see also artists and public relations
Until very late included with civil engineers
Britain's historic railway buildings: an Oxford gazetteer of structures and sites. OUP. 2003. 759pp.
Includes extremely concise biographies of architects. The structure is dictated by what is Listed (in confined meaning of that term): thus there are some considerble gaps in the coverage and some rather strange entries. Thus Truro, a city of some character, and with a pleasant if not spectacular station, has an entry limited to stumps of an early viaduct. Welwyn Garden City which lost an attractive station which matched the original new town has no entry for that, but does have one for the White Bridge which no longer crosses any railway line. Nevertheless, within its defined limitations it is a very useful work. Reviewed J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc., 2003, 34, 486...
The British railway station (Railway History in Pictures series) with Jeffrey Spence. David & Charles. 96pp illus. throughtou.
Reviewed by MLH (Michael Harris) in Rly Wld, 1978, 39, 98
Derby and the Midland Railway. Breedon.149 pp,
Reviewed by John Edgington in Backtrack, 1996, 10, 636 which notes that written by an architect
Marcus Binney. All change? BR's policy on architecture. Railway Wld, 1978, 39, 6-9.
Clarke, Linda and John Ives, Stuart Rankin
and Paul Simons, on behalf of Roy Moorcroft, Chief Architect, BRB,
Aspects of Railway Architecture. Bristol Marketing Board on behalf of BR, 64pp,
Reviewed in Rly Wld, 1985, 46, 575
Great Western Railway architecture in colour. Vol 1. Buildings, from Brunel to Beeching. . Manchester: Crecy Publishing, 2018. 176pp, 248 photoraphs, Reviewed by Matthew Searle in J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc., 2019, 36, 449
Railway Architecture (Shire Library). 2015. 64pp.
Not existent in Norfolk's sub-standard library (presumably mentions train station in "City" of Norwich).Womderful little book which features Wemyss Bay on its title page and has an excellent concise bibliography and an index as well as highly informative illustrations and concise text. Book may be small but captions are lengthy and informative.
Ives, John, Rankin, Stuart and others
Aspects of railway architecture
E-book available from Transport TreasuresThe Royal Institution of British Architects celebrated its150th anniversary in 1984, and British Rail decided to mark the occasion with an exhibition dealing with historic and modern examples of railway buildings. The Regional Architect at York, Norman Millin, was asked to oversee the project. A member of his staff, John Ives, was jointly to curate the exhibition, with Stuart Rankin who had written previously on the subject and had display and exhibition experience, and was loaned by the Regional Public Affairs Department. Linda Clarke, of the Architects Department was tasked with graphics and photo captioning from text supplied to her. By coincidence, the City of Bristol was also wanting to mount an exhibition celebrating the architectural work of I. K. Brunel and the Citys restoration work on his original Bristol Temple Meads station train shed. Paul Simons of the Citys Planning Department therefore joined the project, taking responsibility for the sections on Brunels work and Bristol.
Britain's 100 best railway stations. Viking, 2017. 326pp.
Jenkin's five star stations are: Bristol Tempple Meads; Glasgow Central; Liverpool Lime Street; London King's Cross; London Liverpool Street; London Paddington; London St. Pancras; Newcastle Central; Wemys Bay and York.
Reviewed by CH jn Backtrack, 2018, 32, 574
This is the latest book from Simon Jenkins, which lists his favourite railway stations. It continues a theme from earlier publications, which includes England's 1,000 Best Churches, England's 1,000 Best Houses and England's 100 Best Views.
Jenkins is eminently qualified to produce a book which celebrates British railway architecture, having served as a trustee of The Architecture Foundation and a board member of both British Rail and London Transport. In 1984 he founded the Railway Heritage Trust, persuading British Rail Chairman Sir Bob Reid to fund the body to the tune of £1 million for five years.
