Locomotive Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 59 (1953)

Number 725 (January 1953)

B.R. standard class 4 2-6-0 loco.. 11-12. illustration, diagram. (side elevation)
No. 76000

Beyer-Garratt 4-8-2+2-8-4 No. 338, Benguela Railway. 12. illustration

Number 726 (February 1953)

British Railways 2-6-0 class 2 locomotives. 16-17. illustration, diagram. (side elevation)
No. 78000

Obituary: T.R. Perkins. 17
Via Index

West Clare Railway. 20
Via Index

Fireless 0-6-0 locomotive for Heysham refinery. 21
Via Index

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish Steam Locomotives. 25.  llustration
Via Index

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish Steam Locomotives. 34 llustration
Via Index Continued in Volume 60 page 7

Luxury coaches for sightseeing. 38. illustration
Via Index

Swedish steam locomotives. 44. illustration
Via Index

Number 728 (April 1953)

Queen Mary. 45
Recorded her death [on 24 March 1953]

Chittaranjan. 45
As long ago as the 1920s the then Government of India decided upon the manufacture of locomotives in that country but, for various reasons the scheme remained unimplemented. The subject again received attention in 1946 when governmental sanction was once more forthcoming but partition meant that drastic revision had to be made of previous plans and even a new site had to be selected. The setting up of a large locomotive works even in a highly industrialised country is a big undertaking and the sponsors of the Indian project displayed considerable courage in choosing a situation in what was virtually waste land. The reasons for the selection of a site some 20 miles from Asansol on the East Indian Railway at what is now known as Chittaranjan were its proximity to coal and iron, its ease of access t.o districts in Bihar having a labour surplus, and its being close to the site of a proposed hydro-electric scheme.
Obviously the planning and putting into production of such a large and highly specialised works called for much "know-how" which was provided by the British steam locomotive builders through the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association. In the early stages, advice was offered on the layout and equipping of the works and a technical aid agreement was drawn up at the end of 1 949 between the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association and the Government of India, under which the L.M.A. undertook to provide British technicians at Chittaranjan and to take Indian technicians for a period of training in the works of members of the L.M.A.
Some idea of the extent of the scheme, which is estimated to cost 140M. Rs. may be gathered from the fact that the workshops and the self-contained com- munity developed around them occupy an area of over seven square miles. The shops have a covered area of 880,000 sq. ft. and the office accommodation brings the total roofed-over area to over a million sq. ft .. The machine tools and other equipment was sup- plied by leading British manufacturers and are of the latest types and motorised throughout. Under the Colombo plan demonstrators have been sent out to give instruction in the use of machine tools. The layout has been done with a view to a logical flow from the raw material to the finished product. The ultimate object is to obtain self sufficiency in the manufacture of locomotives, which will involve the construction of 120 steam locomotives and about 60 spare boilers each year. It will be readily understood that production on such a scale requires building up over a period of years. Accordingly, the L.M.A. has been — and is still— supplying large quantities of components ranging from complete boilers to such parts as axles and wheels. Naturally, as production increases at Chittaranjan the flow of parts' from Britain will be reduced, and ultimately it is the intention to make India entirely self-sufficient. Whether this can be done economically is a moot point, demands for some items of equipment will be comparatively limited and it must be remembered that manufacturers of proprietary equipment have not only to turn out the components concerned, but have' also to put in the necessary development work to keep their products up-to-date.
These works when fully developed will be the largest in Asia and the most modern locomotive building plant in the world. It is anticipated that some 5,000' men will be employed, of which number 2,000 will be skilled. The housing of this number, together with their families has been in itself a major operation necessitating the building of a town, which work has proceeded concurrently with the construction of the workshops.
The future of Chittaranjan will be watched with great interest by locomotive engineers the world over. Never was a works planned for such a purpose on such a scale and never before have sponsors of like schemes had a comparable wealth of experience and assistance to draw upon as that so unstintingly given by the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association and its constituent members, with their great heritage. While all these features have combined to give the undertaking a splendid send off, Indian effort must ultimately be responsible for its achievements.

