North British Railway Study Group Journal Issues 20-39

Key to all Issue Numbers

Issue 20 (July 1984)

West Highland bogie No. 232 at Fort William. front cover

John Smith. St George's Day at Crianlarich. 3-5.
23 April 1984 with Class 37 on both Fort William and Oban trains: photographs by Ray Kitching  of trains (including Mossend to Fort William freight), buildings (including signal box) and signals.

Bill Lynn. The West Highland bogies. 6-9.
NBR Class N, numbers (including duplicate numbers), allocations and when withdrawn. Photographs of No. 695 in photographic grey; No. 696 in standard NBR livery and No. 341 at Hawick in 1905. Includes accidents, mainly collisions

Book review.  9
East Fife railway album. R.A. Batchelor. Perth: Melven Press.
Wormit to Thornton

A.A. Maclean. The Falahill accident, 21st October 1899. 10-11.
The 18.00 E dinburgh to Carlisle passenger train was banked in the rear from Eskbank to the summit att Falahill, but attached to the train by a slip couplinng which failed to disengage properly and through inadequate communication hit the rear of the train injuring the guard. Lieut. Col. [Von] Donop reported and stated that the driver of the banker, Robert Wilson, was at fault. He recommended that assistance should be provided at the front of the train and that pushing from the rear should cease. Writer noted that continued at both Shap and Beattock [and other places].

Obituary. 11
John Bowes.

Willie Munro. Penicuik. 12
Station plan based on 1907 Ordnance Survey map.

Jim Binnie. N.B.R. goods brake van. 13
Diagram: side and both end elevations & plan

Niall R. Ferguson. Pre-grouping traffic on the East Fife Central Railway. 15.
Authorised 1893; opened for freight traffic on 21 August 1889. Passengers were carried briefly in 1910 following Board of Trade inspection on 17 July 1910. Closed 1 August 1964 except for portion used as Lochty Private Railway

Oxton. no page number (16?)
Signallling diagram for intermediate facility between Foutainhall Junction and Lauder.

Ray Kitching. Helensburgh Upper station. 15
Introduction to facsimile reprodution of Glasgow Herald article (15 June 1984): Neglect of a scenic station by Allan R. Cameron

Allan R. Cameron. Helensburgh Upper station: a report. 17-19
Vandalism of unstaffed chalet style building and fear of station closure

Willie Munro. The Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway. 20-30.
Act 26 May 1826. Duke of Buccleuch

Issue 21 (October 1984)

Class M 4-4-0 No. 477. front cover

John M. Hammond. Carlisle Canal locomotive shed. 3-6.
Border Union Railway opened a roundhouse in 1861 with a 42 foot turntable. The Reid Atlantics could not be accomodated and had to be turned at the GSWR Currock shed accessed via the Maryport & Carlisle Railway. Possibly the Rome Street Junction - Forks Junction - Bog Junction triangle was used to turn them. During the 1906-1910 a larger turntable was installed. Arrangements for the transfer from a coaling stage to a coaling elevator were not known to the author.

Ray Kitching. New looks for an old friend.. 7
Scottie dog (West Highland terrier) logo on West Highland Line Class 37 locomotives No. 37 081 illustrated

Allan Cameron. Helensburgh Upper – the last days. 8
Chalet style station in final state of decay.

A.A. Maclean. The Port Carlisle dandy carriages. 9-11
The NBR had hoped to replace the first vehicle with a former street horse-drawn tramcar, but these had ceased to be available and Reid waas requested to draw up plans for a new vehicle. A toastrack car was unsuitable for the Solway marshes in winter a nd eventually locomotive haulage took over

P.A.T. Collar. Newcastle N.B.R. locomotive facilities. 12-13.
Originally the NBR used the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway Forth station and it is probable that the locomotive facilities remained there after the enlargement of Central station.

G.W.M. Sewell. Reedsmouth. 14-20
Very extensive account of locomotive facilities at Reedsmouth including plan and elevations of engine shed and locomoitves allocated

Norrie Monro. The Bangour Light Railway. 23-5.
Built under District Lunacy Act of 30 July 1900; to link Bangour Hospital to the NBR Bathgate line: inspected by Von Donop on 18 May 1905. Worked by NBR.

Jim Binnie. Goods brake van drawing. 26

Niall R. Ferguson. Train control on the N.B.R. 27-31
Initiated at Portobello ror New Lothian Lines in August 1913: incldes map and diagram of locomotive headcodes in use.

J.A. Smith Further West Highland adventures. 32
Had been planned to park at Crianlarich and take sleeper to Rannoch, but it had failed at Garelochhead and thus party went on through Glencoe to Fort William.

Issue 22 (January 1985)

T. Dagg, Some notes on N.B.R. coaching stock. 8
Jedburgh brach train composition>
External livery; interior trim (upholstery, flooring, etc) for NBR coaches; also locks for doors; and varieties of soap and towels.

J.F. MacEwan. The Weir Feedwater Heater.  20
The first engine to be fitted with the Weir Feedwater Heater is beleived to have been the 4-4-0 No. 865 according to information given by a driver friend very many years ago. The idea for feed heating came from Dr. John Inglis (a shipbuilder and engineer) who was a member of the N.B.R. board and who thought that the successful use of feed heating on board a ship might be applied to locomotives and make for economy in fuel costs as gone were the days of cheap coal. The matter was put to G.& J. Weir who were the suppliers of the marine heaters. by Dr. Inglis. and it was agreed that a suitable unit would be devised. The designer who got the work was. by chance. Fred Inglis (no relation of Dr. Inglis) and he spent some time in the Cowlairs drawing office getting all the necessary details. and then evolved the first heater. This was a unit which sat across the smokebox as illustrated in newsletter No. 17. After tests it was agreed that the capacity of this was not sufficiently large to be of use in an economical manner. and that a larger one would be required. If all the stories are to be believed, Dr. Inglis visited St. Rollox and had a conversation with McIntosh on the subject. and McIntosh is said to have shown interest and to have discussed it with the Plant and Stores committee of the C.R. board. Nothing appears to have been done by the C.R. at the time. but board members (or perhaps just one member) must have mentioned the scheme to someone on the G.& S.W.R. board for James Manson's name now comes into the matter. yet throughout this period there is nothing to suggest that McInotsh or Manson took any part in the redesigning of the feed heater.
The new type of feed heater was set on the running plate. with steam feed from the smokebox by a pipe connected to the blast pipe. and in 1911 was fitted to Scott class engine No. 359 Dirk Hatteraick and remained on it 'til about 1920. There do not appear to have been any alterations made to the method of feed throughout the period it was fitted to the N.B.R. engine.
In 1913 the Caledonian fitted a similar unit to their 140 class 4-4-0 No. 136, but unlike the N.B.R. who fed the heated water at the dome. the C.R. first fed it into the underside of the boiler. then at the centre line of the boiler barrel at the first ring. and finally to the N.B.R. pattern of feed at the dome. (H.J.C. Cornwell in 40 Years of Caledonian Locomotives" records that this pump was removed in 1915. but that the experiment was resumed in 1920. when a new heat exchanger and feed pump. both of modified design. were fitted in conjunction with top feed Ed.).
In 1915. an improved type of feed heater. similar in outline to the 1913 pattern was fitted to the N.B.R. engine.
Manson of the G.& S.W.R. in 1911 fitted an enlarged version of the original N.B.R. one. but placed atop the boiler barrel. to his new 4-6-0 No. 129 (later LMS No. 14674). This sat between the chimney and the dome. It was removed in 1916 and fitted to 4-4-0 No. 27 (later LMS No. 14368).
Other lines at home and abroad fitted engines with the 'improved' heater" Unfortunately most of the relative records were sent for salvage during the last war when additional working space was required for an enlarged staff. See also correspondence in Issue 25 p. 50-1.

Article illustrations. 21
No. 359 Dirk Hatteraick at Galashiels see Issue 25 page 50
Aberfoyle 22/9/51 No. 62480 Glen Fruin
Drinking fountain at Drem

Issue 23 (April 1985)

A.A. Maclean. The Aberdeen block trains of the North British Railway. 3-7

Ambulance trains. 7
On 6 August 19!4 Scottish Command placed an order for an ambulance train which differed from the other ambulance trains in bthat the red crosses used the body colour of the vehicles surrounded by white to indicate red crosses. Unlike the Caledonian train which went to the Continent, the NBR was resricted to use in Scotland

David Blevins. The North British Railway locomotive liveries. 19-22.
Based on a rather thin item in Number 18 page 26. Argues that each new locomotive superintendent would modify the livery for his initial design. Lists the lining styles adopted by Hurst and his successors.
Prior to 1870
Engine boilers, cabs and rear splasher panel-plates were dark green, lined out with black edged with vermillion. Domes were painted black, as were chimneys. Underfrarres were Indian red and so were the leading splashers. Wheels were dark green, with vermillion lines round the rims. Buffers and buffer beams were vermillion. Number plates were brass, with raised and polished letters and figures on a black background. Coupling rods were polished steel. Some domes were polished brass, with copper capped chimneys.
Wheatley 4-4-0 express engine No. 224 was described as being painted an olive-khaki shade, lined with a black line flanked with red with rounded Corners. Wheels were olive-khaki and the solid bogie wheels were lined red around the rims. Underfrarres, splashers and coupling-rod splashers were Indian red. Feed pipes, whistles and number plates were brass. Sandboxes and footsteps were also Indian red.
Prior to 1876
Engines were described as bright green or pea green during Wheatley's term of office
Locomotives described as "dark yellow" with crimson lake (dark red) frames, valances, footsteps and buffer beam - similar to LBSCR locomotives — Drummond's livery. Goods engines described as olive green in Drummond's time. A.E. Lockyear in the Railway World for May 1894 described the NBR loccmotive livery as follows:- "All engines built and rebuilt in Mr. Drummond's time were painted as follows:- The Passenger engines, light olive green (almost yellow) the "style" colour slightly darker, picked out with black and lined with white, the frames being crimson lake, picked out and lined the same as the cab, and the Goods engines as dark bronze green, "style" colour also darker and picked out with black and lined with vermillion".
Holmes darkened the "yellow" body colour and added a vermillion line, red (outside) black and white (inside). Curved destination boards with white block letters are now in use, placed on top of the smokebox in front of the chimney
Passenger and goods loccrootives are now described as olive green with a straw coloured line on the inside. Lining is now red-black-yellow.
Passenger loccrootives described as dark brown with red and yellow lining, panel striping had a red line on the outer edge and a yellow on the inner. Wheels and framing were the same (brown) but the latter had a narrow black border with red lines. Front Buffer beams had a vermillion panel upon which the number was painted in gold figures, shaded red and black. Some locomotives had vermillion coup1ing rods, and somne outside framed 1ocomotives had vermillion cranks. On tender locomotives, the complete crest was on the driving wheel sp1ashers, and the latters "N B R" on the tender sides in gold with red and black shading. The number plates were brass ovals with black figures and letters. Buffers and buffer beams were dark brown with a vermil1ion panel at the front on1y, no vermni1lion panel being on the rear buffer beam. Goods locomotives described as being bronze green with red and yellow lining as described above.
Locomotives were a dark yellow once again for passenger locomotives – really just a lighter shade. All names removed from the sides of the Drumnond "Terrier" type 0-6-0T locomotives and "N.B.R." substituted.
Passenger engines were a distinctly yellow-brown (ochre) shade, called dark gamboge.
The lettering "N.B.R." was altered to read "N.*B." with the company crest between the letters on tank locomotives.
The "N.* B." appeared on tender locomotives for the first time with the crest between the letters.
Prior to 1911
Both goods and passenger locomotives were a bronze green or brownish olive (official NBR descriptions) in the Reid livery. A mixture of quaker green, black and blue was used for the locomotive colour, which produced more of a greenish-khaki with a slightly blueish tinge. Vermillion panel to front buffer beam only.
Goods locomotives had the letters "N.B.R." in 9 inch high letters but without the crest.
Locomotives were not brown, but a brcwnisb+olive, made up by a mixture of burnt umber and brunswick blue - really an olive green. 1913
Locomotives became an even darker shade by the addition of more brunswick blue - still called brownish olive. Vermil1ion panels were added to the rear buffer beams. Many goods tank and tender locomotives had their number painted in large figures, in yellow between the initials "N.B."
Reid 0-6-ZI locomotives had large figures between the N.B. letters on the tanks and were painted brownish olive. Reid 0-6-0 locomotive No. 8 was the first to appear in the new livery of black with yellow lines at the end of 1914.
1915Standard goods livery is now black with two yellow lines. 1918
Passenger engines had their numbers painted in large figures in gi1t between the initials "N.B." 1920
Locomotive 1011 an 0-4-0 tender engine was painted black with straw coloured lining on boiler bands, splashers, cab sides and tender side sheeting in a double line. A single straw coloured line is on the footplate edging, footsteps and tender framing. The company's initials with no full stops were placed on either side of large numerals on the tender sides, these being in gold with vennillion shading below and to the left, and a white highlight on the vertical left side dividing the gold and vennillion shading. The front buffer beam was painted vermillion, unlined, with "No." and "1011" on either side of the drawhook in gold with black shading. The coupling rods were painted vennillion. The tender carried a small cast iron oval number plate on its back panel, raised figures and numbers being straw coloured. Tender buffer beam is black.
Locomotives Nos. 509 and 510 - 4-4-2s - were painted bronze green wi th 4 inch dark green "style" 1 ining. Boiler bands were yellow line, dark green band, red line, dark green band and yellow line. Wheels are bronze green with red lined tyres, vermillion buffer beam but black buffers on both locomotive and tender. Black chimney and smokebox, cab roof and footplate. Interior of cab stone colour for roof and top half of sides, black for bottan half of sides. Lettering is gold shaded red and black. From 1921
Passenger locomotives on the duplicate list were bronze green but without any lining. Goods locomotives on the duplicate list were black and again without lining.
Well there we are, an N.B.R. livery register covering the life of the North British Railway Company from 1865 to 1923. See also letter from W.E. Boyd in Issue 24

Miller, A.W. Some observations on paint and other matters.  27-31

Issue 24 (July 1985)

Alastair Nisbet. Some notes on the Dundee Harbour lines. 3-6.
Includes working of Camperdown Junction

New North British locomotives. 7
From Railway News 23 January 1915: Scott 4-4-0 and 0-6-0 No. 8 [Conternts lists this as "Liveries Archie Miller]

Ray Kitching. Symbol for Haymarket Depot. 8-9

David Stirling. Tablet working on tthe North British. 10-14.
Patent granted to Edward Tyer in 1878. The first major installation between Dalmally and Oban. By 1891 the Tyer No. 2 instrunent was in use in almost all single lines, but the NBR had equipped only 33 sections. It was known when it was first used on the NBR. The strange and complicated story of signalling at Banavie where there was a junction and a swing bridge over the Caledonian Canal is mentioned 

Francis G. Voisey. Gates of public level crossings – exceptions to Rule 118. 15-16.
From NBR General Appendix No. 27 1n March 1898.

John Thomas on the N.B.R. Some notes by Dr. R.A. Read. 16
Students of the North British may have noted one or two errors in the N.B.R. books of the late John Thomas, but perhaps these should be noted for the sake of younger members. I knew John Thomas quite well and admired the amount of record research he put into his books, but he did not seem to take much notice of locomotive numbering etc.
On page 52 of The North British Atlantics and on later pages, he refers to St. Mungo. When I took this up with him. he said that the letter to the N.B.Loco Co. giving the list of names to be put on spelt the mane that way, but as far as I know the 873 always carried the name  Saint Mungo.
On page 164 The Lord Provost is given as shedded at St. Margarets, whereas it spent most of its life at Haymarket. The author on page 59 rather scorns the idea of a G.C. influence on the design of the Atlantic. but later on in Volume two of The North British Railway page 157. he admits the G.C. influence in the proposed 0-8-0. Anyone knowledgeable about the Atlantics would have noted that the photo opposite page 53 of the Atlantic book showed the new strengthened frames where the plates were about six inches higher than the old ones.
Volume two of The North British Railway has one or two mistakes which may be printer's errors. The photo opposite page 53 shows 555. not 55, and on page 165. Hal O' The Wynd should be 363, and Redgauntlet should be 897.
I hope that these remarks do not detract from the appreciation of these excellent books.

A.G. Dunbar. North British Railway: the slide valve superheaters: what went wrong. 20-2
B class 0-6-0: LNER J35. Between 1906 and 1913, the company built a total of 76 enzinesa of what they termed Class B which became LNER. class J35 of these, 18 built by the NBL had outside admission piston valves underneath the cylinders, which had their own troubles but more of that later. The balance of the engines were built between the NBL. and Cowlairs works anrl were fitted wi th slide valves in the usual position between the cylinders. All were built as saturated engines until, between 1923 and 1942, all were fitted with 22 element snperheaters with the usual mechanical lubrication fitted.
Dealing with the trouble wi th the piston valve engines was simple in a way - there was great difficulty at first keeping the front and rear valve spindles steam tight, andl , since t.hey were outside admission types, it wa s hoiler steam that. escaped since the type of spindle packing utiIised was an adaption of a propietory system that the fitters found they could rernedy hy fitting in one or two rings of either Lion or Beldam packing - that was frowned on by the higher ups, but the fitter s argumerrt was simple - what. they did not see would not annoy them, and so the practice went on and: made one wonder whv inside admission valves were not fitted, but the o rigi.nals were in service until the end. But the trouhles with the slide valve engines hecame more apparent after the start of the war,and gradually grew worse as time went on. The L.N.E.R. Company standard examination of componerrts can be seen from the attached illustration and were what were commonly termed "periodical" examinations, these heing carried out under the class of mileage figures shown. All of these cards were filed by the Workshop Office Man and were constantly reanily available for reference. I cannot determine which shed first discovered the excessive wear taking place with the slide valves, which was the first trouble - at first laid at the door of poor lubrication but, even after mod ification to that, the tronble simply refused tu go away. It was perfectly simple as the sketch shows - the left valve, especially, wore diagonally leaving; the valve a probable cause of danger if involverl in breakag e , Under the Periodical Examination procedure, all piston and "D" valves were scheduled for examination every 20,000 miles and, under that procedure they were withdrawn for full examination and repair if necessary.
The discovery of the excessive wear on the slide valves altered the whole procedure - the slide valve examination was altered to 10,000 miles when after rernoval of the steam chest cover the fitter had to feel the valves and , if showing signs of wear had to withdraw them for more detailed examination and renewal if required. The thickness of the valve laps was 1¾ and the diagonal wear was reducing this to close on the scrapping size which was approximately ½ inch, but this excessive wear raised a problem that entailerl fuller and more frequent valve examination. Two badly worn valves were sent to the Research Department at Derhy for full metallurgical and chemical analysis and the report came ba ck that the metal was O.K. but, chemically, some unknown material had got into the brass while heing cast. Someone there, and I think it was D.W. Sanford, suggested that the valve cover;. be removed every 5,000 miles to see if wear was taking place and a directive to that end was sent out. ·At the same time, it was f'ound that excessive carbonisation of the lubricant used was taking; place, although no-one, at any time, suggested that as a probable cause , so the matter was left there, only it was then decid ed to fit anti-carbonisers, which up to then were absent.
When I was Shift Charge Hnd Fitter we had engines of the type and , for one of them, an expe rimental pair of bronze valves were made and wwere in due course fitted to eengine 4521, but the wear took place as usual, but not to the same extent as with hra s , Several engines we r e fitted with these bronze valves hut they were rather expensive to make so several types of valve were made with special hardening material used in manufacture , and to be dated at the back when fitted There was some s light improvement but as the engines were nearing the end of their effective life, and, due to modernisation process were now being withdrawn the difficulties were thuss solved by the disappearance of the engines - not without some feelings of relief ffrom the staff concerned. I have outlined this in f'ulI to impress upon what I have termed "platform end" experts who glihly spoke and wrote at times ahout poor stanuards of maintenance - a suhject on which their ignorance was only exceeded by their verhosity ,but there was more to maintanance as this example proves - it could throw up problems that werre never accountable by anyone.
As a follow up to the foregoing - it was suggesterl earlier on that there might be differences in the oil: chemical examination was carried out by a well known Glasgow firm but the standard of cylinder oil was found to be fully maintained and, unless drivers mixed other oil with it, nothing was found to support. tbe theory of oil difference. Added comment see Number 26 p, 39.

Robert R.F. Kinghorn. N.B.R. - Craven dining cars: more information or more puzzles. 23-5
Three illustrations and side elevation: three types: composite, third class and semi-open first

N.B.R. Class R (4-4-0T) locomotives. (LNER Class D51). 26
No. 98 top
No. 1401 middle: see also letter in Issue 81 page 29: (date was 24 September 1924 at Haymarket)
No. 1456 lower
See also letter from W.E. Boyd in Issue 25

Letters to the Editor. 33

John H. Hamrnond
I was pleased to note that the appearance of the Canal Shed Article resulted in some correspondence in the April 1985 issue of the Journal. Perhaps a few words of explanation are called for in connection with the Article, which was originally written in 1980, and reproduced with my blessing.
The article was in fact formulated as a response to requests for further information as a result of an earlier article which covered the overall history of Canal shed, Since 1980, as happens all too often, further information has come to light which gives a few more details of the alterations to the shed. Tile details were noted whilst researching an entirely different topic; viz,
September, 1935.Modernisation of the depot in hand as follows:
1. Coaling Plant of 200 tons capacity under construction.
2. Latest pattern of sand drier being installed
3. Wheel-drop pit being provided, to accelerate locomotive repairs.
4. New engine pit being installed, 135 feet in length.
5. Yard track layout to be considerably revised.
6. New mess rooms to be provided for engine drivers, firemen and cleaners.
I trust the foregoing explains the background to the Canal article and amplifies the comments of Meacher. I am not sure whether the original article was reproduced in an earlier issue of the Journal; your Editor will no doubt be able to clarify the situation.
(N.B. To the best of my knowledge, the original article that Hammond refers to has not been published by the Group. - Ed.)

Alan G. Dunhar
Re article by David Blevins; it is purely assumptive in so far as he only quotes one item documented, and that from an article by Lockyer. While aIl his material is presumably based on examination of photographs, that alone cannot in any way determine what he set out to do. One point both he and Miller, the writer of the other item on this matter, omit entirely is the fact that during the whole period covered ALL PAINT was oil hased, also utilising proprietory thinners, and this is the central point in any examination of pre-1922 liveries that must be kept in mind. Some years ago I got a chemist friend of mine to look into the paint alleged to be used by the G.N.S.R. at one time, quoted by them as MID BRUNSWICK GREEN; after carrying out the full enquiry it was found that pre-1911i at least five firms made seven different shades of the allegcd green, and depending on the ground colour used, a change in the shade would show up. And who knows if the same did not apply to the NBR, at odd intervals.

Jas. F. McEwan
Re the Ambulance 'l'rain mentioned in issue 23, it is doubtful if this went to Wemyss Bay unless the author has definite recorrls. It is more likely that the train workcd to Gourock where the pier/station was used by the navy for the handling of casualties on board ships returning from their tour of duty. Also it was commonplace for ratings being given shore leave while their ship was being recommissioned to he entrained at Gourock and taken through to Rosyth. The CR worlced the train to Alloa where the NBR took over. I have not seen any data relating to how the returning crews were dealt with and this pre-supposes that personnel returned to their ship by their own means, to wherever it was lying.
The NBR train for the Americans was probably a straight cancellation like that which the CR were to build. Hostilities had ceased hy the time the plans were finally approved ,
The photograph of the SINGER van shows the style adopted by the L.N.E.R. in 1924. Prior to the amalgamation, the SINGER vans hore the legend SINGER where N.B. would have been placed, andl in full size lettering:. Thomas, in his Regional History page 208, states that the Singer Co. relinquished their rights to have vans allocated solely to their traffic, hut this must have been cancelled at some unknown date. l5y 1920, the goods train which brought up the Singer traffic carried vans lettered SINGER in place of the N.B. legend. These went into Maryhill goods sidings for remarshalling into trains bound for other destinations. It was said that the original vans used were purchased by the Singer Co. either in total or in part for use on their internal railway and some were in existence when the factory closed. By then they were generally minus any brake gear, but when. this was removed cannot be recalled as such items did not interest me in the· youthful years.

