The Locomotive Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 60 (1954)

key file

No. 737 (January 1954)

International Railway Congress. 1.
The XVI session of the the International Railway Congress was scheduled to be held at Church House, London, from the 19 to 26 May. Since the establishment of the International Railway Congress Association in 1885, London has twice been its venue: in 1895 and 1925. Great changes have been wrought in the British railway scene during the last quarter of a century and the delegates attending from railways the world over will, no doubt, find much to interest them here. Apart from such a superb showpiece as the Rugby Testing Station, British Railways can offer modern examples of every form of traction, in addition to every aid for efficient traffic operation. The objects of the Association have always been to facilitate the progress and development of railways by holding periodical congresses and by means of publications; these objects have certainly been attained with distinction and the free interchange of views and experience has contributed much to the present standard of railways.
The eleven questions listed for discussion in the London session, as usual, include topics covering all branches of railway working, but the two (Nos. 3 and 4) in the second Section, relating .to locomotives and rolling stock, would particularly interest readers. Question No.3 is a technical and economic investigation of the basic characteristics of electric traction systems now in use, with a view to deciding whether, and to what extent, there are relevant reasons for preferring one system to another. Factors of special interest in this consideration will be power supply, overhead line and fixed track installations, motive power units, and working and maintenance costs. The Reporters handling this important topic were C. Guzzanti, Inspectorat Général de la Motorisation Civile et des Transports Concédés, Rome, and Mr. S. B. Warder, Chief Officer (Electrical Engineering), British Transport Commission.
Question No.4 refers to the ever-present topic of means and methods of improving the efficiency of steam locomotives. Matters receiving particular attention in this connection would be, increase of steam pressure, types of grates, superheating, feed water heating, feed water treatment, etc. The Reporters in this instance were Manlio Diegoli, Inspecteur en Chef Supérieur 'au Service du Matérial et de la Traction des Chemins de fer de l'Etat Italian, Florence, and C.T. Long, Assistant C.M.E. (Motive Power) South African Railways.
Question 11, in the fifth Section, dealing with light and colonial railways will also be of interest to those concerned with locomotives and rolling stock. It relates to the protection of overhead lines, substations, locomotives and motor coaches against accidents of an electrical nature (excess voltage, overloads, short-circuits, and lightning). The three Reporters of this question were Messrs. Vrielynck and De Boeck from the Belgian Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Vicinaux, and T.S. Pick, Chief Electrical Engineer, London Transport Executive.
Other Questions are of indirect interest to the locomotive and carriage and wagon departments, e.g., that dealing with recruiting staff. The whole programme has a wide scope and we have no doubt that the Session will prove, in every way, to be as valuable as those previously held.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 1
An important paper on Developments in Locomotive Testing was presented by S.O. Ell to the Institution in London, on 18 November. The thermodynamics of the locomotive is inseparably linked with the mechanics of the train. It was shown how this can be accomplished in locomotive testing in a manner both analytical and demonstrative. In describing its development it was shown (1) how the performance and efficiency of a steam locomotive can be expressed by a three-fold relation and by a two-fold relation in thermo electric units, and (2) why the mass, system of locomotive and train and its normal mode of progression must be preserved in demonstrative analytical testing. Since the normal mode of progression is one of variable speed, an outstanding problem has been the control of the thermodynamic factors at variable speeds. Finding a solution in apparatus and methods which are simple and easily applied, a full description and analysis was given of a test on the Controlled Road Testing System. How the results of a number of tests are coordinated was described and the paper concluded with a discussion of the implication of the results in respect to the efficiency of the locomotive as a mobile power plant and as a motive power unit with its associated operating problems..

H. Davies, M.I.LocoE., A.M.I.I.A., 1.
Appointed a Director of W.G. Bagnall, Ltd., of which firm he had been General Manager since 1947. He commenced his apprenticeship in the locomotive industry with Kerr Stuart & Co., Ltd., in 1918. In 1926 he joined Bagnalls as an estimator and draughtsman. Two years' later he rejoined Kerr Stuart and subsequently worked with Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co., Ltd., the Air Ministry and in the London office of Babcock. & Wilcox, Ltd., before returning to Bagnalls as Chief Estimator and Persorial Assistant to the Managing Director in 1940.

Mauritius Railway 0-6-0 diesel-hydraulic locomotives. 2-4. 2 diagrams. (including side elevation) and plan
Built by North British Locomotive Co, to requirements of P.R.I. Cantin, General Manager of theMauritius Railway and Crown Agents. Paxman engine with Voith transmission. When used in multiple the locomotives are connected electrically by jumper cable and pneumatically by air hoses. Any movement of the controls in the leading locomotive is instantly duplicated in the trailing locomotive which is driverless.

Italian locomotives for India. 4
The Indian Government placed an order for 50 locomotives with the Ansaldo-Ferroviaria works of Genoa.

Argentina rebuilding steam locomotives. 4
The Argentine Ministry of Transport has announced that 39 locomotives of the General Roca Railway had been rebuilt in the Tolosa railway workshops and in order to expand the rebuilding programme, the Ministry has signed contracts with a French group which comprises four important French locomotive building firms. This group has already sent a mission of engineers to Buenos Aires to superintend the further rebuilding of steam locomotives.

The last L.N.W.R. Webb "Coal" Engine. 4. illustration
THE L.N.W.R. coal engines were the first class of' locomotive to be designed by F.W. Webb and over 500 of them were built between 1873 and 1892. Derived from the Ramsbottom 0-6-0 they were a good example of early standardisation and in their day performed a vast amount of work. They were probably the simplest and cheapest locomotives ever built in Britain, we believe that the designer claimed they could be constructed for £400. The cylinders were 17in. by 24in., wheels oniginally 4ft. 3tin. diameter, later increased to 4ft. 5tin. by the use of thicker tyres. Pressed to 140 lb., the original boilers varied somewhat but were later standardised at 150 lb. W.P. with a heating surface of 1,075 ft2. and a grate area of 17.1 ft2. . The tractive effort was 16,530 lb. Unlike most of Webb's designs, they had Stephenson motion. In working order engine and tender weighed 57 tons. A distinctive feature was the small cast-iron wheel centre with I-section spokes. The last of the class to survive in service, No. 58343, originally L.N.W.R. No. 2405, has recently been withdrawn after an active life of 72 years. No. 2441 illustrated

B.R. Co.Co electric locomotives. 4
The first of seven 2,500 H.P. six-axle electric locomotives under construction for the Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification scheme recently started trial running between Dukinfield and Crowden. These locomotives, which each weigh over 100 tons, will be used for hauling both heavy freight and passenger trains.
The mechanical parts of the locomotives are being built at the Gorton locomotive works of British Railways (Eastern Region) and the electrical equipment is being supplied and erected by Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. The bodies of the locomotives, which house the electro-pneumatic control equipment, starting resistances and auxiliary machines, are mounted on two three-axle bogies, each of which is equipped with three 415 H.P. motors. Drawgear and buffers are carried on the bodies. The locomotives are fitted with electrically heated boilers for passenger train heating, and with equipment for generative braking.

C.P.R. developments. 4
The Canadian Pacific Railway's new "scenic dome" observation lounge cars, part of a $38 m. order for 155 streamlined, stainless steel cars to re-equip the railway's trans-continental passenger trains, will be delivered this year, but already their influence is being felt in British Columbia. Work has begun on the first of 44 tunnels in the CP. British Columbia district to enlarge them for the accommodation of the new-type observation cars, which, while conforming to the existing loading gauge, will have more movement on the springs, particularly on curves, than older stock.

British Railways. 4
The following new engines have recently been placed in service.
Eastern Region: 2-6-0 Class 4MT, Nos. 76031-76033; 2-6-4T Class 4MTT, Nos. 80074, 80075.
London Midland Region: 4-6-0 Class 5MT, Nos. 73044-73046; 0-4-0ST' Class 0F, Nos. 47006, 47007
Western Region: 4-6-0 Class 4MT, Nos. 75020, 75021; 0-6-0 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunters, Nos. 13031-13033.

New Russian Railway. 4
A new mainline railway was officially inaugurated towards the end of October in the U.S.S.R. It is called the Mointy-Chu line and provides the shortest link between the southern parts of Kazakhstan and the central and northern districts of. this Republic, and with Siberia and the Urals. Its total length is 272 miles. Its economic importance is considerable as it will now be possible to send coal from the Karaganda basin, metals, machinery and timber from the Urals, and grain from Siberia to reach southern Kazakhstan, a rapidly developing part of the U.S.S.R. in Asia, as well as other Central Asiatic parts of Russia, such as Uzbekistan and Kirghizia. Fruit, vegetables, sugar, rice and dairy products will be transported on the return journey.

Motor-coaches for 1 in 30 grade  5
The short Waldenburg Railway, connecting with the Swiss Federal Railways at Liestal, was converted to electric traction, though not to the Swiss standard 16.6-cycle 15-kV. single- phase system, but to 1,500 volts d.c. The principal feature of this 12-mile line is a practically continuous grade uphill from Liestal to Waldenburg, which attains a maximum steepness of 1 in 30.  The three electric motor-coaches now working the line, with old passenger coaches as trailers at the week-ends, were built by Schindler Waggons S.A. on modern lightweight all-welded steel principles, with body framing and underframing as a single structure. The bogies are of the same type as used extensively by the Swiss Federal Railways for main-line passenger stock and for the 4,000 h.p. Bo-Bo electric locomotives, in which bolsters supported by laminated springs are hung by links from welded bogie frames which do not incorporate axlebox guides of the usual pattern. The SKF roller-bearing axlebox casting is extended at the sides into cups carrying helical springs, and within these springs are contained hydraulic shock absorbers. In this particular case, because of the narrow gauge of 750 mm., a design problem was to find room for the traction motors; but this was done, and each bogie carries two Brown Boveri nose-suspended motors of 123 h.p. each. The body construction promotes the desired light weight, and the empty weight of a complete motor-coach is 25t tons; of this each bogie accounts for 5 tons complete with its two motors, the body and underframing and shell weighs 6 tons, and the remainder is accounted for by interior fittings, brake apparatus and electrical equipment. These motor-coaches seat 42 passengers (If one class in a length over headstocks of 47ft.; the width is 7ft. 3in. The wheels are 2ft. 6in. dia., bogie wheelbase 7ft. 6tin., and bogie pitch 28ft. 3in. Top speed is 34 m.p.h. Flange lubricators are fitted to the outer wheels and braking is on the Charmilles air system, plus a rheostatic brake.

Train controlled platform announcements. 5
The General Electric Co., Ltd., has been awarded a contract for the installation of a new automatic announcement system at Stratford Station, E.R., whereby train announcements are automatically initiated by the trains themselves. The system incorporates features not hitherto used on British Railways.
The various types of announcements are pre-selected by the signal box staff and as the train approaches the station it operates the track circuit connected with the signalhng system, which in turn switches on a special form of tape reproducer connected to the station loudspeaker system. The loudspeakers then start announcing: "The train approach- ing No. - platform will call at ... " As the train draws up at the platform a further signal switches the tape reproducer over to a second series of announcements: " The train standing at number - platform, wiII call at ... " The new system, which is being supplied to the requirements of the British Transport commission, E.R., is suitable for use with both steam and electric services.

India wagon building. 5
It is expected that by 1956 India will be able to meet all her domestic needs for railway wagons. By that year, the railway wagon building industry, established some 30 years ago, will be the most important in Asia. This was stated at a New Delhi Press conference by the Chairman of the Railway Board, Mr. Badhwar, who also revealed that plans were now being finalised to increase Indian wagon output progressively so that it will reach 12,000 units p.a. .'

New Swiss electric trains.. 6-7. 2 illustrations
Built by the Swiss Locomotive Works with Brown Boveri, Oerlikon or Secheron motors and drives and worked push & pull with control trailers and stock converted to carry the electric cont rol signals.This method of working had been instigated between Berne and Lucerne and between Lucerne, Zurich and Schaffhansen.