100 years of locos for India: the record of supply from British manufacturers from 1853 to 1953. 46-53. 12 illustrations, diagram (elevations & plan)
The original Great Indian Peninsula Railway was incorporated by Act of· Parliament on 1 August 1849; and the first section, from Bombay to Thana, the first railway in India, was opened on 18 April 1853. In August of the next year the first section of the East Indian Railway, 23 miles long, was opened from Calcutta to Hooghly ; and in 1856 the 56-mile Rayasuram (Madras)-Arcot line began operation.
Even wel! before these opening dates British builders had completed locomotives in readiness. The G.I.P' s first order was for eight 2-4-0 engines from the Vulcan Foundry, and actually the first of the eight was ready at the end of 1851. Even for that time they were not of large dimensions, having inside cylinders 13 in. by 24 in. driving 5-ft. wheels, and a firebox with a high domed top. Nevertheless they seem to have worked well, though not for very long on the G.LP.; and began that century of British locomotive building for India which is now being celebrated as part of the Indian railway centenary. Also they began that astonishing record of Vulcan in relation to India — a century of building at the rate of one locomotive every two weeks right up to the present day. At least two of this first GIP batch were sold to the BBCIR. and converted to tank engines for use on the early construction work out of Bombay.
From the beginning in 1853, only 838 miles of railway were open in India in 1860; but by 1870 there were 4,770. At first there were only normal types at work, mainly 2-4-0, 0-4-2 and 2-2-2 types, and by various builders. Though standardisation was not possible, even if thought desirable, at that time because manufacturing resources available in the engineering world had not risen to such heights, nevertheless an attempt at unification of leading dimensions was made. For example, no fewer than 285 engines of. 2-4-0 type were constructed for the East Indian Railway between 1861 and 1868 by several builders, and all had the same dimensions for cylinders, wheels, heating surface and similar boiler pressure.
For its mail trains the EIR. used 2-2-2 engines from the works of Neilson, Beyer Peacock, and Vulcan, and these had the same design of boiler as the 2-4-0 locomotives on the same line. The East Indian four-coupleds built in the sixties had outside cylinders.
By 1880 practically every locomotive builder had supplied engines to the 9,000 miles of railway then existing in India, including old-established firms like the three mentioned above and Hawthorn, Stephenson, Kitson and Avonside; by such long defunct firms as Cross of St. Helens; and also by W.G. Armstrong & Co. of Newcastle, who built 20 engines in 1862 and then never built another locomotive of any kind until 1919.
Early in the 1860s the obvious "easy" lines had been built, and it became essential to surmount the Ghats in order to give a proper transportation system. Thus began the era of the "special" engine. Except for the 16-mile Bore Ghat section the GIP. line from Bombay to Poona had been open from 1858, and the 276-mile Bombay-Bhusaval line was opened in 1863 except for the 10-mile Thull Ghat section. In readiness for the inauguration of the complete Bore hill section in 1863, Sharp Stewart built some 49-ton 4-6-0 saddle tanks with 20 in. by 24 in. cylinders— enormous for those days. These engines replaced some back-to-back 0-4-0T engines by E.B. Wilson's Railway Foundry previously used on short sections of the hill.
For over 20 years Ghat designs continued to occupy the spare moments of English builders in the constant stream of "ordinary" 2-4-0, 0-4-2, 4-4-0 and other engines; but within a year or two of the 4-6-0ST type being set to work a special 0-8-0T was evolved, because of the lack of success of the six-coupled design. Batches totalling 85 engines were built between 1866 and 1890 by Kitson, Vulcan and Neilson, though a few of the 85 went to the North Western Railway. The last ones weighed 55 tons. About the same time as this design was evolved Sharp Stewart built a 0-8-0 tender engine for the Oudh and Rohilkund line, then known as the Indian Branch Railway, which had an "intermediate" shaft with fly-cranks leading to the coupling rods. Though it looked large, the engine actually weighed only 30 tons, to suit the light rails.
It was in 1850 that the gauge question first reared its head. Acrimonious discussions by well-known engineers and India Office administrators became the order of the day; but eventually metre gauge became second string. Not for a long time afterwards was the 2ft. 6in. gauge system begun in earnest. Early metre-gauge lines were simply feeders to the broad-gauge system, and many of the first locomotives were 2-4-0T and 0-4-4T types; but with the lengthening of the narrow gauge lines 0-6-0 tender engines were built by Neilson· and Sharp Stewart — both now incorporated in the North British Locomotive Co. But the so-called F class, of which hundreds were built by Dubs, Neilson, Vu1can and Yorkshire Engine Co., followed these first designs, and had the feature of outside cylinders. At slow speeds they were very successful and were proved to be capable of hauling 600 tons at 15 m.p.h., a remarkable feat for a 21¼-ton engine.
Passenger traffic on the metre gauge was operated by 4-4-0 engines, generally of the well-known O class, to a more or less standard design, made by VuJcan, Neilson, Dubs and others. But the old B.B.C.I.R. metre-gauge section preferred something different — as it did from the beginning until the li930s — and had an inside cylinder 4-4-0 design; 35 of these were built by Dubs in 1880. As the century progressed the number of locomotives supplied by British builders did not diminish; but in general design had settled down and there were comparatively few special or unusual designs — 2-4-0, 4-4-0, and 0-6-0 types filling most broad-gauge requirements. The first 4-6-0 was the State Railways class and design built by Neilson in 1880 for the steeply graded strategic lines leading to the North-West frontier, and by 1890 there were 220 of these engines with 51in. wheels on the North Western State Railway. The Indian Midland, developed between 1885 and 1897 and later incorporated in the G.I.P., sponsored unusual designs of 2-6-0 side-plus-saddle tank engines; ten tank engines of the same wheel arrangement for banking duties up a 1 in 80 ghat in Bhopal, and no fewer than 91 of a 48-ton 2-6-0 freight tender engine design built by Neilson and Vulcan between 1892 and 1904. Five of the 1892 Neilson batch were two-cylinder compounds. Compounding had first been tried in 1883 on the Scinde-Punjab-Delhi Railway. Then in 1884 the Oudh and Rohilkund Railway bought ten Webb three- cylinder compound 2-2-2-0 engines, which did not last very long. In 1891 several 2 cylinder compounds were put into service on the Bengal, Nagpur and East Coast Railways but these were later converted to single expansion. In 1907 the B.N.R. introduced a series of 4 cylinder de Glehn compounds with a 4-4-2 wheel arrangement.