W.E. Boyd
I must thank you most warmly for your generosity in sending me the NBR. Study Group's Journal. It is an extraordinarily full and interesting survey of all aspects of the old Company for which I and my many friends had a great affection.
I feel I must write you on the subject of livery, which naturally for model makers is of supreme importance. Blevins' article seems to me too much drawing attention to changes of colour, fifteen being given and precisely dated between 1871 and 1920. I also find the colour description difficult: Olive-khaki, Dark yellow, Olive green, Light olive green, Bronze green, Dark brown, Yellow brown, Brownish olive and Dark olive. I do not understand how the author worked out these precise shades. To me there were only two short- lived departures from olive: Drummond introduced a grass green with white black white lining and Stroudly influenced him to experiment with "yellow", not Colman's mustard yellow, hut a sort of umber similar to Stroudley's L.B.S.C. colour. The last engine to he so painted, St. Margaret's men told me, was the "Cab Engine" which as the director's saloon, retained it long ufter all the others had been repainted,
The stanuard olive first appeared on the E. &. G.R. I have a superb official photograph of E. & G..R. 2-2-2 No.3, later N.B.R. 212 Corstorphine, newly built by Beyer, Peacock, and standing outsiele that Company's works at Manchester in 1859. Its livery is obviously olive, with red, black and yellow lining. The fact that "olive" changed its hue over the years, and repeatedly changed back again to the original tint did not mean an official change. In 1920, 266 Glen Falloch came out of the paint shop brown, but, with the standard lining, The same year one or two Intermediates were re-painted pea-green. Tbe Class M 4-4-0s of the 729 class when rebuilt were slightly lighter in hue. The same feature took place on the Caley when 4-6-0 No. 940 appeared from St. Rollox in deep blue, and 904 in a much lighter shade; and the Pickersgill 4-4-0s of 1920-22 were paler than those built by Armstrong;-Whitworth.
Finally, in A.W. Miller's scholarly article, he mentions unlined black introrluced as early as 1919. Certainly this was so in the case of 794, but it was not until 1921 that the practice he came noticeable, 753, however, paint date 28.12.23, emerged with the usual yellow lines from Cowlairs. Many painted in 1921 were lined (e.g. 757-22.12.21). The idea was to economise until instructions were drawn up for the new, LNER. group. Miller mentions on p.28, the painting of coupling: rods. This was fortuitous, There was no rule, but in the days when double-framed old drivers told me that they were given red rods. Apparently, at speed they looked impressive.
On the pairrting of NBR carriages, I can only say I never saw them with hlack ends, nor was "the whole body painted crimson". The N.B. was quite distintive in that carriag:e ends were painted scarlet! I well remember standing on Jacob's Ladder looking down at Waverley and seeing carriages in many platforms with bright reil ends. Tlie idea was to help provent accident by showing; the "danger" sign.

Issue 25 (October 1985)

No. 256 Glen Douglas (Cecil Sanderson colour photograph). front cover
As repainted in NBR livery, but running on British Railways (to celebrate Issue No. 25)

Jim Binnie. The goods brake vans of the North British Railway. 3-7.
Detailed elevation (side and ends and plan) diagram of X type; also sketch of all types (side elevations only)

J.F. McEwan. The Ferry pilots. 8
Wheatley inside-cylinder 0-6-0STs built in 1874
Illustration No. 146A scapped in 1907: see also Journal No. 81 page 29

J. M. Bemnett. When country stations were the heart of the railways (No. 2). 11-12
From Dundee Courier

John M. Hammond. In retrospect: Carlisle Canal locomotive shed. 13-22
Highly convoluted history: originally part of Maryport & Carlisle Railway route to where the Canal terminated, but the canal sited up and was replaced by a railway which became part of the North British Railway which had a protracted legal battle to enter Carlisle Citadel station where eventually it made contact with the Midland Railway and enabled through services from Hawick to be established (which have yet to be restored).

Marshall Shaw. North British Railway catering vehicles. 22-5.
Sketch diagrams of Craven built cars, and secondhand Great Northern and North Eastern Railway vehicles: last shown in Diagram 121. See comment by Sandy Maclean in Issue 27

John A. Smith. The Craven dining cars — some notes on relevant drawings. 26-7
Drawings held by Glasgow Transport Museum

A.W. Miller. Follow through. 27-30
1905 Cowlairs carriage painting specification: notes on pigments and on use of linseed oil

NBR Class D loco. LNER Class J34. 31
No. 557 in green livery at Jedburgh. top
No. 303 in Drummond livery (middle), but see letter in Issue 81 page 29 which states that later livery
No. 1423 in black livery at Craigentinny bottom

Paul A. Smith. Modelling the N.B.R.: Drummond 0-6-0 Class 34, Power class D, LNER Class J34. 33-7.
Considerable detail about prototypes in addition to modelling technique

A.A. Maclean. The histology of the Campsie branch, Blane Valley Railway and the Strathendrick and Aberfoyle Railway. The Lennoxtown Branch, Part One. 38-43
See also from David Stirling in next issue

Jim Binnie. LNER ballast brake drawing. 44

Ray White. Midland Raiulway 6-wheeled clerestory passenger full brake, 4mm scale: Slater's Plastkard. 45
See also A..A. Maclean's observations

Letters to the Editor 47

N.B.R. Locomotive Classification, 1913. Marshall Shaw
In Issue No. 12 of the Newsletter (December, 1981) was published a comprehensive and interesting article by C.J.B. Sanderson on the classification of their locomotive stock by the North British Railwayo From September, 1913 all locomotive then, and subsequently, owned by the Company received a letter code classification, A - G for Goods Engines and H - R for Passenger Engines, although this was later amended as later classes came into being or engines were modified and re-classed.
In an undated issue of the former NBR Group Newsletter which came into my hands, there is an article by A.G. Dunbar which gives details of all the locomotives in stock at 1 September, 1913 and quoting their then running numbers, and which corroborates the class listing Sanderson quotes.
For ssometime now I have been compiling a comprehensive nunerical listing of all the locomotives known to have been owned and operated by the NBR, incorporating all known details available to me, and have been reliant on the S.L.S. publication of Locomotives of the NBR 1846-1882 and the R.C.T.S. series Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. for subsequent types in building up this listing, together with information from other sources and individuals.
Having inserted all the given "letter Code" classes into my lists, in accordance with Messrs. Sanderson and Dunbar's information and basing on the withdrawal dates shown in the S.L.S. book, I find that there are some twenty- two locomotives extant at the end of 1913 for which I am not able to allocate a "letter" (assuming that one was indeed. allocated to them), and woud be grateful to any member or reader who could enlighten me any further on this pointo The locomotive numbers, as at 1913, are listed below together with former nunbers, details and listed withdrawal dateso
Hurst 0-6-0 Tender engines No.1054 (Ex: 198) w/dn. 1914
Hurst 0-6-0 Tender engines No.1074 (Ex: 202) w/dn ?
Hurst 0-6-0 Tender engines No.1080 (Ex 207) w/dn 1914
Hurst 0-6-0 Tender engines No.1104 (Ex 364) w/dn 1914
Hurst 0-6-0 Tender engines No.1109 (Ex 369) w/dn 1914
Hurst 0-6-0 Tender engines No.1110 (Ex 370) w/dn ?
Hurst 2-4-0 Tender engine No.1117 (Ex 389) w/dn 1914
Ex E&GR Tender engines 2-4-0 No.1023 (Ex 234) w/dn 1914
Ex E&GR Tender engines 2-4-0 No.1024 (Ex 235) w/dn 1914
Ex E&GR Tender engines 0-4-2 No.1033 (Ex 332) w/dn 1914
Ex E&GR Tender engines 0-4-2 No.1058 (Ex 317) w/dn 1915
Ex Monkland Ry. 0-4-0 engines No.1020 Ex: 268/820) w/dn 1921
Ex Monkland Ry. 0-4-0 engines No.1021 Ex: 269/821) w/dn 1921
Wbeatley 0-4-0 Tender engines No.1010 Ex 357/810) w/dn 1921
Wbeatley 0-4-0 Tender engines No.1011 Ex: 358/811) w/dn 1925 (Y10)
Wheatley 0-6-0 Tender engine No.1155 (Ex 131) w/dn 1914
Wheatley 0-6-0 Tender engine No.1156 (Ex 134) w/dn 1914
Wheatley 0-6-0 Tender engine No.1159 (Ex 155) w/dn 1914
Wheatley 0-6-0 Tender engine No.1018 (Ex 17/818) w/dn 1914
Wheatley 0-6-0 Tender engine No.1075 (Ex 251) w/dn 1915
Wbeatley 0-6-0ST Tank engine No.1076 (Ex 282) w/dn 1921
Ex Finlayson 0-4-0 Tank No.1250 Bought 1915 w/dn ?
. Sanderson and Dunbar's listings account for some 1048 loco's as being "lettered" (926 in Capital stock and 122 on Duplicate List) and it would be interesting to compare this total with that shown on the stock Returnfor end of 1913, usually co~tained in the Directors Report published. See also response from Marshall Shaw

Wear on the slide valves of the B class locomotives  J.A. Smith 48
Re article by A.G. Dunbar on the unusual wear that took place on the slide valves of the 'B' class locomotives. In marine practice, very much akin to Locomotive practice, on newly fitted Triple Expansion Engines and Superheated Boilers it was the practice to have a 'Mixing valve' fitted to the main steam line to the engine. This valve connected steam from the boiler before the superheater and fed it into the steam main after the superheater. It was the practice there when the engine was new to have the percentage of wet steam in the mixture very high, and over a period gradually reduce this until finally the valve was kept fully shut. Any renewals of piston and or slide valves (Marine engines would have a mix of these in the expansions), and the mixing valve would be brought into play once more. It was well known in the old days that wet steam and cast iron did not really need any lubrication and a highly polished surface could be obtained. However to have the wear in mostly in one valve, and to be of a diagonal nature would seem to be more of a mechanical problem initially and probably originated somewhere else in the engine, and may have been made worse by the carbonisation of the cylinder oil. Possibly a design failure either in the crankshaft, or in the frames and/or springing of the wheels.

NBR liveries A.W. Miller. 48-9
The published description of the lrBR liveries which David Blevins so painstakingly collated shows how difficult a task faces those member-s who have undertaken to compile a North British Livery Register. From a detailed study of David's article it seems th'at some of the dates given must relate to the date of original publication rather than that of a change in livery. If they are the actual dates of observation, it could be that the locomotive or rolling stock seen. about that date were painted some time before the actual date and were still wearing an obsolete livery. I doubt if the.NBR changed the livery with the frequency that appears from the published dates. I suggest that many of these apparent changes were due to different observers description of the same colour aided and abbeted by the variations between different batches of paint and the fact that locomotives were painted at different depots, to say nothing of the variations in ageing resulting fro~ impurities in the pigments varying from batch to batch, By bringing these published descriptions together David has made it easier for the compilers of the livery Register to try to resolve the discrepancies, even if the initial reaction is one of confusion. To add to the confusion, the following is a reference to NBR livery in the series of articles "Cowlairs commentary by Stirling Everard published in The Iocomotive between 1942 and 1945, to which David probably did not have access. Dealing with Holmes replacing Drummond in 1883, he writes:

Holmes disliked the naming of locomotives. Not only were none of his engines were so blessed, but he quickly removed all the names :which Drummond had bestowed, substituting on the splashers or the tank sides the company's crest, which appeared not unlike a wreath in memory of departed glory. Before going, moreover, he gave up the Stroudley yellow in favour of dark brown uniform with an elaborate lining of green, yellow, orange and red.

This more or less accords with other published information, except for the orange lining, which I have seen referred to nowhere else. However, can anyone now prove that orange lining was never used either in place of or as well as the other colours in an experimental livery? Personally, I think that the compilers of the Livery Register should preserve a discreet silence on the subject of orange lining. Even if it may have been tried, I doubt if ever it became part of the standard NBR livery
The only "official" record of NBR livery I have seen is the drawing prepared for repainting the tenders of the 317 class when the N (number) B replaced the NBR. The main body is labelled "green" and the edging "dark green". This does not help in determining the exact shades of green used, but no doubt it was sufficient for the paint shopo It does, however, show that however observers may have described the colour, the people in Cowlairs regarded it as green.

NBR liveries. David  Blevins. 49-50
In reply to A.G. Dunbar and W.E. Boyd regarding NBR locomotive liveries in Issue No. 23 April, 1985, I would first like to state that if one takes one's time in reading this article, and my original article in Journal No. 18 December, 1983 rather than rushing to put pen to paper to criticise, it would have been appreciated that it is not based on examination of photographs nor precisely dated, and neither are they my precise shades of colour.
May I Quote:-
Issue No, 18 l
My own notes have been compiled and collated from numerous books and publications, many now out of date, and fron Historical publications ... from the late 19th century. The dates given are from personal observations and memories of the times by the writers ... "
Issue No. 23
The dates quoted for the following liveries cannot be taken too literally ... also prior to 1900 the dates are nearly all of observations ..."
The original authors have 6iven their personal views of the colours as they saw them, whether they could describe them accurately is another thing, considering that the NBR locomotive colour is almost indescribable. ~ven the NBR described its locos. over the years as Dark Gamboge, Bronze Green and Brownish Olive.
Perhaps I am at fault - in not restating what was published in Issue. No , 18, but I did not want to repeat myself and so bring about a boring article. A number of the colours described I would agree with W.E. Boyd are probably only a variation of shade, perhaps caused by weathering, time of year affecting the light making locos. darker in wlinter and lighter in summer, or as A.G. Dunbar states, a variation in shade due to mixing of paints, but are listed as what the author thought he observed. After my article in December, 1983, I received considerable correspondence and confirmation in some cases, correction in others and new information from our fellow members and so came about the re-written article for Issue No. 23.

Postcard of NBR steamer PS. Redgauntlet. T.V.R. Barbour. 50
Browsing around in the July sale of postcards held in London last Sunday, I cams across the enclosed colour postcard of NBR steamer PS. Redgauntlet. I thought that this would be of interest to some of the members so t bought it for presentation to the Group , I wonder what other ship, engine and train scenes were the subjects in the rest of the 'North British Railway Series".
The card is in the safe keeping of the Group's Archivist, Marshall Shaw, and any member interested can get in touch .Ed

Weir feedwater heaters and pumps. "The Ile Inspector'. 50-1
Can McEwan substantiate, from contemporary documerrtary evidence or photogaphs, the information given in his article on the above subject in the January, 1985 Issue of the Group Journal?
Is there any record anywhere of No. 865 having been equipped with a Weir feedwater heater? If so, when was this fitted, and when was it removed? Is there any reliable evidence to support the contention that the idea for feedwater heating came from Dr Inglis, or that the idea was put to A. J. Weir by the NBR or Dr. Inglis?  According to the Locomotive Magazine for September 1912, Weir supplied one of their. standard :mariine pumps to the Indian State Railways to overcome difficulties with injectors  in hot cliimates. The article then went on to say that large orders were then placed for the pumps by other lines in India, Egypt and South Africa.
Wfuat evidence is there to substantiate the statement that the first installation on an NBR engine had the heater placed across the smokebox?
The drawing which showed this  arrangement did not appear in the Locomotive Magazine until June, 1921, and this depicted a Superheated Scott class loconotive, none of which was ever fitted wlith a 'Weir pump. This same drawing also appeared in the Weir brochure as late as August, 1929.
What  proof is there that 359 was fitted with a Weir installation in 1911? This engine did not enter traffic until 9 December, of that year, and there is no mention in the contemporary railway press of such a fitting, The Locomotive Magazine for September 1912, article on Weir pumps does not refer to any NBR engine at all, but lists "a Midland 4-4-0, LNWlR Perseus, S.E. & C.R.·746, two G. & S.W.R. engines, 129 and 389 and L.B. &: S.C.R 82" .
The first mention of a Weir. feedwater heater in the NBR Board Minutes was on 27 November, 1913 when the matter was "considlered and corrtinued ", The matter was again raised at the meeting of 13 December, 1913 and "continued". On 12 February,1914 the General Manager reported on the subject and was authorised to accept Weir's offer for fitting one engine.
At "the :meeting of 9 July, 1914 there was a report from the Locomotive Superintendent dated 6 July 1914, regarding the feedwater heater  installed on one engine; it was agreed to keep the heater but not to extend its use.
The Railway Magazine published the well-known NBR official photograph of 359 on the Lothian Coast Express set of coaches in its July 1912 issue, but the engine shows no heater or punp ,
In May 1915 both the Locomotive Magazine and the Railway Magazine reported the fitting of the Weir pump to 359.
The NBR. Study Group Journal of December, 1983 showed another photograph of the Lothian Coast Express set, very obviously new (and therefore taken in. 1912) with 359, and no heater or pump visible.
The photograph of the heater on 359 on page 21 of the January, 1985 Study Group Journal was taken at Galashiels during the 1914-18 war (believed to have been 1917).

W.E. Boyd. 51-2
The photographs of the Class R. 4-4-0T engines reproduced in Journal No. 24 were taken by:-
Noo 98 Lockyer in the 1893-7 period was unofficial (?) photographer at Cowlairs W'orks
No.1401 J T. Rutherf'ord , Neg. No. 96, on Haymarket turntable, en route from Rothbury to Cowlairs to be withdrawn and scrapped. Taken 12.9.24.
No.1456 Also by J.T. Rutherf'ord , Neg , No. 189, shunting in the yard. of Messrs. Drybrough's Brewery at Duddingston on 5.8..24. (His own shadow proves it was taken in the evening).
Both these Rutherford photos were snapped with a little No. 2 Box Brownie canera, which had no lens, just a hole.
The account on page 7 fron the Railway News of 23.1.15, while reasonably accurate, gives heating surf'ace , grate area and tube statistics which were put out officially at the tine, but recalculated later. These can be found in later publications such as the R.C.T.S. History of L.N.E.R. Locomotives. The engines with  8" piston valves had a T.E.S. of 1573.0 sq. f t , and those with 10" piston valves 1346.06 ft2
One last point, the Railway News paragraph on superheater goods No. 8 states 'the large diameter of the boiler nay be noted, also the use of "pop" safety valves ".
You have only to look at the photo below to see that they were standard so-called "lock ups". Only two NB engines bad pops before 1923. No. 149 Glenfinnan had Crosby pops, and Class C No, 614 got, in 1920, standard  Ross pops, 2" dia:neter and slender. The first to get standard 2½" Ross pops were the LNER N15 tanks, 19B class in 1924.

Issue 26 (January 1986)

Francis Voisey. An accident at Hilton Junction. 3-7
Collision between two NBR trains on Caledonian Railway during evening of 30 August 1902 when 18.45 Edinburgh to Perth ran into the rear of train loaded with funfair roundabouts. Major Pringle reported to the Board of Trade on 2 October 1902 and concluded that Driver Allison of the express drove with insufficient caution on his approach to the junction.

J. M. Bemnett. When country stations were the heart of the railways (No. 3). 8-9
Extracts from the Dundee Courier in the 1930s

The Ile Inspector. Goods working at Lochend. 10
Refers to Tom  Mann article on Lochend signal box in Issue 14 and to Railway World article by Ile Inspector on the brewery pilot. The guard of the 18.20 had the nickname Dirty Dick, and after his retirement, and even his death, the train was known as the Dirty Dick. Photograph p. 11. Letter from Kenneth Williamson Issue 27 p. 37

John M. Hammond. The Port Carlisle branch: steamcar operation. 13-14; 12
Photographs of Sentinel railcars on page 12: Flower of Yarrow in Carlisle station; Nettle on Canal shed and Protector at Langholm

J. F. McEwan. Recent track changes in the Craigendoran area. 14
Changes at junction with West Highland line and oon approach to Helensburgh; also closure of Balloch Pier

A.A. Maclean. The histology of the Campsie branch, Blane Valley Railway and the Strathendrick and Aberfoyle Railway. The Lennoxtown Branch, Part Two. 15-22

Ray White. Kit review (concluded).Slater's Midland full brake. Part Two. 23-4; 11
Assembled Ratio kit shown on page 11

Jim Page. Another look at the former Dundee Dock lines. 25-7

Niall R. Ferguson. The Gifford and Garvald Light Railway. Part One. 29-34
Original plan to build line from East Linton, up the Tyne Valley through Haddington to Ormiston, but like many railway mania lines it failed to materialise. The first meeting of the directors of the Gifford and Garvald Railway took place on 6 August 1891. The Marquess of Tweeddale and John Fletcher (both large landownners) were present and in December 1891 George Bradley Wieland, Secretary of the NBR was appointed Secretary and Treasurer of the railway. Initially an approach was made to Pauling and Elliot to build the line, but this was before the route had been finalised (mainly to remain outwith Fletcher's land. Joseph Phillips was the eventual contractor and work started on 8 April 1899. Major Pringle inspected the line on 4 October 1901which opened on 14 October 1901..  

Paul A. Smith. Modelling the N.B.R. 'Rulley A'. 35-6; 11
Bogie well wagon c1921: article solely about Plastcard imitation. See also letter from Stephen Gradidge

A.W. Miller. Drummond era livery. 37-8
How yellow was the light olive green?

Letters to the editor. 39-40

Campsie branck. David Stirling
Permissive tablet instruments and their use between Middlemuir Junction and Woodley's Junction. The Tyer's No. 5 tablet instrunent. This was used bby the Brecon & Merthyr and Lancashire & Yorkshire Railways and also by the Army. The Patent date is cited as 1891 (No. 1904). Permissive tablet instrunents were designed for the export market. Permissive single line working vin Britain was a rarity. The Great Northern used it once and the LNER adopted it in the 1930s for East Anglia. The most extensive adoption of permissive single line instrumeents in the British Isles was on former Midland Great Western lines singled in the 1930s and by the LNER near Grimsby.

A.G. Dunbar
Refers to "present issue" and "interesting comment by Mr. Smith" on A.G. Dunbar's recent article on the wear of the slide valve superheater valves. A scheme was started to replace the laminated springs under the drivin axle with spiral springs in an attempt to solve the problem. The job was never completed due to the life expiryof the engines, so whether it was  a success is unknown.
I [AGD] noted a remark by Mr. Boyd [KPJ was this spoken?] about ground colour being pink: he must be referring to the red oxide coating put on boilers that were stored.

[Liveries & paints]. Jas. F. McEwan.
Re the various articles on the painting of N.B.R. locomotives etc.: those who look for data from photographs, particularly where older locomotives are concerned in the days of plate negatives,there were at least three makers Illingworth,Barnet and Imperial — there were others — and the developers varied and one had to use that which was available at the time of purchase. The most common was Johnson's which was generally available in most shops with Wellcome's a close second, but the action of either on the developing of the plates varied according to the brand used. Presumably the plate makers had different formulae in the emulsion,and the developing time varied,all affecting the final result.
After the turn of the century there was a change in the making up of the colour,Kaiser William had a glorious row with his aunt —Queen Victoria — and placed sanctions on the supplying of certain items to Britain, and dye colourings was one. They were got by round-about means, but at a price,so it became ordinary practice to lessen the colour by the inclusion of more white base. Railways always being ecomomy conscious no doubt joined the doctoring club until Brunner,Mond opened a dye making factory somewhere near Darlington after which colours returned to near normality, now based on synthetic prime colours.
In reading all the comments, my mind went back to 4-4-2T No. 102 which, around 1919/1920,sported a most strange colour, Alan Dunbar described it as a sort of khaki, while I thought it a greenish sienna. We saw the same freak colour but neither could agree on its actual definition. Boyd mentioned that boilers were painted pink which statement appears to have raised some eyebrows, but did not Boyd refer to the boiler SHELL, and not the clothing. It was common practice to paint all boiler shells with either red oxide or lead before lagging and fixing the clothing sheets, it prevented a certain amount of rusting for no clothing was waterproof.

