Caledonian Railway locomotives

Caledonian Railway 4-4-0 Express Passenger Locomotive No.721 - Dunalastair.

This locomotive was built in the Company's St. Rollox Workshops in 1896 to the designs of J.F. McIntosh, Locomotive Superintendent. The cylinders were 18¼in dia. by 26in stroke and the coupled wheels were 6ft 6in dia. Boiler pressure160 lbs per sq. in. Weight of engine and tender in working order - 86 tons. This was one of the most successful engines of its time and when first p1aced in service created a sensational performance in working the west coast tourist express trains over the Caledonian section, the journey between Carlisle and Stirling - a distance of 117¾ miles in 125 minutes.

Sinclair locomotives
Drummond locomotives
McIntosh locomotives
Pickersgill locomotives
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The Caledonian Railway connected Scotland's four major cities with the LNWR. at Carlisle. The Company was formed from several local companies, but the Anglo-Scottish route involved Government intervention, although this somewhat unusual activity at that time (and within the United Kingdom) was thwarted by the North British Railway which got to England on its own! At its height it must have been a very grand railway, but the rot began before WW1 when it failed to electrify its hugely expensive undergroud system and contemplate electrification to Carlisle. The locomotives, most of which were painted blue, were solidly built and many lasted until after Nationalization. The Stephenson Locomotive Society and J.F. McEwan have produced thorough histories of the locomotive stock.

NB: this page requires much modification: notably to sort out the McEwan muddle which is being deepened by the Caledonian Railway Society by its members failing to be aware of bibliographical conventions, but then KPJ is a rather slapdash worker as is evident herein.

General works

Baxter, Bertram. British locomotive catalogue, 1825-1923. Volume 4. Scottish and remaining English companies in the LMS Group. Ashbourne: Moorland, 1984.
Cornwell, H.J. Campbell. Forty years of Caledonian locomotives, 1882-1922. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1974.
His assessment of the 956 class is contrary to the general trend.
Dunbar, A.G. Latter-day Caledonian locomotive design. Trains ill, 1956, 9, 540-5.9 illus.
Essery, Bob and Jenkinson, David. An illustrated history of LMS locomotives. Volume 3. Absorbed pre-group classes Northern Division. 1986. 420 illus.
Excellent extended captions: especially good on former Glasgow & South Western Railway locomotives. Plates 164-8 show Brittain outside-cylinder 0-4-2 tender locomotives: plate 167 shows one of these locomotives with a four-wheel tender. Plates 169 and 170 show LMS 17101 and 17102 which were former Solway Junction Railway 0-6-0s..
Historical Model Railway Society. The Caledonian Railway: locomotives, 1883-1923 [cover-title]. London, HMRS., [196 ]. 17 p. + 4 plates (incl. 1 double col.). 6 diagrs. Bibliog.(Livery register, No.1)
McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46,150-3.
Introduction. Reprinted True Line, 1995 (48) 7-9
1941, 47, 12-14: includes dummy crank shaft locomotives Nos. 136-143, some of which were altered to 0-4-0 and 0-4-2ST
61-4: 2-2-2
77-9: Pollok & Govan Railway and Wishaw & Coltness Railway.
107-9: Trader's locomotives.
122-5: Benjamin Connor.
1942, 48, 33-7: SCR No, 7 with Alexander Allan on footplate.
107-10: SCR  2-2-2
173-5.Earl of Airlie.
207-8.Dundee & Perth and Dundee & Arbroath Railways.
1943, 49, 39-41.: Dundee & Arbroath and Arbroath & Forfar Railways.
68-70.Scottish Midland Junction Railway and Aberdeen Railway.
Aberdeen Railway: locomotives from Dundee: K'mond & Steel, Gourlay, Mudie and Blackie
140-1: Aberdeen Railway
170-2: Scottish North Eastern: boiler explosion: illus. of No. 48 at Bridgr of Dunn in 1869.
1944, 50, 4-6: SNER 0-4-2 1859-1866 (table).
35-7: SNER 0-4-2T and 2-2-2
71-3: 2-4-0
101-3: Class 98 2-4-0
142-6: 0-4-2 tender
177-8: 2-4-0
1945, 51, 7-10;
1946, 52, 13-15;
1947, 53, 24-5;
144-6; 177-8;
1948, 54, 41-4;
Total 160 illus., (incl. 60 line drawings: s. el.), 4 diagrs., 2 tables, map.
MacIntosh, Jim.
Caledonian Railway livery. Lightmoor Press and Caledonian Railway Association, 2008. 328pp.
"This lavishly illustrated book is likely to become the definitive work" (Graham Bird: J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc., 2009, 36, 60)
MacLeod, A.B. The McIntosh locomotives of the Caledonian Railway, 1895-1914. London, Ian Allan, 1948. 48 p. 44 illus. (Famous locomotive types, No.2).
Illustrations with concise notes on each type. Also acknowledges McEwan
Nock, O.S. The Caledonian Railway. London, Ian Allan, [1962] . 190pp. + col. front.
On page 53 Nock refers to a "remarkably comprehensive series of articles in The Locomotive Magazine, by J.F. McEwan, commencing in June 1940, and running for 8 years – truly a monumental work!"
Stephenson Locomotive Society. Caledonian Railway Centenary (1847-1947); edited by L.R. Tomsett. London: SLS, 1947. 76pp. incl. 32 plates + front. + 5 folding plates. 71 illus., 3 diagrs., 6 plans, map.
Thomas, J. The Springburn story: the history of the Scottish railway metropolis. Dawlish (Devon): David & Charles, 1964. 260 p. incl. front. & 20 plates. 46 illus. (incl 4 ports.), 4 diagrs., map. Bibliog.
For history of St. Rollox Works.