One of the most far-reaching steps in Indian locomotive practice was taken shortly after the turn of the 20th century, and one that has had a profound effect to the present day. It was the evolution of a standard broad-gauge main-line freight engine; and this was the harbinger of standard, classes for broad and metre gauges before 1914, in the late 1920s, and again after the second world war.
This Consolidation locomotive owed its origin to Robt. Stephenson &Co. and Sir John Wolfe Barry, who in 1902-03 designed a 2-8-0 with 21 in. by 26 in. cylinders for the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. They were put to work on 1,200-ton coal trains and later with I,SOO-ton trains and their success was such that they were adopted by the Indian Standards Committee for use on the Indian State Railways, though with modification to the valve gear, Walschaerts being preferred to Stephenson motion. Also, the drive was taken to the third coupled axle instead of to the second. In 1907 superheaters were fitted, and those, for Madras and Southern Mahratta Rail- way locomotives, were the first applications of the Schmidt superheater to Indian locomotives. Engines of this type were built for 20 years and encouraged the already projected development of other standard locomotives, viz., 4-4-0, 0-6-0, 4-4-2, 4-6-0 and 2-6-4T types for broad gauge, and 4-6-0 passenger, 4-6-0 mixed-traffic, 4-8-0 heavy freight and 2-6-2T designs for the metre gauge. Engines of all these types were running before 1914, and, with the 2-8-0s, bore the brunt of the traffic in the years 1914-18. Improved versions of most of them except the' broad-gauge 4-4-0 and 4-4-2 and metre-gauge 2-6-2T were built also from 1918 to 1925-26, when they were superseded for new construction by a fresh set of standard designs. On the Bengal-Nagpur in pre-1914 ana 1914-16 years the versions of the 4-4-2 and 4-6-0 standards were four-cylinder compounds and on certain lines non-standard types were built, for example the 0-8-4T banking engines for the Ghats and the 2-6-2T suburban engines for the G.LP. On the G.LP., also, a number of engines were oil burners.
The new standards of 1927 were of a more comprehensive nature. They sought to cover all broad- gauge working and most of the metre-gauge duties and involved three classes of 4-6-2 (XA, XB and XC), two classes of 2-8-2 (XD and XE), and two 0-8-0 (XF and XG) on the broad gauge, and two types of Pacific (YB and YC) and one 2-8-2 (YD) on the metre gauge. The first contracts, for 73 broad-gauge and 52 metre-gauge engines, were let to the Vulcan Foundry, and this builder had to work out the detailed design in conjunction with the consulting engineers, Messrs. Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, from the preliminary designs which had been drawn up by the Railway Board. Very few of the 0-8-0 type were built, and were for the North Western and Eastern Bengal Railways and subsequently some of the heavier XG class were rebuilt in the Moghalpura shops of the N.W.R. as 2-8-2 tender engines. These standards were soon supplemented by a broad gauge XT class 0-4-2T and some Z series designs for the 2ft. 6in. gauge system. Also for the metre-gauge a not very successful outside cylinder 0-6-2 YF class was evolved and built for the Bengal and North Western and other lines. Nearly all locomotive builders in Great Britain participated in construction of repeats in the case of many classes during the last 80 years.
Building of all these types was carried on up to 1940 and delivery of some were made after the 1939- 45 war.
Meantime, however, "specials" for particular duties in India were being built from time to time in Great Britain. They varied from the tiny 15-ton 0-4-0T engines by the North British Locomotive Co. for the spirals of the Darjeeling-Himilaya line, to the Kitson-Meyers on the Kalka-Simla and Kangra Valley lines of the N.W.R., and to eight-coupled Beyer-Garratts for the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, culminating, after two trial locomotives, in three batches of 4-8-0 + 0-8-4 and 4-8-2 + 2-8-4 engines up to 234 tons weight and 64,000 lb. tractive effort, for the 1,650-ton coal trains from Anara to Tatanagar and other lines of the B.N.R. At an earlier stage, 1918-20, many large 2-10-0 four-cylinder engines had been built for the G.LP. Intended, with the ser
vices of one banker, to take over the Ghat inclines the full I,500-ton freight trains permitted over the other sections of the main line, they were trans- ferred, on the electrificiation of the Bore ann Thull Ghats, to the North Western Railway. Later still, they were converted to coal burning, and one of them was fitted with a mechanical stoker, though on the G.LP. and North Western they had been oil fired.
From 1928 onwards, that is, from the introduction of the new X and Y class standards, variations in the standard designs were made to take advantage of such improvements as poppet valve gear and four cylinders. The B.N.R., for example, ever leaning towards compound expansion, acquired some very large four-cylinder compound Pacifies from North British, and a very large 4-6-0 type-G.S.M. class- of 75 tons weight from Robert Stephenson & Co. The old 4-6-0 standard engine was enlarged and improved into the HPS class, and was built right down to 1948. The Vulcan also built for the North Western Railway four 4-6-2 broad-gauge engines based on the XC class but with four cylinders, poppet valve gear, and a pressure of 225 lb. in place of 180 lb. They were considered to be the most powerful passenger engines in Asia.