Issue 27 (January 1987)

Steele Road station, c1905-07
Photograph via K.E. Williamson: see page 20

David Blevins. The Glasgow City & District Railway. 3-11
See also letter from A.G. Dunbar

A.A. Maclean. London Road Junction - a postscript. 12
See Issue 19 page 7. Signal box opened on 30 June 1903.

A.A. Maclean. The histology of the Campsie Branch, Blane Valley Railway, and the Strathendrick & Aberfoyle Railway. Part Three: The Blane Valley Railway. 14-18. 3 illustrations, plans
Act of 6 August 1861. Opened to goods traffic on 5 November 1866 and to passengers on 1 July 1867. Essentially single track. Craigend Halt is not illustrated. There were sidings for the Dunglass and Craighead Quarries. The LNER terminated passenger trains at Blanefield and required Aberfoyle passengers to transfer to a |Sentinel steam railcar. Illustrations: Lennoxtown station; Campsie Glen station with an 0-6-0 and single coach; Blanefield station

J.M. Bennett. When country stations were the heart of railway life ( No. 4) 19

Kenneth G. Williamson. A fatal accident at Steele Road Railway Station. 20
12 May 1907: Walter Deas, aged nine from Edinburgh, was visiting his grandfather who was station master at Steele Road and was struck by a pilot engine. The accident was brought before the Sheriff, but he did not find the railway guilty of negligence

Jim Binnie. N.B.R. mineral wagon drawings. 21-2
Diagrams (side and end elevations and plans) of 16 ton and 18 ton end-door wagons with oak frames.

Niall R. Ferguson. The Gifford and Garvald Light Railway. Part Two: The running of the Gifford & Garvald. 23-5.

Alan G. Dunbar. The epistles of Peggy. 26-7
Dunbar received a copy of this North British Railway publication prior to its emergence on the Internet with the title Epistles of Peggy, Tales of Travel with a cover depicting a charming young Edwardian lady and her wee dog and huge trunk. From the inside Dunbar noted that she golfed, played tennis, climbed Ben Nevis and was charmed by Glasgow. Her father is accompanying her on their travels. Copy in National Library of Scotland [KPJ]

Marshall Shaw. Modelling The North British Railway. 29

Alastair Nisbet. Further notes about working the Kirkcaldy Harbour Branch. 33-4
Sectional Appendix for October 1960. Instructions for descending incline and for propelling trains. The guard or shunter was required to wear a red hat or wrap a red flag around his arm

A. A. Maclean and John A. Smith. North British Railway Study Group Circuit Working. 35-6
Sandy Maclean dictated to John Smith
Passenger brake vans (M. & N.B.)
See Ray White article in Issue 25: Midland and North British Joint Stock six-wheel brake vans with vestibule connections. Agreement with Midland Railway to abandon Westinghouse brake in favour of automatic vacuum brake on through services from Edinburgh to London St. Pancras and Leeds, but there was a difficulty with the 10.00 from Leeds as it conveyed Westinghouse fitted vehicles for NBR branches from Carlisle. In about 1926/7 the LNER and LMS redistributed these vehicles between the two companies. The routes upon which the clerestory vehicles were allowed to run are listed.
Catering vehicles
Refers to Marshall Shaw Diagram 121 in his feature on catering vehicles and indicates that the North Eastern Railway clerestory vehicles had staright, not bowed ends. Response from Marshall Shaw

J.F. McEwan. Braking on West Highland bogies. 37.
It is never mentioned when tales of the West Highland Railway are told that the original 4-4-0 engines of Holmes design had very small air reservoirs and pumps. These were the standard of the period, and consequently drivers had to be careful of their air supply and, when descending long hills, used to get the fireman to screw down the tender brake, the fireman adjusting the braking as directed by the driver, who was conserving his air supply. The tender brake blocks were changed every 14/21 days when the engine was at Cowlairs sheds, the part worn ones being set aside for use on other tenders where tender braking was less important. The rosters for the engines were so adjusted that the morning train engine from Fort William was on shed at Cowlairs in time to have the tender brake blocks renewed before returning with the afternoon train, each engine shedded at Fort William taking its turn. Goods. engines got their tender brake blocks attended to more frequently.

Letters to the editor. 37-8

Goods working at Lochend, Kenneth G. Williamson
He read with great interest the article on 'Goods Working at Lochend' and also the accompanying photograph. As a boy during the 1950s and 60s, he lived with his late Grandmother at 27, Rossie Place, Edinburgh. In those days, Scammell Mechanical Horses ran along Rossie Place and down Norton Park to the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Works. The house was a top flat corner house giving an excellent view of not only Lochend Junction but also the lines to Leith Central Station, Granton and of course Redpath Brown's Steel Yards. As a small boy, he would watch fascinated as the steam cranes shunted back and forth with wagons loaded with steel and always noted with great interest that these cranes stopped at Bothwell street bridge as it appeared that they could not pass under because of their jibs. I sometimes hoped that they would try it just to see what would happen. Of course they never did. Redpath Brown also had an odd looking locomotive that ran in and out of their buildings, perhaps one of your readers could supply me with some information about this locomotive. In fact the only British Railways' locomotive that he can remember seeing shunting in the Redpath Brown Yards other than their own locomotives was an 0-4-0 North British shunter during the week immediately after closure of Redpath Brown. Also as a boy, he used to watch, out of the bedroom window, my Grandmother's cousin, James Gordon, shunting wagons in the brewery sidings. He retired in 1965 as Yard Foreman at Leith Central Station having worked on the railways since the days of the North British. He now lived quietly in a home in Edinburgh. I may add that he is a cousin of Walter Deas who was killed at Steele Road Station, aged nine, in 1907, and that his Father and Grandfather were also James Gordon and both worked for the North British.
He enclosed a copy of a telegram James Gordon received from the Station Master, Abbeyhill Station which might be of interest. (reproduced at the end of the letter - Ed.) In 1974, he moved to live in Albion Terrace right next door to the now defunct Redpath Brown Offices. It was a little strange after years of living on one particular side of the tracks to move to another. In the six years of living in Albion Terrace, he saw the lines through the former Steel Yards singled and sidings taken away, as well as the lines to Granton and of course the line to Leith Central had been lifted in the early 70s. All the semaphore signals were taken away and replaced by the new coloured lieht signals. By the time he left the area to live in Trinity in 1980, there was not very much left except that the odd Deltic, Glasgow push pull train and 125 locomotives were being turned on the Abbeyhill triangle.

From Station Master; Abbeyhill .Leith Central Engine No. 61402 Derailed 22.6.55.
I have to inform you that you were at. fault. in waving the DrIver of the engine forward, while the signal was in the "On" position, and I have to warn you that you will require to exercise greater discretion in future when dealing with shunting movements where signals are concerned, while no further act.ion is being taken I would remind you that very serious notice will be taken should there be a repitition.

Kipps brake vans. James F. McEwan. 38
Re various notes about the ''Kipps'' brake vans which were known locally as "trip brakes" since their use was generally confined to short workings between Kipps yard and Gunnie, South End and Whifflet with the occasional one over the North Monkland. One or two were apparently kept at Rawyards for supplementary braking when required. There were not dissimilar vans at Kirkcaldy which were presumably kept for use on the drop down to the harbour. At Kipps in the early 1920s, two lay at the top of the dead engine road close to the steelworks. These had open verandah at both ends and had every appearance of having lain there for quite a long time. Apart from having both ends open, they were identical to the illustration in the Journal, and through the missing doors one could see the vertical brake column with the horizontal hand wheel. I was told that others lay at Causewayend and possibly these were the ones found at Polmont latterly. So far as I can recall there was no bulkhead at the ends of the platform, the brake blocks were very large and appeared to be in two parts, with the wearing parts replaceable, but unfortunately I did not take a closer look. I wonder if these brake vans were copied from that supplied in or about 1852 to the Monkland Railways by Sharp, Stewart. The only illustration which I have seen showed only an open truck with a shelter in the central part and this was the general pattern" of the ''Kipps'' brakes. Sharp, Stewarts brake had massive brake blocks, presumably of wood. The crossing keeper at Kipps once told me that when a young brakesman, it was usual to carry buckets of water on the van to quench any fire which started in a brake block, which would suggest that wooden blocks were in use in the 1880s.

Issue 28 (July 1986)

John McGregor. West Highland train services in 1910. 3-10

Early West Highland Line views. 11. 3 illustrations
Photographs: Class C 0-6-0 No. 679 with Midland Railway clerestory coaches at Fort William in early 1900s; Abbotsford 4-4-0 No. 493 with Reid cab with very mixed passenger train  including large straight-sided North Eastern Railway corridor coach at Spean Bridge c1906; West Highland bogie 4-4-0 No. 346 and C Class 0-6-0 with Midland Railway clerestory coaches at Mallaig, See also observations on page 30 of Issue 29

Robin McHugh, (Six) Glens for the West Highland. 13-14
O gauge models

A.A. Maclean. The histology of the Campsie branch, Blane Valley Railway, and the Strathendrick and Aberfoyle Railway. Part Four: The Strathendrick & Aberfoyle Railway. 15-20
Royal Assent for line given on 12 August 1880. Section from Buchlyvie Junction to Aberfoyle had to cross Flanders Moss and the Forth was bridged. There was a connection to the Aberfoyle Slate Quarry. There was also a Barbadoes Siding and a station  at Gartmore.

Tay Bridge Disaster; 28th December 1879: a selection of Valentine's "Bromotype" postcards. 21
Photo-feature supplied by John Smith. Six views: two of locomotive (one as retrieved from Tay) and remainder of collapsed bridge

J.M. Bennett. When country stations  were the heart of railway life (No. 5). 23-4
Reprinted from Dundee Courier. Moved from Auchtermuchty to become station master at Falkland Road in March 1942. In December 1942 he observed a derailed guards van (caused by a bale falling of a wagon) inflicting damage to the signals and track. In 1945 he became a summer relief station master and in January 1946 he became a district inspector (freight trains), 

J. F. McEwan. The Edinburgh & Glasgon Railway's Royal Train. 25
At the end of July Queen Victoria was in Ireland and due to the uncertain weather it was decided that the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert should sail to Gourock where the fleet was inspected and that the yacht Fairy would take the Royal Party to The Broomielaw in Glasgow  on 14 August 1849 and entrain at Dundas Street station (later Queen Street). The main Royal coach was first class carriage No. 51 suitably upgraded withh satin. The locomotive was Orton built at Cowlairs in January 1849. It was an inside-cylinder 2-2-2 with 6ft driving wheels, On the footplate were Wiliam Paton, Superintendent of Locomotives, A.J. Adie, Civil Engineer and J.H. Thomson, Superintendent of Traffic. The train was handed over to the Scottish Central Railway at Greenhill Junction for onward conveyance to Perth

Marshall Shaw. The LNER 1946 renumbering of N.B.R. locomotives. 26-8
Includes a table for converting LNER 1946 numbers to NBR 1922 numbers  

Dennis G. Rodwell. From steam to crafts. 29-30
Melrose Station: opened in February 1849 and closed under the ruthless Harold Wilson and Barbara Castle regime with partial replacement by Tweedbank. The writer had purchased the station as its was beginning to fall apart and hoped to convert it into a craft centre. The article is reprinted from Prospect, the journal of the Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland. Side and end elevations.

Letters to the editor. 30-1

Glasgow City and District line. Alan G. Dunbar.
David Blevins' article on the Glasgow City and District line omits two very important little known branches. At Maryhill station there was a space on the up line between the bottom end of the platform and the Central signal box where the branch went off in a westerly way towards Dalsholm (sic) Paper Mill, which remade waste into brown wrapping paper, and from this line which ran along the upper bank of the River Kelvin, a siding went off through the first arch of the viaduct over the river and terminated in a short four siding yard at the foot of what was known locally as the "Widwall Brae" where the sidings were used by a local coal merchant, and Messrs. Cummings ironfounders blackening works, and the Bros. Richardson's scrap yard; only a class Y9 0-4-0ST was allowed to use the branch.
The other omission was the line off the main line east of the East signal box into the mine known as the "Gilshie Pit", diminutive for the name "Gilshochill ", which was shunted daily by one of the dock 0-6-0T shunters, and this mine which, during the 1920s, was owned by the Simmerlee Iron Coy. paid their demurrage account by sending two or three wagons of coal weekly to Eastfield engine shed. No tracks of either are now visible, all being removed during the years of the Second World War. The remaining portion of the "Brae" is now called Lennox street.

Gunpowder van. Edward Jefferies. 31
A brass plate has been recently shown to me which may be of interest to your readers. The dimensions of the plate are; 234mm x 80mm and the words read:
Hay Merricks were in business in the early years of this century, and they later became part of the Nobel Group. The gunpowder mills were situated well away from the village of Roslin, and had a siding connected with the N.B.R's Penicuik ranch near Rosslyn Castle station. The place is remembered for the 100 yard long "tin tunnel" over the branch line which was intended to prevent sparks.
I believe that the brass plate has come from a private-user gunpowder van which, being equipped with safety boots and locks, had to be returned to its home station when empty.

Diagram 121. Marshall Shaw
My thanks to Sandy Maclean, and my apologies to fellow members, for pointing out my unaccountable error in depicting the incorrect roof shape on the Diagram 121 sketch in Journal No. 25. I can only put it down to the fact that, when drawing out the side elevations of the nine vehicles depicted, I had numerous pages from the Diagram Book spread about and must have mistakenly referred to the wrong one for the roof detail.
In the anniversary Journal No. 25, you kindly printed an appeal for further information on a number of locomotives not apparently included when letter classification was allocated in 1913. I would like to place on record my thanks to J.F.McEwan of Glasgow for an extremely prompt and informative private reply which has enabled me to complete my listings, and for the courtesy and further information unstintingly supplied in subsequent correspondence exchanged.
W.E.Boyd of Edinburgh also wrote to me on the subject, pointing out that numerous photographs taken post 1913 showed various locomotives still not carrying the 'letter' plate fitted, some as late as 1918, and I would be pleased to learn if anyone has an explanation for this. Of course, it may be that it was not considered worthwhile to fit them to older locomotives due to be scrapped, or even to smaller shunting locomotives, but some of the instances quoted by Boyd were of new, or nearly new locomotives in service when photographed.

Modelling NBR Rulley Q(60 ton). Stephen Gradidge.
Re modelling of NBR Rulley Q(60 ton), it may be of interest to members that the builders plate put on by the LNER was incorrectly cast, it reads No. 728887 built 1916 DONCASTER! It does seem that the LNER were very casual in their casting of plates for wagons. In fact I have this plate, the casting looks like a typical Doncaster product, so perhaps there lies the reason for the error.

Issue 29 (January 1987)

Unrebuilt C class 0-6-0 No. 747 climbs to Forth Bridge from Jamestown Viaduct with unfitted freight. R.D. Stephen. front cover
See also A.G. Dunbar. The 'Puffer pipes'

G.H. Robin. The Helensburgh Rallway: a historical survey. 3-8
Written in October 1960. Railway autorised in 1855 and opened in May 1858. The Glasgow Abstainers Union ran excursions.

G.A. Davidson. Models as a source of information on liveries. 8
Sir Eric Hutcheson's models employed a darker shade of green

Sandy Gorski. Pauchelin , The Fife Coast Line. 9

A. A. Maclean. The Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway's Royal Train vehicle. 10
Queen Victoria travelled from Glasgow to Perth in Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway carriage No. 51. 

Ray Kitching. North British Railway goods locomotive livery 1914-1923. 11-22
Extensive photographic section:
Photo. 13: Class C No. 783 in plain black at Mallaig on 1 September 1923
Photo 14:: Class F 0-6-0T No. 233 in plain black; yellow numerals; 7½ initials; wooden dumb buffers. See letter In Journal Number 81 page 29
Photo. 15: Class C No. 749 with 18-inch cabside numerals

Alan G. Dunbar. The 'wee valve' syndrome. 23
The above title may puzzle many of our readers, but it actually did refer to a form of "blethering" that affected many of the old school of North British drivers who used to relate amazing yarns of how they went from A to B ''wi eleven bogies on, an' she wis never oot  o' the wee valve". The· term "wee valve" referred to the jockey valve fitted to the rear of the main regulator valve, whose principal use was to act as a relief to the pressure on the main valve and allow some degree of easier opening. I was always extremely wary of those stories and felt there was some way they could be disproved, and incidentally the footplating fraternity who compiled magnificent tables of regulator openings such as ½,-¼-¾ etc. were also a good deal carried away with what they imagined was the actual regulator opening as judged by eyesight alone
One Sunday when, as charge hand fitter, my chance came to show up the wee valve merchants for good and all, we had an engine having the dome rejointed, and telling the fitter on the job to leave off for a while knowing the local Mutual Improvement class was holding their annual meeting, I paid them a visit and invited as many who liked to come into the shed and see something that would surprise them. Quite a number of them stationed themselves on either side of the dome, hanging above the regulator valve, and I then explained what would happen after asking one of the wee valve experts to go into the cab and place the handle in the wee valve position that he usually utilised. This being done, I climbed onto the boiler top and demonstrated to the assembly that using their own arguments, the main regulator valve was open to steam, while the wee valve was closed. They next sent a man selected by themselves into the cab, to place the handle in his estimated position. We had 5 or 6 engines of the same type, and I made a plywood template to fit the regulator sector plate, marking the varioua openings and drilling a hole through each scribe mark to allow a centre punch mark to be made on the sector plate, and when a dome was being rejointed, I carried out the same experiment with the aid of a boy to set the handle in the exact position as marked. My part was to measure the exact opening of the main valve and the results amazed me — no two were alike. So much for the footplating fraternity and their regulator openings. Two further variations took place that must be mentioned, the rate of expansion inside the boiler, and at the valve 'end of the regulator rod coupled to the handle, there was a small eccentric with the valve lifting rod attached involving two pins, and a degree of wear took place there over a period.
Neither of these premises could be assumed with certainty since there was no way of judging the degree of expansion that took place, neither could the wear on the eccentric pulley or the lifting pins be assessed with any degree of correctness, due to the simple fact that the definite original dimensions when new were, as a rule, unavailable.
The train timing fraternity especially those of the footplate variety will not like this either, and readers should remember that this relates only to the flat valve regulator. In no way does it refer to the double beat circular Lockyer type, on which no trials were ever at any time done by me. My old note book with the openings described has vanished, and memory does not retain the details, but the foregoing is an accurate account of what took place.

The epistles of Peggy No. 1.  24-5  
Peggy clearly enjoyed her journey north having taken breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea and dinner on the train and was amazed that travel to the North British Hotel was no more than a lift ride away on arrivel at Waverley. Her father had business to conduct in Carlisle.

G.W.M. Sewell. The Border Counties Line 100 years ago: some social and economic aspects. 26-8.
Wall station served Acomb Colloiery owned by the Morrison Bros which survived until nationization. The Howford Brick and Tile Works were adjacent. The Fallowfield Lead and Witerite mine was further away. Collerford station served the lime kilns of the Cocklaw Quarry Co.   The quarries at Barrasford are operated by the Northumberland Whinstrone Co. At Gunnerton Steel & Turner of Edinburgh produced millstones and grindstones. Bellingham had a gas works from 1864, but the gas was dearer than in Hexam, the railway killed the market in Bellingham. Plashetts Main Coal mainly went to Scotland. Lists station masters.

A. A. Maclean and J. A. Smith North British Study Group Circuit Working No. 2. 29-32
The Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Railway opeed for passenger traffic on 15 July 1850 and passed to the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in 1862. A painting specification for the absorbd vehicle has survived: this included three coats of bronze green followed by four coats of best bonny varnish. Engineering, 1873 4 April states that the Ashbury sleeping car states that the external panelling was highly varnished Moulmien teak. At the meeting of the Board of Directors on 30 September 1875 it was agreed that the carriage plant should be painted teak or imitation teak. In the waiting room of the Outer Circle at Morningside Road station there was a montage of photographs, all coloured, of the Aberfoyle district and one showed a set of maroon painted coaches with the brake end painted vermillion
Comments on the  photograph on p. 11 of Number 28
Comment on captions special reference to coaching stock vehicles on the trains. The leading vehicle on the top photograph is a Midland Railway clerestory three compartment brake third corridor vehicle, it is not from the Midland and North British Joint Stock fleet. Behind that is a domed roof almost Gresley type Great Northern third class corridor vestibule vehicle. The bogies appear to be early G.N. bogies and not the Gresley bogies commonly found in later years. Behind this vehicles a clerestory car of East Coast Joint Stock origin which is probably the sleeping car from Kings Cross. The final vehicle in the formation is indistinct. From the cars behind Number 679, it would appear to be a shunting move at Fort William, possibly to clear the vehicles from the overnight train from Kings Cross to enable the locomotive to be released. Certainly the smoke from Number 679 does not give the appearance of setting out from Fort William station on any lengthy journey.
Second photograph: train is Up Sleeping Car Train for London Kings Cross standing at Spean Bridge station in front of the signal box which unfortunately burned down during WW2. The vehicle behind the locomotive is an East Coast Joint Stock Diagram 69 sleeping car, and is either number 90, 106, or 181. The three vehicles were built in December, 1905 at York for the East Coast Joint Stock and, in order from the end at which the photograph was taken, the internal layout was; an attendant's compartment, six single berth sleeping compartments, a W.C., two second class seating compartments and a luggage compartment. During the life of the vehicles, the luggage compartment was slightly reduced in size to provide an additional W.C. at the far end. Behind the sleeping car is a fairly conventional set of Holmes low roofed North British Railway carriages .• The first vehicle is the standard six-wheel full brake. Behind that appears to be one of the West Highland bogie saloons followed by a six wheeled saloon with central lavatory. A further bogie saloon is next and the last vehicle is again another six wheel full brake. Incidentally returning to the sleeping car, number 90 is interesting inasmuch as when it was withdrawn from the East Coast Joint Stock in 1933 it was converted to become a travelling camping coach, and was allocated the Camping Coach number 66.
Photograph at bottom of page. The caption stating Midland Railway Stock is erroneous as there is not one Midland Railway vehicle in the photograph. The vehicles in the far away platform are East Coast Joint Stock and the train nearest to the camera has standard North British Railway vehicles. As a matter of interest, the vehicle behind the 0-6-0 locomotive is East Coast Joint Stock, but a number of them were taken over by the North British and numbered into the North British Railway series after about 1905. It may be that the vehicle in question is in fact an N.B.R. Car and not East Coast Joint Stock.
North British Railway carriage plating
Accordingcto the 1914 Appendix for the North British, a large proportion of regular trains were composed of specially selected vehicles which bore plates on the solebars. On these plates were indicated the home station and also the particular working to which they were allocated. Staff were instructed to keep these plates thoroughly clean, and all concerned were to see that vehicles so plated were not used on any unauthorised workings, as no excuse would be tolerated for any failure to forward any such plated vehicles to their home stations. In point of fact, the arrangement was such that should any of these cars be required into workshops, the replacement vehicle was sent out from works. When this arrived at the destination station, it was exchanged for the stock in the train which then went to works. After the conclusion of the overhaul, the vehicle was then returned back to the home station, and the temporary car on loan from the workshops went back to the works or to another location to relieve another car for overhaul. As it will be appreciated, locomotives were not the only things to carry plates of Home Depot.

Facsimile: With reference to Circular G.M. 259, dated 12lth November 1913, the Staff. are hereby informed that the Directors have decided that the restrietion with regard to the issue of more than one Holiday Free Pass to each Servant during the month. of July to September (inclusive) has been withdrawn, and that, in future, the authorised Holiday Pass will be obtaiuable at any period during the year. J, CALDER,

Jim Binnie. N.B.R. diagram 61 16 ton mineral wagon drawing. 32

Letters to the editor. 33

Supplement: West Highland bogie drawing By W. D. Stewart.

