See also feature on page 68: Newall's Insulation Co. of Newcastle-on-Tyne reminded readers that magnesia blocks were produced at Washington Station in County Durham.

Maintaining passenger carriages. 123.
Washing was best performed in a shed with raised platforms. Dirt could be removed by mopping with muriatic acid (wheaten flour mixed with hydrofluoric acid). Rotary brushes had been introduced: see Locomotive Mag., 1905, 16 October. Three years should elapse before thorough cleaning and revarnishing required. After a further three years a more extensive operation was required. The original finishing involved two coats of lead colour, four of filling, rubbing down, one of lead, one facing, rubbing down, one of lead, two of colour and finishing with four coats of varnish.

Luggage weighing machine. 124
Luggage weigher introduced by the W. & T. Avery, Limited, London and Birmingham. The platform, measuring 6-ft. by 4-ft., is sunk flush with the floor, and facing the platform is the large indicating dial, with a capacity of 20 cwt. divided by graduations of 5 lb. The dial and weighing mechanism is enclosed in a glass case, and immediately the load is placed upon the platform the actual weight is apparent to passenger, porter, or inspector without any loss of time, or opportunity of argument arising as to the correctness of the record.

Reviews. 124.

Railway map of the South Wales Coal District. Published by The Business Statistics Publishing Co., Ltd., Cardiff. Mounted, on canvas on rollers, or mounted and folded in book form with leather covers.
Railway map of the South Wales Steam Coal District, which has been brought right up to date, and includes the various railway proposals before Parliament in the present session, Each railway is shown in a different colour, and the positions of all collieries and fuel works clearly indicated. The map is on a scale of 5/8-in. to the mile and measures 33-in, by 27-in. The district extends from Newport and Pontypool in the cast to Swansea in the west, and from the northern boundary of the coalfield to the Bristol Channel. The map is full of detail without confusion and is clearly printed.

The law of private railway sidings and private traders' traffic. John Henry Cockburn. London: Stevens & Sons, Ltd., 1909.
The object of this work is to place before the public in a brief and concise form and in plain and simple terms, the law as it affects private sidings and railways and the traffic in connection therewith. With this end in view the compiler has collected and set out in a readily comprehensible fashion the principal enactments and decisions relating to the subject, with ample footnotes referring to the law reports of cases and various Acts of Parliament, so that the enquirer is enabled to obtain actual chapter and verse for all the rulings. A sufficiently full index is of material assistance in aiding ready reference to, the. subject matter which is subdivided into three parts dealing respective with private railway sidings, private traders' traffic private owners' wagons, with chapters all agreements to sidings and traffic, and railway and canal commissioners.

A manual of locomotive engineering. W.F. Pettigrew. Third edition. Charles Griffin & Co. Ltd.
This work has now reached its third edition, and the opportunity has been taken to revise it throughout an substitute illustrations of modern locomotives. The tables of dimensions of British locomotives at the end of the book have also been brought up to date. The special chapter on brakes is illustrated with th latest apparatus, and in the section devoted to boilers the Belpaire firebox is now dealt with fully. Some notes on rail motor cars have also been introduced. The book is plentifully illustrated by drawings and diagrams that will be useful to the locomotive designer and draughtsman. The needs of the student starting in the locomotive department of a railway have been carefully considered, and he will find full descriptions of the methods determining the design of the moder locomotive as well as the detailed construction of the various parts and fittings.

The Locomotive Magazine Souvenir No. 2; Engines built by the Berliner Maschinenbau-Actien' Gesellschaft (Vormals L. Schwarzkopff'.
Following Souvenir No. 1, which dealt with the locomotive productions of Messrs. Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Ltd., this consists of a. series of 12 collotype reproductions of locomotives built bv the above-mentioned Berlin firm for various railways: The Souveniris'issued in a style suitable either for preservation as it stands, or for binding with the current year's issues of the Locomotive Magazine, and a series of these, as contemplated, will constitute a valuable record of the locomotive building of the present century, especially as each illustration has full dimensions appended.

No. 203 (15 July 1909)

Railway notes. 125

Great Eastern Ry. 125. illustration
S.D. Holden 2-4-2T No. 1300 for working light local and branch line traffic: noted that compact locomotive with large window space in cab. Also noted additions to 1830 Class (Belpaire bogie engines) No. 1820 and 1821.

Midland Ry. 125
Nos. 994 and 995: new 4-4-0 engines delivered (fitted with Klinger's forced lubrication pumps (sse page XX)

London & North Western Ry. 125
Latest Experiment class: 1603 Princess Alexandra, 1649 Sisyphus, 1781 Lightning, 2022 Marlborough, 2637 Babylon, 2638 Byzantium and Bactria. All recent engines having their tenders fitted with cast-iron brake blocks. Renumbering of former NLR locomotives into LNWR stock. No. 1862, former three-cylinder compound converted to simple with 18½in cylinders, and No. 1229, former four-cylinder compound converetd to simple with 20½in cylinders and larger boiler. No. 1235, 18in goods had cylinders lined up to 17in.
On 20 June 1909 two special trains, each weighing about 400 tons and carrying passengers and mail off White Star liner Cedric ran from Holyhead to Euston in 4 hours 56 min non-stop at an average speed of 53½ mile/h.

Great Northern & Great Eastern Joint Ry. 126
The separate managing structure abolished with retirement of Metcalfe, the manager, and closure of Lincoln office. South of Grassmoor Junction, March under control of GER and north thereof under GNR.
North Eastern Ry.
R1 class 4-4-0s Nos. 1245 and 1246 nearing completion. New series of 4-4-2 express engines, practically identical with V class (illlustrated and described in Loco. Mag., 1903, 18 July and 19 Dec.) but classified V1 to be built at Darlington. P3 class 0-6-0 Nos. 1061, 1064 and 1065 delivered by R. Stephenson. X class described page XX to be renumbered 1350-9.
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry.
No. 396 (0-4-4T) and No. 455 (0-6-2T) rebuilt with larger boilers, No. 605 repainted with large L.& B. painted on side tanks. On 10 June 1909 4-4-2T No. 23 worked from Willesden to Rugby with northbound Sunny South Special and returned on following day, working right through to Brighton.
Highland Ry.
North British Locomotive Co. delivered from their Polmadie Works two new enlarged Bens (see 1908, 14, 15 May): Nos 60 Ben Breach Mohr and 63 Ben A'Chaoruinn. North British Locomotive Co. Queen's Park Works commenced delivery of four 0-6-4Ts designed for banking: No. 67 (WN 18805) delivered. Shared Ben class boilers and cylinders.
Recent appointments. 126
J.P. Crouch became Works Manager Horwich locomotive works in succession to O. Winder who had become manager Patent Axletree & Shaft Co., Wednesbury. F.E. Gobey appointed works manager carriage & wagon department Newton Heath...
Mr. E.F. Price became Chief Draughsman Carriage Dept., Midland Railway, Derby and ex-officio consulting draughtsman to the Railway Clearing House. Formerly with GER at Stratford.
Eastern Bengal Ry.
Kitson had delivered seven 4-4-2 passenger engines and three 2-6-4Ts. The Atlantics, numbered 254-60, had 6ft 6in coupled wheels, 19 x 26in cylinders with slide valves actuated by Walschaerts valve gear, Belpaire firebox and a 32ft2 grate aarea. The 2-6-4T Nos. 305-7 had 5ft 1½in coupled wheels, 18½ x 26in cylinders with slide valves actuated by Stephenson gear; a Belpaire firebox, 1412.6ft2 total heating surface and 27ft2 grate area.
North Western Ry (India)
Had nine 2-6-4Ts built, similar to ones described previously, but with larger boilers.
Baldwin Locomotive Works.
Burnham, Williams & Co. had been dissolved: property and interests now owned Baldwin Locomotive Works.

Express passenger locomotive, G.W.R. 127. illustration, diagram (s. el.)
King series of Star class: fitted with Swindon superheater, triple sight-feed lubricator for the four cylinders and "neater fitting" for inside cylinders. Names for series 4021 King Edward (illustrated) to 4030 listed.

More railway reminiscences. —III. 127-9. digr. (s. el.), plan
Joined Great Northern Railway, Northern Division, at Doncaster on St. Leger Day 1860 under Johnson, the District Locomotive Superintendent. Fireman on goods trains. In January 1862 he left to join the L.C.& D.R. Recounts how one of locomotives fitted with a steam tender ("it was hatd work on the footplate with a hot tender behind, and a hot boiler in front") became detached from part of his train due the amount of steam making visibilty difficult on the decent from Stoke summit and the train crashed and derailed near Little Bytham. An up Manchester express managed to stop before the wreckage as the amount of steam in Corby Tunnel made the driver suspect that something was amiss and put his engine into reverse. Diagram of steam tender.

4-6-2 four-cylinder compound express passenger locomotive, No. 3004, Southern Ry. of France. 129. illustration, diagram (side elevation).
Nos. 3001-3004 built Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques at Belfort: further 16 under construction (to be fitted Schmidt superheaters).