The first 40 pages of the book are an introduction to the subject. Jenkins touches on the days of 'Railway Mania', when a number of the great railway stations featured in the book were constructed. He moves on through the years to the mid-twentieth century, which he describes as the period of devastation. The era of Beeching and the fanatical destruction of some of the country's most important railway heritage, supported equally by Conservative and Labour governments. He recalls his meetings with John Betjeman and other like-minded souls who slowly moved opinion away from demolition to conservation and restoration.
The book is then divided geographically with stations selected from the main line, London Underground and Heritage Railways. London's major termini dominate, but there is a sufficient spread of locations to prevent any suspicion of southern bias. Each station's narrative includes at least one colour photograph.Jenkins has relied on the work of Gordon Biddle for dates, architects and general accuracy, but gaffs still occur. For example, he states that Yorks station's 'York Tap' was built as a pub in 1906: wrong, it was a tea room, a clue is in its location, Tea Room Square!
The author gives awards of stars to each station, which he states is now the custom for public attractions. The stars are determined by his response to each particular location. Maximum five stars go to ten stations, including Bristol Temple Meads, Glasgow Central, St. Pancras, Paddington, York, Newcastle and James Miller's wonderful Wemyss Bay. Strangely, Charles Holden's iconic Southgate station on London's Piccadilly Line must have been giving really bad vibes when Jenkins visited as he assesses it as one star!
The author breaks his rules by including two stations which are no longer operational. The first Manchester Liverpool Road is now part of the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry. He bemoans the fact that due to the museum education officer's desperation to 'engage' young children the station is bloodless. A charge some level against the National Railway Museum, also part of the Science Museum Group. Secondly he includes the ex-Wolferton station on the evidence of a one thousand signature petition to reopen the Hunstanton branch.
On a more positive note there are glowing testimonials for new construction and modernisation at St. Pancras and King's Cross and the sympathetic fit to the original station fabric. He also congratulates work at George Osborne's northern powerhouse figurehead, Manchester Victoria, including its connectivity to the Manchester Arena, which was sadly in the news in 2017. During the introduction Jenkins draws on John Schlesinger's 1961 film 'Terminus', describing Waterloo station as living theatre as People Rush, People Work, People Wait. So it is surprising that many of the book's photographs are completely devoid of human activity, let alone trains! Consequently the images, though technically excellent, become nothing more than a sterile record, lacking both scale and drama.
This is an entertaining and informative book and will attract a wide audience. Hopefully it will encourage railway traveller to confine their mobile phones to their pockets and instead wonder at some of the most stunning railway architecture in the world
KPJ has some reservations: 1. no Glasgow & South Western Railway stations are listed in spite of James Miller's excellent station at West Kilbride (he produced stations for all three of the major Scottish railways) and W. Curtis Green's extraordinary streamlied station at Girvan. 2. Includes Dolau a sort of Welsh West Runton (much loved by volunteers, but lttle used), but no building worthy of inclusion; also Porthmadog given 3 stars but no named architect why not Weybourne? He states that Manchester Liverpool Road station (the original L&M terminus) has Sir John Soane-like buildings, but there is no actual connection with Soane.The book also trnsgresses outwith the steamindex period to include very contemporary comment on architrectural revivals as at King's Cross and Manchester Victoria: should John McAslan be included?
British Rail designed 1948-97. Ian Alllan, 2016. 272pp.
Reviewed by Kevin Jones in J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc., 2017, 39, 119
Underground architecture. London: Capital Transport, 1994. 208pp.
Includes extensive biographical appendix which includes artists
Lloyd, David and Donald Insall
Railway station architecture. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1978. 60pp.
First published in Industrail Archaeology in August 1967 and reprinted by David & Charles in 1967. David Lloyd contributed the main text and Donald Insall contributed an examination of St. Pancras then under dire threat of demolition and a quaint look at stations in the Wye Valley which he had hoped could be transferred to the National Trust. Liverpool Street was then under threat and Euston had gone with no hint of how it might have been saved.
London Underground: architecture, design and history. with photographs by Jane Magarigal. Stroud: History Press, 2018. 144pp.
London Underground by design. London: Penguin Books, 2013. 288pp.