Issue 30 (January 1987)

Unrebuilt C Class 0-6-0 No. 747 climbing to Forth Bridge from Jamestown Viaduct with loose-coupled freight. R.D. Stephens. front cover

A.J. Mullay. The railway race to Edinburgh, 1901 – the N.B.R. participation. 3-6.
In association with the Midland Railway: Carlisle to Edinburgh time cut to 126 minutes on 1 July 1901.

A.A. Maclean. The mystery of 462. 7-10
Dining car No. 462 may  have been an ex-GNR vehicle. GNR No. 2970 was sold to the NBR in 1914 for £3682, but required to be modified by the removal of the Pullman gangway and Buckeye couplinng. It was used on the Glasgow to Leeds service. GNR No. 2996 was sent north in December 1923 and was initially used on the Aberdeen to King's Cross sleeping car seervice. Asks what dining car was used with the Lossiemouth sleeping car.

A.W. Miller. Drummond and the "Abbotsfords". 11-20.
476 class: Drummond inside-cylinder 4-4-0 developed for handling heavy Midland trains over the Waverley route from Carlisle to Edinburgh. See also letter from author in Issue 31 page 31. and contribution from Euan Cameron in Issue 33 page 21

A.A. Maclean. Wagon number plates. 21

F.G. Voisey. A mishap at Wark. 21-3
16 October 1889: collision between 06.15 passenger train from Newcastle to Riccarton and a locomotive of a freight from Glasgow performing shunting. Major General C.S. Hutchinson reported on 11 November 1889 and attibuted the cause to lax working. See also letter from Ernie Brack in Issu3 31 page 31 and contribution by Sewell in Issue 33 page15 et seq

G.A. Davidson. The Sentinel railcars and the green and cream livery. 24
Refers to Rex Stedman of the Leeds Model Company who produced lithographs of the Sentinel railcars and appears to have the colour accurately. The model is short of one bay of windows and has the North Eastern Area No. 233; but worked in Scotland as No. 35 Nettle. Worked on Stirling Alloa; Alva services.

A.G. Dunbar. The 'puffer pipes'. 25
The photograph on the cover of the last issue of the Group Journal is extremely interesting from one point of view - the small escape of steam from the front of the cylinders. Now please do not dash off a letter to the Editor pointing out that I am wrong that could usually be the caae , as in this instance it will be correct. Most of the Holmes engines were fitted with what were called by the staff, 'Puffer pipes' fitted to each end of the cylinders, the sole purpose being, as far as one could gather, to allow trapped water to escape when the engine was standing. Of course cylinder relief cocks were fitted, operated by the footplate staff, but the pipes referred to served the purpose of allowing a puff of steam to escape while working, and the photograph in question shows this up very well. Latterly they were standard fittings, even on 0-6-2Ts built as late as 1922, but none were fitted to Reid engines such as J35 and J37 etc. which managed to get along quite well without them.
Most fitters when engaged on piston and valve ex~ination, would remove these pipes and, since they were made of steel, would have them burned out by placing them on the smithy fire. They quite often were stopped up with carbonised oil, and fire was the best method for removal. There was, perhaps, a mistaken idea that carbonisation due to oil might be a superheater steam problem, which of course it was toa great degree, but it was also present in saturated engines though not to the same extent. I often wonder how many man hours were spent removing carbon from pistons, valves, etc. during the periodical time of examination. This cleaning, added to the fitting of new piston and valve rings plus new slide valves, consumed a great deal of time and energy by the staff concerned.
I can honestly say that in my experience the puffer pipes did little to reduce the effects of carbonisation, and, in fact, I formed the idea that they were a foible of Holmes, much. like Edward Fletcher's exhaust cocks on the North Eastern Railway, so aptly described by Ahrons, that more or less did the same job. At no time, to my knowledge, did anyone from the holy of holies, the drawing office, condescend to explain how or why these pipes were fitted, and of course, as was customary with those people, probably considered that the members of the, to them, hoi poloi had no business to know. As indicated above saturated steam engines suffered less from the effects of carbonisation than those of the superheated variety, where it was a perpetual nuisance, not that the problem did not receive attention. One method adopted, which was of questionable value, was fitting what was termed anti-carbonisers. These were fittings where the oil feed pipes to both valves and pistons passed through what was termed the 'anti-carboniser' , this being usually fitted on the side of the smokebox, and consisted of a box type affair where the oil pipes from the lubricator entered one side and left the other after the oil was emulsified by means of a steam jet taken from the saturated side of the superheater header, thus utilising boiler wet steam instead of the superheated variety. At Balornock shed, C.R. 4-4-0s Nos. 82 and 83 were so fitted, but whether they deposited less carbon than took place on engines Nos. 76/7,93/4/5 is open to question since by outward appearance they were all more or less alike.
My own ideas on the subject were simple. Since the oil feed pipes passed through the ash that landed on the smokebox bottom, it was possible that this affected the emulsified oil, but it was only a guess and not proven in any way. Reverting to the subject of whether the 'puffer pipes' fulfilled the function they were intended and alleged to do, then this must likewise remain a subject for guesswork.

A.A. Maclean. Rolling stock arrangements for the Volunteer Review which took place on Thursday 25th August, 1881. 26
Working circular fior event in Holyrood Park: carriages borrowed from other railways, notably North Eastern Railway and instructions for examination at either Carlisle or Berwick.

John A. Smith. Farewell to Copelawhill. 27
Scottish Railway Museum

Letters. 27-

James F. McEwan
Re Journal 26: date of closure of branch to Balloch Pier: postponed until 29 September 1986.
Re Journal 23: Arrol-Johnston experimental vehicles of 1904  fitted with three-cylinder engines and charabanc bodies for North British Railway. After working on route between Aberlady and North Berwick were used on service fron Fort William to North Ballachulish. They were temperamental to operate.

A.W. Miller, 28-9
See Journal 29: the term "coach" was never used by the NBR: "carriage" always used. Carriage No. 57 had etched coat of arms on lavatory windows. "SMOKING" was also etched on the glass of appropriate compartments. Blue labels were also used to indicate smoking comoartments.

Issue 31 (June 1987)

Chairman's notes & Editorial.

Alan G. Dunbar. The North British tests a Midland compound. 3-10
W.F. Jackson and Guy Granet cooed up the idea and told Reid and Deeley to get on with it, but Jackson was horrified at the cost involved and negotiated it downwards. The tests took place on the Waverley route in August 1908 and were notable for the speeds attained which were greatly in excess of those specified. Some lurching took place. The coal andv oil consumption by the  comound was high and difficulty was experienced on the climbs

George Robin. The tablet catcher. 10
As a child in 1940 writer travelled on the afternoon train from Queen Street (Low Level) to Kilsyth via Torrans. On the single track section from Maryhill to Summerston the signalman inadvertently threw the tablet into the compartment in which wee George was sitting and he was able to show the footplate crew that he was holding it!

John M. Hammond. The trials, travels and travails of wartime service: Longtown signalbox in World War II. 13-18
Minor incidents: engine failures, flooding, trains dividing, hot boxes; the most serious on a wagon conveying explosives: wagon placed in siding with military guard.

John A. Smith. The naming of the N.B.R. K class locomotives... the: Scotts. 19-21
Named after characters in Sir Walter Scott's novels: also includes those bestowed by LNER on Directors sent to Scotland and steamers operating from Craigendoran. See also lettrer from Alan Dunbar in Issue 32 page 34

John McGregor. Petition of the Commissioners of the Burgh of Fort William to the Lords of Committee of Privy Council for Trade and Plantations against the operations of the West Highland Railway Co. at Fort William, 1894. 23-5.
Petition to Board of Trade concerning continued access to the shore.

W. Marshall Shaw. The first Cowlairs bankers. 25-6
Early rope haulage suffered from insufficient engine power and failure of the hemp rope. William Paton designed two 0-6-0Ts known as Incline No. 1 and Incline No. 2. Damage to the tunnel lining and vibation caused by slipping led to locomotive banking being abandoned in favour of greater engine power at Cowlairs stationary engine and a continuous steel rope. The locomotives were then converted to tender engines and given the names Hercules and Samson. See also letter from James F.  McEwan in Issue 32 page 33.

Euan Carneron. The Valentine's Photographic Archive at St. Andrews. 27-8.
St. Andrews University Library under curator R.N. Smart. Three collections: 1879-1934; 1934-54 and 1955-67. Collection contains many photographs associated with the Tay Bridge Disaster; the replacement bridge and the Forth Bridge. Subdivison within the files is by topography. No, 1266 shows a very small side tank within the girders of the original bridge, One unexpected feature are photographs of the LNER A4 Pacifics with Commonwealth names which appear the be LNER official images. 4-4-0T No. 98 Aberfoyle feature in one image and other NBR locomotives are identifiable

Letters to the editor. 29

[Sentinel railcars].  G.W.M. Sewell
Although not strictly a North British matter, perhaps I may comment on, the use of Sentinel railcars as raised by Mr. Hammond and Mr. Davidson. I researched these vehicles some years ago with a view to making a 7mm. model - of Nettle as it happens. It turned out quite well, but I no longer have it or the notes. I realize that the L.M.C. has its devotees (I am not among them) but would point out that their products were made and sold as toys rather than scale models and, as such, could scarcely be relied on as a source of authentic detail. I fear that Steadman's Nettle is far from authentic. Nearly 300 of these cars were built between 1924 and 1953 when the last two went to Nigeria. The ·two prototypes had 3' I" diameter wheels but were rather underpowered and the production run of articulated vehicles were on 2' 6" wheels. The first shaft drive car was Intgegrity, Works No. 7214 (1927), LNER 2135 and this had the only example of a 2 cylinder horizontal engine. The second was Nettle Works No. 7275 (1928), LNER No. 2133, later 35 on transfer to the North British section. This car had the first 6 cylinder engine and non-standard body layout. The third car, Works No. 7362, was on 2' 6" wheels and went to the LMS. The fourth vehicle was Flower of Yarrow, Works No. 7379 ( 1928) and went to the Scottish area ex works as No. 31. LNER numbers were not in chronological order and Nettle never carried 233, as this belonged to a J26 from 1923-1946. Flower of Yarrow was the first standard 6 cylinder shaft drive car and all were on 3' 1" wheels and had two speed gearboxes giving 30 and 38 mph at 500rpm.
All the'British cars had the 4 bay passenger space but export models could have more or less according to requirement. The seating bore no relationship to the windows so the curtains were not for individual use. Capacity was 59 in the articulated cars and up to 65 in others - I forget how many Nettle could seat. Incidentally, LMS cars seated only 44; in a vehicle of identical size. The original livery was simulated teak with elaborate primrose lining but this soon gave way to red and cream which, in turn, had given way to green and cream by the time the 6 cylinder cars had appeared. Colour is very much as the individual sees it, but the green was engine green and my recollection of the cream is that it was nearer to "off-white" than GWR cream.
14 cars were allocated to the N.B. area, including the North Briton from 1931-33. In that period it carried the number 31070 and reverted to 2276 on its return to the North Eastern region. At least one of these cars worked the Selkirk to Galashiels branch in 1942, and I rode in that but have forgotten the number. The ride could be "exhilarating" and I know of a set of single track crossing gates which had to be widened to accommodate the sway on these vehicles. As a matter of interest, the sole LMS 6 cylinder car was withdrawn in 1939 - also in Scotland where it worked the Moffat - Beattock branch. .

[Mishap to 0-6-2T No. 69199].  Jas. F. McEwan.
The mishap to 0-6-2T No. 69199 happened on Wednesday 22 August 1951. There are conflicting stories about the incident and sifting the probabilities from all the rumours at the time it appears that the train was moving too fast down the loop and the whole incident was witnessed, unfortunately for all concerned, by the chief man in the P.W. Shops adjacent. The most likely story is that the driver forgot he was in the loop until too late and braked so hard that he skidded the wheels. The eye witness stated that he saw the driver attending to something on the cab rear sheet and being thus engaged, did not observe that he had been entering the loop. Speed was estimated as about 15mph. which was average for any goods train passing down towards Parkhead. The brakesman, who should have also been looking out for signals was admiring the view behind from the brake van, and so did not take any action. The driver stayed on the footplate until the engine stopped in the street, but the fireman jumped off just before the buffer stops were hit and rolled down the embankment and lay just clear of falling debris.

Index. J.A. Smith.
When compiling an index of all Journals, Newsletters and News Bulletins, several points come to mind and I would like to make comment on them. The Journal has been very well endowed with photographs of locomotives and private owner wagons, as well as quite a few of country stations. Readers will appreciate that the quality has been very high and that this is due to the high standard of work carried out by Ray Kitching. However, without prejudicing the supply of further photographs of the aforementioned subjects, I would make the point that throughout the history of the Journal, there have only been three photographs of N.B.R. Coaching Stock, none of signals and signal details, and none of the bigger stations, and engine sheds are a bit thin on the ground. Could I make a plea for more photos and drawings of Coaching Stock, Signals, Signalling Diagrams, Sheds, Platform Furniture, Signal Boxes, Goods Sheds and Warehouses and so on.
A second point is that a very high percentage of our articles in the Journal, advice and information comes from three gentlemen who are not members of the Group. I know because I have dealt with them. I also know that they get a complimentary copy of our Journal. May I suggest, since it would not involve any expense to the Group, that we make these three gentlemen Honorary Members of the Group. It would only repay in some way their willingness and kindness to share their extensive knowledge with us.
We are lucky in that, with our Journal, we have one of the best, not only North of the Border, but in the length and breadth of the United Kingdom. Support your Journal with articles, photographs, drawings, letters and so on. They are badly needed.

Editor's note-:John's comments on photos are relevant, as unless photos are supplied with articles, the photo pages are made up by rifling the collections of the Tyneside membership, and Bill Lynn in particular. The choice of photos to accompany articles or simply as 'separate photo features' is mine, and will inevitably reflect my personal tastes in subject matter and composition. Unless photos are provided to accompany articles, then this situation will not change. It is significant that articles on Signalling, Architecture, Engine Sheds, etc. are not common and hence the relative scarcity of accompanying photos and drawings. In the future, the situation with Coaching Stock and Buildings shows signs of improving, and accompanying photos should start to appear. Meanwhile the membership will have tp put up with a diet of country stations and goods trains!)

Page 31

Duddingston. Ernie Brack.
With regard to F. G. Voisey's query as to the whereabouts of Dunningstown (A Mishap at Wark, Jan 1987 Journal), this is a mis-translation of Duddingston on the Edinburgh Suburban line.
In October 1906, some 17 years later, both goods and passenger trains were still scheduled, the goods now timed to leave Sighthill at 9.30pm running via Waverley rather than the Suburban line, and timed to reach Newcastle at 7. l0am. By 1923, the goods was actually scheduled to commence at Duddingston at 12. l0am, arriving at Newcastle Forth at 6.55am. The 6. 15am Newcastle-Riccarton passenger likewise had a long innings, departures varying from - 6. 15(Arr. 8.50) in 1906, to 6. 10(Arr 8.46) in 1910 and 1923. By 1950 the journey time had lengthened to a 5.52am departure and 8.50am arrival; so much for progress!

[Mishap to 0-6-2T No. 69199]. Alan Dunbar.
The photographs of 69199 lying on the Gartocher Road interested me, since being involved as shift charge hand fitter at Parkhead Shed, we were ordered to go with the tool van to the scene to rerail derailed wagons. I have mislaid the date, but it was in early 1950, and was the second time that this type of accident had taken place, for about two years before 9142 went through the buffer end and landed on the road. Happily on both occasions there were no pedestrians on the road at the time.
Our job was to shift the wreckage and' prepare the way for the Eastfield crane to lift the engine back up the bank. The train was coal from Bothwell yard and was put into what was called the down loop at Shettleston, where, due to brake misjudgement, it overran the stop with the results shown. The local representative from the M.O.T. held an enquiry that placed tha blame on the driver, and made some rules for future working. Damage to the engine was: bunker dented, footsteps torn off and radial truck badly broken.

Abbotsfords. A.W. Miller.
Re two errors in my article on the 'Abbotsfords' in Journal No. 30. The reference to 16" cylinders in line 21 of page 14 is an obvious typographical error and should-read' 18" cylinder'. However, I cannot account for the mental aberration which caused me to include marine big ends among the Drummond features discarded by his successors. It was, in fact, used on all inside cylindered engines built for the N.B.R. from Drummond's time onward. The only inside cylindered locomotives which the N.B.R. had in its later days which, so far as I am aware, did not have marine big ends were the rebuilds of Wheatley's engines. These retained their strap and cotter big ends as originally built.

Page 32

Sentinel coaches. Jas. F. McEwan.
In connection with the Sentinel coaches mentioned in the Journal recently and especially the numbering, a now deceased friend mentioned that Nettle, at that time without a name, ran its trial trips between Shrewsbury and Ruabon carrying the number 233. Whether or not this was a vacant number in the North Eastern locomotive list, I do not know, but when displayed at Waverley station soon afterwards, it bore the number 2133 and carried the name Nettle. It was said at that time that it was to operate in the Carlisle area. In September 1929, just over a year later, it was noted at Carlisle station bearing the number 35 with the indicator showing Longtown. To the rear stood Flower of Yarrow with the indicator showing Port Carlisle. Both were standing in the short bays at the northern end of the station. Nettle was working on the Forth and Clyde Junction in 1932 (Autumn), and was seen at both Balloch and Stirling.
Mr. Miller's letter concerning the use of both glass and blue labels to denote smoking compartments raises the point as to the date when labels became more widespread in use and I suggest that the change took place during the first war period when the etching of the word onto glass would be difficult with diluted labour, and blue labels would be more easily come by. They were already available for station lamps and easily applied to glass permanently, although they became brittle as time passed. I have no idea of the material from which they were made, but it was not uncommon. In houses etc., it was used to screen from 'nosey-parkers', and was patterned, ferns and flowers being the more common.
As for the Drummond Abbotsford 4-4-0, the official diagram used was that of the Cowlairs built lot. Neilson's had variations but so far the said recylindering has evaded discovery in SOURCE form. In the past, too many writers have copied earlier writings when producing books etc., without checking on the true facts. It is easier to extract from another's writings than research and much of this has been done over the past twenty years or more as can be read in many so-called definitive productions.
I have a hazy memory of the N.B. Loco. Class S 0-6-0 of 1921 having the double lining out, while I cannot be positive, the faint memory is there. Livery was not a strong point with me, checking date plates was.

Langholm to Riddings Junction. Bruce McCartney.
For the past year, I have been doing a fair amount of research into the branch line which ran from Langholm to Riddings Junction. My time at the records office in Edinburgh is limited, and I will be spending more time there in the future. However, I wonder if any member could help me over some queries that I have not been able to find an answer to yet?
1) When did the line open? Local papers say 11th April 1864, other sources on the 18th. (The inspector travelled over the line on Monday 4th April 1864.)
2) When was signalling introduced? I assume from an early WTT. that initially it was one engine in steam.
3) In a photograph of Canonbie station around 1900(then Canobie station), there is a four lever frame on the platform(two of the levers are pulled for a Carlisle bound train), why was there a framw when the signal box was about 100 yards away? The signal box closed in 1921 about the time that the coal mine at Rowanburn closed. Has anyone a photo of the box?
Page 33
4) I have a photograph showing a signal cabin at Glentarras siding (pre 1893) - was it a block post or just an elevated frame?
5) When was Gilnockie station opened? The local paper does not mention it until after the restoration of train services following the repair of the (recently demolished) Byreburn viaduct.
6) When was the engine shed at Langholm closed? It was shortened to 38ft. from 50ft. in 1893. The local paper in 1908 mentions 'a new locomotive has been supplied for the Langholm branch. (What would it be?) It is fitted with the latest improvements, and jokes regarding the slowness or other defects of its venerable predecessor (N.B.R. No. 22 ?) will now be out of date' A register house plan dated J893 has drawn on it crosses deleting the rails to the shed and the turntable - but the crosses look a later addition. (A large crowd turned out to see the turntable being delivered on 29th March, 1864.) 7) Has anyone any information or photographs of the signal box at Langholm (closed 1926)?
8) Can anyone help locate photographs of the branch in the period 1910 - 1950?
9) Where do I go to find out about the locomotive working of the line? I think that while the questions above are directly related to the Langholm branch, the answers to some of these questions would be applicable to someone starting research from scratch on another line and would be of use to a researcher whose time at West Register House is limited.,
It is my intention to produce a booklet on the line once I have completed the necessary research. I have found the whole process quite an eyeopener. I thought I knew a little about the N.B. before I started, the past year has shown me just how little I know!
I enclose one of the four photographs of Canonbie station which have come to light, perhaps there may be room for inclusion in a 'Journal'. (I hope to include a photo feature on the Langholm branch in a future edition, and this photo will be one of those featured, probably six in all - Ed.) The locomotive is probably N.B.R. No. 22. (One of the others, hand tinted in colour shows N.B.R. No. 49, Gretna.)
The collection of some eighty photographs of the line I have gathered, will be donated to the Thomas Telford Library in Langholm once the format of my booklet is finalised. May I thank in advance any member who takes the trouble to write to me, and assurs members that any material or photographs sent will be treated respectfully and not copied or reproduced without permission.

Index. Arnold Tortorella. 33-4
Source of N.B.R. Company History. May I be allowed to draw your attention, and that of other members of the N.B.R. Study Group, to a useful source, in my opinion, of N.B.R. Company material? The minute books of the Scottish 'Court of Session', held on Floor 2, Social Science, Mitchell Library, Glasgow, and, in specific cases, within West Register House, Edinburgh, contain a multitude of interesting legal disputes and wrangles. Sadly, to date, very few of these issues seem to have been transcribed by railway historians.
John Thomas, in West Highland Railway (David & Charles, 1976), noted some of the fissures involved with that line, and the Mallaig Extension. He also recorded the attempted closure of the ill-fated 'Invergarry & Fort Augustus' offshoot, but seemed to precis the material very heavily. However, from our point of view I shall now outline some of the more interesting legal 'battles' that involved the North British -: loss of goods to Leeds in 1874; demolition of the first Tay Bridge in 1883-85; ferrying rights at Queensferry in 1889; a lost dog and its bite at Waverley in 1891; N.B.R. running powers to Aberdeen Joint in 1889-94; freight rates on grain wagons in 1896; damage to a vessel in Silloth harbour in 1897; stolen salmon in transit from Peebles in 1901; and various other wrangles, rows and sundry squabbles.
An index, listing all recorded material held in the Mitchell Library, has just been created, and all text held in the Scottish Records Office, Edinburgh, shall likewise be recorded. Work has already commenced in researching and recording some of the more juicier battles that the N.B.R. Company had to enjoy. Material and text shall be submitted to the Journal. Perhaps other members may care to open up this useful avenue of railway research? As was once written, but in another context, 'It is all there, if only you look for it.'

Crianlarich: D34 Nos. 9256 Glen Douglas andv No. 9258 Glen Roy on express for Fort William c1937. rear cover upper
D 37/4 No. 37 423 heading south with morning freight from Mallaig Junction to Mossend in April 1986. rear cover lower

Number thirty-two (September/November 1987)

Angerton station on Wanbeck Valley Liine in North British days. Cover photograph

Chairman's notes & Editotial. 2

A.G. Dunbar. The Aberdeen affair. 3-14
Ferryhill engine shed was the property of the Caledonian Railway and was used by the North British Railway. The shed was enlarged iin 1908 to accomodate larger locomotives and the charges made by the Caledonian Railway were increased and there was a year long (July 1908 to September 1909 between W.F. Jackson of the NBR and R. Millar (General Manager) of the CR, later G. Calthrop with one from Jno Scouller (depputy to Cathrop?). Costs of stabling, sand, water, etc. itemised.,

Neil Reid. The Lauder Light Railway. 17-20. Illustrations page 16
Authorised in 1898; opened 2 July 1902. Map shows how railway rose to high in Lammermuir Hills

Arnold Tortorella. A trader and wagon demurrage. 21-5
Action brought by NBR against Steel Company of Scotland on 9 December 1919complicated by it beingt taken after the Armistice, but relating to period under Government control.