Oil reclamation plant for C.P.R. 7
A large lubricating oil reclamation plant, the first to operate on a full scale in Canada, has been installed by the CPR at St. Luc, Montreal, and is restoring lubricating oil for the Canadian Pacific Railway's fleet of diesel locomotives. The equipment handles the oil in batches, and takes about eight hours to process a batch of 375 gallons. At present this is the total of a day's production, but the equipment is geared to turn out three times as much restored oil in a double eight-hour shirt. The re-refining equipment used in the c1ean:ng process consists of an open mixing tank, an electrically heated retort, vacuum pump, condenser, dilution tank, contact tank, a filter press and additional motors and pumps, as well as storage tanks for the used and recovered oil.

Spanish railway electrification. 7
A six-year plan has been announced in Spain for improving and developing the railway lines connecting the capital with different points in the Guadarrama mountains, which are to be electrified, at an outlay of some pesetas 70 m. The Mayor of Barcelona annoumced that the Spanish Government had azreed to the electrification of the railway traversing Barcelona along the Calle Aragon and leading to Tarragona. Once electrification is completed. it will be possible to cover over the line, thus increasing the present width of this important road for general traffic purposes.

Brazilian railways re-equipment. 7
Plans drawn up by the Brazilian-U.S. Mixed Commission pertaining to the re-equipment of the State-controlled Sorocabana. and Mogyana Railways have just been approved by the President of Brazil. For the Sorocabana Railway, US $14.9 m. will be needed for imported material, and local expenditure will total Cr.$452.5 m. Major items in this programme are the re-laying of 350 km. of track with new and heavier rails, the purchase of 1,900 new wagons and of other rollmg stock and of new locomotives. The new traction is expected to be diesel-electric. For the Mogyana Railway, the plan will require-US.$8.4 m. for imported material and Cr.$517.7 for local expenditure. It is planned to relay 2,090 km. of track with new sleepers and 420 km. with new rails. Over 1000 new wagons are to be provided.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish Steam Locomotives. 7-
The author was traffic manager and civil engineer of the KT.H. Continued from Volume 59, page 34. The boiler of the Tb class was a flush one, with a barrel diameter almost as big as that of the Ta wagon-top barrel. The distance between the tube-plates was somewhat longer and the grate widened out over the bar frames. To retain the smoke-box saddle unaltered the frames had to be lowered between the driving and trailing wheels. The leading bogie was of the same wheelbase as the original, but had plate frames and a plate spnng above each axlebox. Swing link suspension was provided and steam brakes were fitted, but later removed. The first engines had the standard spark arrester, but the latter three were fitted with a stove pIpe chimney with spark arresting network in the smoke box. The former had the sand box and the dome in separate casings, the latter had the same long casing for both. Some of the later Tb engmes were provided with superheaters, or, more correctly, steam-dryers, on the Clench-Golsdorf system; these were later removed. The Tb locomotives differed from the Ta class in the following respects: heating surface, 1,700 ft2.; grate area, 25.8 ft2.; boiler pressure, 200 lb.; weight in working order, 58 tons 1 cwt. ; adhesion weight, 42 tons 10 cwt. The Tb engines were to some extent better than the Ta, but the relation between the grate area and the fire-box volume was no doubt inferior. The highest permissible speed for both classes was 46.6 miles an hour. Some of the Tb class were provided with peat-powder firing, as earlier desciibed in conjunction with the Kf and Cc locomotives. Vacuum brake apparatus was superseded by Kuntze-Knorr air brake equipment. After 1943 the Tb class was known as the T2.

Class Ta and Tb locomotives

Class No. Builder Built In stock 1/1 1951 Remainder Withdrawn

Class

No.

Ta 582-591 Richmond Lo:omotive and Machine Works 1899

1921-41

Ta 622-657 Nydquist & Holm 1901·02

1931-42

Ta 705-714 Nydquist & Holm 1902·03

1927-42

Ta 749-750 Motala Mech . Works 1903

1933-34

Ta 751-760 Nydquist & Holm 1903

T

758

1931-34

Ta 782 - 783 Nydquist & Holm 1904

1934-36

Ta 784-786 Motala Mech . Works 1904

1931-42

Ta 824-833 Nydquist & Holm 1904-05

T

824-826

1927-42

Tb 846-855 Motala Mech . Works 1905

1934-42

Tb 856-865 Nydquist & Holm 1905-06

T2

858,860

1934-42

Tb 876-879 Nydquist & Holm 1905-07

1936-42

Tb 880-883 Motala Mech . Works 1906

1933-42

Tb 884-885 Atlas Works. Stockholm 1907

1034,1942

Tb 886·888 Nydquist & Holm 1907

T2

888

1938,1942

Tb 889-891 Motala Mech . Works 1907

1931-38

Tb 892-899 Wagon & Machine Works, Falan 1907-08

T2

893

1933·51

Tb 929·932 Wagon & Machine Works, Falan 1908

1936·42

The seven Ta and the thirteen Tb engines, withdrawn in 1942, were sold to the Finnish State Railways. The method of rebuilding the locomotives from 4ft. 8?#189;in. gauge to the Finnish-Russian 5ft. gauge was interesting and very simple. The wheel centres of these engines had a conical section, with the hub .-centre considerably outside the centre line of the tyre. After removing the tyres, the wheel centres were heated to bright red and then drop forged to their new form. Only other small alterations were necessary. Of the fifty-three Ta and forty-eight Tb locomotives at the beginning of 1953 only eight remained. The class will probably soon be extinct. These engines were robust and straightforward ones. They performed good work, came at a critical time and brought with them many new ideas of American locomotive construction.
One of the Tb class, No. 864, was equipped with the Hardy vacuum-brake as well as the Kuntze-Knorr air brake and provided with peat-powder firing. It is preserved in the Railway Museum and exhibited in the Locomotive Hall at Tomteboda . The American-built Class U 0-6-0 shunting locomotives had the two cylinders cast in one piece with the smoke-box saddle. The inside Stephenson link motion actuated balanced slide valves through rocking shafts.
The springs were all placed overhead. Those of the driving and trailing wheel-pairs were connected with compensating levers, situated at the upper side of the bar frames. The springs of the leading axle were suspended individually the suspension thus being four-point. The rear hanger of the trailing axle spring was fitted with a spiral spring as in the Ta class.
The boiler, with a narrow fire-box between the bar frames, had a telescopical barrel. Many of the details were similar to those on the Ta class. The cylinders were 15in. by 22in.; coupled wheels 4ft.; heating surface 832 sq. ft.; grate area 12.9 sq. ft.: boiler pressure 143 lb. sq. in.; weight in working order 38 tons 10 cwt.; wheel base 5ft. lOin. + 6ft. 2in. = 12ft.
The ten U class engines, No. 592-601, were delivered by Richmond Locomotive and Machine Works in 1899. They were used for station shunting at the Stockholm, Central, North and South, stations, and at Tomteboda, Vartan and Liljeholmen. One of them, No. 593, was withdrawn in 1921 and the others in 1923. Some of them were sold to the East Coast Railway (OKB) and used on construction work. Illustrations: Tb 4-6-0 No. 864 prepared for preservation; Class U 0-6-0T No. 596 as running in 1902.

Electric baggage cars for L.M.R. 9. illustration
Absence of steam trains on the Liverpool, Southport, Crossens and Ormskirk electric lines of the L.M.R., and lack of adequate luggage compartments on the electric stock, has justified the use of special vehicles for the conveyance of baggage on these lines. The original converted vehicles had been withdrawn from service due to age, and to take their place a motor car and a driving trailer car of the compartment type stock built for these lines in 1926 have now been converted for use as baggage cars. These vehicles have a driving compartment at each end as they operate singly without attachment to a train. They are 59ft. and 57ft. long respectively, and 8ft. lliins. wide over body panels at the waist. Each vehicle has one motor bogie and one trailer bogie, and is fitted with vacuum brakes as it is intended that these vehicles shall be capable of hauling a vacuum-fitted freight vehicle as required. The passenger seating and partitions dividing the compartments have been removed to provide a baggage compartment of about 35ft. in the former car and 33ft. in the latter car, with two sliding doors on each side of the vehicles giving a clear opening of 4ft. at each doorway to facilitate loading and unloading. Each vehicle has a separate compartment for the conveyance of railway staff when required. Half of the electrical equipment has been transferred from the motor car to the driving trailer car, so that each car is now powered by one motor bogie fitted with two 265 h.p. traction motors which are controlled by the original electromagnetic contactors. Advantage has been taken of the reduced control equipment per car to re-organise the layout in the equipment compartment to facilitate maintenance and to evenly distribute the weight. Equipping of the driving trailer car required the complete installation of control equipment in a new equipment compartment.

Russian wagons for fish transport. 9.
According to a report from the U.S.S.R., the rolling stock works at Bezhitsa in the Bryansk region have produced special all- metal wagons for the transport of live fish.

Indian railway electrification. 9
The Indian Minister for Railways, Lal Bahadur Shastri, recently stated that the Railway Ministry proposed to electrify the section from Howrah to Moghalsarai to cover the entire mine belt for the better transport of coal and mineral output. The scheme will cost Rs. 280m. The Minister added that the electrification of the Calcutta suburban railways would be completed as soon as possible. He revealed also that a chief engineer had been appointed to prepare ·projects for the electrificaton of railways.