In all of these developments many British builders took a prominent part, including such household names as Vulcan, North British, Beyer Peacock. Nasmyth Wilson, Kerr Stuart, Robert Stephenson, R. & W. Hawthorn, and W. G. Bagnall; while at the same time other builders such as Hunslet were making contributions not only in the form of the metre-gauge 4-6-0 type but were doing " specials" such as the poppet valve gear 2-6-0 engines for the Assam-Bengal Railway; the I30-ton 0-8-0 tender engines for Tata and many 2-6-2T, 0-6-2T, and 0-4-2T for light railways.
Powerful engines for the 2 ft, 6 in. gauge lines had been built in pre-standard days, particularly 2-6-2, 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 types with tractive efforts up to 17,000 lb., some for the State lines and some for important private systems like the Barsi Light Railway, with such firms as North British, Nasmyth Wilson and Hunslet taking a leading part, and with Hudswell 2-8-4T engines on the Central Provinces lines. But the new Z-class standards, principally the ZB 2-6-2, were built mainly by W. G. Bagnall, though Nasmyth Wilson turned out some ZE class 2-8-2s of 43-1- tons engine weight, 8 tons maximum axle load, 16in. by 18in. cylinders, 2ft. lOin. wheels and 1601b. pressure.
In 1937 Vulcan developed the medium-power broad-gauge XB 4-6-2 into the XP Pacific for the G.I.P. The boiler pressure was raised from 180 to 210 lb., and the axle load from 17 to 18! tons; but the raison d~ etre of the XP was to try and get a locomotive which would run 200,000 miles between heavy repairs. Features included an all-welded steel firebox with two thermic syphons and with flexible staybolts in the breaking zones. All axleboxes of engines and tenders were of roller-bearing type, and roller bearings were applied to the big ends, coupling rods and various other points. Caprotti valve gear was installed. Four quite new WL class Pacifics were also delivered by Vulcan to the North Western Railway in 1940, and being restricted in axle load to 16t tons extensive use of welding was made in smokebox saddle, frame stretchers, truck frames, cabs, etc., to keep down the weight. In 1939-40 a new series of broad gauge tank engines was built, comprising the 63t-ton WU class 2-4-2T ;the 63~-ton WW class 0-6-2T ; the 8I-ton WV class 2-6-2T and the 96-ton WlYI class 2-6-4T. Vulcan had the original order for all these.
Another set of standards has been evolved in India since the war with the object ultimately of reducing still further the number of types needed to work all the line traffic on 5 ft, 6 in. and metre gauge routes; and to get power equivalent to the X and Y standards but on a lower axle load. As a general principle, it seems that train weights and locomotive axle loads in India may be a little restricted, to save laying heavier rails over a large mileage, and to obviate much bridge strengthening; and, as the alternative, to take advantage of every advance in locomotive engineering to get high power with only medium axle loads.
Additional to the new WP Pacifies, there is the large new WG 2-8-2 freight engine, intended to do all that could be done by the older XE engines but on a lighter axle load. North British has delivered 100 of these; and also 100 of the new YP metre- gauge passenger en-gines. Both of these types have bar frames, and have been described recently in our pages. It is interesting to note here that North British and its three predecessors.LNeilson, Sharp Stewart, and Dubs-Lover the last 95 years have delivered to India an average of six locomotives ·every month.
Other activities. in Great Britain at the moment include 30 WlYI-class 2-6-4T engines building at the Stephenson works, similar to 30 already shipped by Vulcan, and ten entirely new metre-gauge engines to be known as the YL class, a 2-6-2 type with an 8-ton axle load.
For many years notable locomotives have been delivered by British makers to lines not yet incor- porated in the National system, such as the powerful 4-6-4,· and 2-8-2 locomotives built by Nasmyth Wilson, Bagnall and Hunslet for the Barsi Light Railways; the repeated batches of 65~-ton 0-6-2T engines by Hunslet for the Calcutta Port Commissioners; the immense Nasmvth Wilson 2-1O-2T locomotives built just after the first world war for the Bombav Port Trust, and the North British 4-6-2 and 0-4-0T engines for the Darjeeling line, the former for the level sections.
Finally, in addition to the supply of many thou- sands of locomotives throughout a century, the British industry is now providing components and technical assistance to the new Indian Government Locomotive Works at Chittaranjan, where WG-clas,; locomotives are being produced.
Illustrations: 4-8-2 XE class heavy freight locomotive built for broad gauge by Vulcan Foundry
diagram (elevations & plan) Vulcan Foundry 2-4-0 passenger locomotive supplied to open Bombay to Thana Railway
One of the old D Class Metre Gauge 4-4-0 Passenger Engines, built in 1883 by Dubs for the Bengal & North Western Railway (P.S.A. Berridge)
Some of most successful engines built for India were of this 2-6-0 type from the works of Neilson and Vulcan for the Indian Midland Railway
B.E.S.A. standard 2-8-0 as first built by Stephenson's for the Bengal.Nagpur Railway, 1903
Superheated 4-4-0 with 19in. by 26in. cylinders, 160 psi pressure and 6ft. wheels for the South Indian Railway Broad Gauge Division, North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.
l5-ton 2ft. gauge, 0-4-0T built North British Locomotive Co. for the spirals of the Darjeeling-Himalaya Railway
One of the 47 ST. Class 0-6-2T engines on North Western Railway: built 1911-13 (P.S.A. Berridge)
One of twelve two-cylinder 4-6-0 engines built in 1908 by Vulcan Foundry for working 340 tons mail trains over 1 in 200 grades, East Indian Railway
Hunslet broad gauge outside-cylinder 0-6-0T locomotive of 49 tons weight for the East Indian Railway
A non-standard metre gauge 2-6-0 with Caprotti valve gear, by Hunslet for Assam.Bengal Railway
Beyer Peacock X9 Class 0-8-0 rebuilt as 2-8-2 Class X9/M at the Moghalpura works of the NWR (P.S.A. Berridge)
N-Class four cylinder 2-10-0 freight engine, built by North British Locomotive Co. in 1919-20 for GIPR.