The Travel Exhibition. 129.
The Railway Section included models of an oil-burning Claud Hamilton; Great Western broad gauge, LBSCR and GNR locomotives.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 130-1. 4 diagrams (side elevation).
Following the purchase of the emergency engines (see XX), delivery began to be made of the standard types of passenger goods and shunting engines built to Johnson designs. Forty 2-4-0 passenger engines with four-wheel tenders were put into service over five years: Sharp, Stewart & Co. WN 1803-22 (October 1867 to May 1869); GER Stratford RN 112, 113, 110, 114 and 115 (complated 1869/70); Sharp, Stewart & Co. WN 2044-5/1870; 2068-70/1870; 2113-2117/1871 and GER Stratford RN 119, 118, 5, 6, 10 of 1871/2. They had 5ft 7in coupled wheels, 16in x 22in cylinders, 14,3ft2 grate area and 772.76ft2 total heating surface. The boilers were constructed of two plates, butt-jointed, having the dome on the second. The firebox was flush with the barrel, and had the whistle mounted on .the manhole-cover. Two spring balance safety-valves were fixed on the dome. One Giffard injector, on the left-hand side, supplied the boiler with water. The dome, chimney, cab, number plate, etc., were of Johnson’s standard pattern, and the splashers were encircled with a brass beading. Originally, no brake was provided on the engine, but a hand brake actuating wooden blocks on the tender. Later they were all fitted with the Westinghouse automatic brake, and, subsequently, by Holden, when rebuilt, with iron blocks on all the tender-wheels and the coupled-wheels of the engine.

G.N. and L.&N.W.R. expresss locomotive trials.  132-3. 2 illustration
LNWR Precedent Class No. 412 Marquis operated on the Great Northern main line whilst Ivatt Atlantic No. 1449 operated from Euston. On Thursday 10 June 1909 No. 1449 hauled the 13.20 from Euston to Stafford and returned on the 19.10 from Stafford to Euston, and worked the same pair of trains on Saturday 12 June. On Monday 14 June the Atlantic worked the 14.00 to Crewe, returning on the 17.02 from Crewe to Euston. On 15 June Caledonian Railway No. 903 Cardean arrived at Crewe at 19.25 and departed on the following day at 09.15 and this pattern was repeated on alternate days. The trials ended on 10 July 1909. illustration: No. 412 on Holloway bank, and No. 1449 at Euston.

Rebuilt tank locomotives, Metropolitan Ry. 133. illustration
Steam working had ceased south of Harrow-on-the-Hill, and 4-4-0T No. 22 had been modified with an improved cab for working the Chesham branch.

Dining car trains, N.E.Ry. 133-5. 2 illustration, 2 diagrams., plan.
Includes a cross-section of the first class dining car. Designed under Wilson Worsdell and intended for Newcastle to Liverpool service, but being used on Whitby to King's Cross service these trains included a 65ft 6in third class/kitchen dining car mounted on six-wheel bogies (not illustrated), a first-class dining-car mounted on four-wheel bogies and 52ft long and third class and brake vehicles 52ft long.

Reviews. 136.

The simple theory and practice of the automatic vacuum brake by a railway official,  London: W. Thacker & Co., 1909.
This very elementary treatise has one grave disadvantage, that it lacks illustrations, so that when the first explanations of brake action are done with, and the apparatus and its working come to be described, the usefulness of the book is somewhat handicapped. Even the most rudimentary diagrams would have justified the expense of reproduction, and added materially to the value of the handbook. 'Otherwise there is much instructive matter in the 75 pages, for those who have the brake apparatus itself to examine while studying the subject, and this little treatise will undoubtedly be a boon to many drivers and firemen as telling them something more about the brake than merely how to operate it according to instructions,

Country vvalks in Greater London. Greenfields. London: Alston Rivers, 1909.
This little book is written by an enthusiastic pedestrian with a view to inducing Londoners to get to know something of the outskirts of the Metropolis by making a circular tour within the twelve-mile radius. The idea is to go outwards from the centre bv rail or other means to some selected "jumping off " ground, then turn to the left and follow a plotted route for ten miles or so, and then back to the centre again. In this way, the complete circuit of London is planned out in eight walks, by Iane, footpath, field and ferry, all main thoroughfares being avoided. The book is provided with maps and carefully thought-out descriptions of the rather complex routes to be followed, so that he who reads may walk. Every alternate page is left blank for the pedestrian's own notes on his tours.

The official guide to the London & North Western Ry. Cassell & Co.
The present edition 'of this useful zuide celebrates its 25th anniversary, the first issue having made its appearance in 1885. The principal additions are the plan and descriptions of the Garston Docks on the Mersey, and particulars of additional facilities for holiday makers, especially the weekly and fortnightly contract tickets for the North Wales district. The guide is by no means confined. to the needs of holiday makers, but forms a handy manual for reference by giving fairly extended articles dealing with the cities, seaports, market towns and.residential centres on the North Western system, with short references to the historical associations, objects of interest, etc. It contains over 300 illustrations and maps of towns, districts of the system.

The adventures of a civil engineer: fifty years in five continents. C.O. Burge. Alton Rivers.
In recounting his many journeys as a railway engineer, Burge shows he has been a keen observer, and he writes of his varied experiences in an exceptionally interesting style. His remarkably retentive memory makes his book realistic, and though the incidents are mainly non-professional, many of his adventures will appeal to the engineer, as he was one of the first engineers engaged.in constructing the Madras Railway, and later on had some exciting incidents involved during the construction of, the Hawkesbury Bridge, the largest in Australia, when he was .engmeer-in-chief. Many humorous tales of the railway work in Ireland in his younger days provide entertammg reading. In the course of his rambles the author wanders a good deal from one topic to another, but the whole makes a very pleasant narrative.

East Coast Holidays. Great Eastern Ry. Co 136
In addition to being a guide to the East Coast resorts, this attractively illustrated little book contains a lot. of miscellaneous information relating to some of the less known country districts in East Anglia, with holiday suggestions to the cyclist, sportsman, yachtsman and others. The fine service of the GER to Huustanton is this summer being further improved by the acceleration of the 11.05 train, which will reach Hunstanton in 2 hrs. 55 min; By the Norfolk Coast express Cromer is reached well under three hours [not days, KPJ], while the summer service provides express trains morning, afternoon and evening to Yarmouth, Felixstowe, Clacton and other places on the Suffolk and Essex Coasts. .The new service (G.W:, L. & N W, and G. E, Rys.) between South Wales and the East Coast Via Leamington and Peterborough inaugurated last summer will be repeated this season and the train accelerated. The new handbook can be obtained free from the superintendent of the line, Liverpool Street Station, London. The G,E. R. also publish a little handbook on Holidays Abroad, with choice illustrations in colours, containing information as to how to get to various foreign resorts, and what is to be seen on arrival. The descriptions and illustrations refer to Brussels, Bruges, 'the Ardennes, Holland, the Harz and North Germany, including the Rhine, Denmark and the Tyrol, and the booklet is at once tastefnl arid stimulating to travel. [when railway companies wanted your custom]

Trade Lists and Catalogues, elc., 136

Testing machine. 136
National Physical Laboratory at Teddington had acquired one of W.& T. Avery's Izod Pattern Impact Testers, after giving it a lengthy trial to determine its suitabili!y.

Fanghanel, W.P. Deterioration of the tube plates: the copper firebox tube plate. 137-8. 4 diagrams.
Belpaire type illustrated. The plate is probably more severely strained than any other part of the boiler. These stresses are induced by the expansion of the tubes, the expansion of the sides of the firebox, and by the resistance to expansion imparted by the roof stays through the crown sheet. Bulging, mainly outwards, but also inwards, and cracking occurred. It was considered that the Belpaire firebox reduced these forces. Corrosion was reduced by water softening. The Author considered that higher pressures reduced the life of the tube plate.

Cross, J.W. Notes on the Westinghouse brake. 138-9. diagram
Quick-acting with triple valve.

The seven thousandth locomotive built at the works of A. Borsig. 139.
Works founded in 1837. The locomotive selected was a four-cylinder compound 4-6-0 for the PLM (Réseau Algérien) No. 3415.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 140-1. 3 diagrams.
Trick slide valves. These were employed on the 710 Class in 1886 and by Dean on 3206-3225 (6ft coupled locomotives). In North America slide valves were manufactured from cast iron, but in the United Kingdom gun metal or phosphor bronze were used to the lack of space. Balanced slide valves were introduced by Allan in 1844 on Phalarius and on No. 187 Velocipide, a 7ft single in 1847. A circular ring on the back of the valve to relieve pressure was maintained in position against the steam chest cover: Webb considered this would have been a success, but the steam chest covers were not strong enough and warped. Fay-Richardson balanced slide valves were brought to Britain from the USA by Aspinall to reduce friction within the pistons and were adopted by Ivatt on the GNR. They were also present on the Baldwin 2-6-0s acquired by the Midland Railway. Piston valves had been introduced by Sharp, Roberts in 1835, and in 1872-4 W. Bouch used them on large outside-cylinder 4-4-0s, but there was a problem of condensation in the cylinders. Smith patented piston valves with collapsible segments and these were fitted to NER 2-cylinder No. 340 in 1888 and to No. 107. See letter on page 200 from C.S. Stock

The Bevan lock nut. 142. illustration
Sole agent: Alfred Blackmore.

Self-contained buffers and through draw gear for wagons. 143-4. 2 diagrams.
Patented y Rees and Moreton and manufactured by North Central Wagon Co.

Correspondence. 144.
Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. Mernok
On going through some old numbers of Engineering found that Webb's first radial list of the Grand Junction engines in that paper's issue for 21 December 1877, and: not early in 1880 as mentioned by your contributor, E.L. Ahrons, unless he refers to the "double enders." The tank engines built in 1877 had only one radial axle. As regards the radial axle box, it was the invention of Edmond Roy, a French engineer, who according to the authors of the Guide du Mecanicien Constructeur,, .etc., had his radial axle boxes applied to engines and wagons long before Bridges Adams or Cross. of the St..Helens Railway. Riener also applied. radial boxes on the Austrian Railways about the same time Response from Ahrons.

Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. J.F. Gairns
In Ahrons' article two interesting tables are given on page 118 of your June issue, and these should be very useful for reference. The list of outside cylindersimple enginesbui1tsiric~ J 898 appears to be quite correct. but there are several items in the list of three and four cylinder engines which require correction or amplification.
I bave Deeley's warrant for statiug that the three-cylinder compounds of the 'Midland Ry. are not "Smith" compounds, but have Deeley's own starting arrangements. The first five were "Smith" componnds, but these were altered. by Deeley several years ago, and I believe none of the true 1000 class have ever been other than "Deeley" compounds. As there is considerable misconception' on this point, it is as well that the matter should be put right.
I believe I am correct in stating that there are four compound engines on the Great Northern Ry. Three of these, Nos. 292 and 142l~2 are compounded according to Ivatt's system, and the other is the Vulcan Foundry engine, No. 1300. No. 271 is the four-cylinder simple engine, I believe also that there are more than ten of the L. & S. W. R. 4-6-0 engines, but as to this I am uncertain.
On the Great .Central Ry., No. 1090.is a three-cylinder simple engine, and I believe there are no four-cylinder engines on this railway.
I believe the name "Atlantic" is derived from the fact that the first 4-4-2 engines (built at the Balwiin Works) were constructed for the Atlantic Coast Ry .. though the name is more often derived from the engines of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, working the famous .Atlautic City "Flyers."
In connection with Ahrons' remarks concerning the use of outside cylinders on the Highland Ry., it may be mentioned that many of the drivers have a very strong belief in the. shoulder action, of the outside connecting rods as an aid to difficult pulling up long; severe grades such as obtain on this railway

Henry W. Dearberg wishes to correct a slip made in his letter on the above subject page 116).Stroudley's pape was read before the Institnte [KPJ Institution!] of Civil Engineers in 1883.

Crewe engines. Loco.
W.D.S. (p. 104), is advised to examine the examine the list of the Grand Junction engines to the 16th July 1846. The details are at the Free. Library, Liverpool and at the Railway Institute, Crewe. The companj  added Nos. 65 to 88 to the list and charged the same to capital. No. 89 was the first charged to the capital of the London & North Western Ry. The chairman company personally informed Mr. Ramsbottorn that th name of No. 73 was to be removed, and it was taken off before the close of the year 1861

Early Midland tank engines. Loco.
Cites "excellent photograph" of engine No. 202 at the Leicester Railway Musuem showing engine as in 1885 when working Ashby & Nuneaton joint line: refers back to letter by Loco on page 104.

No. 204 (14 August 1909)

Railway notes. 145

Midland Ry. 145. illustration
Courtesy R.M. Deeley, the loco. superintendent, illustration of No. 386, 4-4-0 passenger engine, rebuilt and brought into line with more modern requirements. No. 386, prior to renumbering, was No. 1816, one of S.W. Johnson's standard passenger engines built at Derby in 1888, with 18-in. by 26-in. cyrinders and 6-ft: 6-iri. coupled wheels, a total heating surface of 1261 sq. ft., a grate area of 17½ sq. ft., and a working boiler pressure of 160 lb. per sq. in.
Slightly increasing the distance between the coupled axles, Deeley fitted the engine with a new boiler having considerably larger dimensions and capacity, its total heating surface being 1,410 sq. ft., of which the Belpaire firebox provides 127 sq. ft., the grate area being 21.1 sq. ft. and the working pressure 175 lb. per sq. in. The tender has also been brought into line with present day practice by having a raised coping which considerably increases its coal capacity, 3½ tons being now carried, with 2,950 gallons of water. As can. be seen,the rebuilt engine presents a very smart appearance.

Great Northern Ry. 145
No. 50 was latest of the new series of 4-4-0. passenger engines (D1I class), and No. 446. the latest of the 0-8-0 mineral engines; this engine is fitted with an exhaust injector.
No. 988. small 4-4-2 passenger engine, had been fitted with a Schrnidt superheater. No. 941, 0-4-4 tank, had been fitted with a dome, but . was otherwise still of the Stirling pattern. Engines stationed in London were working through to York. Trial trips had been run between Finsbury Park and. Bound's Green, also to Highgate, with Great Northern and City cars and L. &  N. W. R. suburban stock.

London & North Western Ry. 145
The latest engines of the Experiment (4-6-0) type built at Crewe were Nos. 2639 Bactria, 2640 Belisarius, 2641 Bellona, 2642 Berenice, 2643 Bacchus and 2645 Britornart.
The N.L.R. engines Nos. 111 and 119 renumbered L.N.W.R. Nos. 2633 and 2635 respectively, not as given in our last issue. No. 2546, three-cylinder compound, had been converted to simple with a small boiler, and No. 168, 18-In. goods, had its cylinders lined up to 17-in. The foundry and most of the shops at Bow (N.L.R had been closed. The N.L.R. carriage stock which had been overhauled at Wolverton was painted externally to resemble the L. & N.W.R. carriage stock running on the Broad Street-Earls Court service.·

Great Western Ry. 145
The large passenger engines were now allowed to work up and down to South Wales, via Gloucester. No. 2679, 2-6-0 mineral engine, has been fitted with Churchward's new pattern of superheater. No. 2225. 4-4-2 tank, has been painted experimentally chocolate red with yellow lining, and black below the footplate.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 145
Nos. 161 and 182: latest 0-4-4 tank engines.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 146. 2 illustrations
Two. Billinton tank engines rebuilt by Earle Marsh; the .Iocomotive, carriage and wagon.superintendent in accordance with present practice. Standard boilers were fitted, with the front ends carried on saddles, and provided with new chimneys and safety valve columns. The 0-4-4 engine had its boiler raised 8-in., and the-cab had to be raised to the same extent. The other locomotive was an 0-6-2T No. 478.
Nos. 23-27 were new 4-4-2 tank engines, of which Nos. 23-26 were fitted with.superheaters.

North Eastern Ry. 146
No. 1244 was working East Coast trains. The new Atlantics, V1 class, differ slightly from their prototypes, having 19½-in. cylinders, narrow splashers, the variable blast pipe and ash ejector; and a raised front of the chimney. No; 1350, 4-8-0 tank was running trial trips, and No. 1351 was nearing 'completion. . The single driver tank engine used on' the, Southern .Division for working the official saloon is now named Aerolite No. 66, which name and number were formerly. borne by the single tank engine built by Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson for the York, Newcastle and Berwick Ry. The old engine at one time worked the Alston local branch service.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 146.
No. 93, the first of a new.series of standard 0-6-0 goods engines was at work. It was fitted with a superheater and an extended smokebox. The 0-6-2 and;0-4-4 tank engines, and the 6-ft. 3-in, 4-4-0 express engines, were gradually being withdrawn from service. No. 436, 0-8-0 mlneral engine, one of the series with a corrugated cylindrical firebox, had been provided with a second dome over the firebox, and No. 1438 of the same t¥pe ,also has, two domes, connected with a large horizontal tube, similar to the. arrangement which is so characteristic of many Continental engines,

Rhymney Ry. 146.
R. Stephenson & Co. Ltd had.on order five 0-6-2 tank engines,.two of which to have·4-ft.6-in., and the other three 5-ft. 6-in. coupled wheels

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 147-8.
Fig. 145: 2-4-0 No. 43. During 1889-93 all forty Johnson 2-4-0s were rebuilt.

Four-cylinder express locomotive, Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 148-9 + plate. illustration, 2 diagrams.
Extracted from paper presented to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers by Hughes (Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, 1909, 77, 561). Locomotive fitted with balanced slide valves activated by Joy valve gear.

Rebuilt locomotive, Brampton Ry. 149. illustration
See Volume 13 page 224 for illustration of  six-coupled tender engine Tichborne, which had been built as a saddle tank by R. Stephenson in 1872 and was altered to a tender engine in 1878, was partially rebuilt by Barclay in 1902 and further in 1907 when it became an 0-6-0T (i.e. with side tanks) and became No. 4 Belted Will.

The "Agudio" system of working cable railways. 150-1.  3 illustrations, diagram
Ferrovia Funicolare Sassi-Superga near Turin: funicular system with 15% gradient using a "locomotor".

Correspondence. 151-2.

Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. E.L. Ahrons.
I am much obliged' to your correspondent Mernok for pointing out that I had overlooked the introduction of Webb's radial axle-boxes in his 2-4-0 tank engines of 1876-7. The date 1880 given by me certainly referred to the later tank engines with axleboxes at both ends. Of the 50 2-4-0 engines referred to, 40 were subsequently converted to double- end 2-4-2 engines, leaving only ten in their original state. To the list. of engines with these radial axle-boxes given in the table on page 78 should be added these ten 2-4-0 tank engines—the other 40 converted engines of this class having been included in the list of 2-4-2 tank engines. The Lancashire and Yorkshire tank engine No. 333, rebuilt from an old six-coupled goods, engine, and mentioned on page 77, was the first 0-6-2 tank engine with Webh's radial axleboxes in this country. The most interesting point.in lvlernok's letter is his reference to the work of the emirrent French locomotive engineer, Edmond Roy, in connection with the invention of radial axleboxes, and I regret that ! omitted to mention his name. Roy's work on this subject was, I believe, published in 1856, and it is due to him to say that his investigations, and the rules then, laid down by him, are still the basis of modern radial axlebox design.
I. was not, however, aware of the actual practical application of Roy's axleboxes prior to the building of Cross's and Adams' engines. I believe that a number of the celebrated 2-4-0 Outrance express engines of the Chemin de fer du Nord, built 1870 to 1873. had Roy's radial axleboxes, for which a four-wheeled bogie was substituted in later years, but there may have been engines in France with these. axleboxes prior to 1870, of which I have no .record.
In reply to J.F. Gairns, No. 1090 of the Great Central Railway was a three-cylinder engine, and was inadvertently placed in the wrong column, when bringing the proof up to date. There were no four-cylinder engines on this line. There are only three compound engines on the Great Northern, Nos. 292, 1300, and 1421, and one four-cylinder simple engine, No. 271.

Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. F.W. Brewer. 152-3
J. F. Gairns is right in his description of the three-cylinder compounds.on the Midland Railway. Chas. Rous-Marten also drew attention to the fact that these engines, as designed, by the. present locomotive engineer are Deelev compounds. I think, however, that your correspondent. is, wrong in stating that the Great Northern Railway possess four compound locomotives. So far as I know, the correct number is three, viz." Nos. 292, 1421, and 1300. Engine 1422 is. or was, a simple. At any rate I rode. behind this ,large Atlantic to Peterborough when the engine was brand. new and it was certainly not then a four-cylinder compound.
There are eleven four-cylinder simple 4-6-0s on the L. & S. W. R., viz., Nos. 330 to 334, 453 to 457, and No. 335. The latter engine is one by itself, and is similar to the 330 class, with the exception of its cylinders, which are 16½ in. by 26 in., instead of 16 in. by 24 in. .
The first 4-4-2 tender engine was built in 1895 for the Atlantic Coast Line, and the type owes its name Atlantic to·that fact.

Reviews. 152

Boultbee's indicator calculating chart. London: W.H. Harling,
There are many who have neither the time nor the inclination to work ant indicator diagrams. to whom this neat and ingenious device will be useful. It will enable the power developed by any engine to be worked out with ease and accuracy. The calculation is effected hy drawing two vertical lines from the bottom of the diagram just touching edges of the diagram, then by placing it over a mean proportional figure on the card, divide the diagram into 10 sections. .Measure off and note these 10 points on a strip of paper to a scale on the card corresponding to the indicator spring. Add up the ordinates for the top and bottom diagrams and take the average, which will give you the effective pressure in lb. per sq. in. -The card can be manipulated for diagrams of all shapes quite easily.

Malleable cast iron. S. J ones Parsons, London: Archibald Constable & Co., Ltd.
This volume deals with a branch of foundry work about which it is very difficult to get reliable information. In fact, it is not unusual for engineers to send common grey iron castings to the foundries "to 'be made malleable." as example of the ignorance on the subject. .And it is greatly due to ignorance that malleable castings are condemned as unreliable. whereas they are as reliable as any other metal, provided due regard has been paid to their production. The malleability of the iron depends on the nature of the metal; method of melting the charge, and most important of all the operation of annealing. Parsons shows how much depends upon this part of the process by devoting no less than 33 pages to its study. As he says, "The problem of designing an annealing oven to be economical and efficient is one upon which more attention has been bestowed, more ingenuity exercised, and more money spent than on any other item in the process of manufacture." Chapters are devoted to moulding and coremaking with special directions indispensable for good work.
Designing castings to get best results, pattems and core boxes are thoroughly discussed, and instructions given for inspection and, testing. The best ways of cleaning and straightening castings are included, and, at the end of the book particulars of the supplentary processes of case hardening and galvanising. , The railways are large and increasirig users of malleable castings but with few excrptions have to buy from outside firms. In fact, one railway which does make its own prefers to obtain outside, suppies when reliab\e castings are indispensable, such as meat hooks: for refrigerator vans, etc. It win therefore be appreciated that more information on the stibjectis desirable, and we are sure Parsons' book will fill a long-felt want.

Handbuch zum entwerfen regelspuriger dampf-lokomotiven. Von Georg Lotter,Munich and Berlin: R, Oldedburg.
This treatise on designing steam locomotives is exhaustive. and seems to cover almost the entire field of locomotive practice within the limited space of 266 pages, The reduction of so much matter within so small a compass is brought about primarily by what is an essentiallv Teutonic method of introducing symbols which considerablv.abbreviate the subject matter, and by reducing everything else that can be so compressed into a formula. To the British mind this does not necessarily conduce to a ready understanding of the contents, the method being, so entirely foreign to that adopted in our own text books, but as against that must be placed the remembrance that Herr Lotter has written in the first place for the benefit of his own countrymen, to whom such systems of abbreviation and tabulation are more familiar. To ourselves, it is rather irritating to have to commit to memory a series of upwards of fifty symbols before the subject can be grasped.
Apart from, these defects, as they appear to a British mind, the book is excellent. It is adequately and clearly illustrated, and contains a vast amount of useful information and data.. The scope may be gathered from the following free translation of the contents, which are divided into an introduction and eight chapters: The design of a locomotive; Determination of the leading dimensions and weight; Tables of the leading dimensiorrs, weights and efficiencies of Continental tender and tank locomotives, The practical consideration of grate and heating surfaces; The wheel arrangement: Summary of the general practice in wheel arrangements for tender and tank locomotives; The constructive design of main frames and wheels; Mechanism and controlling gear and the determination of weights, empty and, in workipg ordert and the weight distribution on the various wheels: There is also an introduction by Wilhelm l,ynen Professor of Mechanics at the Munich Technical High School. Lotter, is Engineer of the Krauss Locomotive Works at Munioh, so that he writes with authority on the subject.

Repairing locomotive cylinders. 153. diagram
Problems encountered in repairing inside cylinders made from brittle cast iron. Patches had to be bolted on with care.

Fishguard as an Atlantic port of call. 153.
Cunard SS Co. agreement.

0-6-4 tank locomotive, Highland Ry. 154. illustration, diagram (s. el.).
Banking locomotives for Blair Atholl to Newtonmore section designed by P. Drummond and supplied by Queen's Park Works of North British Locomotive Co.

Milliken's improved date and letter nails. 154.
Used for dating timber products, such as railway sleepers, telegraph poles, etc.

Old Vulcan locomotive, Austrian State Rys. 155. illustration
Charles Tayleur 0-4-2 (WN 49 and 50) built in 1837 for the Kaiser Ferdinand Nord Bahn (Vienna Railway) and named Sampson and Hercules. These engines had 4ft 6in coupled wheels and 12i8n x 16in (No. 49)/18in No. 50 cylinders. In 1839 Tayleur suppliede a 2-2-2 with 6ft driving wheels and 13in x 18in cylinders named Bucephalus (WN 87). A larger 2-2-2 followed in 1845.

Automatic couplers at Milan. 155.
Pavia & Casalis awarded first and second prizes at the Concours International in Milan: see June Issue.

Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Ry. 155-6.
Railway reconstructed between Burry Port and Pontyberem under supervision of H.J. Stephens. Flat bottom rails, halts...

2-4-2 tank engine G.E.R.. 156. diagram (s. el.).
Weight diagram supplied by S. Dewar Holden: Nos. 1300 and 1301 in service on Hadleigh and Buntingford branches.

Old locomotive, L. & S.W.R. 156. illustration
2-4-0T No. 21 Scott of the LSWR: built by George England & Co. in 1861 and exhibited at the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park in 1862, purchased by LSWR engineers' department and used for shunting at Wimbledon. Received the name Scott in honour of the General Manager Archibald Scott. In 1887 transferred to locomotive department as No. 17 and received a new boiler. In 1898 renumbered 21 and in 1904 No. 021. It had 4ft coupled wheels, 11 x 16in cylinders, a total heating surface of 700ft2 and a grate area of 8.5ft2. It had worked on the Lee-on-the-Solent Railway (see 1903, 17 October) with an 0-6-0ST No. 392.

Compound 4-6-2 locomotive, Central Argentine Ry. 157. illustration
Beyer Peacock supplied to the requirements of Livesey, Son & Henderson a two-cylinder Worsdell-von Borries compound with balanced slide valves and Stephenson link motion. The high pressure cylinder was 19in x 26in and the low pressure 27½in x 26in. 5ft 8in coupled wheels, Belpaire boiler with 2167.5ft2 total heating surface and 29.5ft2 grate area for 5ft 6in gauge. Fitted with louvre spark arrester.

Bennett, Alfred Rosling. Early locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 157-9. 2 diagrams.
Refers to Burtt's Locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway, 1839-1903. Fig. 33 six engines of 131 Class were used on London Bridge to Crystal Palace and Victoria to Croydon services. The bunkers on Nos. 15 and 131 were modified with iron drums being fitted to the top of them, but these were removed after some months. Around 1860 the dome on the firebox was replaced by a safety valve cover as per Fig. 34. No. 128 ran with two domes for five or six years. No. 131, when running bunker-first derailed as it approached Streatham Common station on 29 May 1863. The driver of the train was killed as were one lady passenger and two Grenadier Guardsmen. 59 were injured including 36 soldiers. Colonel Burnaby was on the train and he noted excessive oscillation and speed. Colonel Yolland advised lower speeds, especially when locomotives were running first, John Scott Russell, constructor of the Great Eastern gave evidence in favour of the Company. Fig. 33A shows No. 15 as converted to a 2-4-0ST and numbered 367 as withdrawn in 1882. Fig. 34A shows No. 101 as described on page 78. of Burtt's work.