G.N.R. locomotive notes. 10-11. 2 illustrations
By the kindness of Norman Kerr, of Cartmel, we have been enabled to go through the copious notes made by the late H.G. King, at one time of Doncaster Works. The following extracts have been made from the material in the hope that they will be of interest.
The Jenny Linds Nos. 201 and 202 built by E.B. Wilson & Co., 1850/1, had an unusual blast pipe arrangement which was also to be found on some of the later Sturrock engines. The blast pipe proper was extremely short, reaching on1y a few inches above the bottom row of tubes. This was surrounded by a cast iron tube in the form of a "vena-contracta," so arranged as to clear the smoke box of its ashes and so anticipated by many years a similar arrangement introduced about 1900. At the end of 1863, following experiments made with an auxiliary engine fitted in a tender, Sturrock asked for permission "to alter the tenders of such engines as were suitable, as fast as possible, into auxiliary steam tenders at a cost of £600 each, and to order twenty more goods engines with much larger fireboxes than hitherto at an estimated cost of £3,300 each for the engine and auxiliary tender." Sanction having been given, he placed the order for 10 engines and tenders each with Kitsons and Hawthorns (these were delivered in 1865, Nos. 401-419) and for 30 further engines. "without tenders, suitable for alteration into auxiliary tenders if found desirable." (Nos. 420-449.) From records available, it is now certain that 20 auxiliary steam tenders only were built on capital account and that 30 more auxiliary tenders were built at the Doncaster works, most of them being rebuilds of the disused Sharp engines.
In his report to the Directors of 16 January, 1866, Sturrock writes : - "The 48 steam tenders ran during the half-year ending 31st December, 1865, 526,559 miles. The 50 auxiliary tenders ordered by the Board are now all at work." At least 20 of the auxiliary tender engines were provided with an extra long firebox. In evidence before the Royal Commission on Railways, 1865, Sturrock explained" that a large gain results from conveying coal traffic in full train loads with engines capable of drawing heavy loads; constructed on the principle of placing a cylinder on the tender, so as to utilise its weight for traction. The cost of traction is increased, but the receipts increase in a greater ratio, thus:-
With an Ordinary engine:
The receipts are-210 tons at  3/8d. per mile = 6s. 6½d. per double mile.
And expenses are-210 tons at 20d. per double mile or 25 per cent. of the receipts.
With the new engine with auxiliary tender:
The receipts are-320 tons at  3/8d. per mile = 10s. per o double mile.
Whilst expenses are-320 tons at 23d. per double mile run or 19 per cent. of receipts.
The fireman on the steam tender engines received 6d. per day extra allowance.
Stirling's first act, after being installed as Locomotive Engineer was to deal with the steam tenders, not as he says in his report to the Directors "as casting a reflection upon my predecessor, but in the interests of economy and with a view to reducing working costs."
"During the first seven months an advantage of 1.65d. per mile in conveying 900 tons of coal. The average cost of repairing engines with ordinary tenders = 3.27d. per mile. The steam tender alone costs 8 per cent. more than the ordinary tender and costs therefore 3.53d. per mile for repairs. Cost of repairs for working 12 steam tenders and engines one mile = 63. 36d. Cost of repairs for 16 ordinary engines and tenders=52.32d. It would appear that there is really no substantial advantage gained by their use whilst there is a great difference in the 'item of repairs, and not infrequently serious inconvenience experienced from the want of them when under repairs, as it frequently happens that the engines cannot get out for want of tender. The most serious objection to the use of steam tenders, however, is the wear and tear on the fireboxes and tubes of the boilers that are called upon to make steam for them in addition to the engines themselves. As far as I can see at present, it will be necessary to put new tube plates in all the long fireboxes when the first set of tubes is worn out."
The Directors accepted this report and instructed Stirling to remove the cylinders and motion from the tenders. By June 1867 nine tenders had been stripped, by December 1867 twenty-four had been dealt with and by December of the following year the steam tender had entirely vanished.
The ten four-coupled locomotives received from Sharp Stewart, Nos. 251-260, in 1866, were in many respects a coupled version of the earlier Sharp singles (233-236). These engines which received running Nos. 264-269, were originally ordered as " singles." and Sturrock's report of 20 February, 1866, reads:-
"A considerable portion of time is lost by the express trains which takes place in climbing the Banks between London and Potters Bar and between Peterborough and the 100 mile post. I propose, therefore, to alter the six engines at present on order but not yet constructed, into four wheeled coupled engines. This will be at an estimated extra cost of £100-£l50 each."
In the light of subsequent experience with these engines, this letter is of interest. The large coupled wheels, 7ft. diameter, gave considerable trouble by their tendency to cast their coupling rods—no doubt caused by unequal wear of the tyres—so that Stirling altered them back again into singles during 1873-1878.
These were the first engines to have midfeathers embodied in the specification—although during the building of the previous class of four coupled engines by Sharp Stewart (251-260) midfeathers had been incorporated in the design." I have determined to introduce a cross partition on the top of the firebox. This will cause an extra cost of £15-£20 per engine. This will give a slight elasticity to the sides of the fireboxes and thus ease the strain from expan- sion and contraction in the tube plate. No doubt coal burning causes more rapid changes in temperature than when coke is used. Illustrations: 0-6-0 with steam tender; 2-4-0 No. 268.

B.R. new rolling stock. 11
British Railways plans for new rolling stock in 1954 include the provision of 2,750 passenger train vehicles, 53,000 freight wagons, and 325 locomotives. This is two and a half times the number of passenger train vehicles built in 1953, 36% more freight wagons and 50% more locomotives; the programme reflects the improved steel supply and the determination of the British Transport Commission to concentrate on replacing obsolete vehicles, particularly passenger coaches, with all speed.
All other passenger vehicles and brake vans will be of the new standard all-steel design; 1,820 will be passenger carrying vehicles and the remaining 930 will be brake-vans, horse boxes, fish vans, and other vans for runnmg m passenger trains. B.R. shops will build 2,180 vehicles and the remainder will be built by contractors.
New wagons will include 3,100 for carrying loads of steel weighing up to 50 tons, and various wagons of special design for carrying loads of 21 to 65 tons. Of the total of 53,000 new wagons, 20,000 will be built in BR. shops and the remainder by contractors.
Of the 325 locomotives to be built, 254 will be of the new standard designs including 40 Class 9 heavy freight engines, the first of this type to be built and the most powerful in the B.R standard range. There will also be 14 diesel-mechanical shunters, and 50 steam tank engines for shunting.

Austrian rolling stock. 11
We learn from C.I.C.E. Information Bulletin No. 15, that: the Soviet Authorities have recently permitted the free circulation of 'captured carriages' over the lines of the Austrian Federal Railways in the whole of the Federal territory. There are 350 carriages, also 55 fourgons and 22 wagons de messagerie belonging to the Austrian Federal Railways but considered by the Soviet Authorities as spoils of war. Previously this stock could only be utilised in the Soviet Zone.

Synthetic loco coal in Hungary. 11
Manufacture of synthetic locomotive coal by spraying hot fuel-oil residue from petroleum refineries on to a mixture of inferior coal and peat has begun in Hungary. It is claimed that the resulting mixture is as good as high-quality coal, is easily shovelled and does not smoke up the boiler. Production of the mixture at the Haman Kato locomotive fuelling depot is, to begin with, at a rate of 150 tons a day. -

Italian diesel-electric motor coaches. 12. 2 illustrations
Officine Meccaniche (O.M.) supplied a diesel hydraulic motor coach unit to the Italian State Railways. It had a four-stroke direct-injection Saurer engine with 12 opposed-piston cylinders arranged in two banks; the engine  was slung under the frame together with the hydraulic gear-box. The principal particulars of the engine were as. follow: cylinders 160 mm. x 200 mrn., compression ratio 1 : 15.2, capacity 48.2 litres. Output-continuous, 480 h.p. at 1,400 r.p.m.; maximum, 560 h.p. The engine, produced by O.M. under licence, had a six-throw crankshaft with eight roller bearings. There are two separate cast-iron cylinder blocks of six cylinders each. The injection pump was supplied by Saurer and the engine was supercharged by two Brown-Boveri Buchi turbo-blowers. The hydraulic gear box is of the Lysholm-Smith type and was also built by OM.; power is taken via cardan-shafts and universal couplings to the axles. The body rests on two four-wheel bogies with 910 mm. wheels. Three fuel tanks hold 750 litres and give a range of approximately 1,000 k.m. Control is electric pneumatic and there are the usual auxiliaries including a 24-volt generator and batteries. Automatic air brakes air fitted. Empty the motor coach weighed 47 tonnes and trailers 35 tonnes. each. The maximum speed is 130 km/h.:

Obituary. 12
F.H.B. Harris, formerly Chief Draughtsman of W.G. Bagnall Ltd., died aged 82 years. Harris joined Bagnalls in 1932 and was for 15 years Assistant Chief and Chief Draughtsman before retiring in 1947. He then worked for some years on a part time basis at Bagnalls, and when he left Stafford to settle in the South of England he occasionally acted as their representative in dealing with local enquiries. Commencing his apprenticeship at California Works, Stoke, in 1886, he joined Bagnalls after 37 years with Kerr Stuart & Co. During his 45 years specialising in locomotive design he was responsible for the production of thousands of locomotives exported all over the world and trained many of the men today holding high positions in the railway world and the locomotive building industry.

Water tanker trucks for B.R. 12
The first of a fleet of battery-operated electric water tanker trucks designed and built by Steels Engineering Products, Ltd., of Sunderland, are now going into service with B.R. Each truck had a four-wheeled chassis built round a fabricated frame of electrically welded pressed steel sections. The two 40-volt, four-pole series-wound traction motors were specially designed to provide high torq ue / low speed characteristics. They were controiled by a direct-acting controller with cam-operated over-centre snap action contactors affording three speeds and brake in either direction. Power was supplied by a 20-cell D.P. "Kathanode" traction battery with a capacity of 224 Ah. The tank itself, fabricated from rolled steel plate and galvanised on the inside after manufacture, held 275 gallons. Housed in a separate compartment at the rear of the chassis frame is the centrifugal pump which, driven by a four-pole motor developing 11 h.p. at 1,950 r.p.m., delivered 27 gallons a minute against a total head of 60 feet through 20 feet of flexible hose with a trigger-controlled nozzle. Measuring 12ft. 3tin. long by 3ft. 6tin. wide overall, the tanker truck has a turning radius on full lock of 9ft. 3in. Maximum speeds are 6 to 7 m.p.h. and 5 to 6 m.p.h. unloaded and loaded. Carrying a full 275 gallons, the truck can negotiate a gradient of 1 in 10 without serious difficulty.

Flame-proof battery locomotives. 13. illustration
Narrow gauge mine locomotive bult by E.E. Baguley of Burton-on-Trent and English Electric Co. Ltd to meet British Standard 929/1940 and certified as Flame-Proof by the Ministry of Fuel and Power

English Electric Co. Ltd . 13
Publication DE/179 English Electric Diesel Engines: range of power outputs up to 2000 bhp

Personal. 14
J. Foster Petree retired on 31 December from the editorship of Engineering. to which he was appointed in 1939. jointly with Charles Cooper.  Cooper. who joined the staff of Engineering in 1897 relinquished executive editorial direction at the end of 1949. but is stili a managing director. Petree also will continue as a member of the board of directors. His successor as Editor is F.B. Roberts, M.B.E .. who has been chief assistant editor since January. 1950.

Portuguese Railway Mission to British Railways. 14. illustration
Portuguese railway engineers recently visited Great Britain where they examined systems of railway electrification. The Mission. sponsored by the Portuguese Government. was led by Senhor Enginheiro de Brion, the Technical Director of the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses—the company operating the main railway system in Portugal. Senhor de Brion is also Chairman of the Electrification Committee of the Portuguese Railways. He was accompanied by Senhor Pinto Monteiro and Senhor Valerio Vicente, engineers on the staff of the Portuguese Railway Company. and by Senhor Enginheiro Lino Neto, a nominee of the Portuguese Government.
After technical discussions with British engineers and with the principal manufacturers 'n Great Britain concerned with the supply of equipment for railway electrification. at the invitation of British Railways. the Mission visited the new 50 cycle A.C. electrified Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysharn line and the electrified line between Manchester and Sheffield. also that from Liverpool Street to Shenfield. Portuguese interest in railway electrification closely on the completion of large hydro-electric schemes in Portugal in which British manufacturers had a prominent part.

Reviews, 14

Battery chargers and charging. Robert A. Harvey. Iliffe & Sons. Ltd.
The substantial developments in the design of storage batteries during the last 25 years have been accompanied by changes in the methods of charging and control. The publication under review deals. first. with the construction and chemistry of each type of storage battery and then the principles used in charging and charging technique are given. The railway engineer will be specially interested in the chapters dealing with electric vehicles and locomotives and the application of batteries on railways. The book is well illustrated by more than 200 drawings and photographs. and will be of great use and interest to all concerned with the installation and operation of battery charging systems.

Mechanical  vibration. G.W. van Santen. Philips Technical Library.
The publications of the well- known firm of Philips. of Eindhoven, fill gaps in existing technical libraries. mainly in fields where comparatively lit tle printed information exists. An example is vibration. where the sciences of mechanic and accoustics meet. The book first deals with the elementary theory of vibration and some of the more important problems encoun- tered. Naturally. a very wide field is covered and many problems can only be touched upon. After dealing with the types of vibration existing, whether free Of" forced, camped or undamped , the analogy between mechanical and electrical oscillation is explained. and, furthermore. the relation to sound and other wave phenomena. Concerning mechanical vibration in shafts, the author deals first with bending and then with torsional movement: the principles of balancing and damping are explained and then the design of equipment for the measuring of vibration is outlined . The book will form a useful addition to the technical literature on this difficult subject.

The Transport Act 1953. H.S. Vian-Smith. Iliffe & Sons. Ltd.
The author by virtue of his intimate connection with the passage of the Act is well qualified to write an easily assimilated explanation of it for transport users and operators. So far as possible legal phraseology has been avoided and the work makes clear to the layman the full intent and meaning of each section of the Act. A map and a copy of the Act. together with sundry amendments. etc., combine to make this an up-to-date. complete, and readily-understandable reference book.