B.R. London Midland Region. 53
The following new engines had been completed: Class 7 4-6-2 Mixed Traffic, Nos. 70038 and 70039 (built at Crewe for Eastern Region); Class 4 2-6-0 Mixed Traffic. Nos. 76007 and 76008 (built at Horwich for the Southern Region); 350 h.p. 0-6-0 Diesel Electric Shunting, Nos. 13015 and 13016 (built at Derby) .
2-8-0+0-8-2:-The former L.N.E.R.. 2-8-0+0-8-2 Beyer-Garratt locomotive No. 69999, at one time used on the Worsborough branch and later employed for banking on the Lickey incline, has been converted at Gorton to burn oil fuel and had returned to Bromsgrove.

B.R. Western Region. 53.
The following new engines had been completed: 0-6-0T Nos. 8432 and 8434, built by W.G. Bagnall Ltd.; 2-6-0 Nos. 46519, 46520 and 46521, London Midland design, built at Swindon; 2-6-0 No. 78005

Eastern & North Eastern Region. 53
Eastern Region.-The following new engines have recently been placed in service: 4-6-2 Standard Cl. 7MT, Nos. 70038, 70039; 0-4-4-0 Electric, Cl. EM.I, No. 26052; 0-6-0 Diesel Mechanical Shunter, Cl. DMS.I, Nos. 11108, 11109.

Locomotives for India. 53
W.G. Bagnall Ltd.  produced a very attractive folder illustrating some of the large number of locomotives, of different gauges and types, which they had built for the railways, plantations, mines, factories and harbours of India during the: last 75 years. Some idea of their Firm's contribution to Indian transport may be gathered from the fact that while the engines portrayed are only a representative selection, no less than 31 different types of modern design are illustrated, their leading technical particulars being given.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 53
A record gathering of over 670 members and guests greeted their chairman, C.M. Cock, president of the Institute of Locomotive Engineers, at the annual luncheon held at the Dorchester, London, on 6 March. Among those present were:- A.T. Lennox-Boyd, M.P., Minister of Transport; K.B. Rao, Director-General, India Store Department, representing the High Commissioner for India; Sir Thomas White, High Commissioner for Australia; Sir Vellupillai Coomaraswamy, Deputy High Commissioner for Ceylon; F.Q. den Hollander, President, Netherlands Railways; Sir Gordon Munro, High Commissioner for Southern Rhodesia; John Elliot, chairman, Railway Executive; R.C. Bond, president-elect; Sir William Stanier and R. A. Riddles, W. Cyril Williams, Julian S. Tritton, F. Seymour Whalley, Harold Rudgard, R.H. Whitelegg and W.A. Agnew, past presidents; K.J. Cook, A. Campbell and J. F.B. Vidal, vice-presidents; W.D. Lorimer, president.. Locomotive Manufacturers' Association; Sir Archibald Boyd , chairman, Railway Carriage and Wagon Building Association; Sir John Calder. Senior Crown Agent; Major H.K. McKee, Commissioner for Northern Rhodesia; F. Leach, Commissioner for the Gold Coast; E.K. Featherstone, Commissioner for Nigeria; H.F. Cronin, president, Institution of Civil Engineers; Sir David Pye, president, Institution of Mechanical Engineers; and F. Rowe, managing director, K. & L. Steelfounders and Engineers, Limited.

Double - Decker Marshalling Yard.i-=A double-decker marshalling yard is being constructed over existing main lines and sidings at the Ferencvaros goods station in Budapest. To cope with growing goods traffic an increase in the capacity of the existing sidings was necessary, but could not be extended because they were hemmed in by factories and other .buildings.
While main line traffic continues, marshalling of goods trains will be going on overhead. Wagons due for marshal- ling will be shunted to the top of a z y-foot sloping bank. Then, under automatic control they will roll down into the appropriate overhead siding. Electro-dynamic brakes will control movements. There will be automatic points, and special automatic safety equipment.
The shunting engine drivers will be able to communicate with each other by short wave radio while the trains are being made up, and both will be in direct radio contact with central control.
A novel feature of the sidings is that glass inspection plates will be fitted under the tracks so that examiners may inspect rolling stock from below. The upper parts of vehicles will be inspected from towers built alongside the tracks.

Obituar y.e=Wc regret to announce the death in Montreal of M1. W. A. Newman, C.B.E., chief of motive power and rolling stock for the Canadian Pacific Railway since r949· Born in Hamilton, Ontario, he was in his 64th year.