Alan Dunbar. A snippet from the past. 25
Railway Herald for 11 January 1896 looking back to New Year's Day noted that "At the Waverley station on New Year's Day 1896 commissioners, etc had to bre placed in the bars to regulate traffic"
Poor Auld Reekie - more like  the sort of thing that would take place in Glasgow.

Stuart Rankin. Milnathort goods shed. 26
Milnathort station, on the Edinburgh - Perth route, was opened in 1858, closed to passengers in 1964 and to goods traffic in 1970. The history of the local lines is covered by John Thomas in Forgotten Railways - Scotland (Oavid & Charles - 1976). The drawings of the goods shed, which appear as a loose supplement with this issue of the Journal, were prepared from survey notes and colour slides taken in 1972. Owing to intermittent camera shutter problems on the initial visit, which unfortunately wasted most of a car tour of the Fife branches, some complementary black and white photographs were taken in 1979, three of which are reproduced opposite. By this time the shed had been taken over privately and some lean-to additions had been made, obscuring the ends. However, the overall data available made a drawing possible, although personal priorities delayed completion. Particular features of the shed are the 3" recessed panels in the brickwork, decorative yellow brick relieving the red brick at the corners, doorways and windows, and the louvred ventilator at each end with its quatrefoil effect in relief. These are all shown on the photographs. The sliding doors on the loading platform, two to each doorway, are hung inside the 18" thich walls and are the usual rectangular type with framing on the inner side. Part of the top of each is hidden by the arched door opening. The section of brickwork below each doorway, supporting the platform, is also recessed by 18". The end doors, not drawn, are similar to the side doors, and are also ,inside the walls. It is suggested that the shed was built by the N.B.R. some time after they absorbed the Kinross and Fife lines in 1862.

R. A. Read.  Some early N.B. notes.  26
A.G. .Zamorski reports in The Locomotive News and Railway Notes of 1921 (Volume 8?), that on 10 January, ]92], locos awaiting repairs at Cowlairs Works were Nos. 95, 253, 322, 340 Lady of Avenel, 399, 52], 64],864 ,883, 1131(for scrap),  1210(for scrap), 1309, 1326, 1388, and 1451. In shops were 615 and 877 Liddesdale (newly rebuild, 1212(for scrap), 1264, 1373 and 480. Nos. 1289 and 867 were just out of shops. 1306 is yard shunter at present.
The following engines could be seen behind Eastfield shed in a rusty condition with number and date plates removed, and partly dismantled. Most, if not all, will probably be scrapped. They were - 227 4-4-0 (N), 555 0-6-0 (O), 1235 0-6-0ST(E), 1372 0-6-0T(O), 1067 0-6-0ST(E) outside frame, 1303 0-6-0 (C) with tender of 1082, 1234 0-6-0ST(E), 1272 0-6-0ST(E), 1229 0-6-0ST(E), and 1230 0-6-0ST(E).
A.G.Zamorski of Kirkintilloch sent N.B. notes to The Railway Magazine in the 1920s and then his name disappears from view. Other early N.B. enthusiasts were Major Sam Forbes, who was a friend of my Read's father in the 7th Black Watch (T.A.), Mr Pagan, a solicitor in Cupar, Fife, whose son, also an enthusiast, Robert Pagan, was a well-known cinema organist who now lives in Brighton, and Mjr. Munro, who helped to form the Scottish branch of the S.L.S. Another local enthusiast of those days, Sir Eric Hutcheson, is, of course, well known to members.

G.W.M. Sewell. The Wansbeck and Northumberland Central lines 100 years ago: some social and economic aspects. 27-32
Rothbury was the only town; the area was thinly populated and coal and iron were in scattered pockets. Eventually Sir William Armstrong used the arae for armaments testing. Photographs of Rothbury, Knowesgate and Woodburn stations.

Letters to the editor. 32

Original livery of 19½ cylinder 0-6-0 No. 13. Ile Inspector.
Re correspondence concerning the original livery of 19½ cylinder 0-6-0 No. 13. In this connection a forgotten note has just come to light, under the date 10 December, 1949:- "W.D.M.S. says that No. 13 was green when new." "W.D.M.S." was the late Douglas Stephen, elder brother of R.D. (Ranald), the well-known photographer. Douglas was a lifelong dyed-in-the-wool N.B. enthusiast, and was a very keen observer, his home being at oue of the most important and busiest junctions on the N.B. system - Inverkeithing. Unfortunately Douglas never kept notes, but he had an excellent memory, and kept a vast store of N.B. information in his head, which he was always delighted to impart to others.
When Douglas went to school in Edinburgh (starting in 1910), he travelled daily by train, and continued to do so for some years after he joined the service of the N.B.R. in the Civil Engineer's Department. Eventually he did come to live in Edinburgh (having married a young lady who was employed in the same office.),and he went by train from Portobello to Waverley. In B.R. days he was transferred to Glasgow, but his home remained in Edinburgh, and until he retired he travelled daily on the 08.10 from Edinburgh to Glasgow, (along with many other railwaymen!). Douglas was chiefly concerned with signalling, and latterly he was responsible for the siting of all signals in the Scottish Region.

E.&.G. engines used on Cowlairs incline. Jas. F. McEwan. 33-4
Shaw, like many others, has accepted the writings of a "learned" party concerning these original E.&.G. engines used on the incline. (Journal No.31 pp 25/6) The expression "banker" is used in an article published about 1909/10 and unfortunately for posterity has dubbed the E.&.G. engines as banking engines. The local papers distinctly mention that the Incline engine "is employed in hauling the trains in place of the rope", no mention is made of shoving. The engines are referred to by the E.&.G. as bank engines, and the word 'bank' is repeatedly used in referring to the Cowlairs incline. The engines which placed the incline brake trucks on to the descending train are described as Bank Top engines, these evidently were locomotives deemed too unfit for main line duties and relegated to very local use, until they could be taken into the workshops for overhaul.
An illustration of "The Great Locomotive Engine employed ..... at the Western Terminus of the E.&.G." appeared in several of the Mechanics Journals around 1844/5 and is much more detailed than the illustration used in British Steam Locomotives and shows a less tall dome and, with greater clarity, the motion etc. The chimney measures 14 feet at the top taken from rail level, so the effect of the blast on the tunnel roof must have been severe, assuming that the rails had the minimum of ballast — as was common at the date — and also assuming the published dimensions of the tunnel are factual, then the top of the chimney would be about 15 inches off the roof of the tunnel. The hot blast of the exhaust would certainly cause damage to the tunnel lining, which was of brick.
The first engine, Incline No. 1, was tried out on 1 January 1844, but did not go into regular service until 10 February, and the bank engines remained in use until March 1845, when they were withdrawn from incline duties. There is evidence that a special test was tried out on 4 March, 1847, whose results are not known. That held on 3 February 1844 got much publicity when Hercules hauled a test train of 17 coaches up the incline in five minutes at a speed of 20mph with William Paton acting as driver. Some of the regular engines on the line, the larger ones, were tried but at various times during the 1847-1850 period, and, apart from vague references to this, no details appear to be available of the type of locomotive used. Although the two bank engines are referred to officially as Incline Nos. 1 and 2, the newspapers mention that Hercules hauled the test train on 3 February, 1844, so evidently the engines were named very soon after making, yet for the accountants records, they seem to have been called Incline Nos. 1 and 2 respectively, for the working of the Cowlairs incline was a separate book entry in the Company's accounts —it was non-revenue earning! The rails originally laid in the tunnel were 56lbs/yd, but with the pounding which the bank engines gave them, they were replaced on the UP line about 1845/46 with rails weighing 69 lbs/yd, which, in 1848, were replaced by rails of 75 lbs/yd of Caledonian pattern.
As for the dimensions of the two engines, data is scattered through many entries and only by taking the references in date rotation can a fair picture be formed. It is definite that No. 1 had wheels 4ft. 3½in. diameter, and No. 2 wheels of 4ft. 9in., these figures being quoted in E.&.G. records. The dimensions of the cylinders vary in differing reports, but it is evident that Hercules came out with cylinders 15½ by 25in., and Samson with them 16½ by 25in. In December, 1845; it was agreed that Hercules was to be remade like Samson, but this was not done, presumably second thoughts had been taken and both were to become tender engines for incline work and coal trains. By the end of 1848, both had 16 by 25in. cylinders, those of Samson were new, and presumably those of Hercules had been rebored since there is no trace of the ordering of new cylinders as done with Samson. Both were replaced by new engines from R. &. W. Hawthorn in February, 1847, 0-6-0 with double frames, 18in. by 24in. cylinders and 4ft. 3in. coupled wheels and again described as bank engines. They were sold in May 1854 to the Stockton and Darlington Railway, becoming, I believe, their Nos. 81 and 82. The test made in March, 1847, may apply to one of these engines. Who purchased Samson is uncertain, the minute books authorise its sale, the ledger has entries without names and the probability is that it went to join Hercules , since Russell would require a second engine, as spare, for working the Shieldhill line. These notes will help to augment the data in Mr. Shaw's article which records the information most easily obtainable.

Scott class engine names. Alan Dunbar. 34
Just a note of correction on the article on the Scott class engine names in the current issue of the Journal. If one consults the SLS Journal for September, 1974 the same article will be found penned by me, a fair time ago as you will admit. Around the same time, I had done one on the Glen names that incidentally brought the O.S. people into commenting on the origin of those names that intrigued me greatly. The research for the Scott names did not call for much work on my part as there was, at that time, in Maryhill Public Library, two books entitled the characters, both in the works of Charles Dickens and Sir WaIter Scott, so after spending a couple of hours in the confines of the Library, the article was put together. While I can applaud the efforts of the writers, and the compilers of the Group article, they might have added that I had a hand in the affair originally. (Editors Note; I am assured by the compilers of the article that they were not aware of Alan's article, nevertheless my apologies to Alan for any misunderstanding.)

Sentinel Rail Cars  34
Some information, recently to hand, on the running costs of the Sentinel Rail Cars may be of interest to readers. The figures were supplied by Gresley's department and refer to the year ended 30 June, 1930. The LNER. then operated 64 of these cars running an average' mileage of 33,954 miles per year at the well nigh incredible cost of 11.3d (under 5p) per [remainder of letter missing]

Number thirty three December 1987

Chairman's notes and editorial. 2

J.F. McEwan.. The first train ferries. 3-6
Considers more than train ferries, in that it describes the passenger and limited Forth crossings at Queen's Ferry between North and South Queensferrry; mentions the Kincardine ferry; ferries across the Tay from Ferryport on Craig to Broughty Ferry; as well as from Granton to Burntisland wwhich called for action by the Board of Trade. The Edinburgh & Northern Railway began services in September 1844 between Edinburgh and Granton..
Investigation by the Granton harbour engineers showed that the shores had varying slopes and tidal differences and proposed several alternatives, so the Edinburgh Perth.&.Dundee board called a meeting of eminent engineers, including Bouch, Grainger and Napier. After much deliberation and many meetings, the suggestions from the three named parties were approved and the Admiralty consulted, since tidal waters were affected, and they seem to have taken no exception since all the work was within harbour limits. Bouch was to design a moving loading platform, more substantial than that which he first proposed, Napier would build a ship with rails laid on the deck, while Grainger would devise a slipway to suit both. The E.P.&.D. board minutes are confusing but it would appear that Napier was instructed soon after the first decision to provide two steamers for the Burntisland route. The vessels had two lines of rails along the deck which were gauntletted towards the bow and, for easy handling, a rudder was provided at the bow as well as one at the stern. To keep the deck space clear of obstruction, twin boilers, engines and paddle wheels were used, and placed on opposite sides of the vessel. The first vessel, the Leviathan, came to open the service in December 1849, but the service did not commence until March, 1850 owing to difficulties on land, and then a series of berthing trials. From certain dates recorded regarding E.P.&.D. locomotives being repaired, it seems that the berthing trials were used to transfer locomotives between the two disjoined parts of the line, some for repair. The works of the "Granton" Co. at Heriot (later Heriothill) were quite inadequate to undertake heavy overhauls so the Burntisland works of the E.P.&.D. were used for this work.
Sloping masonry ramps with a gradient of I in 6 were built at Granton and Burntisland by March 1850, and those at Ferryport on Craig and Broughty Ferry soon thereafter. All had two lines of rails along their length and these were gauntletted, and outside these,other rails carried Bouch's moveable platform. The platform had sixteen wheels, eight each side, and was moved up or down the slipway by cables operated by hand winches on the dockside. The bascule, hinged at the landward end, had the height adjusted by cables running through sheaves mounted on a platform above the tracks. There were two sets of gauntletted rails on the bascule which connected with those on the ramp by hinged bars. The bascule itself was substantial and could carry a static load of 40 tons.
Additional sidings were put in at Granton and Burntisland and were connected by turnplates to the slipway rails and the wagons were lowered or brought from the vessel by hand winches and ropes until more wagons had brakes, when they were allowed to run by themselves on to the deck. With the opening of the Forth Bridge, this traffic ceased, although lorries, carts and vans were taken by the passenger steamer up to 1902, when the ferry service " became passenger only, and operated from May to September yearly. The service was suspended during the 1914-1918 war, and again in March 1940, and was not resumed. The L&NER was relieved of its obligations by an Order Confirmation Act dated 19 December 1946, whereby the ferry was abandoned. The Tay crossing was not statutory and ceased with the opening of the first Tay Bridge, but was reinstated temporarily until the second bridge was made. In all, eight train ferries served both crossings and, despite claims made elsewhere, they were the first self-propelled train ferries in the world.
The locomotives of the Edinburgh & Northern were very similar to those of the North British Railway, but some notes on the Edinburgh, Leith &.Granton line and its locomotives illustrate the working of the line south of the Forth. Considerable reference to the E.L.&.G. is made in the Edinburgh newspapers, and, althou8h a small company, it had a character all of its own. Its station in Edinburgh was in Canal Street, adjacent to, but at right angles to, that of the Edinburgh & Glasgow, and on ground adjacent to the present North British Hotel. It connected to the North British Railway through a siding and its connections with the two lines were by turnplates. From Canal Street station, the line passed by tunnel at a gradient of 1 in 27 under the New Town part of Edinburgh to emerge at Scotland Street, where the company's depot and workshops were located, being first known as Heriot and later as Heriothill. The tunnel was ¾ mile long and had been excavated by using three shafts and a mine, and was brought into use on 17 May 1847. An earlier date had been attempted, but the Board of Trade inspector wanted a safer method found for attaching the carriages to the rope, and the winding engine supplied by R.&.W.Hawthorn was far from satisfactory in operation. Traffic descended the tunnel by gravity and there are a few records of coaches being allowed to get partly out of control and not stopping at Scotland Street station. The line between Scotland Street and Trinity, also referred to as Newhaven, was opened on 31 August 1842; to Granton on 2 February 1846, and to Granton Pier about July or August 1846. For the opening of the railway it had been proposed to purchase two locomotives, but Alex Adie, the civil engineer and manager of the Monklands group of railways got the idea set aside and horse haulage substituted in view of the short distance to be travelled. Meanwhile, on the advice of the N.B.R., coaches similar to those "of the York Railway" were ordered and on arrival were found to be too heavy for the horses to pull. Draught horses were then used, but their pace was too slow, so lighter coaches were ordered hurriedly from local coach builders and the heavier carriages disposed of to the Wishaw & Coltness Railway, which company was starting up a service between Newarthill and Holy town (Mossend now) and Glasgow by handing their trains over to the Garnkirk & Glasgow at Coatbridge or hauling throughout,
With traffic increasing, and now open to Granton, the E.L.&.G. decided to commence using locomotives and got three 0-4-0s from E. Bury which arrived in 1846 and were found unsuitable for the line, presumably the track was too light for them assuming that this was so from later references in the E.P.&.D. minutes, and the three engines were disposed of to the Edinburgh & Glasgow by the end of 1846. It was apparent that light engines were required and ten 0-4-0 tender engines were ordered from R.&.W.Hawthorn which arrived between April and September 1847. Some forty years later they were described as "tiny wee things", the cylinders were 13 inch diameter by 16 inch stroke, the coupled wheels 4 feet in diameter and ran on a wheelbase of 6 feet.
In 1849, the E.&.N. and the E.L.&.G. beeame known as the Edinburgh, Perth & Dundee, but since all the terms of the amalgamation act could not be complied with, two separate sets of books had to be kept, being the Northern section, and the Granton, and remained so until 1851 when the Granton line stock was added to that of the E.P.&.D. as Nos. 30 to 42, and the two companies combined their affairs financially. What happened with the locomotive stock during 1850 is far from clear, and based on Parliamentary Papers and other items, it appears that four of the Granton line engines were removed to Burntisland for shunting — one of the four may have gone to Tayport — with the E.P.&.D. placing another four engines on the Granton section. Two of them were new 2-4-0T from R.&.W. Hawthorn, delivered in February and March 1850, another was an 0-4-2, dated 1847 and made by Fenton and had 14 inch by 20 inch cylinders and 4 feet 6 inch coupled wheels, and another engine built by Kinmond of Dundee ca. 1847/8, thought to have been a 2-2-2. These presumably replaced the four Granton engines taken across the Forth to act as shunters in place of horses which were

The epistles of Peggy Part II. 7-8
Kilts, the Wallace Monument and Stirling Castle occupy the "young lady's" attention

Ken Wildey and John M. Hammond. The wee 18 inchers of the N.B.: the J36 locomotives of Canal shed. 9-14
Wildey was on the footplate and noted how these small locomotives could take hevy loads. Hammond took the photographs of Nos. 65312, 65293 (with tender cab), 65231 and 65237.

G.W.M. Sewell. Sidelights on the accident at Wark. 15-17.
See article by Voisey in Issue 30 page 21. Gives details of those injured; the prompt actions of all concerned and the implementation of the Inspector's recommendations.

The journey of his Imperial Majesty the Czar. 18-20
Timetable for Imperial train on 21 September 1896 which only allowed for a brief pause at Dundee between Leith and Aberdeen scheduled  for less than 3 hours. An arrival at 19.00 at Ballater was anticipated. Notice signed Conacher

Euan Cameron. The Abbotsfords — some alternative interpretations. 21-4
Refers back to A.W. Miller's article
Cylinders, 'Steam jackets', and Feed-pumps.
Miller observes in his article that two works G.A. drawings of the 476 class survive, one (found in the Supplement to The Engineer of 4 January 1878) showing a boiler fed by two crosshead pumps, and cylinders each with two sets of ports in the port-face, the sets divided by a horizontal bar, and with the lower exhaust port connected by a passage through a duct passing underneath and round the outside of the cylinder, a device often called a 'Steam-jacket' (Fig. 1.); the other drawing, in the hands of the Royal Scottish Museum, apparently showing a boiler fed by injectors, and cylinders with a conventional, simple steam-chest arrangement, with the exhaust-port linked by a vertical passage to a hole in the top of the cylinder casting.
As I understand his article, Miller infers from these drawings that the Engineer drawing represents the engines as first built, and that the "Museum" drawing shows them having been withdrawn, taken back into works, and modified with injector feed and new cylinders. He further deduces that the change of cylinder exhaust-passages was carried out because of the removal of the feed-pumps and associated feed-water heating equipment.
This interpretation seems to me to raise three distinct questions:-
1) Is there any necessary link between 'steam-jackets' and the. use of pumps?
2) Were the 476 cylinders really at first steam-jacketed, then changed to plain exhausts?
3) Were the 476s originally built, let alone run, with pumps at all?
To the first question there is a simple answer. In the issue of Engineering for 25 May 1877, there is a detailed G.A. drawing and article on Drummond's 474 class 2-2-2, introduced shortly before the 'Abbotsfords'. These engines had cylinders equipped with conventional sets of steam and exhaust ports (Fig. 2.); but they also undoubtedly had feed-pumps, as is shown both by the drawing and the works photograph of No. 475 Berwick (see A.A.Maclean North British Album pp. 56/7, and B. Haresnape and P. Rowledge Drummond Locomotives, p 21.). Equally, injectors later replaced pumps on these engines without any change of cylinders as far as anyone has suggested. Furthermore, the 494 class 4-4-0Ts (see "The Engineer" for 23rd May 1879) had boilers and cylinders of the same general pattern as the 474s, but used injectors placed in Drummond's odd location above the rear bogie wheels from the first. In short, Drummond locomotives could operate pump-feed and water-heating with conventional cylinders, or injector-feed with steam-jacketed cylinders, or vice versa: the issue of feed type is quite distinct from that of cylinder design.
The second question, regarding the cylinders really fitted to the 476s in traffic, is more difficult. On the face of it, the discrepancy between the two G.A. drawings as described by Miller does seem to suggest that the engines' cylinders had been replaced. Yet there is another possibility, however unattractive it may seem: namely that the "Museum" drawing simply shows the wrong type of cylinder, showing that fitted to the 474s and 494s, not the 476s. As a pure guess, might one suggest that this could have arisen through confusion between the 476s and Drummond's proposed 17-inch 4-4-0, ultimately built as the Holmes 574 class? At any rate, it would not be the first time that a G.A. drawing had proved misleading.
Photographic evidence lends support to this second interpretation. As Miller notes, the 1902 and 1904 rebuilds of the Abbotsfords did employ steam- jacketed cylinders, and in the photographs of these (bottom of pp 10 and 19 of the Journal article) one can see quite clearly the rectangular slot and 'bulge' where the casing of the 'steam-jacket' protrudes through the frames above the bogie. Now, photographs of the original condition of the 476s show exactly the same 'bulge'. It is there on the works photograph of No. 479 (although not visible in the reproduction of this picture on the top of p 10 of my copy of the Journal), and in an engraving made from this photograph for The Engineer article; much more conclusive is a photograph of No. 491 in O.S. Nock's Railway race to the North (similar, though not identical, to that on the cover of the Journal) where, thanks to very low light striking the frames of the engine, the steam-jacket bulge is there for all to see. Since, then, there is no visible difference between the frames of the original 476s and the rebuilds with steam- jackets, I very much incline to the belief that they always possessed such cylinders. It would be odd indeed if Drummond had removed them from the 476s, as they not only persisted as standard on N.B. bogie engines with 18-inch or 18½-in cylinders at least until the No. 1 class 4-4-2Ts (C15) of 1911; Drummond himself used them right through his career, up to his largest slide valve 4-4-0s, the L.S.W.R. class L12 of 1904-5!
This brings us to the third question, that of the feed water arrangements. Miller seems to deduce that the 476s were originally built as in the Engineer drawing, pumps and all, delivered to the N.B.R., and then sent back to Neilsons for modifications. If they were so built and delivered, it is odd that Neilsons should not have taken any works photograph of the 476s in this original condition, as they did (for instance) with No. 475. In fact the article in The Engineer in 1878 suggests a slightly different story. It refers to double-heading being used on the Waverley route expresses until the advent of the new locomotives, 'about a year ago', i.e. early 1877, and then goes on to say: 'At first it was intended to use pumps, and pumps are shown in our working drawing, but subsequently injectors were substituted' (author's italics). This passage does not imply that the engines were built to one design and then modified, but seems (at least to my reading) to suggest that pumps were proposed for the design, and then discarded, either at the design stage or during construction. Although this may sound like heresy, I tend to suspect that the 'Abbotsfords' had injector feed from their first appearance in traffic (unless, of course, anyone knows of any photograph of them without the distinctive injector steam-valves on the firebox crown!).
Miller adds another twist to the story by referring to E. L. Ahrons's mention of 'divided ports' on the Drummond 165 class 0-6-0Ts. Having examined the drawing of one of the later series of 165s in Engineering, 12 December1879, I suspect that Ahrons was referring to something quite different: on these engines (fitted with injectors, by the way!) the exhaust ports were divided and the cylinders each had two small D-valves, one at each end of the steam-chest, held together by a dumbell-shaped shackle (Fig. 3). This device seems to have been intended to allow very short admission steam-passages (desirable in a tank engine for branch line and commuter traffic) and is, of course, quite different from anything fitted to express 4-4-0s.
As for Drummond's hesitation in deciding between pumps and injectors for his designs, perhaps the arguments for the two types of feed were less clear-cut in the mid-1870s than they seem now. A pump is at least reliable and simple; whereas the early injectors, the non-lifting 'Giffard injector' as it was at first called, was a fickle piece of equipment, requiring high standards of machining and maintenance, and easily blocked. In those circumstances, and remembering that engineering tolerances in those days were often what would nowadays be regarded as quite crude, the injector's advantages of efficiency and permanent availability only gradually became overwhelming. It is interesting that a very similar debate was carried on until recently in the model engineering fraternity; although many live-steam nodel locomotives nowadays have at least one (lifting) injector, most have a crosshead- or eccentric-driven pump in addition.
Brake shoes
Another interesting question is raised by the brake-shoes shown in the G.A. drawings of the 474 and 476 classes. Both these drawings show a cast-iron brake-shoe of a novel cross-section, pivoted in the middle and bearing (with two separate parts) upon both tyre and flange of the wheel; the purpose of this device was alleged to be to prevent distortion of the profile caused by uneven wear from conventional shoes. However we know from photographs that both the 2-2-2s 474/5 and the 4-4-0s 476-9 began their service with wooden brake blocks hung top to bottom, but unpivoted. (For comparison, Nos 486-9 had pivoted blocks suspended ahead of the driving and coupled wheels, whereas Nos 490-3 had brakes pressing between the two sets of axler, linked to the Wstinghouse system). Did the wooden blocks first fitted bear on tyre and flange as well? At least in the case of the 474 class 2-2-2s, these fairly crude brakes seem to have lasted as long as the locomotives did.
Other details
Although it was obviously not part of . Miller's purpose to mention every detail change which was made to the 476s up to rebuilding, it is interesting to note that quite a number of casual changes were made to the engines apart from those described in his article. For the modeller especially, it may perhaps be helpful to list some of these:-
Axle springing: The 476s started their existence with the driving axles suspended on the coiled bar volutes used in Drummond's early work, and the coupled axles on conventional cambered plate springs. Early in Holmes's superintendency, this arrangement was altered to one with plate springs for the driving axles and a slightly tapered round coil 'Timmis' spring for the coupled (see the photograph in the middle of p. 10 of the Journal article). Such an arrangement remained standard, I think, for all N.B.R. 4-4-0s until the time of Walter Chalmers.
Tallow cups: At first a square design of tallow-cup was fitted to the front of the smokebox; later this was replaced by the standard bulbous type with two hand wheels, attached to the side of the smokebox waist.
Cab floor: The works drawings and photographs of Nos. 475 and 479 showed no wooden floor to the cab and tender; one was certainly fitted shortly after construction.
Coupling-rod splashers: Quite late in their unrebuilt lives some at least of the 476s were fitted with tiny steps at either end of the coupling-rod splasher, as found on the other large-wheeled Holmes 4-4-0s (see the photographs of No. 488 in Maclean, North British Album, p.58, and in Thomas, The North British Railway, Vol Il, p.51).
Boilers and fittings: Shortly after Drummond's departure from the N.B.R. two of the boiler-bands on the 476s were either remov~d, or at least deprived of full lining-out so as to become invisible (the same occurred on the 474&).
There seems also to have been some changes of domes, at least on No. 488: just after the Ramsbottom safety-valves were hurriedly replaced with lock-ups, the origi~al domes were evidently used, leaving the valves further apart than on the Holmes designs (7~" spacing rather than 6i"); however, the photographs of No. 488 mentioned above show a taller, more bulbous, dome (similar to that fitted to the 633 class 4-4-0s) with the valves in the closer spacing. Might this indicate the more general renewal of boilers regarding which such mystery seems to have arisen? One final point: Miller's list of dimensions, faithfully copied from the article in The Engineer, quoted the pitch of the boiler as 7' 4": this is incorrect, the drawings showing a pitch of 7' 3" (as on the 4-4-0s of classes 574 and 633, and the West Highland Bogies).
One query
I should like to end these notes with a query which someone more versed in these matters can no doubt answer. The picture in the middle of p. 10 of the Journal shows No. 479 shortly after its name was removed: the works plate has been moved up from the coupling-rod casing to the middle of the driving-wheel splasher. This arrangement (by N.B.R. standards, simple for the modeller!) was also applied to the 474 class and, at least, to Holmes's 574 class 4-4-0s. However by the time of the introduction of the 'West Highland Bogies' in 1894, this layout had been replaced by the final one, where the works plate returned to the coupling-rod splasher (where fitted) and the larger garter coat-of-arms filled the space in the middle of the driving-wheel splasher; and so things stayed till the eve of grouping (when a few simplified liveries began to appear). Does anyone know exactly when this livery, with the coat-of-arms, was first introduced? Did, for instance, the 592 class, or indeed the 633s, have it from their first construction?
I do trust these remarks and suggestions will offend no-one, and may stimulate discussion or the circulation of further information. It is indeed curious that such an epoch-making class as the 476s should nevertheless be 'surrounded by so many small mysteries and puzzles. If anyone with any information on these questions could produce it, we might begin to construct a co-operative history of these and other N.B. types, for which this Journal must be the ideal forum.