Hamilton, David. Got those Caledonian blues again. True Line, 1995 (48) 26-9. Bibliog.
Colour prints and plates plus descritive text. Bibliography includes E.F. Carter

Glasgow, Paisley & Greenock Railway

Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. Cambridge: Goose, 1975. 705pp.
Lowe notes that  Robert Sinclair was the Locomotive Superintendent and three 2-2-2s were constructed at Greenock before the railway was amalgamated into the CR. Locomotive construction continued at Greenock until 1855 when this activity was transferred to St Rollox.

Scottish Central Railway


Alexander Allan

Clark, D.K.. Railway locomotives. 1860
Plate 40 illustrates an outside-cylinder locomotive, but not one of the typical Crewe-type.


Early passenger locomotives, Caledonian Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1910, 16, 254.
Nos 10-19 supplied by Vulcan Foundry. Notes influence of Alexander Allan.


Smith, John W. Letter. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1943, 49, 142.
Both Lambie and NBR types and their workings.

Sinclair locomotives
Like much of the locomotive history relating to this period it is messy. Much was covered by James McEwan in Locomotive Carriage & Wagon Review and the Caledonian Railway Association has reprinted much in its True Line and Baxter attempted to produce some order, but the result remains messy. It is now difficult to reconcile the "two McEwans" and an electronic version of the Locomotive Carriage & Wagon Review would have been a far more rewarding product of all that scanning.

96 class: Jones & Potts: 1849
Crewe-type 0-6-0 with outside cylinders: WN 154-8 (Baxter) rebuilt as 0-4-2

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46 [Oct 15/Nov 15]
Reprinted in True Line, 1995 (51) as Part 3

59 class: 1857-65: rebuilt from Jones & Potts 2-2-2

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46
Reprinted in True Line, 1995 (51) as Part 3

"111 class": Hawthorn: 1847/9
Standard Hawthorn locomotives: WN 543-5. Last of order for Aberdeen Railway (Baxter)

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46 [Oct 15/Nov 15]
Reprinted in True Line, 1995 (51) as Part 3

101 class: Greenock: 1848-9
101-5 had 16 x 18in cylinders. Nos. 106-10 had 17 x 18in cylinders. Fitted with Gooch valve gear

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46 [Oct 15/Nov 15]
Reprinted in True Line, 1995 (51) as Part 3. Fig. 7 Gooch valve gear.

59 class: 1848-52: Jones & Potts
WN 239-44 (Baxter) rebuilt as 2-4-0 between 1857 and 1865.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46
Reprinted in True Line, 1995 (51) as Part 3

Conner locomotives
Conner was Locomotive Superintendent between 1856 and 1876.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 122-5.
Benjamin Connor was in charge from 1857 to 1876. At the beginning of this time double-sided bullhead steel rail was being introduced and experiments were being made to replace coke with coal as locomotive fuel. In 1858 an order was placed with A. Neilson for a coal burning 0-6-0 with outside cylinders to work on the General Terminus Railway. This had 16 x 22in cylinders, 5ft 2in coupled wheels, 895 ft2 total heating surface and operated at 95 psi. It had WN 460 and the initial running number was 180. In 1873 the locomotive was rebuilt as a 2-4-0. In 1858 Connor's own design was introducesd: a Crewe type 2-4-0 freight locomotive with outside frames and outside cylinders. Four were built at St Rollox and four at Neilson's. The latter were supplied with steam tenders, but  these were switched to a larger St. Rollox design in the following year. They were numbered 189 to 196: the WN of the Neilson enginesb were 492-5. The class was withdrawn between 1894 and 1902.
The eight foot singles were alleged to have been designed at Crewe by Alexamder Allan according to Ahrons and certainly had a high input from Neilson. The first twelve had a raised firrebox with the dome and Salter safety valves located on it. Neilson built one for the London Exhibition of 1862, but it, plus a further two, were acquired by the Viceroy of Egypt. Otherwise it would have become CR No. 83. They were very heavy locomotives and were capable of hauling substantial trains up to Beattock. Photographs: Benjamin Connor (portrait), No. 188 (outside-cylinder 0-6-0; 2-4-0 (189-96 series as built); 2-4-0 No. 192 as rebuilt; 2-2-2 Exhibition engine; 2-2-2 No. 115; 2-2-2 No. 83a as rebuilt by Drummond.

Class 98: 1867 built at St. Rollox plus six similar, but longrt lasting, built by Neilson
McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag.,, 1944, 50, 101-3.

417 class (Connor design) rebuilt with larger boilers by Drummond

Alan J.S. Paterson. Dugald Drummond at St. Rollox, 1882-85. Part 2. Railway Wld, 1961, 22, 88-93.
Boilers had 837.95 ft2 tube heating surface (10% increase); firebox 101.07 ft2 (18% increase); and grate area 17 ft2 (11% increase)

552 class: Dubs: 1870
Russell, George. The Conner & Brittain 0-4-2 tender engines [2]. True Line, 1998 (61) 11-14.

600 class: Neilson: 1872-
Russell, George. The Conner & Brittain 0-4-2 tender engines [2]. True Line, 1998 (61) 11-14.

488 class (original running numbers: 488-91)
Neilson WN 1775-6; 1937-8 with outside cylinders and wheel layout very similar to Forney layout for US elevated railroads
Old tank locomotive, Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, 282.

Brittain locomotives
Brittain was Locomotive Superintendent between 1876 and 1882.

672 class: Dubs: 1878-
Russell, George. The Conner & Brittain 0-4-2 tender engines [2]. True Line, 1998 (61) 11-14.

486 class: Brittain 1881.
CR No. 1489; scapped in 1927 without receiving No. 16150.