Architects & designers
Allom, Sir Charles Carrick
Born in Kensington, London, on 16 June 1865. Died Potter's Bar, Middlesex 1 June 1947. Grandson of architect Thomas Allom and painter Thomas Carrick. He was an eminent English decorator, trained as an architect and knighted for his work on Buckingham Palace. Among his American clients in the years preceding World War I was Henry Clay Frick, for whom Allom furnished houses in cooperation with Sir Joseph Duveen, the eminent paintings dealer. Allom furnished the Henry Clay Frick House at 71st Street and Fifth Avenue that today houses the Frick Collection, and the neo-Georgian house, "Clayton", in Roslyn, Long Island, designed by Ogden Codman, Jr., that was bought for Frick's daughter-in-law. For the grand rooms of parade in Frick's New York house, Sir Charles, whose London workshops produced the plasterwork and boiseries, kept the furnishings muted, not to compete with Frick's collection of paintings. In 1925, when William Randolph Hearst purchased a real castle, St. Donat's in Wales, his choice to furnish it naturally fell upon Sir Charles. The style generated by Allom, White was distinctly old-fashioned. It appealed to Queen Mary, who was a connoisseur of eighteenth-century English porcelain and furniture. And when the Empress of Britain was launched the same year as the "new" Waldorf-Astoria, among its modern Art Deco decors, the "Mayfair Lounge" by White, Allom was the one space in Edwardian Renaissance manner. The LNER employWhite Allom to decorate its triple articulated restaurant cars for the Flying Scotsman: see Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 268. (otherwise Wikipedia)
Andrews, George Townsend
1805-1855: architect of North Eastern Railway stations: see review of superb book published by NERA in Backtrack, 2012, 26, 510. Biddle Victorian stations pp. 56-60... Another review by Gordon Biddle in J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc., 2012, 58. See also Hartley in Early main line railways and Jenkins who includes some of his stations, notably Beverley: Work displayed in Ives.
Ashbee, William Neville
Born in Gloucester in 1852; died on 30 April 1919. Joined Edward Wilson & Co. in 1874 which at that time was working on the Great Eastern Railway extension into Liverpool Street. In 1883 he became the architect of the GER. Jenkins mentions his involvement in Liverpool Street and gives special mention of Norwich, Ingatestone (a too frequent London Parkway for Norwich trains), Hertford East, Wolferton and Chapel & Wakes Colne where no trace of the station is shown, but only a signal cabin (surely beneath his subject's dignity.
Banister, Frederick Dale
Born 15 March 1823 and baptised at St. Andrews Church in Holborn. Family left London for Preston in Lancashire in 1830s and Fred was educated at Preston Grammar School and then articled to John James Myres, a Preston civil engineer. Jenkins lists Crystal Palace, the exotic Eastbourne and Portsmouth & Southsea stations.
Simon Jenkins includes Slough station amongst his top hundred stations and states that J.E. Banks was its architect. Vaughan surely is incorrect in suggesting J.E. Danks?
Born in Hackney, London in 1814; died in Ipswich on 6 December 1898. Educated at Christs Hospital School where his father was master. Articled to architect Sydney Smirke (1798-1877) working in London, and then worked in Liverpool for several years before coming to Ipswich in 1843 to assist his friend John Medland Clark (1813-1849) on the new Custom House building. In 1850 opened his own practice from 13 Lower Brook Street, Ipswich where he lived with his wife. He later moved his office to Hatton Court and in 1888 had one of the largest architect practices in the town, his most notable buildings were the railway stations which he designed for the Great Eastern Railway in a Tudor Gothic style, the best of which survive are at Needham Market, Stowmarket and Bury St Edmund's: this last according to Jenkins also shows the work of Sancton Wood..
Beattie, William Hamilton
Born 10 December 1842, son of an architect; died of a stroke on 29 November 1898. Architect of North British Hotel at Waverley station in Edinburgh. Also designed Jenners department store and engineered the cable tramway system.