G.W.M. Sewell. The N.B.R. 6 wheel flexible chassis. 25-6. diagram
Two saloon coaches iof 1881/2 were fitted with this type of chassis, but later modified to the standard form, but in the early 1900s 20- ton rail wagons and 15-ton plate wagons and various vans were fitted with chasses with fixed centre axles bordered by trucks which permitted  a limited amount of movement and allowed them to negotiate sidings with shapr curves. Only the centre axles had brakes and this was a limitation on the vans.

Honorary memberships. 27
For Dunbar, Maclean and McEwan.

Letter to the editor. 28

While not strictly a "Letter to the Editor", J. F. McEwan has forwarded a very interesting letter which was received by his father, J. McEwan Senr., from a friend who was employed at Cowlairs. The letter was written in 1915, and concerns N.B.R. locomotive painting. Mr. McEwan stresses that he has submitted the letter in view of the interesting nature of its contents, and that he is NOT entering into any correspondence concerning it. My thanks are due to Mr. McEwan for this interesting information, which will, no doubt, be studied in great detail by those interested in N.B.R. liveries!
From Bennet's Moving Accidents, Wheatley's old 4-4-0 No. 224, is shown 1n his brown and red colouring. Bennett knew the period well.
Drummond started painting the engines in the Stroudley yellow, but in a quieter tone. They were lined out in white on either side of a dark green band, the footplate edges were lake, with a white line. The wheels were yellowish with black painted tyres and green axle centres. The names were in gold and shaded and there is a difference of recollections about this, I thought the shading was pale blue, white and black, while others say that it was pale blue, green and red. It is possible that there were two versions of the shading, for some old colleagues are quite definite on this happening.
Holmes went to the brown colour (and removed the names) and used yellow and red lining. An old painter tells me that umber was the basis for the colour, used with some white and green added in set proportions by the authorities, but the painters mixed it up by guesswork giving some Slight changes at times. This colour persisted up to the train control innovation in 1913, when large numbers began to appear, and the colour now became olive green (In Reid's time).
In the brown days the border was a dark Brunswick green with black bands dividing the two colours on splashers, cab and tender sheeting, and also edged on either side with a yellow and red line, the yellow being nearer to the brown. The boiler bands, however, had the sequence, the band was black edged on either side with a red line, two more false bands were painted on either side with the dark green paint and were edged with yellow —thus making four lines in all. This curious arrangement of lining, the yellow line touching the green , only appeared on the boilers. The previous time this had been done was by Stroudley on his yellow engines on the Highland and L.B.&.S.C.R. engines. The footplate edging, crank splashers, upper frames and wheels were in most instances painted in brown edged with black and having a red line dividing the colours.
Passenger engines after 1913 became almost an olive green with the same red and yellow lining and the large numbers on the tank and tender sides. Prior to the large numbers appearing, the names had red and black shading to the gold letters.
Reid painted the goods engines black with yellow lining.
When discussing the painting with old hands, a strange matter appeared, some insisted that some of the engines had actually had the dark green band of Brunswick green put on the tender panels. When this was done I have been unable to get sufficient information, yet it does look as though some short lived scheme was promoted.
The lettering, shading and colours are confirmed by all to whom I have spoken to within Cowlairs works. Between shoppings there must have been. over the years, quite a Joseph's coat of varieties of colours dominating the old N.B. system"

Journal No. 34  (March 1988)
Note: cover states "May 1988"

F. G. Voisey. The St. Margarets accident during the 1926 General Strike. 3-8.
On 10 May 1926 the 13.05 Berwick to Edinburgh collided with a freight train in St. Margarets tunnel. Three passengers were killed and eight were injured. Gas escaped from the carriage lighting system, but did not ignite. Colonel Pringle in his Ministry of Transport report of 27 May 1926 was virulent in his criticism of the watching, but inactive strikers in the breakdown crew. The signalling was in the hands of volunteer signalmen. See also letter from Francis Voisey in Issue 38 page 22.,

J.F. McEwan. A signalman's memories. Part One. 8-12
Person concerned was born in 1869 or 1870 at Dalmuir where an uncle was signalman and narrator sought to work on railway and following work as a porter he became a porter signalman at Jamestown on the Forth & Clyde Junction Railway. Once established he worked on the West Highland line in signalboxes as far north as Glenfinnan, but mainly further south at Arrochar where trains from the north werre liable to be very late due to steamers being late from the islands. Snow caused serious problems in winter. Concluded Issue 35 page 3;

Steve Sykes. A snippet from the past. 12.
Extract from Railway Magazine July 1897: What the railways are doing: NBR: bridges and West Highand line

Further views of J36 locomotives of Canal shed. 13

Dave Watson. Peebles by train. 15-18
Early ptoposal to cconnect Newcastle with Edinburgh via a tunnel under Carter Bar, Jedburgh and Peebles, but less ambitious scheme for Peebles Railway with Act of 8 July 1852

A.A. Maclean. North British Railway coaching stock history Part I. 18-24
Diagram book: index entries and actual diagrams: six-wheel prison van (only one with five cells) date 1890; non-vestibuled corridor third; non-vestibuled corridor lavatory third; six-wheeledluggage composite and as previous with lavatory.

P.A.T. Collar. The First North British locomotives. 27-31
Locomtives (0-4-2 and 2-2-2) ordered from R. & W. Hawthorn. Cites Stephenson Locomotive Society Locomotives of the North British Railway, 1846-1882; E. Craven Early North Britsh locomotves (typed notes) and G. Dow First railway across the Border which quote different dimensions of trailing wheels. See also letters from James F. McEwan in Issue 35.

A.A. Maclean. Kit review: "Mail Coach kit M001 Gresley 61' 6" open third. 31-3
The kit is less interesting than the notes on the prototype which has nothing to do witth the conveyance of mail, but was the Tourist Trains fitted with bucket seats to emulate luxury road coach travel, but according to Frank Jones was agony for overnight journeys. The Ian Kirk kit lacked documentation and any form of seating. Some of the vehicles were used in the Scottish Region's Televsion Train

Letters to the editor. 34-5

Alan G. Dunbar
Jim McEwan's interesting letter of his father's raised a memory in my mind of a visit I paid to Springburn when I was working in Parkhead Loco Shed. I had dropped in to visit our boilersmith who was getting over an accident, and met his father, who had been a sort of under foreman in the Cowlairs paintshop, mainly in the Holmes period. Casually asking him what colour did they paint the engines, he looked at me as if I had horns and barked "broon you damned idiot". After that we got on to other topics!

Journal No. 35  (June 1988)

J.F. McEwan. A signalman's memories. Part Two. 3-6
Began in Issue 34 page 8, Writer's uncle went to Dalmuir box in 1858. The locomotives described belonged to the Caledonian & Dumbartonshire Junction Railway and only one or two apperances of Edinburgh & Glasgow locomotives whose trains were not permitted to serve Dalreoch. The E&GR loocomotives were probably Beyer Peacock 2-2-2s. Old Neilson tank engines probably handled the Dumbarton to Balloch freight trains.The earlier North British 2-4-0 and Hurst goods engines, and probably R. & W. Hawthorn 0-6-0s. On his early days he saw Beyer Peacock 2-4-0 and 2-2-2 types on the passenger trains along with the earlier Neilson 2-4-0s. The daily goods was worked by a Hurst 0-6-0, sometimes by a Wheatley 0-6-0. Coal from the Monklands was taken to the Mills in the Vale of Leven. Outward traffic moved in sealed vans to Sighthill yard. The carriages were four-wheeeled and rather dilapidated. The arrival of the Caledonian Railway with bogie carriages prompted change on the NBR. Almost all the early carriages had grease axle boxes: at Balloch a man was employed to replenish them with a ladle like an ice cream vendor's spoon.
When at Jamestown he found two locomotives working on the Forth & Clyde Junction were named Jamestown and Balfron. The nameless ones had been Cardarvan and Stirling: thus being 0-4-2 Nos. 317, 320 and 322 and 323 (a 2-4-0) supplied by Beyer Peacock in 1861 to the EGR. Later 2-2-2 No. 55 was working on the F&CJR: it had begun as a 4-2-0, but was rebuilt as a 2-2-2. Later the Drummond 6ft driving wheel 4-4-0T and Holmes 0-4-4T worked on the line.
The all-stations trains were hauled by Drumond small 4-4-0T and occasionally by West Highland bogies. A regular visitor on Saturday afternoons was 2-4-0 No. 38 from Burnbank bringing a train from Hamilton.
As trains got heavier motive power was provided by Drummond 4-4-0 and the West Highland bogies. Reid's 0-4-4Ts were generally run bunker-first as they rode better in that mode. Officially there was racing between the NBR and the Caledonian, but whichevetr train got away first it loitered after leaving Dumbarton Central to allow the other to catch up then they raced to where the NBR crossed the Caledonian near the River Kelvin. In 1911 the Reid 4-4-2Ts were introduced but the racing had ceased, but before that a Reid 4-4-2 was tried on the 16.00 for Craigendoran, but at the cost of many broken chairs.
In a “misguided piece of wisdom” the LNER snt some Gresley 0-6-2T, but these were liable to spread the track and were banned from working beyond Dalmuir.
Beardmore's built some of the Great Eastern type (N7) 0-6-2Ts which were run-in in the Glasgow area but were found to be very sluggish due the type of fire grate. .

G.W.M. Sewell. Traffic facilities and movements on the Border Counties line. 9-11
In the 42 miles between Hexham and Riccarton there were 14 stations and 12 public or private sidings. Lewiefield Halt opened in 1933 but is excluded from this survey.

R.W. Lyon. Border Counties signalling diagrams. 12-13
At Saughtree station, Kielder, Plashetts, Falstone, Wark and Humshaugh station.

A.A. Maclean. North British Railway coaching stock history. 14-16
1908 and 1921 eight wheel passenger stock lists and diagram histories for first class bogie saloons (West Highland); third class bogie saloons (West Highland); and bogie third corridor lavatory.

The epistles of Peggy. No. III . 18-19.
North British Railway publication: see Issue 27 page 26 for beginning of saga. This part, addressed to Jocelyn, covers north of Montrose, through Bervie and Stonehaven to Aberdeen.

J. Bruce Murray. Warehouse and coal drops at Cupar station, 20-2
Six photographs of structures of 1847: coal drops were unusual on NBR

A.G. Dunbar. Open bars. 23
The title refers to a slightly idiotic performance undertaken with a few engines of classes J36 and N15 during the early 1940s. Who the idiot who thought it up was has more or less, quite correctly, remained unknown, but briefly his idea was to cut time spent in repacking piston and spindle glands on the two classes mentioned. All the engines quoted had Drummond type channel slide bars, and these were dispensed with in the experiment, and were replaced by a single upper and lower bar. The original crosshead slipper blocks were of cast iron, with white metal inserts that could take a good deal of wear, but after removing the original slide bars, the new set up produced slipper blocks as before, with the white metal added as a layer on the top and bottom of the slipper block. What actually took place then was that the white metal broke off after a few weeks in service, and produced a 'lift' with the crosshead hitting the slide bars with a bump or two per tmrn of the wheel. The number of complaints that appeared on the repair cards ran into dozens, but representations to those responsible were ignored, until sheds took the law into their own hands, and stopped the engines concerned, which in wartime was, in the light of those above, a really heinous crime.
As far as my own depot was concerned, the effect of two N15 tanks, plus four J36 class engines standing awaiting the return of their old type slide bars, plus the old slipper blocks, had a strong effect on those responsible for the debacle. Why it was ever attempted will remain a more or less mystery until anything comes to light documenting the whole affair. I cannot say how many engines were involved in this stupid experiment, but am inclined to say around twelve or so of each class were so dealt with. To finally sum up, it was just another idiotic idea that was common during the war, when all types of hare-brained ideas flourished. Diagrams.

By East Coast route to South Africa! 24
Through coaches and through fares for journeys  from Aberdeen to Southampton via King's Cross and Waterloo in summe 1904 (advrtisement) via J. A. Smith.

The Glasgow Mechanic's Institution trip over the E. & G., 1862. 25-7
Originally published in The Practical Mechanic and Engineer's Magazine, pages 410/1,1862. Submitted by Allan R. Carneron.
"We mentioned last month in our notice of the Glasgow Mechanic's Institution, that the Directors of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway had offered to give the members of the Institution a trip over the line in a special train, with opportunities of examining the principal works along the line at half the usual fares. The offer so handsomely given was eagerly accepted, and the trip took place on Thursday, 30th June. The party consisting of about 650, a number of whom were ladies, filled twenty-three carriages, and were pulled up the incline in two divisions. Immediately on leaving the terminus, the carriages enter the tunnel, and being attached to the endless rope are dragged up the incline by the stationary engines situated at Cowlairs. The tunnel is divided into three portions by deep cuts, which ventilate and relieve the tediousness of the passage under ground: the three portions of the tunnel are respectively 550, 300 and 298 yards in length. At the top of the incline (Cowlairs) are situated the extensive engine-shops of the Company, and the stationary engines for bringing up the trains. Sufficient time was allowed the party to inspect these engines, which are erected in an elegant building, and from their beautiful workmanship and clean appearance excited considerable interest. Two locomotives, the "Playfair" and the "Brindley" were now attached, and at 8 o'clock, the train started for Edinburgh.
Between Cowlairs and the Kirkintilloch station, there is a deep cut about two miles in length, through the solid rock. On nearing the latter station the passenger enjoys a view of the ancient town of Kirkintilloch about a mile and-a-half to the left, and the Campsie hills in the distance. Over a portion of the line here, the rails are laid on longitudinal wooden sleepers, over which the carriages run very smoothly. The next station is Croy, where the line runs through the finely wooded lands of Croy Reid.
The general gradient on line is 1 in 880: from Cowlairs it rises to Croy Milts, (11½ miles from Glasgow) which is the summit of the line. Here the railway is hemmed in by high, and literally perpendicular walls of whinstone, perhaps the heaviest cut on the line. The train reached Castlecary (15½ miles from Glasgow), at thirty-two minutes past 8, and stopped to give the passengers an opportunity of viewing the Redburn viaduct. The viaduct consists of eight arches nearly l00 feet high, one of which crosses a small tributary of the Carron, and forms a beautiful specimen of railway architecture.
The passengers having being recalled by the steam whistle, the train again started at ten minutes to 9. Shortly after passing Castlecary, the line runs close e to the field of Bonnymuir, where a few political enthusiasts, we add, the victims of the deceitful delusion of 1819, were intercepted on their march from Glasgow to Carron, by a company of dragoons. After a short conflict the dragoons captured a number of the party, two of whom were executed and the rest transported. At this part of the line, the Ochill hills running along the Forth, with the Grampian mountains towering in the distance, form imposing objects in the view away towards the left. At a short distance from Falkirk, the railway is carried over the canal by one arch, twenty-eight feet in height, and 124 in span. From the great span of this bridge, compared with its height, the construction of this arch was deemed a very difficult, if not impracticable undertaking. The structure was finished with complete success. This part of the Railway being peculiarly favourable for an inspection of the locks upon the canal, and embracing the view of a beautiful range of country, with the Frith(sic) of Forth, placid and calm in the distance; the carriages were allowed to stop till the engines went forward to Falkirk for a supply of water and coke. After waiting twenty-seven minutes the train once more got under weigh, and passed the Falkirk station (21½ miles from Glasgow), at twenty-six minutes past 9. On approaching Falkirk the passenger obtains a view of Carron Iron Works. Ben Lomond, Benledi and Ben Venue, may also be distinguished lifting their lofty heads among the surrounding hills. Immediately on passing this station the train enters a tunnel 880 yards in length.
The environs of Falkirk are peculiarly interesting, as the scene of many remarkable events in Scottish history; between the town and the river Carron, was fought the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, when the Scottish army under Wallace, was discomfited by Edward I. On opposite banks of the stream, Wallace and Bruce are said to have held converse the night after the battle. To the south-west is the ground where the royal army under Hawley, was defeated by Prince Charles Edward.
The next station passed is Poimont, a small village in the vicinity of the line of he great Roman wall, remains of which may still be traced. About a mile from Linlithgow, the train crossed the river and vale of Avon, on a splendid viaduct of 20 arches, some of which are 90 feet high. The ancient burgh town of Linlithgow, 29½ miles from Glasgow was passed at 17 minutes to 10. Linlithgow was a favourite residence of the Scottish court during the reigns of the Jameses. The most interesting object is the ruins of the ancient palace, which stands at the back of the town, not far from the railway. The original castle is said to have been built by Edward I, when he invaded Scotland. Sir Robert Bruce obtained possession of this castle by stratagem, and razed it to the ground. The castle was rebuilt by the English, during the minority of David II. A portion of the ruins yet remaining are said to be of thi date. Pieces were successively added to the building by James IV, James V and James VI. At present, the whole is in a sad state of ruin. For this we have to thank the soldiers of General Hawley, if not the general himself, who, after being routed at Falkirk by the adherents of Prince Charles, wantonly set fire to a building which had sheltered them in their disgraceful flight. The house is still shown in Linlithgow from which Hamilton of Bothwell-haugh shot the regent Murray.
At 10 o'clock the train was stopped at the viaduct over the Almond valley, and the party descended to view the largest specimen of stone work on the line. This immense monument of scientific skill and human industry, consists of 36 arches, each 50 feet in span, and varying from 60 to 85 feet in height. It is built of beautiful freestone. The vale is traversed by the little stream named "Almond Water". .
The engineer's whistle again recalled the stragglers, and after a delay of 11 minutes, the immense train was once more put in motion. A few minutes after crossing the viaduct, Edinburgh castle, and other elevated portions of the Scottish metropolis with the Pentland hills lying to the right, came full into view. The Edinburgh terminus was reached at half-past ten.
The party now divided themselves to visit the various public buildings and exhibitions which, through the kindness of the Lord Provost and magistrates, and othe public bodies of Edinburgh, were thrown open for their inspection. These consisted of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, the University Museum, the Museum of Lhe Agricultural Society, the Castle and ancient Regalia of Scotland; the Royal Institution comprising the Galleries of Painting and Statuary, and the Antiquarian Museum, he Botanic Gardens, the Experimental Gardens, Kemp's Chemical Museum, and the Zoological Gardens at half-price. By permission of his Grace the Duke of Hamilton, the ancient palace of Holyrood was also open to visitors from Glasgow.
The Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons is of the most extensive and complete description. The prepared and injected specimens seem almost innumerable. Of skeletons of human beings and animals, there is an extensive collection. Parts both in plaster and wax are most extensive and varied, exhibiting the several parts of the human body under the influence of the diseases to which they are liable. The University Museum contains a number of interesing specimens of stuffed cetacae stuffed animals, particularly two splendid specimens of the Giraffe. There is also a mummy in its coffin, seemingly in good preservation. The Museum is particularly rich in ornithological specimens. There is a good collection of minerals and coins. The collection of paintings in the Royal Institution, although not very extensive, comprises some of the finest specimens of the ancient masters. The Gallery of Statuary exhibits casts of the Elgin marbles, a beautiful cast of the Venus de Medicis, and casts from the most celebrated productions of sculpture. Great judgement has been exercised in the selection of these. We have specimens of the early Greek sculptors, of the masters who flourished in the noonday of the science, in its decline, and in its revival, when civilisation was restored to Europe. The Antiquarian Museum is a most interesting collection to the disciples of Captain Grose. One prominent object in the Museum is the old Scottish Maiden which beheaded the Marquis of Argyle, and several others of the Scottish nobility. To the lovers of botany, and indeed, to all who visited them, the Botanic Gardens afforded a most gratifying spectacle. The grounds spread over fourteen acres are beautifully laid out, and rich in rare or useful specimens. The conservatories were particularly interesting, from the variety of rare tropical plants in the most healthy and flourishing condition. Amongst the rest we observed a specimen of the bread-fruit tree bearing fruit.
In the vicinity of the Botanic is the Experimental Gardens, which from the short visit we paid to it seemed in a msot thriving condition, and displayed an endless profusion of floral specimens native and foreign.
At three o'clock, the committee of the Glasgow Mechanics' Institution, with a number of friends, amongst whom were several Edinburgh gentlemen, sat down to dinner in McKay's Hotel, Mr. Leadbetter, President of the Railway Board of Directors, in the chair; Mr. Ambrose, secretary to the Glasgow Mechanics' Institution, croupier. After dinner, among the toasts given and responded to, were "The Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Co.", "The Lord Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh", "The Glasgow Mechanics' Institution", "The Edinburgh School of Arts, coupled with the name of Mr. Binnie," "The Chambers' Journal, coupled with the name of the Messrs. Chambers", The Glasgow Practical Mechanics' and Engineer's Magazine, coupled with the name of Mr. W. C. Pattison."
Before half past seven in the afternoon, the company began to assemble at the railway station, preparatory to returning to Glasgow. Every thing being arranged, and amid the cheers of the gratified passengers, the train started on its homeward journey at twenty-four minutes to eight o'clock, and reached Falkirk at twenty-eight minutes past nine(sic), having seen twenty-four miles and a quarter in eight minutes less than the hour, no bad work considering the load, and that the general gradient was upward the whole way. The engineer having taken in water and coke, started, after stopping twelve minutes, and reached Cowlairs (44½ miles) in one hour and forty minutes from Edinburgh, exclusive of the stoppages at Falkirk, the whole train was sent over the incline, and by the judicious use of breaks, brought safely in to the terminus. On leaving the carriages, three cheers were given for the Directors of the Railway, and the party separated to seek their respective homes.
Thus ended one of the most delightful and instructive day's recreations it has ever been our lot to witness. It afforded a splendid illustration of the triumph of science. Two mighty and distant cities brought as it were to the suburbs of each other; breaking down local prejudices, and enabling kindred minds to associate, which otherwise never would have known each other. Minds searching after the truths of science find a pleasure in perceiving nature under every form, and in marking the huge monuments of skill and perseverence, which science has enabled man to accomplish. Here was every wish gratified. Natural scenery of the most varied appearances; human works more skilful and gigantic far than the mighty monuments of the Pharos; objects of antiquity to bring up in review the instructive lessons of hi3torical events; and in the museums and gardens of modern Athens, an exhaustless field of study and instruction. We cannot conceive anything more calculated to stimulate the patient student in his labours, to elevate the moral feelings and improve the taste of society for rational enjoyment, than a day spent as one just described. We hope this is but the first of a series of similar occasions that we may have to record here as well as elsewhere.
As might be expected from the character of the individuals composing the party, their behaviour throughout was irreproachable; and as far as we have learned, the various bodies who kindly contributed to the enjoyment of the party, had no cause to repent their liberality. The weather throughout the day was delightful."