2-4-2T: Neilson: 1880
Ahrons notes that the loan of a Webb 2-4-2T for evaluation on the Callander & Oban line led to an order for fifteen similar locomotives from Neilson. These were found to be unsteady in service.

Drummond locomotives

294 class (Jumbos): 1883-7
Cornwell (pp. 18-22) argues that the class owed much to Stroudley design, notably the conical pistons and cylinder covers. The tender was a "pure Stroudley design". The first batch was supplied by Neilson WN 3043-57/1883-4; running numbers 294-308. Nos. 349-54 were constructed at St. Rollox.  Neilson supplied twenty further locomotives: WN 3251-71/1884 which were given running numbers 517-26/680-9. Further batches were manufactured at St. Rollox until 1887.

Cornwell, Harold John. The Caledonian Railway Jumbos. the 18in. x 26in. 0-6-0s. Lightmoor Press. 192 pp.
Seen briefly at NRM: very detailed locomotive study: many detailed working drawings. Author is son of above locomotive historian mentioned above

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1946, 52, 183

66 class: 1884
These shared the cylinders and boiler of the 294 class. According to Middlemass these were improved 476 Abbotsfords (a Drummond design for the NBR). They were fitted with Adams bogies. Neilson WN 3058-67/1884 became Nos. 66-75. Numbers 60-5 were constructed at St. Rollox. They enabled Anglo-Scottish services to be accelerated. Cornwell (pp. 22-4).
Middlemass, Thomas. The Scottish 4-4-0. 1994.

124: Dubs: 1886
Like No. 123, No. 124 was constructed for the Edinburgh International Exhibition of 1886, and like it won a Gold Medal. It was a modified version of the 66 class: the main innovation was its use of Bryce-Douglas valve gear The gear was not successful in service and was replaced by Stephenson link motion in 1887 in which form it was a star performer on Beattock bank (Cornwell reproduces a log). In 1890 it was named Eglinton and was a star performer on the Arran boat trains to Ardrossan.

80 class (Coast Bogies): 1888
Built for Greenock to Glasgow boat trains. They had small boilers (only 16.75ft2 grate area) but were fitted with Jumbo type cylinders. They also featured items fitted to No. 123: vortex blastpipes, compressed air sanding and steel frames. Middlemass suggests that they were constructed in response to Smellie's 4-4-0s on the GSWR.

123: Neilson: 1886
No. 123 is a unique locomotive with its own rich literature: Cornwell provides a very succinct account and reproduced part of Edward Snowball's letter which appeared in Engineering which claimed that the design was developed at Neilson: WN 3553. It was constructed, alongside No. 124, a 4-4-0 from Dubs, for the Edinburgh International Exhibition of 1886 (where it won a Gold Medal). Cornwell does note the standard Caledonian features which were incorporated, however. More original features included steel frames, Holt's compressed air sanding and an Adams' vortex blastpipe. Withdrawn and preserved by LMS in 1935. The locomotive is still extant, but is poorly displayed in its Kelvingrove store in Glasgow.

[Detailed drawings]. Engineer, 1886 (27 August) p. 168.
reproduced Fryer
[Performance Carlisle to Edinburgh on 9 August 1888]. Engineer, 1891 (13 March) p. 201
reproduced Fryer


Atkins, Philip. Locos from scratch. Rly Mag, 1989, 135, 516-17.
Included both locomotives built within a limited time scale, and the technically more interesting new designs produced within a very limited period: the Author cites the 4-2-2 constructed by Neilsons for the Edinburgh International Exhibition in 1886.
Cornwell, Campbell. The Drummond 3130 gallon tender. Caledonian J., 1984, (1), 17.
As fitted to No. 123
Fryer, Charles. Single wheeler locomotives. 1993. Chapter 6
Far more revelaing material about design written elsewhere
Mearns, Allan G. and Rankin, Stuart W, A singular tale. True Line, 1998 (63) 7-10.
Mainly as operating as LMS No. 14010 on Perth to Dundee trains.
Nock, O.S. Historical steam locomotives. 1959. Chapter 6 Four famous 4-2-2 singles.
123 included

Tank engines

323 class: Jubilee Pugs: 1887-90
Baxter called this the 323 class (Chacksfield illustrates one as the "385 class" which is presumably what they became when No, 323 was renumbered. They were distinctly un-Drummond looking with their Stirling type cabs which may have been fitted to pass through some restricted headroom (but no illustration shows a member of the class with reduced height chimney or safety valves). Class eventually reached a total of 30. Cornwell pp. 40-1.

272 class: Drummond 1888:
Siix coupled version of 264 class 0-4-0ST. Illustrated in plates 132 and 133: No. 16100 (both sides of same locomotive).

171 class: 1884-6
Derived from NBR R class 4-4-0T. Nos. 171-6 built in 1884 and Nos. 177-8 and 228-31 in 1886. Worked services to Balerno and on other light branch lines.

140 class: 1879
McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1946, 52, 101.

262 class: 1885
Similar to 264 class, but with trailing truck: intended for working Killin branch.
Elton, Michael S. Killin village railway. Bactrack, 2000, 14, 624-32.
Notes that the two locomotives were unsuitable for working the Killin branch.

264 class: 1885
Ordered with 262 class: dock shunting locomotives developed from Neilson design. Nos. 264-71. McIntosh added ro the class in 1895; 1900; 1902 and 1908. MacLeod lists this as these as the 611 class. David Anderson in a Backtrack article in Volume 35 also alludes to them as such and notes that a few migrated to locomotive works on the London Midland Region.

McIntosh locomotives
The McIntosh locomotives were well-known and included the famous Dunalastair 4-4-0 and Cardean 4-6-0 types as well as rugged 0-6-0s and 0-4-4Ts. The outline is based upon MacLeod.