S.E. & C.R. locomotive list 1842-1952 M.N. Wakeman. Oakwood Press
Apart from a chapter in Dendy Marshalt's History of the Southern Railway. no connected history of the S.E.R. locomotives has been written. This deficiency is being met as we understand that no less 'than four different books on the subject are in the press. This is the first to appear. It consists of a list of numbers and dates of the engines of the S.E. & C.R. and its constituent companies. The numbers are in tabular form with footnotes when the author has any information of a particular engine. There are thirty-eight small half-tones and some line drawings of the earlier engines.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1954 edition. Manchester: Emmott & Co. Ltd
In addition to the wealth of up-to-date information. which is invariably to be found in this useful book. two new sections have been added. One of these IS a Review of Progress in the Steam Cycle and Performance of Steam Turbine Plants. and the other deals cornprehensivelv with the always-important subject of metal finishing. This book is remarkable value at its moderate price. BC11.Ch. Seats 011 L.T. The "sit-stand" bench seat, which provides extra seating accommodation while easing ingress and egress. is being tried experimentally on the- Northern Line of London Transport.

No. 738 (February 1954)

B.R. 2-10-0 heavy freight locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 15.
Editorial comment.

2-10-0 heavy freight locomotives for B.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 16-18. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Number 740 (April 1954)

[Diesel railcars built in Holland for Portugal]. 63
Supplied by Fiat see also page 114

Number 741 (May 1954)

Intrernational Railway Congress. 67
First meeting of the International Railway Congress to be held in Great Britain since 1925 was being held in London from 19-26 May, when over 450 delegates from more than 30 different countries assembled in Church House, Westminster, to discuss current problems and the latest techniques. It was arranged for H.R.H. the Duke of Gloucester, Honorary President of the Congress, to perform the formal opening ceremony and to be supported by the Rt. Hon. Alan Lennox-Boyd, M.P. (Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation); M. de Vos (President of the International Railway Congress Association, and General Manager of the Belgian National Railways); Sir Brian Robertson (Chairman of the British Transport Commission); Sir John Benstead (Deputy Chairman) and other Members of the Commission; Sir John Elliot (Chairman, London Transport Executive); and civic representatives .
In addition to seven business sessions and sectional discussions at Church House, arrangements were made for delegates to visit important railway centres, and to inspect recent examples of technical development on British Railways and London Transport. Such visits included Willesden carriage cleaning and servicing depot; electrical control rooms and sub-stations on the Southern Region electrification; Swindon locomotive, carriage and wagon works; London Transport workshops and depots at Lillie Bridge and Acton; Southampton Docks; Liverpool- Street-Shenfield electrification; the Central Line tube extension; Rugby locomotive testing station where one of the new standard 2-10-0 locomotives, described on page 16, was undergoing test; and railway coastal protection works between Dover and Folkestone, also a special exhibition of B.R. and London Transport locomotives, rolling-stock, civil and signal engineering equipment at Willesden, included the prototype of the new British Railways Class 8 three-cylinder large 4-6-2 with Caprotti Valve gear. This exhibition will be open to the public from 26-29 May. Subjects discussed at the International Railway Congress which are of particular interest to our readers will be shortly summarised in our pages. As is well known the Questions considered are reported at length in the Monthly Bulletin of the International Railway Congress Association. These Bulletins contain much valuable information which is not to be found else-where.
Five British officials were among the reporters who have collated international data for consideration by the Congress: Dr. F.F.C. Curtis (Architect, British Railways, B.T.C.), Mr. S.B. Warder (Chief Officer, Electrical Engineering, British Railways, B.T.C.), Mr. S.G. Hearn (Operating Superintendent, London Midland Region), Mr. J. H. Fraser (Chief Officer, Signal & Telecommunications, British Railways, B.T.C.) and Mr. T. S. Pick (Chief Electrical Engineer, London Transport Executive).
So that delegates from overseas Governments and railway administrations may inspect the latest products of British manufacturers, seven leading trade organ- isations in co-operation with the Federation of British Industries offered facilities for Congress delegates to' visit anyone of 74 different factories and industrial plants in various parts of the country. Included among the works open for inspection were the majority of the builders of locomotives of all types. Detailed arrangements for the Congress were made, on behalf of the British Organising Commission, by an Arrangements Committee of Officers from B.T.C. Headquarters, the Railway Regions, B.T.C. associated undertakings and London Transport, under the chairmanship of Mr. J.L. Harrington (Chief Officer, Marine & Administration, B.T.C.). Mr. E. E. Whitworth is English General Secretary of the Congress.

British Railways. 67
The following new engines had been placed in service. Eastern Region Co-Co Electric Class EM2 No. 27001; London Midland Region, 2-10-0 Class 9F Nos. 92008, 92009; North Eastern Region, 2-6-0 Class 3MT Nos. 77002, 77004; Scottish Region, 2·6-0 Class 3MT Nos. 77005-77007; Southern Region 350 h.p. diesel shunter Nos. 13044, 13045; Western Region, 0-6-0PT Class 94XX Nos. 8440, 8442, 8443, 9491.

Aid to Recruitment on the Railways, Wolverton Training School. 67
A learn-as-you-earn training school was opened 2 April at Wolverton Carriage & Wagon Works by J.W. Watkins, Chief Regional Manager of British Railways (London Midland Region). The school, which will accept boys leaving school, is fully equipped with a large workshop with the necessary machines and lecture and film projection rooms. Trainers will receive practical instruction under workshop conditions for a full year in joinery, coach bodybuilding, welding, painting and electrical work. At the end of the 12 months course in the training school, apprentice trainees will be transferred to the works, where training will follow a carefully planned schedule which guarantees every apprentice being given the same opportunity in accordance with the principles of the progressive system of workshop training which operate throughout the Works.

B.R. new lightweight diesel trains. 68-9. 2 illustrations,  diagram (elevation and plan)
Part of £2 million programme: the Derby built units w ere powered by bus-type underfloor horizontal engines of at least 125 h.p. The units illustrated had Leyland engines, Lysholm Smith torque converters and Walker diouble reduction final drive. They could run in multiple with up to eight cars. The initial areas to be served were the West Riding of Yorkshire, West Cumberland, Lincolnshire, East Anglia and on Newcastle to Middlesbrough services.

Development in Portuguese E. Africa. 69
Construction of the new railway line into Rhodesia from Portuguese E. Africa continued to make good progress. The temporary high level bridge over the Limpopo River had been completed .and construction trains were now able to run into the railway base of Mebelane about 50 kilometres beyond the Limpopo

Mr. W. P. Snedden. 69
Death on 23 April of W. P. Snedden, Chief Technical Engineer of the Rolling Mill Division of British Timken Ltd.

B.R. Eastern Region improvements. 69.
Large programme of new works in the Eastern Region had been authorised by the B.T.C. Included in the schemes is the provision of plant for pre-steaming locomotives at Colwick. The hot water washing-out plant at Colwick Motive Power Depot had become due for overhaul and reconditioning and the opportunity had been taken in carrying out this work to provide pre-steaming facilities for locomotives. There were two boilers provided for washing-out purposea and two additionai boilers were to be installed to meet the additional commitment of pre-heating. All four boilers will be interconnected and each provided with mechanical stokers. Pre-steaming lines were to be installed in the shed complete with flexible connections and pressurised fire starters. The boilers will be sited so that coal can be unloaded direct from wagon to hopper to minimise hand labour. The benefits which are anticipated from installation of the pre-steaming plant are more uniform heating of boilers and fireboxes, diminution of smoke when steam is being raised and a saving of fuel in locomotives during the lighting-up process. There will also be improved availability by a saving of three engine preparation hours for each locomotive pre-steamed.
A further matter included in the programme is the fire protection of cable routes on the Liverpool Street-Shenfield electrified lines. Since the introduction of electric working between Liverpool Street and Shenfield in 1949 there have been a number of line-side cable fires, some of which have caused severe or fairly severe damage and in some cases serious dislocation of traffic has resulted. Certain protective measures were carried out following a cable fire in April, 1952, including the protection of the cables on vulnerable sections by special sheeting. It has been found from experience, however, that this sheeting deteriorates fairly rapidly, causing a parting between the protective coating and the steel, and the presence of bitumen in the protective coating has added to the fire risk. As a result of the steps now being taken it is hoped that full protection will be given to all cables, both electric and signal, and further trouble avoided.

Western Region locomotive renamed. "Castle" class locomotive. 69
No. 5017 has been renamed The Gloucestershire Regiment.

Mr. S.T. Clayton, M.I.Loco.E. appointment. 69
Motive Power Superintendent, London Midland Region. He entered the service of the former Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway as an apprentice at Horwich Works in 1909. Among tmore recent appointments held by Mr. Clayton had been the positions of District Locomotive Superintendent, Rugby from 1940 until 1943, when he was appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Polmadie. In 1945, he was appointed General Assistant (Motive Power) to the Operating Manager, Northern Division, L.M.S. Glasgow, and in 1949, became District Motive Power Superintendent, Glasgow (North), Scottish Region. Later that year he was appointed Assistant Motive Power Superintendent. L.M.R., which position he now vacates.

New Zealand Government Railways: The Royal Train. 70. 4 illustrations.
HM The Queen boardin train at Wanganui station; train leaving Palmerston North for New Plymouth behind two diesel locomotives; at Cross Creek behind two AB class locomotives and on Rimutaka Incline with three locomotives belching smoke and steam. No Royal journeys should be without this one!

B.R. Class 3 Standard 2-6-0 locomotive. 71-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Amazing new design for services on North Eastern and Scottish Regions

The measurement of train resistance. 72-5. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Precis of H.I. Andrews paper No. 531

The Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 75
Repeat order from Peruvian Corporation for one 2-8-0 for 3ft gauge Trujillo Railway.

Mechanical Handling Exhibition.  75
To be held at Olympia 9-19 June: British Thomson Houston and Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. exhibits

Diesel trains for Northern Ireland. 76. illustration
Passenger services over the former Belfast & County Down Railway between Belfast and Bangor are now worked entirely by diesel trains. The last steam operated passenger train ran on 27th November, 1953. In May 1'952 the first diesel train was put into service. Since then there has been a regular output of three-coach sets every two months from the Ulster Transport Engineering Works. The B. & C. D. Railway, under the Transport Act (Northern Ireland) of 1948, became a constituent, with the Northern Counties Committee, of the Ulster Transport Authority.