Map of the Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway, 1865. 28

North British Railway - Clearing House load gauge. A.A. Maclean. 29

Letters to the editor. 30

The first N.B.R. locomotives. James F. McEwan
I  was very interested in the article by Mr. Collar and would like to add a few comments. That the whole position is fraught with problems as mentioned is very true, and many may fail to be resolved. The ordering of the locomotives was in the hands of John Miller, the civil engineer for the making of the railway, who was a good civil engineer but I have grave doubts as to his capabilities when handling the mechanical side as witness his purchases for the Edinburgh & Glasgow for its inauguration. He also appears to have had a penchant towards R. &. W. Hawthorn, as witness his orders to them for locomotives of the Edinburgh & Northern, North British, Dundee & Perth and Aberdeen Railways, and later for the Glasgow & South Western.
It is apparent that when an order was received, the next available set of makers reference numbers was allocated, but, in the words of an old north-east coast friend who wrote, "Do not take as gospel the Hawthorn works numbers prior to about 1850. The collapse of the railway mania, the cash crisis which followed and the Hudson scandal threw a big spanner into the system of works numbers." I have seen three different sets of makers numbers, all reputed to have been copied from the original records, two were almost identical — presumably the errors were made when copying down the information — and as far as the N.B.R. goes, the numbers given by Craven (N.B. Nos. 1 to 7 and 17 to 26) and Dow (N.B. Nos. 8 to 16) agree. The third list had a number of variations and after a lot of correspondence amongst "recorders" we came to the conclusion that the third one had been a record kept by the drawing office (or similar work) and recorded the TRUE destination of each engine ordered. There-by the sales of locomotives unwanted by their original customer at the time of completion were transferred to another buyer who wanted a similar locomotive, this in effect making alterations to the theoretical makers list. R. & W. Hawthorn were not the only ones so affected, citing the early Neilson & Co. listing as an example of this. In April, 1845, an Edinburgh newspaper comments that an engine had been noted, the first on the railway, "making short trips on a portion close to the new engine house." Taking this at its face value, the first locomotive was built in 1845, which negatives the construction dates for Nos. 1 to 3. Taking the locomotives hir to the Edinburgh & Glasgow now, in the shareholder's printed report there is a report by Adie, the engineer, in which he states that at the beginning of the year the E. & G. had 26 locomotives, with another two on hire. This statement is dated 26 January, 1846, and at the March shareholder's meeting Adie verbally repeats the above and adds that the two hired locomotives have now been purchased. From this statement it could be that the two hired engines were taken over possibly in February 1846 and from various minute book wordings, I have the suspicion that they had been regarded as being temporarily surplus by the North British and would be purchased by the Edinburgh & Glasgow after the close of the financial year. It could well be that the E. & G. paid for them direct to R. & W. Hawthorn, since Hawthorn knew that they had been their Nos. 410 and 411. In the 1851 listing of the E. & G. engines, they are shown as having cylinders 14" x 21" and 5ft. coupled wheels. Incidentally, the mention of a cylinder stroke of 22" is an error, 21" was the standard length of stroke used by R. & W. Hawthorn.
An alternative answer to the previous statement could be (based on the statement of payment in October, 1846 in the N.B.R. records) is that the engines were to be taken over NOW by the E. & G. while the E. & G. in turn did one of its not unusual fiddling of the accounts and had already paid for the two engines direct but withheld the entry until the following financial half year thereby making the amount available for dividend payment look better. It must be remembered that the English shareholders were keeping a close scrutiny of the E.& G. at this time, and who later found that quite a bit of financial juggling had been taking place over the years. As for the two additional Hawthorn engines taken over by October, 1846 as stated by Adie, they were then definitely in E. & G. stock by the end of September, which covers the statement "nearly new". They had been built in August, 1846 and were works numbers 513 and 514, being listed in 1851 as E. & G. Nos. 29 and 30 with cylinders 15" x 21" and with coupled wheels 4ft. 6in.
It is very doubtful if the allocated makers numbers can be said to have ACTUALLY applied to any N.B.R. engine with running numbers 1 to 26. Despite the allocated numbers in the makers list, it could well be that N.B.R. Nos. 25 and 26 were the engines which carried Hawthorn Nos. 566 and 567. Personally I disregard all the numbers attributed to Nos. 1 to 26, they are guesswork only.
The same applies to the "Dalkeith" coal engines, which appear to have arrived before some of the 0-4-2s did. While not relevant to the article referred to above, a curious entry appears in the Perth works repair book in May, 1854. It is well documented that the early engines were far from perfect, and repairs were sought from all quarters. The entry reads:'North British engines Nos. 31 and 32 dismantled as instructed by Mr. Gow. Put parts into wagons and sent to Burntisland as instructed.' Gow was the locomotive engineer for the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee, so had he acted on behalf of the North British in trying to get the Scottish Central to reconstruct these two engines? It appears that Perth would not look at the work involued. Both engines left the N.B.R. locomotive register in the following year, the latter is reputed to have been sold to the Marquis of Londonderry's Railway.(Ed. Note: It is recorded that the Londonderry Railway bought a six wheeled modern type engine from the N.B.R. for £1500. Works number is recorded as 479, and is reported to have had a failing firebox and caused much trouble. It was rebuilt as a saddle tank and sold in 1897 to the Wallbottle Coal and Firebrick Co. who later scrapped it.)
The Abbotsfords — a theory
Let us look at the cylinder story from another angle, but remember that this is conjectured from available data. Mr. Nicolson of the Mitchell Library and I have been trying to resolve another matter and having more time available than he has, I have had the opportunity to go over the various Neilson records leisurely and what was there brought the current matter.
Taking a look at the position at Cowlairs when Drummond arrived, we find that it was an ill-equipped works on which little money had been spent over its lifetime; newer and better machines were being installed — somewhat slowly; some of Wheatley's orders were being finished off; and some of the earlier engines were being improved. All this was happening at the one and same time for Drummond had to place orders for locomotives outside of Cowlairs works. Also, a matter, often overlooked, was that Drummond came from the "school" which liked to have the front end as heavy as was reasonable to allow the locomotive "to get a bight on the rail", the intention being to keep the leading end well on to the rail for safety and not lift and cause disaster.
I suspect that the civil engineer raised some objection, for at that time, the track of the N.B.R. was in a poor shape for that department, like the locomotive one, had been starved of money, with the N.B.R. surviving on a shoe-string from 1866, hence the weight adjustment being noted in column number 3.
Could it be that someone once overheard the comment that the four engines had been altered at the front end and ASSUMED that it was the cylinders which were being referred to? This, I submit, was the origin of the cylinder story, which has been mentioned by many writers of railway material, for none of the Neilson material I have been over even suggests such a thing happened. The drawings at South Kensington — if they exist — might negative this theory of mine. Cowlairs works probably attended to the. weight adjustment of the first four.
There were differences between the first and the second four locomotives supplied at the rear tubeplate, which resulted in the second lot having a heating surface in the firebox of 94 sq.ft. as against the original lot having 97 sq.ft., while the grate area increased from 21 up to 22 sq.ft. The heating surface of the tubes remained unchanged.
Column No. I shows the weights recorded for the first FOUR.
No. 2 shows the first weights for the second FOUR
No.3 shows the adjusted weights which incidentally were verified at the St. Rollox works of the Caledonian Railway.
No. 4 shows the weights in the N.B.R. diagram book for the unrebuilt Drummond 4-4-0 circa 1905

Weight on t c q t c q t c q t c q
Bogie 14 10 1 13 18 0 13 16 0 14 2 0
Driving axle 14 18 1 15 10 0 15 14 0 15 10 0
Rear axle 14 11 2 15 10 0 15 8 0 15 13 0
Total 44 0 0 44 18 0 44 18 0 44 5 0

The theory is conjecture, and if any member can add comments based on source material, this might lead us to a proper conclusion and perhaps dispose of that cylinder story as another railway myth. Of these there are plenty.

Abbotsfords, Euan Cameron. 32-3
was interested to see McEwan's letter on the 'Abbotsfords' issue (presumably above), which seems to me to be entirely reasonable and in line with my own suppositions. If his own encyclopaedic knowledge cannot lead to more than a theory, the rest of us will have to rest content: Incidentally, I have checked with the Science Museum Transport Collection and Mr. Dennison there confirms that neither of the two batches of Drummond 4-4-0s built by Neilsons are represented in their collection of drawings; In fact the only Drummond G.A. they have is for the 1876 (large) 0-6-0s. Ironically, they have drawings for both batches of Wheatley 0-6-0s, as well as a sprinkling of mind. earlier N.B.R. designs!
One further point on the injectors versus pumps issue. It strikes me that D.D. abandoned pumps for passenger engines at about the same time that he adopted the Westinghouse brake. I suspect that all passenger engines which had been built with pumps or were about to be introduced as such, had then to be hurriedly fitted with injectors, because the Westinghouse 'donkey pump' consumed steam (and therefore lowered the boiler level) when the engine was stationary, which the steam brake did not! A pump would be acceptable only so long as the boiler could remain at the same level unless the engine was moving, which the new brake rendered uncertain. Hence the early passenger engines (The small 0-6-0Ts, the 0-4-2Ts, and the 2-2-2s) had to have injectors fitted pronto; b
ut the goods engines could continue to be built with pumps. Stroudley, funnily enough, continued to fit Westinghouse engines with pumps!

Peebles by train. P.A.T.Collar.
Further to Mr. Watson's article 'Peebles by Train', the following notes may be of interest: On 31 March, 1836, a prospectus was issued under the auspices of the Ed'nburgh,' Haddington and Dunbar Railway. On the 2 April following, a meeting was held in Edinburgh in support of this venture. On the 9 of April, Stephen Reid of Newcastle upon Tyne issued a circular which invited subscriptions to support a survey for the proposed Tyne and Edinburgh Railway.
The proposed route was to form part of an important link in the extension of the English railways which were pushing north from York. It was to run from Warden on tbe Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, traversing the North Tyne and Rede valleys to Whitelee, passing through a tunnel under Carter Fell to Edgerston and thence to Jedburgh and Galashiels passing along the Gala Water to Edinburgh with a branch to Glasgow.
In 1837 the scheme's promoters were advocating changes in the route originally proposed. It was now to leave Newcastle upon Tyne via the Town Moor and proceed to Stamfordham and Redesdale. In Scotland further deviations were envisaged and it was to go from Jedburgh by way of Peebles and Penicuik to Edinburgh. Branches to Glasgow, Hawick, Selkirk and Kelso were also included in the scheme.
However, by 1838 a further promotion entered the arena and an East Coast scheme to link Newcastle upon Tyne with Edinburgh via Dunbar was under consideration. G. Stephenson was asked to comment on the merits of the two schemes and he stated 'no other scheme could be found to equal the one along the East Coast' The line via Carter Fell he pronounced as being completely impractical.
The promoters continued to advocate the North Tyne route and as late as 1845, they were still endeavouring to promote a line up the valley from Warden to Woodburn. Ref: Tomlinson - 'North Eastern Railway' p284 and 292/3.(1987 re-issue)
Tomlinson also says that Warden was a small station to the East of Fourstones at a situation known as Quality Corner. It is not known how long the station existed, probably until circa 1860. I suspect the site was on the North side of the South Tyne just after the bridge. This was the original structure which was washed out in 1905. After this date the bridge was moved upstream about one hundred yards and the track re-aligned.

Journal No. 36  (November 1988)

A.A. Maclean. The South Queensferry branch. 3-14

A.W. Miller. Further speculation about Dugald Drummond. 15-18
Refers back tio article on the Abbotsfords in Isssue 30 page 11 Far from taking offence at Dr. Cameron's alternative interpretations of the early history of the "Abbotsford" locomotives, I find it gratifying that my article in the January 1987 issue (No. 30) was sufficiently interesting to deserve so much study and merit such a detailed and reasoned response. If Dr~ Cameron's contribution caused me any annoyance, it was on account of my article being so ambiguously expressed as to create the impression that I believed there was a necessary link between the use of 'steam jacket' cylinders and pumps.
The three questions which it was said were raised by my article were
1) Is there any necessary link between 'steam jackets' and the use ofpumps?
2) Were the 476 cylinders first 'steam jacket' then changed to conventional?
3) Were the 476s originally built, let alone run, with pumps at all?
The answer to 1) is manifestly no. All locomotive boilers prior to the introduction of injectors, and some even after, were fed by pumps irrespective of the design of the cylinders. What there is a necessary link between is feedwater heating and the use of pumps, since injectors could not deal with hot feedwater. Question 1) therefore should be - were the original four 476s ever fitted with feedwater heaters? I strongly suggest that the balance of probability lies in the answer to these questions being yes.
Before going into the reasons for that contention, consider the sequence of events which would have to transpire to make the answers no. Having run and tested his engines for long enough to give an assessment of their performance, Drummond provides particulars of his engines to The Engineer for publication, but somewhat peculiarly provides a G.A. drawing not of the engines as built, but as the way he had originally intended to build them more than a year before. As the description of the engines was published in the issue of 4th January, 1878, it must have been written no later than mid November, 1877, and it appears odd that someone writing at that time should use the expression 'about a year ago' to describe the situation in May of the same year. Then, when the fame of the engines had spread abroad, and Drummond was asked by the Royal Scottish Museum for drawings to enable them to make a sectional model of 'Abbotsford' he sends them a set of drawings showing the engine in a condition in which it never existed. I find these incidents hard to credit. Noi can I accept that the 'Museum drawings show the 474 cylinders in error for the 476 ones. For one thing, it would have been unlikely that anyone would confuse 17" x 24" cylinders with 18" x 26" cylinders, nor were the cylinders shown on the 'Museum' drawing the same as those shown on the drawings of 474.
I should like at this point to correct the statement in my previous article that Drummond had ceased fitting feedwater heaters to his 0-6-0T about the time that the 476 class was ordered. In making that statement, I was relying on a remark (which I had noted some time before my article was completed and not, unfortunately rechecked) by Ahrons in Locomotive and Train Working in the Nineteenth Century that "some of the 1875 engines of this class" were equipped with feedwater heaters. According to the RCTS book, however, fitting the apparatus to the 0-6-0Ts continued till May, 1877, those built after that date having injectors. His 0-4-2T, which were built June/July 1877 were equipped with feedwater heaters, but soon injectors were substituted. It would seem therefore that Drummond did not become disenchanted with feedwater heaters till some time after the first four 476 class. engines were ordered.
Coilfirmation of· the fact that the first four engines were delivered before the- official date of entering traffic — May/July 1877 —is to be found in Ahrons Locomotive and Train Working" In that book he puts the excellence of performance on the Waverley route.down to the introduction of the.class, and dates the introduction of the fast timings from August, 1876.
Ahrons also states that when the class came out they were provided with an arrangement for heating the feedwater, but after being in service for some months which was not completed till the best part of a year after the first of the class. Nor is it likely that any unofficial photo exists. For one thing. unofficial photographers were actively discouraged. and for another exposures with the materials available at that time would be anything from one to twelve seconds or even longer, so that photographs could only be made of stationary engines using a rather cumbersome camera on a stand - no chance of "snapshots" from the lineside. In actual fact, there does not seem to be many photographs, other than the works ones, of Drummond N.B.R. locomotives in Drummond livery - I can recall only three or four.
I did not intend. in my original article. to imply that Drummond hesitated in choosing between pumps and injectors. The use of pumps instead of injectors was a consequence of feedwater heating. and had he preferred pumps. could-well have left them in place on removal of the feedweter heaters, but he did not. The injector was invented in 1859. and introduced into this country in 1860. Before long every locomotive engineer. except Beattie of the L.S.W.R who went in for feedwater heating, discarded pumps, and were not sorry to see them go, especially the crosshead driven ones. according to Ahrons. It was as much a question of maintenance costs as reliability. Hydraulic ram action at high speeds could result in pressures as high as 3500 pounds per square inch. in consequence there were many bursts of pumps and pipe connections. Drummond himself is reported to have stated that inconvenience and maintenance costs were the reasons for his changing over. Drummond never tried feedwater heating while with the Caledonian. and what consideration caused him to take it up again on the L.S.W.R. is a matter for speculation. but it is worth noting that on the L.S.W.R. he used steam driven, not crosshead driven, pumps.
In Mr. J. F. McEwan's series of articles in The Locomotive on the locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. he says "It is probably not so well known out of Glasgow that Drumrnond was not happy at Cowlairs during the seven years he was there". Nor apparently, contrary to Hamilton Ellis' version. was he all that popular with the men. Towards the end of his time at Cowlairs, there is no doubt that his relations with the Directors were not tranquil. and he must have been mindful of the fact that all of his predecessors as Locomotive Superintendent of the N.B.R. itself (i.e. excluding the absorbed companies.) had either been sacked or asked to resign. He even contrived to be in such bad odour with the powers that be on the L.S.W.R. that. following the unexpected death of R.J. Billinton, Drumrnond applied for the post on the L.B.S.C.R., which would have been something of a comedown. However the Brighton board considered him unsuitable on account of his antagonistic manner and uncertain temper. It was also said that he was too well known at Brighton, having worked there. There is another thing about Drumrnond's career that I find puzzling. Between the collapse of the Australian venture and his going to the L.S.W.R . the post of Locomotive Superintendent on the Caledonian Railway fell vacant twice. Notwithstanding the eulogies and expressions of regret which had accompanied his leaving of that company. I have never seen it reported that he was offered his job back. See also Issue 37 page 22

Some N.B.R. paddle steamers. J.F. McEwan. 19
Photographs of Lucy Ashton, Dandy Dinmont, Waverley.

Industrial relics in the Border Counties area. 20.
Photographs of Thorlieshope Limewortks; Ridsdale Ironwors—spoil heaps and engine house

G.W.M. Sewell. An outline of some of the insustrial resources of nineteenth century Northumberland. 21-8

Graham Dick. Livery register:  an update. 29
At the 1987 Annual General Meeting, a decision was taken to go ahead with our much discussed project — the Livery Register, and I was given the task of putting the work together. At the 1988 A.G.M., I gave an account to the Members present of the content of the work to date and this is repeated here for the benefit of those Members who were unable to be present.
A list of all known published sources has been made, indexed and cross referenced. To ease reference, .a photocopy has been made of all relevant pages, and these have been bound into a single volume. A list of the sources used is shown as an appendix.
Copies of a number of unpublished works and observations have also been passed to me by an, unfortunately, small number of Members, whose assistance is gratefully acknowledged. The response from the bulk of the Membership has been, frankly, disappointing. The future credibility of our Group depends on the accuracy and quality of this work, and it is important that information sources are collected from as broad a base as possible.
While I am well aware that few Members (myself included) hold a private library of original source documents, any snippet of information, possible source, or even pet theory, might be of assistance.
Some of the particular gaps in the research are :-
Pre 1870s locomotive liveries.
Early carriage livery, particularly with reference to black upper panels.
Backing colour of class designation plates on locomotives. and any information will be most welcome.
When the work is compleed to draft stage, it is intended to submit copies for comment to a small number of persons selected by the Committee, before final decisions are made with regard to publication.
Sources used to date have been :-
The North British Railway, Vols 1 & 2. - John Thomas
The N.B. Atlantics - John Thomas
The North British Railway - C. Hamilton Ellis
Britain's Railway Liveries - Ernest F. Carter
This volume has several pitfalls for the unwary
North British Coaching & Wagon Stock - James Watson
A series of articles published in the HMRS Journal
Scottish Locomotive History - Campbell Highet
Locomotives of the North British Railway ~ SLS
Loco and Train Working in the latter part of the 19th Century - Ahrons
Locos of the LNER - RCTS (Green books)
Finally, I accepted the task since I considered that, with no specialist knowledge, I was able to approach with an open mind and no preconceived notions. My knowledge of the subject has now, of necessity, increased vastly, but I still regard myself as merely the collator of information which I am relying on the Membership to supply. Any material lent can be copied and the originals sent back to the contributor by return of post. .

Snippet from J.F.McEwan. 29
Balloch station has been resited (Ref Journal No. 30) and the new station (of modern architecture) came into use on Friday 22April, 1988. The level crossing has now gone with trains terminating some 150 metres short of the old station.

Journal No. 37 (March 1989)

A.A. Maclean. The South Queensferry branch. Part II. 3-9.
Dakmeny South Junction dayed from 4 March 1990. Original Dalmeny station opened 1 March 1866. From the goods station a sifding served Traill's Dalmeny Quarry; also the shale oil company of the Kirkliston Oil Co. or Dalmeny Oil Co.,  Plans of 1914 and 1937. Track plan of South Queensferry Haly.