Born in York on 11 February 1844; died 5 October 1919. Chief architect of the North Eastern Railway between 1877 and 1914 (when he retired to Whitley Bay). Jenkins' accolades go out to Darlington, Hull, extensions to Newcastle Central and at York and Tynemouth. Online adds Alnwick now serving as an eccentric secondhand bookshop.
Bonomi, Ignatius Richard Frederick Nemesius
Born in London on 31 October 1787 and died in Wimbledon on 2 January 1870. Baptised in the Sardinian Chapel in London. Main work in County Durham where he became Surveyor of Bridges for the County in 1824. George Stephenson brought him in to design the Skerne Bridge: one of the first railway bridges in the UK (over the River Skerne, near Darlington), for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, (hence he is sometimes referred to as 'the first railway architect'). See Hartley in Early main line railways
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom
Brunel also has a page to himself, but this paragraaph is limited to his rather strange architectural style. See Ives where he receives considerable attention
Architect of Newcastle Metro station at Jesmond commended along with other Metro stations (but not illustrated) by Jenkins.
Culverhouse, Percy Emerson
Born 20 August 1871; died 7 May 1953. Chief Architect Great Western Railway 19291945. When 21 he was registered as a clerk at Paddington Station, working for the Great Western Railway. He progressed to Architectural Assistant to the New Works Engineer and in April 1929 was appointed Chief Architect to the Great Western Railway. He retired in September 1945 and was succeeded by Brian Lewis. The concourse of Cardiff Central station of 1923-35 receives commendation from Jenkins who also suggests that the art deco style at Leamington Spa station may be due to his influence.
Curtis, Frederick Francis Charles duplicate
Born in Darmstadt, Germany in 1903; died 1975. Came to Britain in 1933 and worked for Southern Railway. Moved to Adams, Holden & Pearson in 1936 and in 1947 replaced Brian Lewis as Architect on the GWR;became Chief Architect of the Western Region; then for British Railways. Architect to British Transport Commission. Held a doctorate. Responsible for Central Line extension stations at Hanger Lane, Perivale and Greenford. Ovenden. Lawrence Paper: Railway architecture in Instn Civ. Engrs Proc: Engineering Divisions, 1954, 3,172 82 [greedy "Charity" charges £24 for copy of this paper]. Succeeded by Kaukas..
Manchester architect responsible for the 1909 frontage and offices for the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway at Victoria Station. Following a major reconstruction which included a new tram station it received three stars from Jenkins
Dawson, J. Crosbie
Architect of Preston station (better known for a ghastly bus station. See Jenkins
Dobson, John duplicate
Born on 9 December 1787 at Chirton near North Shields in Northumberland. Died in his home at 15 New Bridge Street, Newcastle on 8 January 1865. Plaque in main entrance to Newcastle Central station (his masterpiece) see Humm J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc.,, 2015, 38, 252... ODNB entry by T.E. Faulkner. Excellent concise biography by Gordon Biddle in Oxford Companion, usual thorough biography by R.W. Rennison in Chrimes. Highly pertinent, if somewhat rambling, comment by Christian Barman:.
Dobson, who inspired but did not design the Newcastle portico as we now see it, had absorbed the grand tradition in the office of Sir Robert Smirke, but Vanbrugh was another powerful influence. Within two years of his return to Newcastle he was engaged on the restoration of Seaton Delaval for Sir Jacob Astley after the great fire; it was one of his first commissions. By a rare coincidence, one of his last was concerned with the same building; a later owner, Lord Hastings, called him into consultation when more work had to be done after a second fire. Newcastle Central station is his acknowledged masterpiece; the circumstances in which this building came to be finished by another hand makes it also a memorial of one of the great personal tragedies in our architectural history. Dobson, when he was working out the de- sign for the York, Newcastle & Berwick and the Newcastle & Carlisle railways, foresaw inevitable developments and combina- tions in railway operation and planned his station accordingly. The directors made him reduce the size of his building. The walls were halfway up when they decided to transfer their head office from York to Newcastle; enlargements had to be hurriedly improvised and the great portico had to be omitted. It was added many years later, during Dobson's last, fatal illness, by Thomas Prosser, the architect of Leeds (1869) and York ( 1877) stations The design is manifestly inferior to Dobson's own; no wonder an obituary notice speaks of his 'grief and disappointment' as he lay dying. The place of Newcastle Central in English railway architecture is great and assured; with Dobsori's own portico it would have stood in the front rank with the best of all our public buildings. .