600 class: 1901/3
Two locomotives were built in July 1901 and each cost £3000. Will Craig, formerly of Oban, was sent to Kingmoor to test them on a wide range of routes. In 1909 they were tested with hauling 30 ton bogie wagons loaded with coal between Ross and Perth which included the ascent of Dunblane bank. A total of eight locomotives were constructed; most eventually worked coal traffic in Lanarkshire. They had 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 21 x 26in cylinders; 2108 ft2. total heating surface; 25ft2 grate area and 175 psi boiler pressure. They had spiral rear springs which were difficult to maintain. The heavy slide valves were also difficult to maintain and the locomotives tended to go off beat very quickly. They could haul 60 loaded wagons and were introduced together with 30 ton high capacity bogie wagons fitted with Westinghouse brakes. In 1904 several of the class were employed Buffalo Bill specials between Stranraer and Carlisle. MacLeod. In 1903 during the Glasgow Fair they worked passenger trains between Glasgow and Ardrossan: Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, 158.

David Anderson. Famous Scottish locomotive enineers: J.F. M'Intosh... Backtrack, 2021, 35, 590.
Called "ungainly": the locomotive
Philip Atkins
. Spaced out. Backtrack, 2016, 30, 28.
Comments on 22ft 4in coupled wheelbase
A.G. Dunbar. The McIntosh eight-coupled engines and Moguls of the Caledonian Railway. Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 16-18+

55 class: Oban bogies: 1902/5
Two batches Nos. 55-9 in 1902 and 51-4 in 1905. They had 5ft coupled wheels and 19 x 26in cylinders MacLeod..
Atkins, Philip. Horses for courses. Backtrack, 1989, 3, 202-5.
Each of the three types (one 4-4-0, and two 4-6-0s) specifically designed for the Callander & Oban line are briefly surveyed.

49 class: Sir James Thompson class: 1903
Caledonian Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1904, 10, 88
Two locomotives; Nos. 49 and 50 Sir James Thompson. 6ft 6in coupled wheels. 21 x 26in cylinders. When constructed these were the most powerful express locomotives in Britain and were intended for the main Glasgow to Carlisle mainline MacLeod..
David Anderson. Famous Scottish locomotive enineers: J.F. M'Intosh... Backtrack, 2021, 35, 590.
Rous-Marten, Charles British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1903, 13, 124-31.
Describes journeys made between Carlisle and Glasgow and back behind McIntosh 4-6-0s Nos. 59 and 60. Neither of the northbound journeys was noteworthy: a problem with dampers was the explanation of the slow progress on the first and on the second a banker was provided from Beattock. The southbound journeys were better.

903 class or Cardean: 1906
Five locomotives including No. 903 Cardean: 6ft 6in coupled wheels. 20 x 26in cylinders MacLeod..
Contemporary accounts:
Six-coupled bogie express locomotive, Caledonian Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1906, 12, 108-9. illus.
No. 903 illustrated. J.F. McIntosh inside-cylinder 4-6-0 similar to Nos. 49-50 but with smaller (20 x 26in) and wheelbase of coupled wheels reduced by 4 inches, built-up steel plate drag-box in place of cast iron, direct stays in place of roof-bars in firebox crown. Large bearings on driving axle. 200 psi boiler pressure. Describes name [not visible in photograph] of Cardean: seat of E. Cox, director of Company.

Le Fleming, Hugh M. Internatiuonal locomotives. Plate 40
Painting: KPJ has reservations
Warren, Alan. Four locomotive biographies in David St John Thomas The romance of Scotland's railways. Nairn. 1993..
Cardean was the name of the Edward Cox Estate. On 2 April 1909 a broken crank axle was experienced and the drawbar fractured. See also crank axles. In 1909 Cardean worked on the LNWR and tested against an Experiment class 4-6-0. The locomotive was fitted with a special deep-toned whistle. Basset-Lowke produced a model of the locomotive. The Rly Mag (1932 August) produced an article on the locomotive. In 1920 it lost its name and it slipped into oblivion under the LMS and was withdrawn in December 1930.

918 class: 1906
Five locomotives: 918-22. 5ft coupled wheels. 19 x 26in inside cylinders MacLeod.

Caledonian Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1906, 12, 88

Dunbar, A.G. The McIntosh 918 class 4-6-0s of the Caledonian. Rly Wld, 1964, 25, 191-2.
Only short life after the Grouping.

908 or Sir James King class: 1906
Developed from 903 class, but with shorter boiler and smaller (5ft 9in) driving wheels. 19 x 26 in cylinders. Two received names: 909 Sir James King and 911 Barochan. Total ten locomotives. MacLeod..
McIntosh 4-6-0 No. 917. Locomotive Mag., 1910, 16, 2.
Inside cylinders: 5ft 9in coupled wheels and new form of side-window cab.

179 class: 1913-14
Intended for express freight: fitted with piston valves and superheaters. Total eleven locomotives: Nos. 179-89. 19½ x 26in cylinders. 5ft 9in coupled wheels. Side window cabs. MacLeod..

4-6-0 superheated goods engine, Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 46. illustration
No. 179 illustrated

34 class: 1912
This was clearly an 0-6-0 with an added pony truck to bear the weight of the piston valves and superheater. The five locomotives had 5ft coupled wheels and 19½ x 26in cylinders. The leading axle resembled a radial truck but without the curved guides, but with lateral springing. Fitted with Schmidt superheaters and piston valves. MacLeod.. It is worth remembering that the Churchward 43XX and Gresley K1 designs were contemporary with this rather feeble effort.