Mr. W. Cyril Williams. 76 illustration (portrait)
W. Cyril WiIliams, F.R.G.S., A.M.Inst.C.E. M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., M.lnst.T., and Past President of The Institution of Locomotive Engineers, retired on 30th April from the Executive position of Sales Director with the firm of Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd., although his services are retained as a Director of the company. He commenced his railway work in 1906 with an apprenticeship to the Natal Government Railways where his training, apart from the general workshop course. included running shed, signal department, footplate and drawing office experience. He attended the Durban Technical Institute and obtained the Abe Bailey Scholarship in 1909, the James Brown Exhibition in 1910 and the Institute Scholarship in 1913. For a short period in 1912 he was a lecturer at the Institute. In 1913 Mr. Williams was appointed a junior engineer to the Chief Superintendent Motive Power at Johannesburg. During the first World War he was commissioned in the South African Engineer Corps and served throughout the campaign in German South West Africa with the rank of Captain in the Railway Regiment. During this time he was locomotive foreman at Usakos and later held the rank of Assistant Superintendent (Mechanical). Following the campaign in Sonth West Africa, he was posted to France in the Royal Engineers, being promoted in the field to Army Locomotive Superintendent. Mr. Williams is one of the most widely travelled railway men and is renowned for his encyclopaedic knowledge of railways in all parts of the world. He went to the United States and Canada in 1919 on behalf of the South African Railways where he was responsible for the inspection of locomotives. wagons and other railway equipment. After one year he returned to London where he acted for a short time as Advisory Engineer to the South African Railways. eventually returning to South Africa on the staff of the- Assistant General Manager in Durban. Up to 1923 Mr. Williams was largely engaged on special engineering test duties, in particular with locomoti ve performance, and he was associated with the early tests of the Garratt articulated locomotive. In 1923 he joined the firm of Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd., and opened their London Office as London Manager. As an enthusiastic advocate of the Beyer-Garratt he has taken a large part in its successful development and use by many railways throughout the world. He was subsequently designated Sales Director of the company and in I945 was elected to the Board. During WW2 his wide experience and knowledge of overseas railways was freely drawn upon by the War Office and the Ministry of Supply, and he actively par- ticipated in the work of his Company on important armaments and locomotive production. During the past thirty-one years he has travelled on railways in all parts of the world, and has been a great and popular Ambassador for Britain, and British locomotives. He has made many contributions to the technical press and .in papers read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers; his Presidential address was reported in our 1950 volume, page 15· He has many friends throughout the world who will join in expressing the wish that, after a full and most successful career, he will enjoy many happy years of retirement.

350 h.p. diesel shunting locomotive — Renfe. 77. diagram (side elevation & plan)
Twenty diesel electric shunting locomotives using Sulzer engines built under licence by La Maquinista Terreste y Maritima of Barcelona and Babcock y Wilcox of Bilbao and Crompton & Parkinson generators.

S. Ellingworth. The locomotives of Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.  78-9. 2 illustrations
One factory handled 11,000 wagons per week. 118 steam and 20 internal combustion engines were operated. Liveries were varied: black, grey, maroon, blue and green. Most were saddle tanks with outside cylinders and inside valve gear. There were eight six-coupled, but the remainder were four-coupled. Two 0-6-0STs were at the Dyestuffs Divion's plant at Blackley, Manchester: they were built by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. in 1919 and 1920 and had to be able to cope with 1 in 33 gradients. The Lime Division 0-6-0 was built by Avonside in 1921. It, and three four coupled locomotives were fitted with the vacuum brake to handle 40-ton hopper wagons at Tunstead Quarry used to convey limestone to Winnington. Four 0-6-0 side tanks (No. 42 Isis illustrated) were at Billingham to handle trains weighing up to 1000 tons. They were built by Stephenson, Hawthorn & Co.: two in 1928 and two in 1947. The others were named Tyne, Tees and Cam

Railway Exhibition at Willesden. 79
To demonstrate to delegates attending the International Railway Congress and to the general public the latest developments of railway locomotives, rolling stock and engineering equipment, British Railways and London Transport are to stage a special exhibition at Willesden Motive Power Depot, London, N. W. This will be open to the general public between 15.00 and 19.00 on Wednesday, May 26 and. 10.00 to 19.00 daily on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, May 27-29. This exhibition will be one of the largest ever arranged in this country. Some 14 locomotives will be on view, including the new class 8 4-6-2, a class 9 2-I0-0, the "Fell" diesel-mechanical locomotive, the Brown-Boveri gas turbine and the Co-Co electric locomotive described on p. 52. The coaching stock exhibits total 12, among them being some London Transport motor cars, and a Lancaster- Morecambe electric line motor coach. No less than 20 types of wagons will be seen and there will, in addition be many commercial, civil engineering and signal and telegraph exhibits.

B.R. cafeteria car. 79. illustration
One of the latest type of 49 cafeteria cars which are being used on special party train traffic throughout British Railways including the "Starlight Specials". This car has a twin bar for the service of hot and cold drinks and light refreshments and provides seating accommodation for eleven passengers at each end.

16th Railway Congress: review of electric traction systems. 80-1
The subject of Question 3, considered during the 16th International Railway Congress, "To investigate the technical and economic aspects of the basic charac- teristics of electric traction systems'· now in use with a view to deciding whether and to what extent there are relevant reasons for prefering one system to another. In particular are there any reasons in regard to—(a) power supply (b) overhead line and fixed track installations (c) motive power units (d) working and maintenance costs?"
The International Railway Congress asked S.B. Warder, Chief Officer (Electrical Engineering) of the British Transport Commission, to report on this subject and his report covers not only Great Britain and her allied territories, but also North and South America, the Commonwealth of Australia, Burma. Ceylon, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, South Africa and Sweden. Mr. Warder dealt first of all with the changes that have taken place in the 20 years since a similar question was asked at the Congress at Cairo in ·1933. The most important event, it was explained, was the advent of a new electric traction system, namely the 50 cycle alternating current system which was first tried in Hungary and Germany and which is now in use on a French line and also in the Belgian Congo and Great Britain. In the same period other forms of railway motive power have established themselves and new forms of transport have very materially affected the operational requirements for successful railway work. Owing to the changed conditions it is obvious that a number of railway lines built in the early days of railways will have to be closed while others of high traffic density will justify the considerable cost of electrification. Most important are the suburban lines which need punctual, fast, frequent and comfortable trains. It is therefore necessary to consider carefully the type of motive power and rolling stock used, and the type of power supply and fixed installations. For lines of high traffic density the system with the best motive power characteristics might well be preferred even though the one having a lower initial cost is most likely to regain or even attract revenue earning traffic.
The following four traction systems form the basis of the study:—direct current of 1,500 v. and 3,000 v.; single phase A.C. 11,000 to 25,000 v. at low frequency (16.2/3) or at standard industrial frequency (50/60 cycles). Great Britain uses extensively 600 to 800 v. third (or third and fourth) rail systems. In a report on electrification of railway systems the British Transport Commission in 1951 gave opinions why this system should not be extended and accordingly the reporter did not deal with that system in detail. Consideration was mainly given to the systems mentioned earlier. Motive power equipments of proved qualities are available for the first three of these systems. Generally it can be said that D.C. equipment is cheaper in first cost and maintenance than A.e. equipment of similar performance and that the low-volt D.C. equipment presents fewer problems and is likely to be more reliable in service. The 50 cycle A.C. system has been little used as yet but progress so far made has been sufficiently substantial to enable successful major schemes to be developed. Although great improve- ments have been made in the design of A.C. commutator motors the DC. motor has still better traction charateristics than its A.C. counterpart with a rela- tively poor starting performance. Converter equipment is an attraction for the reason that it combines the advantages of the D.C. traction motor with the high voltage contact line; the use of the modern rectifier is to be considered especially in this connection. The report goes carefully into the question whether locomotive electrification is an advantage over the use of motor-coach stock. High density of passenger services demands a succession of light trains and if locomotive power is not to be wasted it seems reasonable to use locomotives of moderate output arranged for multiple unit control. Such locomotives would be much more attractive financially if they could be arranged to carry a payload which again comes back to the suggestion that a multiple unit train may be more suitable for providing rapid, frequent and comfortable transport of a kind which could enable the railways to take a profitable lead once more in this sphere. Such motor coaches or locomotives could maintain speeds of up to 90 miles per hour for average distance. For the majority of passenger services motor coach stock presents great advantages and the characteristics which have made multiple unit electrification schemes very successful in Great Britain and in urban services in many other count.ries were examined. Special stress was laid on the simplified terminal working, as the lines are cleared of any locomotive movement and the train is ready to leave as soon as it arrives. The horse power per ton of train weight is more or less constant. Whatever the length of train the acceleration and speed char- acteristics are the same. The correct motive power for a given service is thus automatically provided and the schedule can be maintained with any train length up to the maximum allowable. The division of power also permits the use of lighter motors, gear assemblies, bogie construction, etc.
The concentration of the motive power into one unit results in the production of a massive machine which, even if only for psychological reasons usually demands the presence of two men in control. By com- parison, the unobtrusive powerequipmentofa multiple unit train leaves the driver almost unconscious of the power he controls. The usual deadman equipment enables one-man control of the train to be used with perfect safety over long distances.
The report then continued to review power supply for A.C. and D.C. electrifications in greater detail especially problems of transmission lines and sub- stations, and investigated the cost of electrifying first of all a short line of 90 route miles, carrying heavy traffic and worked by 72 motive power units. In this instance the Reporter computed the total cost in the case of both 1,500v. D.C. and s. ph. 50 cycle A.C. as £8.6m and while motive power units of the A.C. system would cost Hm more, that amount would be saved on sub-stations, fixed installations, and overhead lines of the A.C. system. In the second example which comprised 360 route miles of line carrying only light traffic and worked by 24 motive power units, a 50 cycle single phase A.e. system was proposed said to involve only 55 per cent. of the capital cost of the 1,500 v. D.C. electrification. While clearances and signal modifications are estimated to cost about twice as much as the D.e. svstem the overhead line cost is halved and that of sub-stations and feeders reduced from £2.4m to £200,000. Motive power units were shown as costing 15 per cent. more for the 50 cycle system than for the D.C. system. For very heavy traffic there appears to be little to choose between the two systems financially, but there is a considerable advantage in using a high voltage system on long lightly-loaded lines.
Questions were put to the various administrations asking why they had chosen their present systems of electrification. The British Transport Commission replied that general electrification would be on the 1,500 v. D.C. overhead line system, the conductor rail system being retained on certain parts of the Southern Region. Possibly 3,000 v. D.e. or single phase A.C. at lower standard frequency would be used for secondary lines with light traffic providing that this would not hinder the operation of lines equipped with 1,500 v. D.C. If inter-running were not a factor attention would be given to 3,000 v. D.C. or the A.C. 50 cycle stystem but. any economy remaining after pro- viding bigger clearances would not make the change of system worth while.
Prof. Dr. Ing. e. Guzzanti was the reporter on Question 3 for Austria, Belgium and Colony, Bulgaria, Czechoslavakia, France and French Union, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Colonies, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey and Yugoslavia. Prof. Guzzanti recalled that at the 1933 Congress, when dealing with the problem of railway electrification, a comparison was first made between electric and steam traction. The question now considered in- vestigated the advantage of the various electrification systems. After a detailed and interesting historical review this Reporter decided that today only 1,500 and 3,000 v. D.C. and 16.2/3 cycles and 50 cycles single phase A.C. are of interest, coming therefore to the same conclusion as Mr. Warder for the British section.
Dealing first with the question of power supply the Reporter expressed the opinion that special high voltage distribution lines or special power stations are not essential for railway electrification, except. for low- frequency A.e., in fact for D.e. systems the joint use by railways and other users of power stations and supply lines is of considerable advantage. The next point dealt with sub-stations of the rotary converter, transformer, and rectifier types. After discussing the problems of "Un balancing" of a three-phase network through a single-phase railway load, the voltage limits were considered. The Reporter holds the view that total operating cost should be the main consideration whether a locomotive is efficient or not, for this reason he favoured converter locomotives which, although costly, can he fully employed on heavy haulage, thus reducing the, number of engines required. The 50 cycle motor coach is not considered to be sufficiently far advanced to be compared with D.C. or 16.2/3 A.C. motor coaches.
The estimated cost of electrifying the Milan-Venice line with 3,000 v. D. C. or 50 cycle single phase A.C. showed that fixed installations would cost approximately 32 per cent. of the total cost with 3,000 v. D.C. By the use of a 50 cycle system 57 per cent. of the cost of fixed installations could be saved, while the cost of locomotives would go up by 14 per cent. The final result 'would be a saving of only 9 per cent., if however, the system could be worked with half the motive power the difference would be a saving of 27 per cent. It is, therefore, obvious that the success of the system depends on the type of traffic.
The replies of various administrations to the question on the life of their equipment are interesting. For high-voltage transmission lines, the Swiss Federal Railways quote 40 years and others 50 years, except the Netherlands Railways, which quote 25 years. The Netherlands and French National Railways both estimate 25 years for the electrical equipment in substations, and 33 and 75 years respectively for the substation buildings. Other replies give figures varying from 33 to 50 years for Sll bstations as a whole, without dis- tinguishing between buildings and apparatus. Life of the overhead system is estimated at 40 to 60 years. Periods of 33-45 years are given for motive power equipment. The Reporter concluded by stating that all four systems examined are technically capable of providing an efficient railway service with the following reservations:.-(a) a D.C. system (especially 3,000 v.) requires complicated substations; (b) a low frequency single phase A.C. system requires special feeder lines or frequency converter substations; (c) a 50 cycle single phase A.C. system might. have an unbalancing effect on the grid system and the complicated locomotives required are a further disadvantage, as well as the lack of proved types of motorcoach equipment; (d) all systems still disturb the telecommunication net-work.
The Reporter is of the opinion that these problems are capable of solution and expects that the present Thionville-Valenciennes electrification will make an important contribution to this point. In addition to the subjects mentioned the problems of co-existing different electrification systems were reported upon.