Relief valve for vacuum brake. 159. 2 diagrams.
As fitted in guards van of B.B. & C.I.R.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 159-61. 4 diagrams.
Piston valves: Johnson fitted five 7ft 6in singles Nos. 179-83 with piston valves in 1893. Fig. 25 is taken from W.M. Smith's IMechE paper of 1902 (63, 515) and shows piston valves fitted to NER three-cylinder compound No. 1619 and to No. 2011.

An Indian absurdity. 162. 3 illustration
Arrangements for drawing water from a well using bullock power on East India Ry. at Tundla.

The Ross Patent double-pop safety valve. 163. diagram
R.L. Ross & Co. of Stockport.

Narrow gauge locomotive, Newlyn Quarry Ry. 163. illustration
Arthur Koppel 0-4-0T for 2ft gauge: 1ft 11in coupled wheels, 6½in x 12in cylinders, 126ft2 total heating surface and 3¼ft2 grate area. 176 psi boiler pressure. [Index mentions paragraph on page 172 relating to Newlyn Quarry locomotive: missing in copy precised].

Ridge's speed recorder. 164. illustration
James |Ridge of Brighton: tried on LBSCR locomotive.

No. 205 (15 September 1909)

Railway notes. 165.
Great Western Ry. 165.
On Monday, 30 August 30th, which by a coincidence was also the third anniversary of the opening of the route to Ireland via Fishguard and Rosslare, the Cunard S.S. Co. and the Great Western Ry. combined to bring the time of transit of mails between New York and London to 5 days 3 hours and 32 min. The turbine steamer Mauretania left the Cunard Co's pier at New York on August 25th at 10.08 a.m., and the GWR train from Fishguard containing the mails to London and beyond drew up in Paddington Station at 6.40 p.m. on the 30th ult. To accomplish this feat some beating of records was necessary. The Mauretania responded to the call by crossing from Ambrose Channel lightship to Daunt's Rock lightship in 4 days 14 hours 27 min., and the GWR mail train covered the distance of 261½ miles between Fishguard and Paddington in 4 hours 28½ min., the average speeds of these runs on sea and land being 25.41 knots (29.27 miles per hour) and 54.38 miles per hour respectively. From passing Swindon fo reaching the terminus, 77¼ miles, the mail train averaged 67.8 miles per hour. The arrangements made at Fishguard for dealing with the mails and passengers ex Mauretania were of the most satisfactory description. The, big steamer dropped her anchor off the breakwater at 13.12; the first bag of mail matter was transhipped to the tender at 13.28, and the special mail train started from the station at 14.11½. A second tender took off the passengers and a third the baggage, to accommodate which two other special trains left Fishguard at 14.53 and 15.03, these trains arriving at Paddington at 19.30 and 19.56 respectively. Below we give details of the three trains, all of which changed engines at Cardiff.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 167-8.
Johnson 0-6-0s: ,Fig. 146-8.

Cross, J.W. Notes on the Westinghouse brake. 168-9. diagram
Improved triple valve.

Ivatt's built-up counterbalanced crank shaft. 169. diagram
See 1908, 14 (14 March) for description of four-cylinder compound No. 1421: patented built-up crank shaft.

[page 171-2]. missing.

2-6-2 compound locomotive, No. 3782. 171. illustration
Royal Hangarian State Railways No. 3782.

2-6-2 locomotive, Austrian State Rys. 171. illustration
Two-cylinder Golsdorf compound, No. 329-25.

Bogie express locomotive, North British Ry. 172. 2 illustration
Scott class: Nos. 895 Rob Roy and 896 Dandie Dinmont illustrated. Note on page 202 states that names of Nos. 898 and 899 were transposed and should have been No. 898 Sir Walter Scott and 899 Jeannie Deans.

Retirement of Mr. R.M. Deeley. 172.

The Furness Railway and the English Lakes. 173-4 + col. plate. illustration
F. Moore painting of red Bury locomotive hauling Lake District Express formed of brown coaches with observation saloon at rear. The Furness Railway began in 1846 to connect the mines at Dalton and Kirkby quarry to the coast. The railway expanded with lines to Carnforth, Coniston, Windermere and Whitehaven. Eventually there were 117¼ miles of line plus a further 33¾ which were part owned. The comapny ran tours with steamer and coach connections to explore the scenic beauties..

E.L. Ahrons Early English express engines in Italy. 174-6.  5 illustration
Sharp Brothers supplied 2-2-2 with 5ft to 5ft 6in driving wheels and 14in x 18in to 15in x 20in cylinders to the Venice and Milan Railway between 1843 and 1850.  Between 1853 and 1855 Sharp Stewart supplied larger 2-2-2s (WN 724-8; 832-6 and 848-52) to the Royal Railways of the Kingdom of Sardinia. These became Nos. 91-105 of the Strade Ferrate Alta Italia. They had 6ft 6in driving wheels and a total heating surface of 1040.6ft2. No. 525 Saturno illustrated as running on the Rete Mediterraneo in 1885 (with Belpaire firebox and large cab). Nine singles were supplied by Sharp Stewart (WN 997-1005) in 1857 to the Alessandria & Stradella Rly. These had 5ft 1in driving wheels and 15in x 20in cylinders. Thet were broken up in 1874-5. In 1857 Beyer Peacock supplied ten 2-2-2s to the Lombardo-Venetion Railway: these had 6ft 2in driving wheels, 15½in x 20in cylinders, and a total heating surface of 1083ft2. In 1865 these became SFAI Nos. 81-90, and in 1885 Mediterranean Railway Nos. 501-10: two were still at work in 1908. Robert Stephenson supplied fifty 2-2-2 (WN 1101-50) to the Lombardo-Venetion Railway: these were identical to the Beyer Peacock locomotives, but with a slightly different total heating surface (1080ft2). These became SFAI Nos. 31-80, but in 1885 were divided between the Mediterranean and Adriatic systems (22). The SFAI rebuilt eleven as 2-4-0 type with double frames and outside cranks and large (16½in x 20in cylinders). Sharp Stewart WN 1514-18 of 1864 were supplied to the SFAI RN 106-10. These had 6ft 6½in driving wheels and 16in x 20in cylinders. Two were still at work in 1908. The only other singles working on the Italian railways were 34 2-2-2 from the French firm Parent Schaker & Co.. These ran on the Southern Railways. They had 6ft 4in driving wheels and 15¾in x 235/8 cylinders. Some were still at work in the Brindisi area.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 177-8. 2 diagrams.
Steam jacketted cylinders as fitted by Aspinall to LYR No. 1093 and to one of his Atlantics at behest of Institution of Mechanical Engineers: see Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1896, 53, 483 and later. Metallic packings: Hemp packing by 1909 almost a relic of the past. Metallic packing invented by Edward Cartwright in USA in 1797, by 1888 the Pennsylvania RR had 15,000 in use, but their use in Britain was slow to be adopted. Slide bars: Great Western Railway had adopted two-bar type with forked small end. Both Ramsbottom and Webb favoured this type, but four-bar still in use, and single-bar type adopted by Great Estern Railway and some North Eastern Railway types. Stroudley used a single bar in which the side block worked in a T-shape slot. German railways used an I section single bar and this was followed by Deeley in his compounds.

Rhymney Ry. 178.
Order placed with Hudswell, Clark & Co. for six boilers.

West of India Portuguese Ry. 178-80. 3 illustration, diagram
The first railway in Goa was a broad gauge line used in the construction of a breakwater at Murmogao. The main metre gauge line opened on 17 January 1887 and was completed on 3 February 1888 with the climb at 1 in 40 in the Western Ghats. In 1897 Kitson supplied wood burning 2-6-2Ts which were later converted to coal burning. These had 15½in x 24in cylinders and 3ft 6in coupled wheels. Some 4-6-0s constructed for the Mysore State Railway were also acquired: these had 14½in x 20in cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels, 918ft2 total heating surface and 15ft2 grate area.

Copper and brass for locomotives. 181.
Steel fireboxes were standard in North America, but with the exception of some British experiments with steel copper fireboxes remained the norm in Britain. Continued on page 197..

Large chain drives. 182.
Westinghouse Barke Co.

Pedal inspection cars. 182.

No. 206 (15 October 1909)

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 185-6. 2 diagrams.
Figs. 149 and 150

The Furness Railway and the English Lakes. 186-7 + col. plate. 2 illustration
F. Moore painting of red 4-4-0 hauling Lake District Express formed of blue and white liveried coaches. The Company owned 90 tender and 40 tank locomotives, and one steam railmotor (railcar) which was described in Locomotive Mag., 1905, 15 March. 20 ton ore wagons were described in Locomotive Mag.,1904, 14 May. The Bury Coppernob locomotive was described in Locomotive Mag., 1901, 138. An inspection car built by Wright & Co. of Birmingham c1865 for James Ramsden is illustrated.

Soudanese Government Rys. 187.
Robert Stephenson order for four heavy locomotives to work between Port Soudan and Atbara Junction, and between Wady Halfa and Halfaya.

New electric locomotive. 187.
A large electric locomotive was nearing completion at the North British Locomotive Co. This combined a water tube boiler with high speed generators and was scheduled for trials on  the Glasgow & South Western Railway. It was commented that this was similar to the Heilmann locomotive described in Locomotive Mag., 3.