A.G. Dunbar. The McIntosh eight-coupled engines and Moguls of the Caledonian Railway. Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 16-18+

709 class: 1895-7
Painted in passenger blue livery and fitted with Westinghouse brake: they were regarded as mixed traffic locomotives. They had 5ft coupled wheels and 18 x 26in cylinders. Five were fitted with condensing apparatus for operating on the Glasgow underground section See Locomotive Mag., 1897, 2, 155, : see class 92 0-4-4Ts for Cox's observations on air quality at Glasgow Central Low Level.. Total 83 locomotives.. MacLeod...

812 class: 1899-1900
Enlarged version of 709 class fitted with 721 class boiler and slightly larger (18½ x26in cylinders). The first 17 locomotives were fitted with Westinghouse brakes and could work passenger trains, but the remainder were fitted solely with steam brakes an were confined to freight haulage. Nos. 285 and 292 were fitted with the Holden system of oil firing during the 1912 Coal Strike. Many were supplied by outside builders. . MacLeod.
829-838 Neilson 5613-5622/1899
839-848 Neilson 5623-5632/1900
849-863 Sharp Stewart 4634-4648/1900
864-878 Dubs 3880-3894/1900

652 class: 1908-09
Virtually identical to 812 class, except that cab was based on that fitted to 900 class. 17 locomotives: Nos.: 652-4; 656-9; 662-5; 325-8; 423 and 460.  No. 664 was first locomotive to be fitted with McIntosh spark arrestor.

Caledonian Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 163
Goods locomotive, Caledonian Ry. Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 9. illus.
No. 664 illustrated: notes the McIntosh invented spark arrestor and lists major dimensions.

David Anderson. Famous Scottish locomotive enineers: J.F. M'Intosh... Backtrack, 2021, 35, 590.
Notes almost identical to 812 class, but fitted with a 900 class type of cab. Painted in goods engine black

30 class: 1912
Regarded as mixed ttraffiic locomotives. Fitted with Schmidt superheaters and piston valves. 19½ x 26in cylinders. Only four locomotives built: Nos. 30-3. Suffered from overheating due to excessive weight on leading axle and cured to some extent by fixing a large heavy casting under the cab.. 

A.G. Dunbar. The McIntosh eight-coupled engines and Moguls of the Caledonian Railway. Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 16-18+

Dunalastair: 1896-1914
"Few there are who lay any claims to an interest in British locomotive engineering who have not heard of the celebrated Caledonian engine No. 721, 'Dunalastair'. Poultney devoted a whole chapter to this important design which was devloped from the Drummond and Lambie designs working on the Caledonian, but with much larger boilers which steamed well. The class developed as follows:
721 Dunalastair I: 1896.
766 Dunalastair II: 1897

900 Dunalastair III: 1899
140 Dunalastair IV: 1904

139 superheated Dunalastair IV: 1910: first superheated locomotive in Scotland

New Caledonian express engines. Locomotive Mag., 1898, 3, 33
Painted grey for indicator tests

Middlemass, Thomas. The Scottish 4-4-0. 1994.
Nock, O.S. The Caledonian Dunalastairs and associated classes. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1968. 159pp.
Poultney, Edward Cecil. British express locomotive development, 1896-1948. London: Allen & Unwin, 1952. 174pp.

Dunalastair I (721 class)

Dunalastair III  (900 class)

Four-coupled express engine for the Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1900, 5, 25. illustration
McIntosh 4-4-0 No. 902

900 class: 1899

Contemporary references
Four-coupled express engine for the Caledonian Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1900, 5, 25. illustration
No. 902 illustrated
Modern types of British locomotives, Rly Mag., 1901, 8, 559-64. 4 illus.
No. 901 illustrated

Rous-Marten, Charles British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1902, 11, 164-71.
Fast runs from Strawfrank Junction to Carlisle behind No. 899 (56.5 mile/h) and 896 (58.1 mile/h).

Smellie, Jim. Caledonian Railway class 900 4-4-0 CR numbers 887-902. True Line, 1995 (48) 27-34. Bibliog.
LMS numbers 14434-7 (superheated); 14437-14448 (saturated). Notes replacement boiler costs. Illus.: inside back cover and rear cover.

Weir feedwater heater fitted to 140 class No. 136
Atkinson, T.G. Feed-water heating on locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1933, 23, 402. (Paper No. 302)
On page 402 in response to Dobbie it was noted that a Weir feedwater heater had been fitted to CR No. 136 and was tested between Carlisle and Glasgow, but the results were inconclusive. Cornwell muddies the issue by stating that two different Weir systems were tested: one in 1913 (removed 1915) and another in 1920.. .
Hamilton, David. An experiment in economy – Wm Pickersgill's experiment with the Weir pump water heater. True Line, 1994 (47) 24.

Tank engines

492 class: 1903-4
The 0-8-0Ts were constructed for heavy shunting and banking duties and fitted with Westinghouse brakes for working with 30 ton bogie mineral wagons. Six locomotives which worked at Hamilton, Motherwell and Dundee. Each cost £2250. Dunbar criticised the smallness of the boiler. They had 19 x 26in cyclinders, 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 1189 ft2 total heating surface; 19.3 ft2 grate are and 175 psi working pressure. They had flangeless centre coupled wheels.. MacLeod..

A.G. Dunbar. The McIntosh eight-coupled engines and Moguls of the Caledonian Railway. Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 16-18+

29 class: 1895
Essentially a Lambie design, but with McIntosh modifications, Their leading dimensions were similar to the Lambie 0-6-0STs, but modified with side tanks. They were fitted with condensing apparatus for working the Glasgow Central Railway and with the Westinghouse brake. Nine locomotives: No. 29 and 203-210. MacLeod..

782 class: 1898-1913
Standard shunting locomotive with 4ft 6in coupled wheels: total 120 engines. Some locomotives given next available numbers, but some renumbered in 1919 and 1922. MacLeod..
Six-coupled mineral tank locomotive, Caledonian Ry. Loco. Mag., 1909, 15, 47. illus.
No. 787 illustrated.