Architect of Worksop station (Jenkins);
Driver, Charles Henry
Born 23 March 1832; died 27 October 1900, at the age of 68. He was a recognised authority on ornamental cast ironwork. He began his career as a draughtsman in the office of Frank Foster, Engineer to the Commissioners of Sewers, London. From 1852 to 1857, he filled a similar position with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, under whom he was engaged on designs for bridges and stations on the Leicester and Hitchin Railway. He was next, from 1860 to 1863, a draughtsman in the Engineer's Office of the London and Brighton Railway, under R. Jacomb-Hood. From 1864 to 1866, he assisted the late Sir Joseph Bazalgette, Past-President, in preparing designs for the masonry of the landing stages and the ornamental masonry of the Thames Embankment, and for the Pumping-stations at Abbey Mills and Crossness. From 1873 to 1892, he assisted the late Sir James Brunlees. McKerrow in preparing designs for King's Lynn Bridge, Clifton and other stations, and Llandudno, Nice and Southend Piers. From 1882 to 1894, he assisted Sir Douglas Fox, Past-President, and Mr. Francis Fox in preparing designs for Preston Station on the West Lancashire Railway, and for Southport and other stations on the Cheshire lines extension; between 1868 and 1870, he assisted Edward Woodsin preparing designs for Santiago Market, and stations on the Boca and Ensenada Railway; and from 1894 to 1895, he assisted A.C. Pain in preparing designs for stations on the Tottenham and Forest Gate Railway. Amongst other things, he designed for the late Mr. R. P. Birch the West Pier Pavilion at Brighton, and during the past three years acted as Architect for the stations (including the Main Central Station) on the Sao Paulo Railway, under the direction of the Consulting Engineers to the Company, D.M. Fox and A. Mckerrow, and James Pforde. Stations: Battersea Park, Denmark Hill, Peckham Rye, Bexhill & Westhhumble and Wellingborough (Jenkins).
Architect of the Great Central Hotel, later Headquarters of British Transport Commission but since restored as luxury hotel (Jenkins). Born in Huntingdon on 13 June 1838. Educated Huntingdon Grammar School and Aldenham School. Architect of Great Eastern Hotel at Liverpool Street station Backtrack, 1996, 10, 144. Died at Grreat Ormesby in Norfolk on 23 June 1927. Member of the Aesthetic Movement and Colonel of the Artists Rifles and portrayed by Spy as Architect Militant (mainly Wikipedia)
Elmslie, Edmund Wallace
Great Malvern station (Jenkins). linked to the Imperial Hotel by a tunnel known as The Worm (all by Elmslie who was born in about 1818 and died in 1889: Internet). Source of funds Jamaican sugar plantations
Great Malvern station (Jenkins). remarkable floral ironwork featuring leaves Jenkins). Born in Kelso in about 1834; son of a mason who died in the 1840s. Set up as a sculptor in Worcester in the 1850s. Stone carvings at Chichester Cathedral. Died 5 June 1915..
Born in 1786; died in 1846. Studied under Jeffry Wyatt in London. In 1809 travelled in Eastern Mediterannean and 1810-11 accompanied C.R. Cockerill and two German archaeologists to Aegina and Bassae to study the temples. Designed the Moorish arch installed at Edge Hill on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. See Hartley in Early main line railways
Foster, Norman Robert
Canary Wharf station (Jenkins). Born 1 June 1935 in Reddish (Stockport). International architect: the Gherkin (30 St. Mary Axe)
Fripp, Francis Charles
Born 3 June 1812 in Rainham, Kent. Died in Bristol on 9 February 1882. Architect of Bristol & Exeter Railway's headquarters in Bristoll (Jenkins)
With W.R. Headley designed Oxford Road station in Manchester from laminated timber using a conoid structure. Jenkins; Lawrence.