British and foreign locomotive footplates. 188-9. 4 illustration, diagram (s. el.).
Comparison of GWR 40XX Star Class No. 4012 Knight of the Thistle with Alsace-Lorraine Railway four-cylinder compound No. 86 Nutke built by Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques. Especial attention was paid to differences in the cab arrangements.

New appointment. 189.
Cecil Watson appointed Engineer & Manager of ABC Coupler in succession to James T. Jepson. Watson was formerly with Rendel & Robertson.

Bennett, Alfred Rosling. Early locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 190-1. illustration, 5 diagrams.
Fig. 39: No. 136 was built for the West London Railway, but used on Victoria-Crystal Palace-South London-London Bridge services where it was the only outside cylinder locomotive on the line in the 1860s. Fig. 40 erred in showing the boiler too high, and  Fig. 40A is a more accurate portrayal of Nos. 137 and 138. They worked light main line trains, and sometimes local trains to Croydon. Fig. 42: No. 98 was one of the first engines to work on the East london Railway when it opened from New Cross to Wapping. Fig. 43: tops of fluted domes on Nos. 139 and 140 were bright brass, not copper. Fig. 44A: 2-2-2ST No. 25 used on Littlehampton branch. Lasted 1839-84. Rare outside cylinder locomotive. Fig. 46: Nos. 141 and 142 used on goods from New Cross. Domes were made of brass, not copper. Fig. 47L: No. 144 was Craven's second bogie and fourth outside cyliinder locomotive. It had "an affection for the ballast that would have done credit to a road-roller". Shunted in New Cross yard. Fig. 49 see Fig. 49A: No. 145 was used on Crystal Palace to Victoria services. It did not have a fluted dome.Fig. 50A Nos. 84 and 86 were Stothert & Slaughter 2-2-2 rebuilt in 1861/2. Fig. 51A: 2-2-2WT No. 4 of 1862. Outside cylinder. Used on Kensington to Clapham Junction shuttle. No. 19 was used on same service. See also Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14 (15 May), p. 87 Fig. 20B which shows No. 148. Fig. 52: Nos. 149 and 150 had spring balances on domes when built. Fig. 53A: photograph of 2-4-0 No. 151 as working on West Lancashire Railway. Fig. 54: Nos. 49 and 99 had spring balances on the dome. Used on London Bridge-Crystal Palace-Victoria services. Fig. 57: Nos. 155 and 156 had splashers with radial openings when built. Used on services between London Bridge and Victoria. Figs. 59 and 60: Nos. 159-61 had open splashers when built; Fig. 61: Nos. 162 and 163 had spring balances on domes when built. Fig.63: Nos. 164 and 165 had spring balances on domes when built and splashers were edged with brass. Worked to Croydon.

Visits of French delegates to West Ham Abbey. 192. illustration
La Chambre Syndicate de Carrosiers to Robert Ingham Clark & Co., varnish makers. Noted fire precautions. Walter Clark hosted lunch bat Hotel Cecil.

The Bodmin and Wadebridge Ry. 192-4. 2 illustration
Opened on 1 July 1834. It was sold to the Cornwall & Devon Central Ry. in 1845. It was worked by the LSWR and was amalgamated with it on 1 July 1886. The railway retained many unusual features: wharves rather than stations characterised the line. The firsst locomotives were constructed by Neath Abbey and named Camel and Elephant. These were withdrawn in 1864, and replaced by Jones & Potts locomotives of 1840: 41 Ajax and Atlas.. In turn these were replaced by Scott (see XXX), Bodmin (a Fletcher Jennings locomotive of 1865 and Jumbo, a Manning Wardle locomotive painted in light yellow. Finally, these were replaced by "old" (as stated in 1909) Beattie well tanks Nos. 0245 and 314.
illustration: early brake van in use as chicken house at Wenford Bridge.

Leopoldina Ry. 194.
Six 4-6-0 passenger engines were supplied by Kitson. These received RN 224-9. They had 4ft 4in coupled wheels, 15in x 22in outside cylinders, 987ft2 total heating surface and 16ft2 grate area. Boiler pressure was 175 psi. Blind tyres were fitted to the central coupled wheels.

Reviews. 194.
Locomotives of the World. J.R. Howden. Hodder & Stoughton
Built around 16 colour plates based upon oil paintings. Noted error in claiming that T.W. Worsdell was the "uncle" of Wilson Worsdell (they were brothers).

4-speed 3-phase locomotive, Simplon Tunnel Ry. 195. illustration
Brown Boveri 0-8-0 design: illustrated with a 4-6-0 steam locomotive.

Motor car for railway inspection purposes. 195.
Supplier: John Milliken, Belfast.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 196-7. diagram
Connecting and coupling rods: originally circular in section, but replaced by rectangular where it it was simpler to have a deeper section at points of stress. Stroudley and Billinton retained circular section. Webb introduced a neat looking big end on his three-cylinder compounds in which the bstrap was solid with the rod with a block fitted bbehind the brasses to keep them in place, but the bolt was a source of weakness. Marine-type big ends were introduced by Drummond on the Northg Britsih Railway between 1874 and 1879. Sacré adopted them on the MSLR. Marsh was reviving their use on the LBSCR. Plain circular bronze bushes were introduced on the GWR outside-cylinder4 types.
A curious form of connecting rod end was introduced on the LYR in 1870 for four-coupled outside cylinder locomotives. In this design the coupling rod was extended in front of the crank pin to form a knuckle joint with the connecting rod which transferred the power to the driving crank pins through the coupling rod. This was illustrated in Locp. Mag., 7, 49.
Coupling rods: substitution of former double brasses with cotters by circular bushes had become usuaul as had the adoption of I section rod. Circular bushes had been adopted by Ramsbottom on No. 1480 Newton built in 1866. Ramsbottom retained brasses for six- six-coupled goods engines, but Webb substituted bushes. In the period 1883-90 the GWR used a knockle joint moveable in the horizontal plane to provide give on curves. I section coupling rods were introduced in America in 1854 by Thomas Rogers. An American locomotive built by bthe Grant Locomotive Works in New Jersey was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. This featured I section coupling and connecting rods. This was illustrated in Loco.Mag.,, 8, 168. Carl Linde, head of design at Krauss adopted the I section and T.W. Worsdell introduced it on his 562 Class in 1882.

Copper and brass for locomotives. 197-8.
Continued from page 181Copper: blocks of brass for rolling into sheets were cast in marble moulds with the ends and sides made of sand. The blocks were then rolled. Brass tubes were solid drawn and consisted of 70% copper and 30% spelter. The tubes were then annealed. Castings were produced in foundries where the brass was melted at 1800°F. The fumes were hazardous and ventilation had to be provided. Notes on crucibles and moulding sands. Econmisation led to replecement of brass by iron.

G.C., G.E. and G.N. Rys. interchangeable wagons. 198.
Agreement for standard 10 ton wagon.

Van to transport motor cars. G.I.P.R. 198-9. 3 illustration
Designed by A.M. Bell, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent four-wheel van with hinged buffers.

Correspondence. 200

Locomotive records. Karl Golsdorf
During the 'thirties [1830s] and the early 'forties [1840s] many locomotives were built by British firms and imported into Austria for the Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn (now part of the State Railways system) and for the Wien-Gloggnitzer Bahn, notably by such firms as Stephenson, Sharp, Turner, Rennie, Beyer Peacock and others. Beside some old photographs of Sharp, Roberts' engines built for the Kaiser Ferdinand Nordbahn and the Gloggnitzer Bahn, of Rennie locomotives built for the Nordbahn, of Turner's Ajax illustrated in your pages, and a few others which are in the possession of the writer, there is a singular lack of information relating to these old engines.
The only book that gives any data concerning these old English-built engines is Whishaw, but the list contained therein is obviously incomplete, and classes all as for the Vienna Ry., and the list only goes as far as 1840. It would be of great interest if the British firms concerned, or their successors, would-make researches into their archives and publish in your columns illustrations and particulars of the types of engines built and delivered to Austrian railways, say between the years 1837 and 1859.

Locomotives in the Crimea. W.E.S. Brown.
Re the first locomotive to run in Argentina, on page 114 of June issue, the Balaclava military line apparently had a locomotive stock of two engines named Alliance and Victory. Presuming there were no other engines on the line, one or other of the pair was probably the re-named La Portena. It would be interesting to know if this were so, and whether the Buenos Ayres Western Ry. Co. have preserved this interesting old Crimean veteran. Perhaps some of your readers in touch with the Arzentine Republic could inform us. See also letter from Flores on page 20 of Volume 16.

Some historical points in the details of British locomotive design. C.S. Stock
Re Page 7 (page 6 et seq), "crescent shaped balance weights date from about 1876." At the Exhibition of 1862 Connor's 8-ft. 2-in. single was thus remarked upon in the Official Record: "It is the only engine exhibited in which the inertia is balanced by a thickening of the inner rim of the driving wheel instead of a counterpoise between the spokes."
Bar framing did not originate with Bury, but with Stephenson in an engine America sent to the Delaware and Hudson Canal Co. in 1828. I think the Waterford and Tramore "Bury single" worked later than G.W.R. No. 15. I believe the Irish "Bury" is still regarded as a spare engine, but am not sure. Putting a pin through the crank for safety is a very old device. I think a reference to the late Mr. David Joy's diary will show that he used it very early.
Page 140, re slide valve. In 1810 Murray modified Murdoch's long D valve with inside admission into the short D valve with outside admission now universally employed. All kinds of relief frames for valves were used in marine work when the slow running large dimensioned engines were in vogue, and an arrangement very like Bodmer's first device was introduced into the G.W.R. Iron Duke.
Engerth, in 1851, in his locomotives brought the side frames of the tender forward beyond the firebox, and they supported part of its weight, one axle of the tender being in front of the firebox, and the engine exerted its pull on the tender at a point just behind the driving axle, so the movement of the tender was similar to that of the Bissell truck having its pivot some distance behind its true centre. This seems to have anticipated the Bissel patent of 1857.