498 class: 1911
Outside cylinder (17 x 22in) 0-6-0T with 4ft coupled wheels designed to operate on sharply curved lines in docks. Only two built under McIntosh (Nos. 498 and 499). but Pickersgill built a further 21 of the type between 1915 and 1922. MacLeod..

Sinclair, J. The Braby pug: 498 class locomotive. Caledonian J., 1984, 1, 5-8.
Known as Wee Cuddies


Alan G. Dunbar. The Lambie 4-4-0 tanks of the Caledonian Railway. Rly Wld, 1963, 24, 378-9.
Introduced in 1893 and fitted with condensing apparatus for working the Glasgow Central Low Level lines which included 7 miles in tunnel. The locomotives had 17 x 24in cylinders, 5ft coupled wheels, 1095 ft2 total heating surface and 17 ft2  grate area and operated at 160 or 150 psi. They tended to be painted black, although some were later out-shopped from Perth in blue livery. Dunbar could not suggest a reason for the 4-4-0T configuration — KPJ: could it have reflected Metropolitan Railway practice? There were problems with steaming and with keeping injectors working and with the crosshesad-driven pumps latrer replaced by duplex-type with similarities to Westinhouse type. Initially, the majority were based at Polmadie, but moved to Dawsholme once it opened. Two were stationed at Airdrie. The footplate crews did not like the class and disliked working in condensing mode as tanks had to be refilled to keep the water temperature down and they were disciplined if they failed to condense. The LMS numbered them 15010-31: No. 15023 (non-condensing) illustrated

19 class: 1895
The design was broadly similar to Lambie's 4-4-0T. They had 5ft 9in coupled wheels, 18 x 26in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1095.76ft2. The ten locomotives (Nos. 19-28) were fitted with condensing apparatus for working the Glasgow Central Railway. See Locomotive Mag., 1897, 2, 155.

92 class: 1897-1900
Very similar to the 19 class, but with increased water capacity. Similarly fitted with condensing apparatus. Nos 92-103 were also fitted with Westinghouse hot water feed pumps. Total 22. Cox (Chronicles of steam) had personal experience of the Glasgow Underground lines: "My uncle lived on one of the routes served by the Caledonian from Central Low Level Station, and how can I forget the descent from the lofty and in those days immaculate spaces of the main-line station into the murky depths of this steam-operated underground. A permanent woolly pall of steam clung under the low roof on the platforms whence drops of dirty moisture descended upon the waiting passengers; 0-4-4 condensing Tank engines rather sensibly painted black operated the service, and freight trains of which there were plenty passing from east to west under the city also sported 0-6-0 tender engines on which a long and rather battered looking copper pipe was supposed to convey the exhaust steam into the tender tank during the transit of the tunnels Whatever may have been the practice in earlier times, by the period of World War I condensing was undertaken as much in the breach as the observance, and so heavy became the through mineral workings that non-condensing engines had to be freely used. Conditions underground were really rather frightful but how fascinating it all was and to the best of my knowledge this inferno continued unabated into quite recent times": KPJ encountered the Stygian gloom of Glasgow Central Low Level when using the steam-worked services in the late 1950s..

439 class: 1900-1914
68 standard locomotives used throughout the system. Several were allocated to Beattock to act as bankers, and these were fitted with additional cast iron buffer beams.

104 class: 1899
The coupled wheels were smaller: 4ft 6in and the cylinders were 17 x 24in. The boiler was identical to that used on the 782 class. They were intended to operate trains on the Cathcart Circle (with very frequent stops and sharp gradients) and the Balerno branch (with very sharp curves). Total 12 locomotves.

Proposed designs
Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 10. From 4-4-2 to 4-6-2 at St Rollox.
As is clear from the Chapter title most of the locomotives described were unfulfilled projects. In 1901 McIntosh planned a 4-4-2 but this emerged as a 4-6-0: the 49 class. In 1905 there was a further scheme for a 4-cylinder de Glehn type compound, but this abandoned in favour of an inside cylinder 4-4-2 which in turn led to the 903 class.
No. 903 was involved in a accident near Crawford on 2 April 1909 which the Board of Trade Report stated was due to crank axle failure. This led to an unfulfilled project for an outside-cylinder 4-6-0.
In 1913 a 4-cylinder 4-6-2 was planned, initially with a narrow firebox limited tpo 27ft2, but later expanded to a semi-wide design of 37ft2.

Barnes, R.  Locomotives that never were: some 20th century British projects. London: Jane's, 1985. 96pp.
Very much in the style of The Great Bear and the Raven Pacifics. Barnes cited C.J. Allen's British Pacific locomotives.
Dunbar, A.G. A McIntosh Pacific design. Trains Ill., 1958, 11, 491-2. diagr. (s.el.).
The design would have had four 16 x 26in cylinders, 6ft 6in coupled wheels and a grate area of 37ft2.

Pickersgill designs

60 class: 1916-
These outside-cylinder 4-6-0s are generally regarded as disappointing in terms of performance and Cornwell cited at article in The Engineer, 1920, 15 October in support. Cornwell also included an end elevation on p. 168.

Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 10. From 4-4-2 to 4-6-2 at St Rollox.
The Pickersgill 60 class 4-6-0 is included, especially the Preston to Carlisle tests against a Prince of Wales class 4-6-0 in 1925/6. The load was 350 tons. The coal consumed was (lb/dbhp) 4.84 for the Class 60 and 5.05 for the Prince of Wales, and in terms of lb/mile: 51.55 vs 48.3. The oil consumed by the class 60 was very high.
The LAST of the Caledonian "60" class. J. Stephenson Loco.Soc., 1954, 30, 157; 160.illus.
Newlands, D. The Caley "60" class. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1946, 22,138-41. illus. (line drawing s. el.)