New "Bristolian". 81
Scheduled to leave Paddington at 08.45 an Bristol at 16.30 and complete the journey in 1¾ hours an an average speed of 67 mile/h. 

L.M.R. appointment. 81
Eric Baker appointed Divisional Motive Power Superintendent, London Midland Region, Crewe.

Light alloy air reservoirs. 81
To save weight and increase durability, investigations have been proceeding into the development and manufacture of light alloy reservoirs. As a result of co-operation between the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd., Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. Ltd., and James Booth and Co. Ltd., an aluminium alloy air reservoir is to be installed in the braking system of the Metropolitan- Vickers gas-turbine locomotive for service trials. Metropolitan-Vickers are also going to install one of these reservoirs on a diesel-electric shunting locomotive.

K & L Steelfounders & Engineering. 82
While it is commonplace when describing locomotives to make mention of the manufacturers of many of the components it is seldom that the suppliers of the all-important steel castings receive credit. In view of the great importance of such castings in modern locomotives of every form of propulsive power we have pleasure in placing on record some of the many contracts with which K & L Steelfounders & Engineers Ltd. have been connected. The resources of this firm, which is among the world's leading suppliers of steel castings for railway purposes, are probably sufficiently well-known as to render elaboration unnecessary and it will suffice here to mention the exceptional facilities which exist for research, and control and examination of the product, together with the fact that this company is the supplier of the SCOA-P wheel centre. This centre. which is being increasmgly applied, was illustrated and described in our issue of July 1951, since when we have referred to many locomotives in which it has been embodied.
The 2-8-2 locomotives for Spain (page 38) have driving axleboxes cast by K & L, who supplied these both for the 25 engines built here and for the 100 which are to be constructed in Spain. For ten locomotives of the 2-8-2 wheel arrangement for Iraq (page 40), all general castings were supplied in addition to the wheel centres. They arc also supplying The North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. with 26 set of SCOA-P coupled wheel centres for the "30" class locomotives for East African Railways and Harbours and very shortly will be starting manufacture of the castings, including SCOA-P wheel centres, for the "31" class locomotives to be built by The Vulcan Foundry Ltd. for the same Authority. In the course of standardisation it is interesting to note that the coupled wheels for both "30" and "31" class, although being built by two different builders. will be indentical. Further work includes ten sets of castings, general and wheels, for the WL class locomotives now on order from The Vulcan Foundry Ltd., and 26 part sets for the VF class locomotives for Western Australian Railwavs being built by Robt. Stephenson & Hawthorns. A large quantity of steel castings is also produced at Letchworth for diesel and electric locomotives. The motor coach illustrated on page 47 of this Volume includes a number of K & L castings. amongst them the traction motor yokes. No less than 400 traction castings were supplied to Crompton-Parkinson for the Toronto Subway Cars (page 43). K & L have also supplied electrical traction castings amounting to many hundreds of tons to English Electric for the 3,000 volt electric locomotives being built for R.E.N.F.E.; all these locomotives have SCOA-P wheel centres, similar traction castings and SCOA-P wheel centres are also on order for the G.I.P .R.
Amongst current work may be mentioned castings for 360 traction motor sets for 60 diesel-electric locomotives to be supplied by The English Electric Co. Ltd. to the Victorian Railways. The same builders also have on order traction motor castings for the 5F class diesel-electrics for South Africa. These consist of the motor vokes and about 8 or 9 other patterns to the extent of 256' sets. Also in hand are several hundred traction motor sets for standard diesel-electric locomotives which The English Electric Co. Ltd., are building for Queensland, New Zealand, Gold Coast, etc. Traction castings in quantity and variety are also on order for the recently negotiated Brazilian contract by Metropolitan-Vickers. The latter firm are also building diesel-electric locomotives for the C.I.E. and again K & L are making the motor and generator yokes and most of the other castings.
Metropolitan-Vickers, Crornpton Parkinson and G.E.C. all have contracts from British Railways for electrical equipment for their standard 0-6-0 diesel-electrics and K & L arc making most of the traction castings for these. Corresponding mechanical castings are on order direct from British Railways.
In addition to the orders rnen tioned, at the moment over 1,000 tons of castings are in hand for British Railways, many of which relate to carriages and wagons and B.R. standard locomotives.

Canadian Pacific Railway. 82.
The following equipment was received from builders during the period 19 March to 20 April. 456 50-ton box cars from Canadian Car & Foundrv Co., Ltd., the first of an order for 750. One R.D.C. coach ordered from the Budd Company. Eight 16,000-gallon tank cars from Canadian Car & Fou ndrv Co. Ltd., completing an order for 40. Two 1,750 h.p. diesel "B" units from General Motors Diesel Ltd., making six received of eight ordered. Three 1,750 h.p. diesel "A" units from General Motors Diesel Ltd., making five received of an order for 11. Seven 1,600 h.p. diesel road switchers from Montreal Locomotive Works, making nine received out of 21 ordered. One 1,600 h.p. diesel "A" unit and one 1,600 diesel "B" unit from Canadian Locomotive Co., the first of an order for two each.

Diesel-electric locomotive for Southern Region. 82
The third and most powerful of the Southern Region's main line diesel-electric locomotives No. 10203 was brought into service this month.
Built at the Ashford and Brighton Works this 2,000 h.p. locomotive weighs 132 tons in working order, with a maximum speed of 90 m.p.h. Similar in appearance to the two previous diesel-electric locomotives No. 10201 and 10202 it has a driving cab at each end with the central part of the body housing the diesel generator, auxiliary machinerv, control 'apparatus and fuel tanks. This new locomotive will be used on express services between London and Weymouth or Exeter.

Victorian Railways J class locomotives. 83-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-8-0 built Vulcan Foundry: thirty coal fired with Hulson Grates, and further thirty oil-fired.

Giesl oblong ejector. 84.
"It is understood" that device to be fitted to 30 locomotives of Austrian Federal Railways including 20 4-8-0s in long distance service on the Southern line.

Reviews. 84

Cours d'exploitation des chemins des fer. Ulysse Lamaille. Paris: Dunod. 312pp.
Studies in railway working. Second edition. Covers train and locomotive resistance, and motive power withn emphasis on French and Belgian practice.

Mr. W.N. Pellow, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco. E. 84
Retirement after more than fifty years service: Assistsnt Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Engineer at Wolverhampton, Assistant to the Locomotive Running Superintendent and Outdoor Assistant to the C.M.E. (Collett); Divisional Carriage & Wagon Superintendent at Bristol, then Old Oak Common. Latterly Chief of Motive Power on Western Region.

Mr N.R. Peach, A.M.I.Loco.E.  84
District Motive Power Superintendent, Crewe from 1 May 1954: formerly in Assistant position; following retirement of James Foster.

"Popular Carriage". 84
Scholes, Curator to British Transport Commission had assembled an exhibition of model road and railway carriages in the shareholders' room at Euston Station including an actual omnibus operated by the Kent & East Sussex Railway.

Woolwich Arsenal. 84
Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd supplied a B-B type diesel mechanical locomotive to work on 18 inch gauge system: repeat order of a type supplied in 1934.

Obituary. 84.
E.M. Bywell, aged 80: editor of former North Eastern Railway Magazine and first curator of York Railway Museum from 1922.

Number 742 (June 1954)

B.R. class 8 4-6-2 locomotive No. 71000. 88-90. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)

Number 743 (July 1954)

Time changes all. 103
Attitudes to railway travel especially in USA and call for road improvements in UK. Partly driven by booklet produced by American Car & Foundry Co: How to travel by train published to encourage rail travel

Rhodesian Railways. 103
Had taken delivery of 4-8-4 locomotives with condensing tenders from Henschel & Co. similar to locomotives supplied to South African Railways by North British Locomotive Co. and Henschel

300 h.p. diesel-hydraulic shunting locomotive. 104-5. illustration, 2 diagrams
Supplied to Shelton Iron, Steel and Coal Co. of Stoke by North British Locomotive Co: 0-4-0 with Voith North British hydraulic transmission capable of haulage on 1 in 44 gradient. 

F.J.G. Haut. New Swiss mountain rail coach. 105. 2 illustrations
St Gallen to Mühlech Railway which had been converted from cable haulage using counterr-balance system to Riggenback rack system. Coach built by SLM of Winterthur in co-operation with Brown Boveri: railway had gradient of 1 in 4.5, 1.2 m gauge and cars accommodated 68 passengers.

Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. Ltd. 105
In conjuction with Bellamy & Lambie formed Westinghouse Brake & Signal Company SA (Pty) in Johannesburg with A.R. Walwyn from  Bellamy & Lambie (Managing Director) and M.W. Shorter (MD of Westinghouse in England) and N.V. Davies and J. Pryce as directors

S. Ellingworth. The locomotives of Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. 106-8. 2 illustrations, diagram
The Alkali Division did not number its locomotives and only used names. The Metals Division at the Kynoch Works in Witton had two unusual locomotives. No. 3 was a very squat outside cylinder 0-4-0T which had been a crane locomotive. It had 14 x 22in cylinders, 3ft 5in wheels and 160 psi boiler pressure. No. 4 was a Ramsbottom inside-cylinder 0-4-0ST: it had been LNWR running numbers 1439 then 1988 and was No. 3042 when sold in 1919. It had a cylindrical firebox (diagram), 14 x 20in cylinders and 4ft 1in coupled wheels. It was presented to the British Transport Commission in June. The Dyestuffs Division in Huddersfield used a fireless locomotive built by Hawthorn Leslie & Co in 1930. It had 17 x 16in cylinders activated by Walschaerts valve gear. Diesel traction was used at Winnington Works and at the Nobel Division at Ardeer where explosives were manufactured. There was a 2ft 6in gauge system employing Ruston-Horsby 27 hp locomotives with clutches and gearboxes. The standard gauge lines used North British Locomotive Co. locomotives with Voith hydraulic transmission. The new Wilton plant would use diesel locomtives.

Dining cars for the Argentine. 108-9  2 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations, sections & plan)
Built by Werkspoor J.J. Beijnes Carriage & Wagon Works at Beverwijk in Holland

1,000 H.P. diesel-electric locomotives for Brazil. 110-11. 2 illustrations
A1A-A1A built by English Electric for metre gauge railways from Recife to Afogadas de Ingazeira and to Maceio.

Rehabilitation Workshop, B.R., W.R. 111
Following the lead of the medical profession. British Railways (Western Regiou )  were developing a Rehabilitation Workshop at Swindon. The object is to sustain in employment by the provision of productive work during their convalescence. injured workmen whose return to work would normally be longer delayed. Machinery has been specially adapted to provide a form of graduated work to a selected group of muscles or to give increasing ranges of movement in one or more joints. Apart from accident cases, it is hoped tc also provide for those who require "toning up" after operation or long Illness.
While working in the Rehabilitation Workshop, men are paid at the basic rate applying to their normal work and admission is entirely voluntary. Work was begun ten minute later and finished ten minutes earlier than the normal factory hours to avoid the usual rush in the approaches to the works.