No. 207 (15 November 1909)

North British Railway four-coupled express locomotive: W.P. Reid, Locomotive Supt, Cowlairs Works. Col. plate fp. 202.
From an oil painting by F. Moore: No. 890 Sir Walter Scott. bronze livery.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 203. 3 diagrams.
Figs. 151-3

American locomotives for Natal. 204-5. 2 illustration
American Locomotive Company locomotives for 3ft 6in gauge Natal Government Railways: 4-8-2 and 2-6-6-0 Mallet compound. The 4-8-2 had 24in x 24in cylinders, 11in piston valves operated by Walschaerts valve gear, 3ft 9½in coupled wheels, superheating, a total heating surface of 2417ft2 and a grate area of 35.4ft2. The Belpaire boiler operated at 160 psi. The Mallet compound had 17½in x 26in high pressure cylinders and 28in x 26in low pressure cylinders with Allen-Richardson valves operated by Walschaerts valve gear. The boiler included a combustion chamber and had a total heating surface of 25447ft2 and a 40ft2 grate area. The boiler was pressed to 200psi. Both locomotives were intended for coal traffic between Estcourt and Highlands.

Automatic valve for quick-acting vacuum brake. 205. diagram

The Nilgiri Mountain Raiulway. 206-7. 4 illustration
This was a metre gauge rack and adhesion which used the Abt system. From Mettapollium to Kullar adhesion working applied. The 5000ft climb involved a gradient of 1 in 12½. The line needed nine tunnels and many viaducts. Beyer Peacock supplied the 2-4-0T locomotives which had 2ft 6in coupled wheels, and 11½in x 18in cylinders for adhesion working and 10in x 14in for rack working. The Chatelier brake was used.

The Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Ry. 208-10. 2 illustration, map.
Begins with history of coal mining in the Gwendraeth and Trimsaran Valleys, and its transport by canal and tramroad to docks. The Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal and Tramroad was incorporated on 20 June 1813 to improve Kidwelly harbour, Kymer's Canal and tramroads. On 10 June 1825 were obtained to link Pembrey Harbour with the canals and tramroads already sanctioned. These canals and tramroads were designated as the Kidwelly and Burry Port Railway Co. in 1865. And it was planned to convert the canal into a railway. In 1866 this became the Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Railway. The new line opened in 1869. Passenger traffic had been introduced between Burry Port and Pontyberem. The railway operated as a light railway under the direction of H.F. Stephens. The line had steep gradients. The line was fully signalled.

Narrow gauge 4-6-2 locomotive, Bengal Nagpur Ry. 212. illustration
2ft 6in gauge locomotive supplied by North British Locomotive Co. under supervision of Sir John Wolfe Barry, consulting engineer. 2ft 3in coupled wheels; 14½in x 18in cylinders, 964ft2 total heating surface and 15.5ft2 grate area. Boiler pressure 160 psi.

Consolidation goods locomotive, North Western Ry., India. 212. illustration
Vulcan Foundry 2-8-0 for Indian State Ralways' Indian standard specification: 4ft 8½in coupled wheels; 20in x 28in cylinders actuated by Richardson slide valves, 2087ft2 total heating surface and 32ft2 grate area. Boiler pressure 180 psi

4-8-0 shunting locomotive, N. E. R. 213. illustration, diagram (side elevatiion).
Three-cylinder design built at Gateshead Works to design of Wilson Worsdell.

Pacific type locomotives, P. L. M. Ry. 214. 2 illustration
Very large and heavy (above the French national stipulated weight) locomotives limited to working between La Roche and Dijon on Riviera expresses. Two experimental locomotives: both four-cylinder, one simple and one compound. The simple locomotive was also fitted with a Schmidt superheater, but with a lower boiler pressure. Both locomotives shared 6ft 6¾in coupled wheels and 45¾ft2 grate areas. No. 6.001 (the compound) had high pressure cylinders of 15¾in x 255/8 and low pressure cylinders of 24½in x 255/8in. The total heating surface was 3044ft2. The boiler pressure was 227 psi. The simple locomotive (No. 6.101) had four cyliinders: 18¾ x 255/8in. The total heating surface was 2346ft2 plus 694ft2 of superheater. The boiler pressure was 171 psi.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 215-16. table, diagram.
Valve gears: Gooch link motion was applied to all GWR broad gauge locomotives. Only J.V. Gooch, on the LSWR, used this gear elsewhere. Allan's straight link motion was fitted to LNWR Precedents, the rebuilt Samson and to the larger 2-4-2Ts fitted with 5ft 8in coupled wheels. The LYR used it on twenty shunting locomotives. Advantages included dispensing with balance weights within the motion, straight link was mechanically easier than a curved one and the slip of block or die in link is less when running. Joy's radial valve gear was first fitted to LNWR No. 2365. In 1882 T.W. Worsdell fitted it to sixty GER locomotives and then introduced it to the NER in 1886. It was adopted on the MSLR and LYR in 1888. The MSLR and NER switched from Joy's valve gear to Stephenson link motion in 1893. The GWR fitted No. 1883 with Joy's gear in 1882. Table shows the uptake of Joy's gear on British railways. Diagram shows Joy's gear as fitted to ten locomotives supplied by Neilson to the LYR: RN 833-42. See also letters from F.W. Brewer in next Volume page 20 and from F.A. Crowe and from Howard Fletcher  

The manufacture of wheels and axles for railway rolling stock. 216-18. 2 diagrams.
Approximately 500,000 wheels and axles manufactured in Britain for British railways: these were valued at £3M and a further £1M were manufactured forr export. Axles were forged from Bessemer or Siemens-Martin steel blooms or in some cases from fagotted scrap iron. The forgings were then machined on a lathe: this tended to be a two-stage process in which three or four axles were rough turned simultaneously, followed by bthe fine turning of individual axles. Special care had to be taken on machining the journal sections of the axle and many companies burnished the journal with a hardened steel roller. Tyres These were absent from solid cast or forged steel wheels and in chilled cast iron wheels which followed American practice. Tyres were the norm on most British wheels. They were manufactured from steel.

An old "well" tank locomotive. 218. illustration
Hawthorn & Co. of Leith four-coupled locomotive manufactured in 1876 under S.D. Davison's patent No. 312 of 1859 which provided for the water tanks to be built into the framing of the engine. The locomotive illustrated was in service in Maadras Harbour. Other locomotives manufactured to this design may have included twelve six-coupled built in 1898 by the Hanover Locomotive Works for the Manchurian section of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

Invalid saloon, G. N. R. 218-19. 2 illustrationss
50ft long with Pullman vestibbules and Buckeye couplers with a large invalid saloon, a first-class compartment, an attendant's compartment, toilet and luggage compartment. An independent boiler was fitted to provide hot water.

New joint stock, B.-N. and G.I.P. Rys., India. 220. illustration
Underframes and bogies constructed by Metropolitan Amalgamated Carriage & Wagon Co. at Saltley, but bodies and fittings built in India. under supervision of A.S. Bailey, Chief Mechanical Engineer, BNR. Livery quoted as brown lower panels, ivory waist and upper panels with chocolate mouldings.

No. 208 (15 December 1909)

Great Eastern Ry. 222
Nos. 1823-1826 (express passenger 4-4-0) and Nos.1303-1306 (2-4-2T) had been completed: Nos. 1303 and 1304 were in the Ipswich district. A further 0-6-0 tram locomotive was on order from Stratford Works.
The sixth annual reunion dinner of past and present members of the locomotive department staff was held at the G.E. Hotel, Liverpool Street was held on 26 November with S.D. Holden in tthe chair. 54 were present including one on leave from India.

London & North Western Ry. 222
A new seri:es of 4-6-0 (Experiment) passenger express engines had been put in hand at Crewe, those so far completed being Nos. 1412: Bedfordshire, 1418 Cheshire, and, 1420 Derbyshire. All this series to bear names after shires. The following additio:nal 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines had also, been turned out Nos. 1541, 1576, 1581,1612 and 1613. A further two Webb 4 ft. 6 in. double-ended passenger tanks, Nos. 603 and 2068, had been converted into six-wheeled engines to work rail motor trains.
No. 1245, a 4-ft. 3-in. 4-cylinder compound mineral engine, had been converted to simple with larger boiler; and No. 548, an 18-in. cylinder goods engine, has had its cylinders lined up to 17,in. diameter.

North London Ry. 222
'No. 121 now boret L. & .N.W.R. No. 2651.:and No. 115 .No. 2634

Lee-on-the-Solent Ry. 222
See also Volume 9 page 226, Had been taken over by L. & S:W.R., which.had ralways had a considerable share in its management and operation.

North British Ry. 222.
The speed of express trains when running over the Forth Bridge had been restricted. to 40 miles per hour;

Dublin & South Eastern Ry. 222
Two new 2-4-2 tank locomotives had been put into service: No. 28 St. Lawrence and No. 30 St. Iberius. They were similar to No. 27 St. Aiden, which was illustrated in issue of June 1908.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 222
Electric working of the South London line between Victoria .and London Bridge, was inaugurated on.l December with a service of four trains each way per hqur which may be corrsiderably increased as traffic demands.