956 class: 1921
Pickersgill three cylinder 4-6-0: Lowe (page 101) called them "extremely disappointing locomotives" and added "there is an engineers adage 'if it looks right — it is right' but these engines must have been the exception. H.J. Campbell Cornwell (page 180 et seq is much more up-beat and notes that early indicator tests produced high horsepower with a maximum of 1335 ihp: Cornwell compared this with indicator tests performed on the Maunsell King Arthur class. See Peddie and review of it by Phil Atkins.

Atkins, P. West coast 4-6-0s at work. 1981. Chap. 10. From 4-4-2 to 4-6-2 at St Rollox.
The class 956 (3-cylinder 4-6-0 with conjugated valve gear) is considered at somewhat greater length than the class 60, but the illustrations are not very good: the best is separated greatly from the Chapter and is on p. 9. Atkins considers that George Kerr was responsible for the design, especially the conjugated valve gear. Graeme [G.R.M.] Miller informed Atkins that the substitution of Stephenson link motion for the inside cylinder was due to the very high reciprocating mass of the derived gear. The derived moion was modified with dashpots which led to an extraordinary sound. Atkins argues that in this final form the class was the only one to enter the LMS which combined long travel with long lap, but the performance of the class was limited: 24,000 miles/year as against 32,000 miles for the class 60.
Cox, E.S. Chronicles of steam. 1967. page 170.
"The first time I found myself hauled by one of the ' 956 ' class of 3-cylinders 4-6-0's I could not believe what my ears told me was happening up front, and when, in due course, this cacaphony with its attendant ills was too grievous to be borne due to the erratic behaviour of the conjugated gear, the effect of the introduction of a separate Stephenson valve gear for the inside cylinder having variable lead, together with retention of the outside Walschaert valve gears having fixed lead, could only produce results at which the mind was bound to boggle".
Kermack, W.L.  The modern passenger locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs. ,1922, 12, 210-22. Disc.: 223-7. (Paper No. 118)
Noted the CR 3-cylinder design.
Morrison, Bryce. The Pickersgill 4-6-0s of the Caledomian Railway. True Line, 1994 (51) 6-9.
Notes that over-travel of the inside valve spindle was an inherent characteristic of the Gresley/Holcroft form of derived motion.
Newlands, David. The Pickersgill 4-6-0s of the Caledomian Railway. True Line, 1994 (47) 21-3.
Mentions the dashpots which led to the exhaust having a whistling sound. Even with the substitution of Stephenson link motion for the inside cylinder the exhaust remained very uneven, and some beats were missing altogether. The superheater was not designed for three cylinders: Gresley had one steam pipe for each cylinder,
Peddie, Donald. .William Pickersgill and the Caledonian Railway '956' Class locomotives - an objective assessment. Lightmoor Press & The Caledonian Railway Association, 168 pages.
See Backtrack, 2016, 30, 510 for reviiew by Phil Atkins.
Scott, J.I. discussion on Cocks, C.S. History of Southern Railway locomotives to 1938. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1948, 38, 833. (Paper No. 481)
Reference to conjugated valve gears on pp. 781-2 cited Shields' review of locomotive valve gears (Paper No. 443) and its mention of Pickering's adoption of dashpots on his brief attempt to exploit conjugated gears and observed that the aircraft industry had enhanced the design of dashpots.

191 class: NBL: 1922: LMS 3P (Oban bogies)
The class was a purely Caledonian product, but was not described in the technical press until 1923.

4-6-0 passenger locomotive, L.M. & S.R. (Caledonian Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 305 + folding plate.diagr. (s. el.)
LONDON, Midland and Scottish Ry., Caledonian Section : new 4-6-0 engines for the Oban line. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 96. illus.


300 class
Built in 1917 to replace 25 locomotives on loan. It was stipulated that these must be fitted with steel fireboxes, and 12 locomotives were constructed in accordance with the instruction, but the remainder had copper fireboxes and all the steel fireboxes had been replaced by the end of 1922. Cold water washing out was the cause of the failure ofr the steel fireboxes.Although supplied with piston valves the locomotives were supplied with saturated boilers, but later superheated. With order No. Y123 the piston valves were replaced by overhead slide valves, similar to those used by Pickersgill on the GNoSR. Up to 1936 all locomotives were fitted with wide Schmidt-type rings, but between 1936 and 1940 these were replaced by four rings.

Dunbar, Alan G. The Caledonian '300' 0-6-0s. Rly Wld, 1987, 48, 358-61.


Marshall, A.N. The Caledonian 0-4-4 tanks. [Thirties File — a wrong righted]. Br. Rlys Ill., 1992/3, 2, 70-4.

Mainly the 439 class, some of which were constructed after the Grouping, and one (15264) was sent south in 1926 and evaluated on St Pancras suburban services. Illus.: 15264 on Bedford shed in 1926; 15130 on Manningham shed in c1946; 15227 at Leeds City on 16 August 1947

0-4-4T: modifications to pre-grouping designs. Caledonian Railway

2P: 1925: Fowler/Mclntosh:
This class departed only slightly from the McIntosh "439" design, introduced in 1900. The post-grouping version was, however, heavier.

NEW tank engines for passenger traffic, London, Midland & Scottish Ry., Northern Division. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 45. illus.


4P ("60" class) : 1925 Hughes/Pickersgill : Whilst G. Hughes was C.M .E. the former Caledonian Section retained some autonomy under John Barr, the Motive Power Superintendent for the Scottish Division. As a result of his requests, twenty.of a modified version of the Pickersgill "60" class were introduced in 1925. Further McIntosh 0-4-4Ts were also added at this time.