Darjeeling-Himalayan Railway. 49, 50, 53
Via Index

Assam Bengal locomotive, 2-6-0 No. 263. 51.  illustration
Via Index

Number 729 (May 1953)

Baldwin 2-6-0 locomotives for Uganda. 59. illustration
Via Index

Local conditions and locomotive design. 63-4.

C.P.R. new C.M.E. 64.
F.A. Benger appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in  succession to W.A. Newman who had died; had been Assistant CME since 1948. Had joined CPR as an apprentice in 1913. Had been responsible for streamlining Royal Hudsons.

"YL" class locos for India. 64-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Light metre gauge 2-6-2 with wiide Belpaire firebox built by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd under the ispection of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

L. Lynes. Reflections. 66-9. 2 diagrams.
Design of suspension springs for carriages and especially the motor cars for the Brighton express multiple units including load deflection behaviour of helical springs

F.J.G. Haut. Railway electrification in India. 70-4. 6 illustrations

0-4-0 diesel locomotives for Denmark. 74. 2 illustrations
John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd. with 6-cylinder Leyland engine fpr the Aalborg Private Railways.

Radio communication to shunting locos. 75. 2 illustrations
Abbey Works of the Steel Company of Wales:  General Electric equipment 

Gold Coast Railways. 75
Hunslet Engine Co. had received an order for three 3ft 6in gauge 0-8-0Ts with welded fireboxes

British Railways standard wagons. 76
27-ton iron ore tippler and 24-ton covered hopper wagon for transport of soda ash or sodium tripolyphosphates to design of R.A. Riddles

M.A. Harrison. Some narror gauge locos. 77-8. 4 illustrations
Bagnalls 0-6-0T for Mauritius; 0-6-2 for plantation work in Malaysia; 4-6-4v for Barsi Light Railway and oil-burning 2-8-2 for Egyptian State Railways with cover plates to protect motion from blown sand.

Longmoor Transportation Centre, R.E. 78
50th anniversary of arrival of first railway troops

B.R. instructional films. 78

Number 730 (June 1953)

The Franco-Crosti boiler. 80-4. illustration, diagram, table, plan.

British Railways summer services. 93
Via Index

Last of class: 0-8-2T No. 47877. 93. illustration
Via Index. LNWR design

Lighting of engine pits. 95. illustration

Earlstown Works Centenary. 98

[Former Mersey Railway 0-6-4T working at Shipley Colliery]. 104
Cited from Volume 61 p. 221

Number 731 (July 1953)

B.R. Improvement Schemes. 100
British Railways are to proceed with three major improvement schemes, at a total cost of nearly £4 million. These projects are widening of the East Coast main line, the modernisation of Crewe (North) Motive Power Depot, and the provision of a new motive power depot at Thornaby (near Middlesbrough), mainly for handling the rapidly growing industrial traffics in the North East.
The widening of the East Coast main line is a £lim. scheme for providing two additional tracks between Greenwood Box (north of New Barnet) and Potters Bar where it will link up with the widening and station reconstruction scheme at Potters Bar authorised in 1952 at an estimated cost of just over £500,000. The proposal includes new tunnels at Hadley South, Hadley North and Potters Bar; reconstruction of Hadley Wood Station; the abolition of Greenwood Signal Box and extension of the colour-light signalling and track circuiting installations. About 1,830. yards of new tunnelling will be required, and 380.,000 cubic yards of excavation. The provision of. an additional line in each direction will overcome the bottle-neck hitherto existing and will provide a continuous four-track route . throughout the London suburban area; it will also cater for the planned development of Hertfordshire; which is expected almost to double the population served by the stations from Hadley Wood to Royston. Work is expected to start in the early spring of 1954 on this scheme, which will take five years to complete.
Nearly £1 million is to be spent in modernisinz Crewe North Motive Power Depot. A reinforced concrete coaling plant of 200-ton capacity, a new mechanical ash-lifting plant, ash pits, 70ft. turntable and sand drier had already been provided. Modern buildings are now to be erected, on a site to the south of Crewe station, for the periodical examination and repair of locomotives; there will be accommodation for 16 steam locomotives and two diesel shunting engines to be dealt with simultaneously. A shed of the round-house type with 32 roads will be built around the new 70ft. turntable, and another similar round-house, also with 7Qft. turntable will be pro- vided; a second coaling and ash plant will also be installed together with office and staff accommodation. The new round-houses will provide ample space for 58 locomotives to be berthed at once.
A £1 million motive power depot is to be built at Thornaby which will replace the 70-year-old depots at Middlesbrough and Newport and will be situated between the Newport Marshalling Yards and, the main Thornaby and Middlesbrough Road. When in full use it will employ a staff of over 1,000 and will have an allocation of 220. locomotives. The new depot will have two round-houses (later to be increased to three if necessary) each wiith a 70ft. turntable. There will also be a separate machine shop in which repairs, other than major repairs, will be carried out, and a shop especially for the maintenance and servicing of the diesel-electric shunting locomotives which are to be allocated to work on Tees-side. A coaling plant of 350. tons storage capacity is to be built, together with stand-by facilities for coaling locomotives when the plant may be out of use. Wet ashpits will be installed. Office, staff, and stores accommodation, of the latest type will be provided. The project involves alterations to existing rail connections to the Newport Marshalling Yards to provide for the speedy routing of locomotives to and from the new depot. An additional reception line will be provided at No. 2 Up Marshalling Yard to improve the working. Colour-light signalling and track circuits will be installed between Thornaby East and Newport East signal boxes. It is anticipated that the modern facilities' to be provided will yield both increased efficiency and substantial economies.