British Railways. 111
The. following new engines had been placed in service:
Eastern Region 2-6-0 Cl. 4, Nos. 76035-76037;. 2-10-0 Cl. 9. No. 920I2.
London Midland Region 4-6-2 Cl. 8, No. 71000; 2-6-0 Cl. 2. Nos. 78021-78024; 2-6-4T Cl. 4, Nos. 80083, 80084; 350 h.p. diesel shunter No. 13050.
Southern Region 4-6-0 Cl. 5, Nos. 73051, 73052.
Western Region 4-6-0 Cl. 4, Nos. 75026-75029; 0-6-0PT Cl. 94XX, No. 9492 (Built by the Yorkshire Engine Co )

Centenary of Paddington. 111
To mark the centenary of the terminus at Paddington, a tablet was unveiled on 29 May, on No. 1 Platform, by A.S. Quartermaine, C.B.E., M.C., a former Chief Engineer of the Great Western Railway and of the Western Region and a Past President of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Inscribed on the tablet are the dates 1854 and 1954, below which, and slightly inset, is a bronze plaque in low relief depicting the head and shoulders of Isarnbard Kingdom Brunel, in a tall beaver hat, and with the inevitable cigar. Beneath this bronze an appropriate inscription is cut in the stone. At the foot of the panel, in bronze, is the Coat of Arms of the former Great Western Railway Company—the joined shields of the Cities of London and Bristol.

Steel Ride. 111
We recently saw the film Steel Ride dealing with the production of railwav material. which had been made for the Steel Peech & Tozer branch of the United Steel Companies Ltd. The subject was dealt with factually, objectively and in an interesting manner and packed a large amount into the running time of 32 rnmutes and ranges from the sequences of the melting shop anrl ingot casting to the machining, fitting and use of the finished product. .

Appointment. 111
British Railways announced the appointment of H.E.A. White as Motive Power Superintendent, Western Region.

2-10-0 locomotives for Greece. 112. illustration.
Illustration: 195 ton 2-10-0 locomotive for Greece on test at Sampierdarena. What were among the largest steam locomotives in Europe were being built in Italy for the Greek State Railways, and the first three or four of them had entered service on the Athens-Salonika line. Their principal dimensions were: two cylinders 26in. by 27½ in., 63 in. wheels, 255 psi. boiler pressure, evaporative heating surface 3,359 ft2., superheating surface 1,346 ft2., grate area 60.3 ft2, adhesive weight 100 tons, total engine weight 132 tons, tender weight 63 tons, overall length of engine and tender 81 ft., tractive effort at 75 per cent. boiler pressure 56,500 lb. The boiler barrel had a maximum diameter of 82 in., and the round-topped firebox contains four arch tubes and is prolonged forward into a combustion chamber. Exhaust is through a double Kylchap arrangement. No mechanical stoker is provided but provision had been made in the design of engine and tender for one to be fitted at a later stage should this be found necessary. The boiler was fed by a pump delivering through a feed-water heater, and by an injector. Piston valves are actuated by Walschaerts motion. The cast steel driving and coupled wheel centres were of the SCOA-P type, supplied by Societa Italiana Ernesto Breda who are sole selling and manufacturing licensees in Italy under a licence granted by K & L Steelfounders and Engineers Limited, Letchworth, England under power of Attorney granted by the original inventors and patentees, the Steel Company of Australia (Pty). The Vulcan Foundry Limited, Newton-le-Willows, were designers and technical advisers to all European licencees. Leading and leading coupled wheels were combined in a Krauss truck and the driving wheels are flangeless, in order to get the engine round the curves of 985 feet radius out on the line. Bar frames were used, and in general these and the various cross stretchers and drag boxes are welded up. Altogether 20 of these locomotives, with double-bogie 5,500 gallon 12-tons of coal tenders, wee being built, ten by Ansaldo at Genoa and ten at Milan by Breda. Despite a height of almost 15ft. it was found possible to try one of these engines over the 1 in 40. grades ot the Brenner line of the Italian State Railways, a route which was electrified on the three-phase system.

The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. 112. illustration.
Viscount Brookeborough, visited the main works at Rugby of The British Thomson-Houston Company on 18 May. The photograph reproduced, taken on this occasion, included:. H. L. Satchell (Director, Manager Rugby Works, BTH) , Lord Glentoran (Minister of Commerce, Northern Ireland), J.S. Borrington (Supt Turbine Factory, BTH Rugby), Viscount Brookeborough (Unelected Prime Minister of Northern Ireland), E. H. Ball (Managing Director, BTH), W.W. Vinsen (Director of Manufacture, BTH), . W.N. McWilliam (Asst. Sec. to the Cabinet, Northern Ireland), D.R.S. Turner (Asst. General Superintendent. Rugby Works, and Manager of Larne Factory), H. Dreghorn (General Superintendent, BTH Rugby Works). The visit was of particular interest in view of the BTH decision to erect a new factory, for the expansion of their turbine business, at Larne, Northern Ireland.

Birmingham. New Street. 112
British Railways held an exhibition of locomotives and coaching stock at New Street Station to commemorate the centenary of the opening: of the station.

Italian locomotives with Franco-Crosti boilers. 113-14. 2 illustrations
P.M. Kalla-Bishop described the five streamlined (No. 683.981 illustrated) 685 class 2-6-2 originally built in 1927 but modified in 1940 and allocated to the Venice SEA depot and also illustrates a non-streamlined 2-8-0 No. 743.015 and notes that British Railways were about to embark on fitting Franco-Crosti boilers

Cor-Ten Steel.  114
For the first time in the United Kingdom Cor-Ten steel has been rolled on the hot strip mill. The Steel Company of Wales announced that they had rolled some of this high-tensile corrosion resisting steel in coils and sheets at the Abbey' Works, Port Talbot. Cor-Ten is the registered trade name given to this steel by the United States Steel Corporation and it is produced in this country under licence. This material possesses good working and welding properties, and weight-far-weight has much greater strength than mild steel. While Cor-Tenis not a stainless steel it has a good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, and is also more resistant to abrasion, fatigue and impact that ordinary steel. These characteristics render it particularly suitable for use in the manufacture of railway wagons, etc. and it has a wide application, for this and other purposes, in America, where it has been shown that the resulting maintenance economies more than offset the higher initial cost. The first large order for it has been placed through R.T.S.C. Home Sales Ltd., by British Railways; to be used for the manufacture of wagons.

Swedish State Railways. 114
Order from ASEA works for two fast electric locomotives of a new type: 3.000 h.p. units to develop a top speed of 93 m.p.h. The high output of the new units was combined with a relatively low axle load and they could haul up to eight bogie coaches on lines which are not severely graded, e.g. Stockholm-Gothenburg and Stockholm- Malmoe. Maximum service speed was about 80 m.p.h. Mechanical parts of these locomotives  were being supplied by Nydqvist & Holm of Trollhaettan.

Japanese diescls. 114
Japanese National Railways order for 13 diesel-electric locomotives of 63 tons weight and 56 m.p.h. top speed for main-line mixed-traffic working, and powered each by a Sulzer engine of 1,000 h.p. at 850 r.p.m. Starting tractive effort is 35,000 lb., wheel arrangement Bo-Bo, bogie wheelbase 7ft. 6in., bogie pitch 18ft and overall length 38ft. 9in.

Portuguese Notes. 114 . illustration
On page 63 of this Volume were illustrated and described the motor trains built by Fiat for Portugal. They were used on the Lisbon-Oporto services and complete the run of 210 miles, including seven stops, in about 4¼ hours. Delivery of stock built in Holland commenced in March, with the receipt of two diesel railcars of the new series 35 and 20 trailers. When this order has been completed it will bring the number of railcars received since 1948 up to 70, and the corresponding figure for trailers to 31. Also on order are 35 Budd type stainless steel coaches. The first three of seven ordered from France were delivered in March, these are for use on International services. We are indebted to J. H. Richards for these particulars, and also for the reproduced photograph.

Bagnalls of Stafford. 115
Investment in its offices, including a larger drawing office and in its plant. A 450 ton Fielding & Platt flanging press had been installed to increase its boiler output. The wheel shop had acquired improved boring machines. Unionmelt submerged automatic welding had been installed. 0-6-0STs were being built for the National Coal Board. Boilers were being supplied to the Mauritius Government Railway and to the Jodhpur Railway. Four-wheeled and Bo-Bo diesel electric locomotives were being built for the Steel Company of Wales. Diesel mechanical locomotives were being supplied to the New Zealand Government Railways and to the Tasman Pulp & Paper Company.

New Hungarian railcars. 115.
Three-car diesel electric trains with Ganz-Jendrassie diesel engines and air conditioning and a dining car forming the central vehicle accommodated 128 passengers. They were known as Hargita and used on services between Budapest and Nyiregyháza. A unit had been sold to Czechoslovakia for use on Prague to Berlin services.

Diesel for Bolivia. 115
Sulzer of Switzerland supplied the Machacamarca-Uncia Railway with a C-C metre gauge diesel electric locomotive.

Coal-burning steam-turbine-electric locomotive. 116-17. illustration, diagram (side elevation).
Described as a 6-6-6-6, but C+C-C+C might be more suitable, was in effect a power station on wheels as it had a Babcock & Wilcox water tube boiler with a self-cleaning travelling chain grate which operated at 600 psi and 900°F. It was supplied to the Norfolk & Western Railway where C.E. Pond was General Superintendent of Motive Power, by Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton.

Cornish Riviera Express. 117
Celebrated its 50th birthday on 1 July. It was the outstanding performance of a Royal Train showing the possibilities of non-stop long distance runs which led up to the introduction of this famous express. In 1903, the Prince and Princess of Wales, afterwards King George V and Queen Mary travelled to Falmouth for the opening of the first Transatlantic Wireless Station, their special train running non-stop from Paddington to Plymouth via Bristol, a distance of 246 miles in under 4 hours. In June the following year, the Riviera made a trial run and was officially introduced in the timetable on  1 July 1904, being scheduled to leave Paddington at 10.10 a.m. In 1906 it was re-routed to run by the shorter route via Westhury and re-timed to depart at 10.30 .

G.E.C. Rectifiers for Netherlands Railways. 117
The General Electric Co. Ltd. entrusted by the Netherlands Railways with an important contract for pumpless steel-tank rectifiers. The order covers a total of thirteen twin-cylinder units each rated at 1,224 kW at 1,530 volts and includes electronic arc-suppression equipment. This contract is the latest in a series received by the G.E.C. in the post- war period for rectifier equipment for the rehabilitation and expansion of the electrified section .of the Netherlands Railways, and brings the total quantity of fixed and mobile rectifiers supplied and on order for this administration to 76 cylinders with a combined rating of over 45,000 kW.

Review. 117

The Third Woodhead Tunnel. George Dow. British Railways (London Midland Region)
To commemorate the formal opening of the new Woodhead Tunnel by Alan Lennox-Boyd, 3 June, 1954. 28-page booklet divided into four chapters dealing with the earlier tunnels. preliminaries, construction and completion of the third tunnel. The text is well illustrated with photographic reproduction and line diagrams including a map of the old and new tunnels and connecting lines. The author is to he congratulated upon the production of this very interesting account of the greatest tunnelling achievement in this country during the present century.