Great Central Ry. 222
No. 212,. of the eight-coupled mineral class was in service, and to be followed by Nos. 213 and 356. The three-cylinder simple Atlantic No. 1090 had been fitted with a Davies & Metcalf exhaust steam injector. A number of goods engines were being rebuilt with new boilers, Nos. 3, 6, 45, 46, 465, 472 and 481 amongst the number. .

Caledonian Ry, 222. illustration
On 6 November Jarnes Dalling;, who had for the previous 21 yeat:s acted as assistant.foreman at Per:th South locomotive shed, retired after44 years of railway service. He joined the service of the Caledonian Ry. in November, 1865, at Holytown Bridge, rose through· the many grades o£ the service, and before being appointed assistant foreman at Perth was one of the drivers regularly selected for the Royal train of QueenVictoria. Dalling took a prominent part in the formation of Mutual Improvement Classes on the system, and on his retirement: a large gathering,of railwaymen, presided over by John Keydon, met in the Palace Hotel, Perth, to present him with a :token of esteem and to wish him prosperity in his retirement.

Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 222
In order to accommodate a large party of Arnerican tourists who arrived in Bombay on, 14 November, the administration of the G.I.P.R. provided two special trains composed solely of vestibuled stock. Each train was composed of a large restaurant car with; a tender brake van to supplernent the kitchen accmodation, six sleeping cars, and a composite brake van with luggage .compartrnents and rooms for servants, a bath room and three dressing rooms. The trains were hauled by Atlantic express engines Nos. 909 Dalhousie and 922 Lord Clyde, which were re-named for the occasion President Taft and Roosevelt respectively.
This type of engine: was i1lustrated in Issue of September 1907. Both engines were painted in a new style similar to that of the GNR in England.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 223-4.
Figs. 154 and 155.

Consolidation locomotive, Sao Paulo Brazilian Ry. 224 + plate. 2 illustration
Superheated 2-8-0 with Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves for 5ft 3in gauge constructed at Atlas Works, North British Locomotive Company to specification of Charles H. Fox. 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 21½in x 26in coupled wheels, total heating surface 1940ft2, grate area 28.5ft2.

The Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Ry. 225-7. 6 illustration
The first locomotives were supplied by Thomas Hughes of Loughborough via the contractors who had built bthe line. These were 0-4-0STs Lizzie and Gwendraeth. The first had 2ft 9in coupled wheels, the second 3ft 9in. Gwendraeth became No, 2 in 1899 and was sold to Avonside in 1906. A Fairlie 0-4-4-0 Mountaineer (illustrated) was acquired which had been intended for use in New South Wales. This had 3ft 6in coupled wheels and four 10in x 18in cylinders. In 1877 it was tried on the GWR Pantyffynon to Rhos line. An ex-Gwendraeth Valley Railway 0-6-0ST Kidwelly (Fox Walker WN 172/1872) was acquired: this had 3ft 6in coupled wheels, 13in x 20in cylinders and was rebuilt in 1879. It was numbered 5 in 1899 and sold to Avonside in 1903. Another Fairlie was purchased from the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1873: Victoria — an 0-6-6-0 (illustrated). This was rebuilt at Burry Port in 1896 under the direction of the locomotive superintendent F. Willcocks. It had 2ft 9in coupled wheels and four 11in x 18in cylinders and a boiler pressure of 140psi. It received the number 8 in 1899 and was scrapped in 1903.
Two Manning Wardle 0-6-0STs were acquired in 1872: No. 6 Burry Port came from Bishwell Colliery where it had been named Susan. This was sold to Chapman & Furneaux in 1901. No. 7 Cwm Mawr was sold to Avonside in 1901. Both had 3ft coupled wheels and 13in x 18in cylinders. Peckett WN 498/1891, an outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST, received the number 5 and was named Dyvatty: it was sold in 1907.
No. 1 Ashburnham was a Chapman & Furneaux 0-6-0ST (WN 1197/1901) supplied to the specification of R.A. Carr, engineer of the line. It had 3ft 8in coupled wheels, 16in x 24in outside cylinders, 928ft2 total heating surface and 14ft2 grate area. The trailing axle had a total side play of 1¾in and the coupling rod was fitted with a swivel joint.
No. 2 Pontyberem was an Avonside 0-6-0ST (WN 1421/1900) with 14in x 20in outside cylinders and 3ft 6in coupled wheels. No. 3 Burry Port was similar to Asburnham (Chapman & Furneaux WN 1209/1901), but with 15in x 22in cylinders and 3ft 6in coupled wheels.
Under Eager's supervision four Avonside 3ft 6in coupled wheel 0-4-0STs were purchased. Nos. 4 Kidwelly (WN 1463/1903) and 5 Cwm Mawr (WN 1491/1905): these had 15in x 20in cylinders, 1075ft2 total heating surface and 10.2ft2 grate area. Nos. 6 Gwendraeth (WN 1519/1906)  and 7 Pembrey (WN 1535/1907) had  15in x 22in cylinders, 954ft2 total heating surface and 15.2ft2 grate area.
For passenger services a Hudswell Clark 0-6-0T (WN 871) No. 8 Pioneer with 15in x 22in cylinders had been placed in service, and another similar locomotive, but with 16in x 24in cylinders had been delivered. The passenger locomotives were painted in Midland red: all earlier locomotives were painted green. Former Metropolitan Railway coaches, fitted with acetylene lighting, were provided for passengers. See also Volume 26 page 23.

Tunnelling the Andes. 227.
A 3280 yard tunnel constructed at 11,000ft above sea level linked Chile with Argentina.

Narrow gauge tank locomotive, Kelani Ry., Ceylon. 228-9. illustration, diagram (sectionalised side elevation)
4-6-4T for 47¾mile long narrow gauge (2ft 6in) railway from near Colombo to Yatiyantota with 1 in 80 gradients. 14 x 20in cylinders, 797ft2 total heating surface and 19ft2 grate area. Five locomotives designed by Gregory Eyles & Waring, Consulting Engineers.

Locomotive frames. 229-31. 5 diagrams.
Practical methods for the construction and assembly of plate frames by punching, slotting, drilling and erection.

The "Aerostyle" air brush. 231-2.

Reviews. 232.

The book of the railway. G.E. Mitton. Adam & Charles Black.
Ottley 494: review noted tht "well illustrated", but failed to observe colour plates. Intended for "general reader"

Kempthorne's railway stores price book. London: E. & F. Spon Ltd.
Examples quoted include gas and electric lighting equipment along with potato peelers, hair brushes, etc!

Electric traction on railways. Philip Dawson. Electrician Printing & Publishing Co.
27 chapters, 600 plates and drawings and over 80 tables

New tank locomotives, North British Ry. 233. 2 illustrations.
Built to the requirements of W.P. Reid by the North British Locomotive Co.: 0-4-4T with 5ft 9in coupled wheels (No. 239 illustrated) and 0-6-2T with 4ft 6in coupled wheels for use on Cowlairs Incline (No. 853 illustrated)

Cross, J.W. Notes on the Westinghouse brake. 234-5. 2 diagrams.
Driver's brake valve.

E.L. Ahrons Some historical points in the details of Britsh locomotive design. 235-6. diagram.
Walschaerts valve gear: Only requires one eccentric; "long in favour on Continent, but has not until recently been adopted on any British railways, except one or two in the North of Ireland". Large number of locomotives fitted with it by British firms for export, The travel of the valve ca\n be varied whilst retaining cconstant lead.
Noted that Swindon, Marlborough and Andover Railway Fairlie tank engine No. 4 was sole British locomotive fitted with Walschaerts gear. It had been exhibited at the Paris cExhibition of 1878, and was acquired by the SMAR in 1882, and lasted until 1892, It was illustrated in Locomotive Magazine, 5, page 57.
Beyer, Peacock reintroduced the gear into Britain on a von Borries two-cylinder compounds for the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway in 1890. On thhis, and the Belfast & County Down Railway there were about 30 Walschaerts fitted engines. Only 19 express locomotives in Great Britain were so-fitted and 18 of these were four-cylinder types: the three French compounds on the GWR, three compound and one four-cylinder simple on the GNR, eleven Drummond four-cylinder locomotives and the solitary Great Central three-cylinder Atlantic. The Midland had five four-coupled shunting engines and the Great Eastern five tram engines fitted.
Also mentions the Bryce Douglas radial valve gear fitted Caledonian Railway No. 124; the loose eccentric gear designed by Webb to actuate the low-pressure cylinder of some of his three-cylinder compounds, Deeley's gear of 1907, and Marshall valve gear invented by J.T.Marshall of the Boyne Engine Works in Leeds. Fig. 32 showed the gear. It was fitted to GNR goods engine No. 743 and to a 4-4-0 No. 1331, and to several GS&WR 4-4-0s in Ireland. See also letter from J.S. Dines in next Volume page 20

4-6-0 locomotive, Bengal-Nagpur Ry.. 236-7. illustration.
Sir John Wolfe Barry, Consulting Engineer, for broad gauge (5ft 6in) constructed by North British Locomotive Co. named Dreadnouught. Coupled wheels 6ft 1½in diameter; cylinders 20in x 26in; grate area 32.148ft2 and total heating surface 1703ft2. The boiler pressure was 180psi.

The manufacture of wheels and axles for railway rolling stock. 237-8.diagram.
Bossing was achieved via a very powerful hydraulic press using cast iron.