Robin Barr. The Lochaber Railtour. 10-12.
Delayed outward journey behind a class 37 over West Highland line to Fort William and too eventful return to Glasgow behind K1 No. 2005. Date not given but probably November 1988.

Wagons of the Woodhall Coal Company Ltd. 13
Three photographs of this Pencaitland colliery wagons: Two twelve ton and one eight ton.

Ile Inspector. The Widha'. 14-16
Notes on working in the 1940s the Coal Train Link from Portobello Yard to serve the Woodhall colliery at Pencaitland whose wagons were painted green. This traversed part of the Gifford branch and on one day a J24 was provided to work cattle wagons onto the Gifford &  Garvald Light Railway: otherwise heavier locomotives were used including a J38.

A.G. Dunbar. A note on the "Race tio the North". 17-19
The race to Aberdeen in 1895 which Dunbar claimed the NBR was very retiscent. The Sunday Post on 20 August 1933 published a short article entitled Speed battle that might have meant disastter.  The significance of the article is that it mentions names not recorded by Nock, namely Driver Joe McGregor and Fireman John Berry of Edinburgh who worked the train to Dundee and Driver Charlie Spalding with Jim Anton from there to Aberdeen. On that morning the competing train from Perth was worked by Joun Soutar (Nock stated William Kerr) with Fireman David Fenton. See also Issue 38 page 22

John N. Hammond. The tykes frae up the hill. 20-1
Verses by Walter Henry, a platelayer from Newcastleton.

A.W. Miller. Further speculation about Dugald Drummond - a postscript. 22
See also Issue 38 page 22
Since submitting the original article of the above title (published in issue 36), I have received issue 35 containing comments from McEwan and Cameron, and have prepared the following postscript.
McEwan's statement that when Drummond arrived, Cowlairs works were ill- equipped is misleading. Following on the transfer of locomotive building and similar work from St. Margaret's, Cowlairs was enlarged and re-equipped by Wheatley as fast as money was available. Stirling Everard, in his series "Cowlairs Commentary" published in "The Locomotive", 1942/45 puts it this way :- "In assessing Wheatley's importance in North British locomotive history, due allowance must be made for the extremely difficult circumstances under which his term of office began (1868). When he left the company in 1874, the output of new locomotives from Cowlairs had increased from six to forty a year, while the works also carried out the heavy repairs and all necessary rebuilding for a stock of over four hundred and fifty engines."
Scarcely the description of an ill-equipped workshop. Bearing in mind Wheatley's talent for improvisation — witness his construction of locomotives for the N.B. "from 'recovered material', and his later feats of locomotive rebuilding on the Wigtownshire Railway with minimal facilities at his disposal — it is possible that the works were considered inadequate by someone who was not prepared to improvise. Stirling Everard has another explanation :-
"Viewed dispassionately, it would seem that in some ways Drummond reaped where Wheatley had sown, for when Drummond toqk over the most difficult years were past, and there was more money to spend than there had been eight years before. In consequence, he was able to obtain sanction for the construction of so many new locomotives that, once again, outside contractors had to be called in to supplement the output of Cowlairs."
It is true that Drummond re-organised Cowlairs yet again, bu t this was probably due more on account of there being more locomotives in stock and the newer ones larger and heavier therefore requiring larger machines to deal with them, than to make good deficiencies of an earlier era. Also in that decade, engineering technology was progressing at a faster rate than ever before, so that some equipment would be rendered obsolete in a comparatively short term.
I am not sure what inferences one is supposed to draw from the list of engine weights, other than that the Caledonian weren't taking anybody's word for the weight of these massive engines before allowing them to run between Kinnaber and Aberdeen. It is interesting to note that the weights given in column 4 for the unrebuilt engines in the early years of this century are the same as those frequently quoted as the weight as originally built, but that may well have been something that was assumed from perusal of the diagram book mentioned by McEwan. Incidentally, the diagram book, or at least the diagram therein of the unrebuilt engines, must be at least a year earlier than 1905, since all the engines had been rebuilt by July, 1904. It has to be kept in mind that these are weights in working order, and therefore the total weight depends on how much water was in the boiler. The manner in which the weight distribution between the bogie and the coupled axles varied is interesting, but does not, I think, have any bearing on the question under discussion. If the data on which the weights in column 1 were recorded could be ascertained, it might be pertinent.
Too much significance should not be placed on the absence of any record of the engines having been returned to Neilson's for modification. Even if the whole of Neilson's and the N.B.R.'s records were extant and available for inspection, the absence of such record, although more significant, would still leave the same alternative hypothesis for consideration as we now have, viz.:- 1) There was nothing to record; 2) Records were made and either accidentally or deliberately "mislaid"; or 3) It was deemed advisable not to have any written record. After all, who wants their mistakes and failures recorded for anyone to examine if it is within onds power to suppress them.
McEwan's researches having uncovered the fact that the second Neilson's batch were not, as stated in the order book, "in all respects the same as" the previous lot, is of great importance. The discovery that the second four had the grate area increased from 21 square feet to 22 square feet makes it likely that the drawings held by the Museum are of the second Neilson batch. The Engineer drawing, which gives the grate area as 21 square feet and the firebox heating surface as 94 square feet, shows the water legs between the inner and outer fireboxes the same width from top to bottom. The "Museum" drawing, which does not incorporate a table of heating surfaces, shows that the inner firebox sides slope outwards from th~aatplate level to the foundation ring, resulting in the water legs narrowing towards the bottom. This would result in a larger grate area and firebox heating surface (I think that the 94 and 97 have been transposed in Mr. McEwans letter.) The copy of the G.A. drawing which I had made from the "Museum" collection does not give enough detail to enable the grate area and firebox heating surface to be calculated. Examination of the detail drawings in the Museum (I hope they are still there) would no doubt provide the answer. In upwards of twenty years of searching, I have not been able to trace any other drawings of the engines in their original condition, nor for that matter, a photograph of any of the second batch before rebuilding.
Turning now to Cameron's suggestion about pumps and Westinghouse brakes, I doubt very much whether the demands on the boiler made by a Westinghouse pump would cause any concern. Besides, none of the engines which had injectors substituted for pumps and feedwater heater were simultaneously equipped with the Westinghouse apparatus, except for the first four "Abbotsfords". Even the 2-2-2s and the tank engines handling suburban and branch line passenger traffic had to rely solely on the engine steam brake (which would probably make at least as gr at a demand on the boiler as a Westinghoues pump) for some years after conversion. Steam consumption was apparently one of the factors taken into account when deciding on the change. In any case, at least as much extra steam over and above that required to move the train as demanded by a Westinghouse pump, must have been used to overcome the additional load imposed on the piston by the use of crosshead driven pumps. Injectors also use steam, so the overall steam consumption would not be all that different. The hign cost of maintenance of the pumps, as Drummond himself said, was the reason for the change.

News on N.B.R. structures. J.F. McEwan. 23-4
From Construction News. Notes on then contemporary (1980s)) civil engineering works affecting spalling on the Glenfinnan concrete viaduct and lowering the track in St. Margarets Tunnel as part of electrification work

Graceful little Gareloch. 24.
H. Murray & Co. of Port Glasgow laid down their first steamship in 1871: a paddle steamer for the NBR. It was based at Helensburgh for services to the Gareloch. In 1891 the NBR took over the Galloway Saloon Steam Packet Company on the Firth of Forth and Gareloch was sent round to join the fleet as the Wemyss Castle. From the Evening Times. Submitted by Allan R. Cameron

More N.B.R. paddle steamers - photographic survey. J.F. McEwan. 25
Photographs of Talisman, Kenilworth and Waverley

Lyneside signalbox. John Hammond. 26
Three photographs including level crossing and interior.

John M. Hammond. The trials, travels and travsails of Wartime service. Longtown signalbox in World War II. Part II. 27-31.
Engine failure as recorded by the signalmen R. Graham, F. Blythe and D. Stewart in the Occurrence Book. Notes on engine failures, especially by Sentinel railcars on service to Langholm and damage by army trucks to level crossing gates.

Obituary. Alan G. Dunbar - Honary Member. J.F. McEwan. 32

Journal No. 38 (January 1990)

Abbotsford. front cover
No caption but see 12 et seq

Stewart Black. D.C.L. grain wagons. 4
Photograph taken in about 1938 of all steel grain hopper alongside wooden wagon supplied by R.Y. Pickering. Location Caledonian Distillery, Haymarket

Jim Smith. In the bad books. 5
Passenger travelling on a Loch Lomond Tourist Ticket bought from the Caledonian Railway was charged for the fare at Glasgow Queen Street and claimed against the NBR which had entered into an agreement with the Caledonian Rly.

Bill Rear. L.N.E.R. engine workings. 6-12.
Had started footplate work under John Maxwell Dunn at Bangor mpd and had worked as a fireman in Crewe North top link and noted that Piccolo Pete Johnson and Top Rigby kept diaries. He became interested in L.N.E.R. engine workings through visits to Kingmoor, but he never traversed the Waverley route, On the death of Ken Hoole he obtained his records. The North Eastern records show Pacific workings between Newcastle and Edinburgh during the BR period and specific duties of a few small sheds, such as Jedburgh, Hawick and Rothbury.

"Abbotsford": the saga continued. 12-15
The following letters had been received following the article and subsequent correspondence.
Abbotsford. Euan Cameron,
Thanks to generous fellow-members who have loaned me photographs, I can communicate (briefly) a little more data on the' Abbotsford' saga, then leave members to make up their own minds.
1. McEwan's letter (Issue 37 p.33) settles the pumps versus injectors issue, at least for me. The question remaining is over the type of cylinder blocks — divided port exhaust steam jacketed' cylinders (an imprecise but useful shorthand!) or plain ones.
No photographs of 476-9 as built are conclusive on this. However, 486-9 clearly did have divided port cylinders. Pictures of No.489 Hawick in Drummond livery [AGE 11215] and of No.486 in early Holmes livery (without coat of arms, i.e. before c.1895) [AGE 5108] both show the radiused 'bulge' of the exhaust passage between the bogie wheels, with a definite 'glint', neither a hole nor a patch, identical to those on 490 [AGE 37510], 491 [Photomatic 7992], and 493 [RP 19994]. If built with plain cylinders in 1878 these engines would have had plain frames, with neither bulges, holes, nor patches
Therefore the "Museum" drawing cited by Mr.Miller cannot. unfortunately, represent 486-9 (compare issue 37, p23) if it shows plain cylinders as Mr.Miller reports. I tend to doubt the historical accuracy of this drawing altogether: when I have inspected the museum model made from it. the coupled wheelbase has always seemed much too short (though this may not be the drawing's fault).
I suspect (but cannot prove) that the cylinders of the 1902-4 rebuilds were just the originals bored out to 18¼-in diameter. If so, this would suggest why some 476 cylinders were much later replaced with the 729 or D31 type (where the outer edge of the exhaust passage was partly formed by the frames themselves). These new cylinders required a 'patch' (larger than the 'bulge') on the frames, edged with studs or rivets, as seen on 1321 (old 476) in October 1924 [AGE 17425] and 1387/10387 (old 491) [AGE 10982, RCTS v.4 fig. 11l]. They would thus have replaced the original thoroughly worn out blocks, perhaps c.1915-20. In contrast 1323 (old 478) stayed as before [RCTSv.4 fig.9], while photos do not seem to show what happened to the reframed 1324 (old 479). Quite a puzzle for the modeller keen on the last degree of accuracy!
Incidentally, the condensate problem in the cavities of the exhaust passages seems to have been solved by a simple drain valve at the bottom of the passage, fitted to the Holmes 4-4-0s and shown on the G.A.s of the 476 rebuilds.
2. I have compiled the following (no doubt incomplete) list of engines photographed in the Drummond period, deliberately excluding works photographs:
Passenger engines
(Going by presence of a name)

Collection Wheel Arrangement No. Name Letter style
AGE 10458 0-4-4T 88 Kirkcaldy block
RP 66622 4-4-0T 103 Montrose block
AGE 10302 0-6-0T 123 Westfield block
AGE 20423 2-2-2 216 Dullatur serif
LGRP 9914 2-4-0 238 Bathgate block
L.Ward 4-4-0T 268 Bothwell block
AGE 33261 0-6-0T 274 Dalkeith serif
AGE 4642 0-6-0T 279 Pencuik serif
AGE 10376 2-2-2 474 Glasgow block
AGE 4637 4-4-0 478 Melrose block
AGE 10322 4-4-0 488 Galashiels block
AGE 11215 4-4-0 489 Hawick block
M. Shaw 4-4-0 493 Netherby block

Freight engines
(going by absence of deep bottom section to clack valve or non-lockup safe ty valve).

?RP 0-6-0 469 (pumps)
AGE 0991 0-6-0 470 (injectors)
AGE 10307 0-6-0 545

In addition there are perhaps a dozen photos of earlier unnamed engines, taken before 1880, although dates are hard to ascertain.
I still believe (provisionally) that as run in traffic 476-9 and 486-9 had injectors and exhaust steam jacketed' cylinders. The contradictions and silences in the evidence can only be explained by educated guess-work, but this exchange does suggest that the account of this important class by Ahrons and Ellis, and by others copying them. must be viewed with caution. perhaps the only account which does not need to be revised is RCTS Locomotives of the LNER vol. 4 which carefully avoids the problems! Many sincere thanks to Mr. Miller for taking my interventions in such good part, and to {he editors and readers for bearing with such a technical locomen's debate.
Editor's Note.
At Dr.Carneron's suggestion I asked Miller for his comments, which are as follows:
Having had the opportunity to read Dr.Carneron's letter on the subject of the 476 class, I should like to point out a fact which seems to have been lost sight of in this controversy. The "Museum" G.A. is not merely a single drawing of a proposed engine, but is one of a complete set of working drawings, which suggest to me that it was prepared last, not first. It would not have been necessary to have prepared a G.A. drawing to gel an estimate from Nielsons, The engines were a variation of the 18-in. 0-6-0s already being built by the firm, having the same boiler, etc. All that would be required to work out the additional cost of the 4-4-0s would be drawings of the main frames, bogie, cylinders (since the presence of the bogie made it impossible to use the 0-6-0 castings) and one or two other details. The G.A. could wait until the engines had been put together, as was often the case. As to the accuracy of both the museum model and the drawings, I think it unlikely that Drurnmond sent a set of inaccurate drawings, which he knew were to be used in the construction of a model which was to be placed on public exhibition as a model of an engine of his design, or allow an incorrect model of one of his engines to remain on show (the model was in existence in Drummond's lifetime).
Of course all N B.R. engines with steam jacketed cylinders had a drainage valve at the bottom of the exhaust passage. No other engine, however, had an extension passage to lead the feedwater heating steam to pipes attached to ilie back cover. I doubt very much if the cylinders fitted to the rebuilds in 1902/4 were the originals rebored from 18-in to 18¼-in.  Locomotive cylinders, in common with the cylinders of any reciprocating engine, suffer from uneven wear which is rectified from time to time by reboring. It was not unknown in the days before it became the practice to fit cylinder liners, for cylinders to be rebored to nearly an inch oversize before being replaced by a new casting. After more than 20 years in service J doubt whether the original ylinders, if indeed they had not already been replaced, had sufficient metal left to  be rebored to a mere ¼-in over the original size; probably they would have already exceeded that diameter .
Undoubtedly some of the rebuilds had 729 type cylinders fitted at som time in the 22 years maximum between rebuilding and scrapping when the rest of the locomotive was in sufficiently good order to justify the cost. It would be odd if cylinders which had so little wear in 25 years that they could be bored out a mere ¼-in. larger should be so worn as to require replacement in what must have been little more than half that time. I am quite willing to accept that the 1878 batch were fitted with steam jacketed cylinders from the start, and that the first batch were so fitted when the blocks were replaced due to wear. My suggestion that the museum drawing could be of the second batch arose from McEwan's remark that the Nielson diagrams showed the second batch has having larger grates. The official record, however, seems to show that all engines had prior to rebuilding 21 sq.ft., and after rebuilding 20 sq.ft., grates
To my mind the whole question of pumps or injectors revolves around the actual date on which the locomotive entered service. Notwithstanding that the official records show that the first of the class did not appear in the financial records until May 1877. the most frequently quoted date —1876— is more probable. If the 1877 date is accepted, this would mean that the N.B.R, having spent considerable sums (£23,957 on new rail alone) to bring the route up to the standard required for express trains consented to a delay of 15 months in the delivery of urgently needed express locomotives although the works supplying them were able to deliver not only the balance of the order for 0-6-0s, some of which had been cancelled to allow the 4-4-0s to be obtained, but also two 2-2-2s which were also substitutes for the 0-6-0s. I cannot accept that. Besides, the timetables show that the service was drastically improved in August 1876, an event generally linked with the advent of the Drummond express engines. If the engines were not to be ready for another nine months, either the improved timetable was merely wishful thinking and the travellers who reported the acceleration did not know what year they were living in. or else the N.B.R already had locomotives capable of handling the traffic , in which case I should have thought they would have cancelled the order. If it is accepted that the locomotives began to appear in 1876 it follows that they would be fitted with feedwater heaters and pumps, since every other locomotive built to Drummond's design prior to the spring of 1877 was so fitted. It is unlikely that Drumrnond, having decided that Ieedwater heaters and pumps were more trouble than they were worth. should substitute injectors on his express engines while allowing his 2-2-2s and goods engines being built in the same shops to continue to be built with pumps and feedwater heaters for a further year, particularly as the inconvenience of pumps would be greater on goods engines which spend a higher proportion of their time standing still in laybys.
The list of photographs compiled by Dr.Cameron of engines in Drummoud livery is most interesting. The fact that the photograph of 4-4-0T Bothwell (reproduced in A.A.McLean's North British Album) has a name and Holmes style lock up safety valves shows that Holmes was more concerned about prevention of boiler explosions than about removing names. Also the small number of Drummond era photographs as compared with the later Holmes period demonstrates how few could have been made, and it should come as no surprise that there are no so far as is known extant photographs of the 476 class taken between August 1876 and the wworks photo of Abbotsford.

A.A. Maclean. The South Queensferry branch. Part 3. 15-22
Gradient profile, plans for track layout at Port Edgar and passenger timetbles

Letters. 22-3.

Francis Voisey
Following a letter from William Hennigan of Sheffield, a friend of Bill Lynn, could I at this late date add a footnote to my article on the 1926 accident at St.Margarets (NBRSG. Journal No.36 [KPJ: Issue 34]). The main Ministry of Transport report on the accident, from which I compiled my article, stated that there had been no switch instrument in Craigentinny cabin, with the result that block working had to be suspended between Portobello West and St.Margarets, However the main report was followed by a supplementary report (which I failed to notice when I wrote the article and only found when the point was queried by Hennigan) to the effect that after the accident it was discovered that there was a switch instrument at Craigentinny after all. The switch was provided when the box opened in 1909 and used when the box was closed on Sundays until January 1919. At that date, owing to the growing importance of Craigentinny as a carriage store and cleaning depot, it was found necessary to man the box continuously. An order was therefore issued that the switching out of the box was to be discontinued, and this had misled the N.B.R. officers in May 1926 into thinking that the switch itself had been taken out.

Re typographical error in my piece about the Drummond 4-4-0s in the March [No.37] issue. The sentence starting in line 28 page 23 should read "Steam consumption was apparantly NOT one of the factors ..... ".
It is not my intention to further prolong the correspondence about these engines which must now be approaching the stage of boring readers. Actually the response my original and subsequent contributions produced was not along the lines I had hoped for. I was looking for some member to turn up evidence of the grounds on which, notwithstanding that official records show that the engines were not taken into traffic till May/July 1877. Stirling Everard, E.L. Ahrons. John Thomas, O.S.Nock. Hamilton Ellis and Campbell Highet all state that the first four entered traffic in 1876. It is clear from Neilson's order book that these engines were in Neilson s hands in 1877, but only Ahrons, Ellis and Highet mention that these were returned for modification. The fact that these writers accounts differ rules out any suggestion that the later authors were merely copying what had previously been published. 'I11Cy must have had some grounds for their statements.
With regard to Mr.McEwan's letter, I am only too conscious of the pitfalls of relying on G.A. drawings unless they were vouched for by other evidence. Locomotive diagrams are no better in this respect. The diagrams supplied by Cowlairs for the first L.N.E.R. diagram book shows the 1911 batch of saturated Atlantics as having cabs only 7'6" wide whereas they were the first Atlantics to have cabs 8'6½" wide. Clearly the diagram is that of the 1906 batch as built, but without other evidence it could be assumed that the 1911 batch was also built with the narrow cab.
I was very interested in the late Mr.Dunbar's contribution
on the railway races of 1895. I still have the pages of the Sunday Post of 20.August 1933 (now rather yellow and fragile) to which Mr.Dunbar referred— in fact it was I who sent Mr.Dunbar and some other members of the Stephenson Locomotive Society photocopies of the pages some years ago. One mistake made by the Sunday Post not mentioned by Mr.Dunbar was not in the letter press but in one of the accompanying illustrations. The Caledonian locomotive depicted as having participated in the race was the single wheeler No.l23. This error may have arisen as a result of an over hasty perusal of Rev.W.J. Scott's pamphlet  Kinnaber from which some. o] the details of the timings may have been extracted. Although Scott does mention that No. 123 was not used in the races, details of the locomotive actually used are sparse and have to be carefully looked for. The cover and title pages. however, feature a drawing of 123, which could mislead anyone giving the pamphlet merely cursory perusal. Incidentally, Scott  and his frends who were aboard the East Coast train on the night of its record run had free passes from the East Coast companies, but had to pay the Caledonian the full fare from Kinnaber to Aberdeen as N.B.R. passes were not recognised north of Kinnaber.

Reviews. 23

Riceworks & Branchlines. Iain Rice
Locomotive kit for R class 4-4-0T and set of four-wheel stock

Journal No. 39 (April 1990)

No. 65316 at Hawick with passenger train in August 1959. front cover

George Davidson. The power of the Gresley P2 Mikados.7-8
In brief why was Thompson permitted to ruin six powerful locomotives capable of hauling almost any load [KPJ saw Cock o' the North painted black at Tay Bridge station during WW2: it remains the most superb steam locomotive he ever saw]. Photograph No. 2006 Wolf of Badenoch departing Edinburgh in 1937. See also letter from P.A.T. Collar in Issue 41. and Ile Inspector in Issue 43 page 8 and correction from Editor who asserts photograph taken by G.H. Platt. See also correspondence from Alan D. Butcher

Jim McEwan. Assorted jottings. 9.
Notes that Foundry practice published in 1890 contains a reference to Thomas Wheatley's use of cast iron wheels for slow working locomotives. Also single track working on Langholm branch

B.R. Departmental vehicle No. D.E. 320032 (alleged to be ex-NBR). 9
See letter in Journal 81 page 29

John McGregor. The West Highland Line. 10-11
Authorised deviations from the original route and objections to them by the.deer shooting "gentry"; mainly reduction in number of crossings of River Spean and varitions on approach to Fort William.. Mentions club-farms and especially some of Mackintosh's tennants (a Mackintosh on both the WHR and Highland Railway Bords).

Engine allocations. 1921. 12-14

4-4-0T No. 10461. 16
See letter in Issue 81 page 29: location Kittybrewster: locomotive fitted with cowcatcher for working St. Combs branch

Journey of Ner Majesty Queen Alexandra and Suite from Berwick to Aberdeen en route from Wolferton to Ballater on Tuesday 13th August 1912. 18-20
General Manager's notice,Timetable for Royal Train and alterations to time of other services and instruction for earlier train ftom Berwick not to be delayed.

W. Marshall Shaw. The North British stores train. 24-8.
Includes photograph and diagrams (elevations & plans). Train had a crew of seven excluding footplatemen. Includes a schedule and notes that specific days were set aside fior loading. Also notes from Jimmie Dobson who worked the train as a footplateman and that Glen class was usual locomotive