National Coal Board. 100
Placed an order with Brush Bagnall Traction, Ltd., for two 400 h:p. 0-6-0 diesel electric shunting locomotives for use at Cwm Colliery. They were to be equipped with National R4AA6 engines and Brush electrical equipment comprising main and auxiliary generators, traction motors and control gear. The mechanical parts will be manufactured by W.G. Bagnall, Ltd.

B.R. London Midland Region. 100
New locomotives put into service included Class 4 2-6-0 mixed traffic, Nos. 76014 and 76015, built at Horwich for 'the Southern Region; Class 4 2-6-4T, No. 80062, built at Brighton; 350 h.p. 0-6-0 diesel electric shunters, Nos. 13021 and 13022, built at Derby.

B.R. Western Region. 100
Two further 0-6-0T engines, Nos. 8436 and 8437, have been delivered by W.G. Bagnail, Ltd.. H.E.A. White had been appointed District Motive Power Superintendent, Bristol, and L.C. Barron Staff Assistant to the Motive Power Superintendent at Swindon.

C.P.R. new train ferry. 100
Contract made with.Alexander Stephen & Sons, Ltd., Glasgow, for the building a 7,000-ton train ferry for the Vancouver and Nanaimo service. The ship, a twin-screw diesel vessel, will cost four million dollars and is expected to be in service by May, 1955.

I.L.E. 100
Paper  No. 520 presented to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers by R.C. Bond, M.LC.E., M.LMech.E. (Vice-President), on the Organisation and Control of Locomotive Repairs 'on British Railways. The Author, who is Chief Officer, Locomotive Construction and Maintenance, Railway Executive, dealt in the first half of the paper with the principles governing the maintenance of locomotives on British Railways. Reference was made to the .relationship between the Mechanical Engineering and Motive Power Depts.. and the paper covered such aspects of the work as the classification of repairs, mileage between repairs, locomotive availability and the system for selecting and controlling the input of locomotives to the works. The second half of the Paper dealt with the Works Organisation and, described the progressive system of repairs, erecting shop organisation, component part time schedules, workshop methods, general supervision and costing.

L. Lynes. Reflections. 101
How the South Eastern & Chatham Railway's plans for electrification dictated Southern Railway policy. Old carriage bodies from four- and six-wheel were widened and built onto new trussed steel underframes fitted with bogies. This greatly reduced the cost of electrification.

French standard diesel locomotive. 107. illustration
Via Index

[A mobile rectifier for testing locomotives]. 113. illustration

Number 732 (August 1953)

Reviews. 130

The steam locomotive in America, its development in the 20th century. A.W. Bruce. Allen & Unwin Ltd.
While many books have been published on the steam locomotive the proportion of first-class works cover[ng development and its why and wherefore has been exceptionally small. The book under review is certainly one of the few really good books and it covers an important phase of steam locomotive history.
The author was assistant vice-president in charge of engineering and director of steam locomotive engineering in the Amencan, Locomotive Company and he has drawn on his 45 years experience to wnte a most valuable interesting. and illuminating book. In the preface he states his intention of recording in a single volume the main historical events in. the development of the steam locomotive and its achievements particularly during the first half .of the 20th century, for during the first decade of this it made greater advancement than it had accomplished in its entire previous existence. It can he said that the intention has. been admirably fulfilled.
The book is devoted primarily to the technical details of how development progressed with specific reference to improvements m the basic elements of the locomotive different forms of power transmission from steam cylinder to rails, and the development of individual locomotive types in. both main-line and special services. Extensive use has been made of tables, charts and statistical data; a large number of drawings and photographs are reproduced. Arrangement of material is functional rather than chronological and has resulted in a reliable and compact work of reference. We say compact for although the book runs to considerably over 400 pages it contains for its size an immense amount of material, much of which has never appeared elsewhere so far as we are aware.
Among the large amount of interesting information a few examples may be quoted. At the present rate of replacement nearly complete dieselisation may be realised by perhaps 1965 or soon afterwards. It is probably not generally known that the Louisville and Nashville Railway carried out a gauge conversion besides which our own problem appears to have been small. In 1886 the concern mentioned converted approximately 1,500 miles from 5ft. to 4ft. 8½in.. in one day:
The growth of the boiler is vividly illustrated by the statement that in 1900 a large boiler burned about 5,000 lb. of coal and evaporated some 35,000 lb. of water per hour. To-day there are boilers which on the test plant have burned about 24,000 lb. of coal to give an evaporation of nearly 140,000 lb of water per hour. The importance of ample air openmgs under the grate is well appreciated when one reads that burning 15,000 lb. of coal per hour the quantity of air required m the same period is 2,250,000 cu. ft.—as the author remarks—a lot of air! Since 1900 driving axles have grown from a maximum diameter of about 10in. to 15in. .
Dealing with trucks it is mentioned that the continued use of the four-wheeled leading truck in passenger service is explamed by Its ability to operate at high speed without derailment under very unfavourable conditions. An example is cited of a rear wheel being found missing during a routine check at a station stop. The axle had broken close to the hub and the wheel was found ten miles back!
In a book of this size and scope it is inevitable that some criticism arise. The absence of all hyphens from the Whyte system of wheel notation takes a little getting used to, The driving wheels of the Rocket were of 4ft. 8½in. diameter—not 3ft. 8½in. as given. The articulated locomotive certainly originated prior to 1888. the practical work of these engines dates from Fairlie's efforts of 1866. We cannot agree with the statement that grease lubrication of driving boxes is almost unknown abroad, it has had extensive, application in. India and South Africa to .narne but two countries.
The book is and will remain one of the classic works on the. steam locomotive and will be equally useful to the historian, student and. designer.