4P ("55" class) :1932: McIntosh 4-6-0s Nos. 14606 and 14607 were equipped with "918" class boilers and cabs for operating on the Oban line. This is recorded in an un-titled reference: Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932,38,75.


66 class: Drummond: 1884, modified 1889 and 1891

Nock (Caledonian Dunalastairs) notes that Drummond aimed to secure fully expansive working from a wide-open regulator and short cut-offs, thereby obviating any need to resort to compounding. But the use of a high boiler pressure alone was not enough to ensure the economical use of steam in the cylinders, and Drummond gave particular attention to the ports and slide valves.

Crank axles

On 17 April 1908 a Caledonian engine failed at Larkfield due to the fracturing of a crank axle after-running 147,574 miles. On 2 February 1909 there was a similar failure for the same reason at Merchiston. Both axles had broken at the sharp angle between the journal and the wheel seat. For a period in between those two — from 26 August until 2 October—No. 903, Cardean, was in St Rollox undergoing heavy repairs. During the course of these repairs the engine was stripped down to the wheels, and the wheels were turned and inspected. There was no sign of any flaw in any exposed surface, but the wheels were not removed from their axles, and the wheel seats, therefore, could not be inspected.

No. 903's crank axle was similar to that which had failed, and to that which was to fail later. On one end was stamped the figure '99', indicating that the wheel had been pressed on the axle at a pressure of 99 tons or 11.64 tons per in. of diameter. Further, the wheels were keyed to the axle by pins 6 in. long by 1 in. in diameter driven in from the face of the wheel. Manufacturer's markings on the other side of the axle indicated that it was No. 1,174 supplied by John Spencer and Sons Ltd, of Newburn Street Works, Newcastle, that the metal used was of a particular quality, and that the axle had a breaking load of 31.94 tons per sq. in. Before the manufacture of the axle had begun a Caledonian engineer had visited the Newcastle works and tested a sample of the metal to be used, and a further sample was sent to St Rollox for addi tional tests. All tests proved satisfactory. The crank axle for Cardean was made and delivered with the guarantee that Spencer would replace it if it failed before it had run 200,000 miles.

Abington incident

Cardean was outshopped at the end of October and took up its traditional duties on the 2 p.m. 'Corridor'. The winter passed without incident. Then shortly after 9 o'clock on the evening of 2 April 1909 No. 903 breasted Beattock with the down 'Corridor', shed the banker and started on the swift descent of the Clyde valley. By the time Crawford slipped rapidly past, crank axle No. 1,174 had run 145,388 miles, and it had one more miles of life left in it. With the speed mount ing into the sixties Cardean gave a sudden ferocious lurch that snapped the coupling between engine and tender. The driver and fireman were dismayed to see tender and train drift back into the darkness while Cardean, tenderless, ran on. When the engine eventually stopped a quick inspection showed that it was still on the rails all wheels except one. The left hand leading driver was missing, the coupling rod broken, the frame bent and the brake gear and reversing rod destroyed. Of the train there was no sign.

Passengers in the train became aware that something was amiss when there was an uncomfortably rapid application of the brakes. In the brief space of 250 yards the speed of the 'Corridor' was reduced from something above 60 m.p.h. to zero. In the process of this rapid deceleration the train split in two between the fourth and fifth coaches and when the severed portions came to rest there was a gap of twenty yards between them. Some of the vehicles ran off the rails to the left and were guided to a more or less gentle stop by the soft earth embankment, while others were derailed to the right and blocked the up line.

The Cardean incident had all the making of a major disaster—a heavy express travelling downhill at high spee4. derailed, and part of the wreckage thrown on to the up line over which a freight train was due to pass within minutes. The night was dark and the nearest signal box was a mile away. There was no disaster because all the railwaymen in volved did the right thing that night and did it promptly. The leading guard of the 'Corridor', when he went forward to investigate, was surprised to find a tender but no engine or crew at the head end. He placed detonators on the up line at the regulation distances from the obstruction and took up post with his lamp ready to stop any approaching train.

Meanwhile, an up goods was standing at Abington, the first station to the north, ready to proceed. Harry Browning the signalman held it, for the 'Corridor' had been ten minutes in section and there was no sign of it. Browning was apprehensive. A less intelligent signalman might have let the goods go with possibly disastrous consequences. At 9.55 the fireman of the 'Corridor' reached Abington on foot, and reported the obstruction. Investigation revealed that Cardean's crank axle had broken. There was damage to the track where the fracture took place which continued for about 500 yards. The missing driving wheel was found leaning against the boundary fence, having run like a child's hoop up the shallow bank and struck the fence, partly destroying it.

The Caledonian's most publicised locomotive had failed, and the company's prestige train had escaped disaster by a hairsbreadth. There was consternation at St Rollox. McIntosh organised a series of intensive tests of the metal from which the crank axle was made. Chemical tests were carried out in the laboratories of the Steel Company of Scotland with borings sent from St Rollox. The Glasgow & West of Scotland Technical College conducted microscopic examinations of metal fragments. Reports from the various sources were col lated and by 28 April McIntosh knew what had happened. When samples of the metal were tested to destruction the resulting fracture was seen to be brittle. The chemical tests showed that the metal had a high carbon content and there was present foreign matter likely to create weak spots that would give way under stress. A fascinating series of micro- photographs actually revealed the brittle structure of the metal, a condition resulting from over-heating or incomplete mechanical treatment. The report concluded: 'The axle has been made of inferior metal which had been left in an over heated condition and suffered from fatigue in use.'

When the summary of railway accident statistics for 1909 was published the Board of Trade congratulated the British railways on the reduction in the number of accidents due to axle failures. There had been 101 such failures during the year, and of these 46 had been failures of crank axles.

Thomas Springburn story