Electric Power Convention — Traction. 118.
Among the papers presented to the British Electrical Power Convention, held in June, was one by Sir George H. Nelson, Chairman and Managing Director The English Electric Co. Ltd., on "Electrical Engineering in World Trade". The paper covered—as will be gathered from the title—a vast subject and the following extract is taken from the section relating to Traction.
Transport represents a much bigger proportion of cost and distribution than the average person realises, and it plays an important part in the extent of our success in world markets. It is, therefore, important that our railways should be efficient. In considering the prospects of export trade in traction equipment, it is of interest to study diesel transport in the U.S.A., where during the year 1951, for example, the production of diesel locomotives reached a peak of 3,558, with a value estimated to be $650 million. Nearly all this production comprised standardised types for the U.S.A. home market This huge production, concentrated mostly in two plants, enabled formidably low production costs to be achieved. If we are to secure a proper share of the world's demand for such locomotives, we must standardise our production on a basis competitive with theirs.
Out of some 19,000 locomotives running in the United Kingdom today, we have only 81 electric and 6 main-line diesel-electric locomotives in service. Apart from the possible influence on our export trade, more electric and diesel traction at home would bring benefits to British Railways and its users, and therefore to the nation.
On the basis of the figures in the Cock Report on Railway Electrification. it can be estimated that roughly half the lines in this country could be electrified economically. There are many other lines which could be worked more economically with diesel traction than with steam. Such a policy. of course. requires a bold outlook on capital expenditure. amounting to many millions of pounds. It is encouraging to see that British Railways are making a start. This programme, however, is quite modest in view of the magnitude of British Railways, and the tremendous field for exploitation.
Sir George expressed the opinion that the case of diesel traction in this country is sometimes misrepresented. It has been stated that the cost of diesel locomotives is four times that of steam locomotives. This is an exaggeration. Another point is that little tribute is paid to the much higher capacity for work of the diesel locomotive and the lower costs of its fuel and maintenance. There is misunderstanding when comparing fuel costs. There may be little difference in the cost of fuel consumption as between a steam- hauled train and a diesel-hauled train on comparable test runs, but this is not a true picture, and does not take into account the steam locomotive fuel used non-productively in such operations as preparation, standby and blowing down. The magnitude of these losses is not generally appreciated. At the present time, our railways consume a total of some 14 million tons of our best coal every year. If British Railways statistics are analysed, and fuel costs' calculated on the basis of the inter-change locomotive trials in 1948, it would appear, out of these 14 million tons of coal, a mere 5.85 million tons are required for the running of all the freight, express and mixed traffic on British Railways. To this figure must be added coal used for shunting purposes, which can be but a small proportion of the difference between 5.85 million tons. and the total of 14 million tons consumed annually on British Railways. In other words, a large proportion of the 14 million tons is used non-productively. The national coal consumption is currently about 208 million tons a year, and is increasing. The Ridley Committee Report and British Electricity Reports suggest that Britain will be short of approximately 20 million tons of coal a year by about 1965. In addition to improving the efficiency of our Railway transport, it is clear that we must do everything possible to conserve our most valuable asset. With general electrification the consumption would be reduced to some 5½ million tons, and this would be low grade coal as used in central power stations. Concluding his remarks on traction, Sir George said that as electrification and or "dieselisation" would increase efficiency on the railways by savings in working expenses, and provide the public with faster, cleaner and generally better services, it should be adopted as soon as possible, both for its own sake, and to ease traffic on our roads. By so doing it would also provide a base load for overseas trading in electric and diesel-electric locomotives.

B.R. new cafeteria-restaurant cars . 118
Rising costs and the altering habits of the traveller have necessitated radical changes in the railway catering service. As illustrated in our May issue (page 79). cafeteria cars have been introduced on many services. and a further development is the provision of combined cafeteria-restaurant cars, two, of which were being built at Eastleigh and the first of which put into service on 12 July on the 13.35 train from Nottingham to St. Pancras and the 19.10 train from St. Pancras to Derby. As other cars become available. they will run between St. Pancras and Bradford. Sheffield. Manchester. Glasgow and Edinburgh.
The new cars will serve either set meals or light refreshments from one vehicle continuously throughout the journey and should prove extremely popular. At one end of each car is an 18-seat restaurant of attractive design in which meals will be served at the usual restaurant car prices. At the other end there is a compact cafeteria. comprising self-service counter and nine seats. and offering a full range of light refreshments and. if required, hot dishes so as to form a complete luncheon or dinner at popular prices. The kitchen divides the restaurant from the cafeteria and is equipped with hot-plates. grill. hot cupboards and refrigerator. Both restaurant and cafeteria are fully licensed.
As the new type of vehicle enables up to 64 meals to be served at one time. the Cafeteria-Restaurant Cars will usually be placed next in the train to an open-vestibule type coach. thus enabling meals to be served in this adjoining vehicie if required. From the cafeteria end of the car passengers will be able to take their trays into their own compartment if they wish.
The cars are 61ft. 6in. long and 9ft. 0in. wide at the waist. and weigh 35 tons. The general equipment, kitchens, sinks, cabinets. furnishings and fittings have been designed in the British Railways works at Eastleigh. The oven, grills and other kitchen equipment are supplied by Benham & Sons and the cafe set by W. M. Still & Sons. Ltd .. both of London. The fuel used in the kitchen is an equal mixture of propane and butane gas.

Cylinder fixing with shear strips. 119. 2 illustrations, diagram.
No. 46203 shown in photograph. Notes that fixing technique also applied to cylinders of BR Class 8 No. 71000.  

G.E.C. platform lighting. 120
New Twickenham Station of the Southern Region, for which new lanterns for fluorescent tubes were manufactured to the design of the Civil Engineer by the General Electric Co. Ltd. All the lanterns are mounted at right angles to the tracks so that the station name is continuously visible from trains running into the station. A  12ft. internally illuminated name sign on one platform was also supplied by the G.E.C.

Festiniog Railway. 120
A society has been formed to attempt to re-instate passenger services on this narrow gauge railway in North Wales. The line is about 13 miles long between Blaenau-Festiniog and Portmadoc. Fairlie type locomotives were an interesting feature of the railway, which was opened for traffic over a century ago.

Bolivian railcars. 120
The cars, supplied by The British Thompson-Houston Co. Ltd., and described on page 59 of this volume, were in operation between Potosi and Sucre, 109 miles, over a summit 12,900 ft. high, and where the grades are as steep at I in 34 and there are constant curves down to 250ft. radius. The curvature, and the necessity to guard against frequent rock falls, limit the top speed to 28 m.p.h. The cars are worked in convoy with some old petrol cars, and make the journey from one end to the other in about 7 hours inclusive of a 45-mmute stop at Vila Vila.

East African Railway progress. 120
Excellent progress is reported to have been made with the construction of the new Lourenco Marques-Southern Rhodesia railway. Crossing points complete with station buildings and staff housing had been built as far as Mabelane, an important base on the new railway 80 km. beyond the Limpopo crossing. Track laying, which is going forward at 1to 1,5 km. per day is now 70 km. beyond Mabelane and was expected to be completed to the Rhodesian border before the end of 1954. Construction of earth works on the Rhodesia side has now been commenced northwards from the Mocambique-Southern Rhodesia border. The extension of the Lourenco Marques- Vila Luisa line to Manhica, some 72 km. north of Lourenco Marques, has been started. This line will eventually form part of: the main line to Rhodesia and will also assist development in the Incomati Valley.

ISO Committee on Pallets. 120
Delegates from many ccuntries attended the meeting, recently held at the British Standards Institution in London, of the Pallets Committee of the International Organisation for Standardisation. Dimensions and loading of standard pallets were agreed:.

Model Railway Club. 120
The very large and well-attended Exhibition staged annually by this Club has now reached a stage where it appears to us finality has been attained so far as quality is concerned. The models of locomotives, rolling stock, track and lineside accessories have reached such a pitch of perfection, certainly in the smaller scales, that it seems little, if any, further improvement is possible. It must not be inferred from this that there will be no change. Yearly a large number of models appear of other prototypes. Some of the results on show this year of subjects hitherto neglected were extremely well made—as indeed were almost all of the exhibits. The whole show reflects great credit upon the many who contributed both to the making of the models and the organisation—which must be a tremendous undertaking.

Reviews, 120

Applying the pressure. The British Productivity Council. 120
This is the thirteenth review m a series ot surveys of British industries, which originally sent Productivity Teams to the U.S.A. under the auspices of the Anglo-American Council of Productivity. The Pressed Metal Industry Team visited America in 1949, and, in 1951, an American team visited Britain. The Amencan team's report was also published by the Council. The pressed metal industry is among the most important of British engmeenng industries, as it deals with a wide range of articles, such as parts for railway wagons, motor vehicles, aircraft, refrigerators, down to tin cans, etc. The report deals extensively with techniques, material handling, plant layout etc., and reviews the work done bv some of the leading firms of the pressed metal industry. -

British Railways. Test Bulletin No. 6. The British Transport Commission. 120
This addition to the series of reports. already published on the comprehensive performance and efficiency tests carried out on British Railways, relates to. the Class 5 two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed-traffic locomotive. As. is customary with these reports the one now issued contains much of interest in addition to a wealth of test results. Among the interesting features of this report are the indicator diagrams obtained by the use of a modified "Farnboro" indicator. It will be recalled that this indicator and its application to steam locomotives formed the subject of a paper presented by R.E. Morgan to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers (Journal No. 233). It produces diagrams on a basis of angle of rotation of the driving axle, instead of the stroke basis, and also builds up the diagram over a large number of revolutions, in place of one or two. A further point of interest is the modifications made to improve steaming. These included the substitution of grid type firebars for the Hulson bars. originally fitted, the increase in air space so obtained to- gether with more direct air passage, resulted in an increase of 1,000 lb. /hr. in steam production when Blidworth coal was fired and reduction in smoke production. Additional increase in maximum evaporations were obtained by reduction in the' diameter of blast pipe caps. The graphs include some which show the higher vacua obtained by this reduction and the quadruple relationships between steam, air, gas, draught and hlast pipe pressure.

Leitfaden fur den Dampflokomotivdienst. Von Leopold Niederstrasser, Verkehrswissenschaftliche Lehrmittelgesellschaft M.B.H. Frankfurt. 120
In German. This is the 8th edition of this well-known book which is a guide, both theoretical and practical, to the steam locomotive. As will be gathered from the fact that the book runs to over 600 pages, the subject is dealt with in considerable detail. The comprehensive text is supported by many good lineand half-tone illustrations and there are 11 loose folding plates which show many technical details and arrangements of .the main components; diagrams of many German locomotives are also included. German locomotive practice has always been worth a careful study and the book under review provides an excellent opportunity of becoming familiar with up-to-date practice in that country. The book  is well produced and must be regarded as one of the most important works on the subject for it contains much information that is not, so far as we are aware, available elsewhere.

Locomotives and train working in the latter part of the' 19th century. Vol. 6. Edited by. L.L. Asher. Cambridge: Heffer & Sons Ltd. 120
This, the last of the reprints of Ahrons' classic works. which appeared originally in The Railway Magazine, deals with that fascinating subject- the Irish railways. Many will deplore the fact tha.t no further volumes in this series can be pleasurably anticipated for Ahrons' work was unique and presented a mass of valuable information in a manner all his own. Both Editor and Publishers have done an excellent job in making this series of articles available to present-day enthusiasts.

German steam locomotives. 120
More of the 23-c1ass standard 2-6-2 mixed-traffic locomotives of 19 tons maximum axle load and with all-welded boilers and all-welded' frame structures are now being delivered to the German Federal Railway, 14 from Henschel, nine from Krupp and' four from Arn. Jung.


Swedish power-gas locomotive. 177

P.C. Dewhurst. Commentary on "Railway locomotives down to the end of 1831".  186
Next part of Commentary

O.S.M. Raw. Some locomotive reminiscences. -201

August & September Issues: L. Lynes. Wagon design

"December Issue" Clean Air Committee chaired  by Sir Hugh Beaver: see Volume 61 page 123

Updated  2019-09-06