The locomotives of the Great Western Railway, Part II, Broad Gauge. The Railway Correspondence and Travel Society.
A comprehensive account of the old broad (7ft.) gauge locomotives of the Great Western Railway, being the second part of the series of twelve to be published, which, when completed, will form a complete history of the G.W.R. locomotives, B.G. and N.G. This part, 56 pages of text and 108 illustrations reproduced from photographs and drawings, has been compiled and edited by Messrs. N. J. Allcock, F. K. Davies, H. M. Le Fleming, P. J. T. Reed and F.J. Tabar.

La traction electrique et diesel-electrique, P. Patin. Ed. Eyrolles, Paris. (300 pages, 174 illustrations, 58 pIates.).
This describes in considerable detail the latest developments of electric traction; from the point of view of the railway official and student. Although the book deals mainly with French practice, the fact that the S.N.C.F. electrification uses 1,500 volt D.C. and overhead catenary lines. makes it of great interest to the English reader. The book is divided into 25 chapters. The theoretical principles of railway traction, and the differences between the various types of electric current available are covered, after which the mechanical parts of the electric locomotives are described in considerable detail. The chapter dealing with the action of the moving locomotive includes a survey of critical movements. The "drive" from motor to axle receives adequate attention, after which there is a full description of the electrical installations of a D.C. locomotive, i.e., motors, speed regulation, electric braking and current recuperation, power and control circuits.
Six chapters are devoted to installation of D.C. traction and another three go into details about A.C. traction, reviewing existing single and 3-phase systems, as well as " mixed" schemes. Single-anode rectification (ignitrons and excitrons), form the subject of a further chapter and the last part describes the mechanical and electric components of diesel-electric locomotives. This book is a very compact and useful publication, although it is in French its circulation in Britain will be only slightly affected for there is nothing like this work on modern electric railway practice available in English

Royal Trains. Cecil J. Alien, London: Ian Allan, Ltd. 130
An attractive booklet of 40 pages, illustrated, recording Royal journeys by rail 'in Great Britain since the early days of the Great Western, between Paddington and Slough, when the Prince Consort visited Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. The Royal saloons introduced by the L.M.S., L.N.E. and Southern Railways are described and illustrated, also the trains used in Kenya during the South African tour of King George VI and that used in the Canadian tour of Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh.

Publications received. 130

K.. & L. Steelfounders & Engineers, Ltd., of Letchworth
This year celebrate 25 years' association with their present company, George Cohen Sons Co., Ltd., and the 600 Group. The years concerned have witnessed tremendous development and expansion both in techniques and the volume of business handled-which has in turn led to enormous increase in the size of the works and the number of personnel employed. An attractive and interesting publication we have received ably conveys the history and organisation of the firm and at the same time clearly portrays their great resources for the production of high- quality steel castings and Jones K.L. cranes.

Number 733 (September 1953)

Mr. R.A. Riddles. 131-2. illustration (portrait)
Retirement biography

[Victorian Railways]. 133
Via Index

French State Railways, 50-cycle motor coach train. 137. illustration
Via Index

B.R. class 2 2-6-2 mixed traffic tank locomotive. 142-3. illustration, diagram. (side elevation)
No. 84002 illustrated

Coras Iompair Eireann diesels, 145
Via Index

Commonwealth Railways Australia, Report for 1951/2. 145
Via Index

[Schneider turbine locomotives]. 147

A water gauge failure. 148. illustration
Via Index

Greece, 2-8-2 metre gauge locomotives. 161. illustration
Via Index

Crewe Apprentices Training School. 163

[Wind tunnel for British Railways Research]. 173

Spanish State Railways 4-8-2 locomotives. 177. illustration

Rubber in rolling stock. 179. illustration

Number 739 (December 1953)

Running a railway. 183
In Canada

16A class Beyer-Garratts for Rhodesia. 184-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

2-8-2 locomotives for French Equatorial Africa. 185-6. illustration

L. Lynes. Reflections. 188-90

French State Railways, 50-cycle lócomotives. 192. illustration
Via Index

Paraguay Central Railway 2-6-0 locomotives. 196-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Two wood-burning engines built by Yorkshire Engine Co. with welded steel fireboxes

Sound equipment, Willesden Carriage Shed. 197
General Electric Co. loudspeaker system to ensure staff safety when working on vehicles including sleeping cars: within the depot vehicles are hauled by mules.

Correspondence. 198

Individual axle drive. 198
Via Index

A Hawthorn veteran. 199. illustration

Cleator and Workington Junction Railway. 200
Via Index

[Talyllyn Railway]. 200. illustration