Grayson, George Enoch
Born 7 June 1833; died 7 November 1912. Liverpool architect: Hamilton Square Birkenhead for the Mersey Railway selected by Simon Jenkins
Baptised on 15 February 1913 in Horsley, Northumberland; son of John Green, an architect. Pupil of Augustus Charles Pugin and the became a partner of his father. Died in Dinsdale Park on 14 November 1858. (Peter Leach in ODNB). Gordon Biddle (Victorian stations pp. 69-71) devotes a section to him and considers that some of the smaller stations on the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway may have been his designs. The stations on the Newcastle & Berwick Railway were his work with Tweedsmouth being his chef d''oeuvre according to Biddle. Hartley in Early main line railways notes that had used laminated timber arches on the Newcastle & North Shields Railway in 1839. Hexham receives a single star from Jenkins (a view without a shack on the track Pacer might have been better, but his Tynemouth three star station photograph is almost too gaudy! See also Darby Early railway prints page 34.
Green, William Curtis
Born on 16 July 1875 in Alton; died 25 or 26 March 1960 in London. Designed Girvan station for LMS in late 1930s, but station not completed until 1951 when was a late example of the moderne style. Not in Jenkins
Born in Hove on 9 October 1939. Educated at Wellington College, Edinburgh College of Art and Architectural Association School of Architecture. Waterloo International Station was the magnificent British terminal for Eurostar services and opened in 1994 and closed in 2007. Jenkins mentions the wasted structure but does not illustrate it
Hadfield, Matthew Elison
Born 8 September 1812; died 9 March 1885. Practice formed with John Gray Weightman which lasted from 1838 to 1858. Gothic revival. Major works include St. John's Cathedral in Salford and Wicker Viaduct in Sheffield where practice located. Hartley in Early main line railways
Hamlyn, Willaim Henry
Born in Wigan on 16 February 1883; died in Devon in 1969. Trained under Reginal Wynn Owen in Liverpool and then at the Royal Academy School. Joined LNWR in 1911 and in 1934 appointed chief architect of LMS. Plans for a new Euston in 1936 which remained unfulfiiled. Rebuilt concourse at Leeds City station and adjoining Queen's Hotel. Also Derby LMS School of Transport (see Maxwell Craven J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc. 2017 (230), 156 and Locomotive Mag., 1938, 44, 234) There are/were murals by Norman Wilkinson and by Hamlyn, Hoylake station and prefabricated structures installed at Queen's Park and at Bootle New Strand and oddest of all work at the Prestatyn Holiday Camp. He retired in 1949.
Born in London on 15 June 1792; died 28 December 1870. Architect noted for his magnificent Grecian Doric portico at Euston station which were wantonly demolished in 1963. He also designed the Curzon Street terminus of the London & Birmingham Railway in Birmingham. The Great Hall at Euston was also designed by him, but ill health led to it being completed under his son (below). Biddle in Oxford Companion and Hartley in Early main line railways
Hardwick, Philip Charles
Born in 1822 (son of Philip above); died 1892. See above, but also architect of Great Western Royal Hotel at Paddington. Biddle in Oxford Companion
Born in Castleford in 1923. Assistant to N.R. Paxton from 1941 to 1942. Assistant architect to West Riding County Council 1951-3. Joined North Eastern Region in 1954 and was Regional Architect 1916-1974. Chief Archtect London Transport, 1974-81. Lawrence (includes portrait) . Ovenden
Headley, W.R. (Bob)
With Max Glendinning designed Oxford Road station in Manchester from laminated timber using a conoid structure. Jenkins; Lawrence. See also photograph of Headley with Sir Brian Robertson and model of Coventry station. Chelford station. Backtrack, 2020, 34, 306
Heaps, Stanley Arthur
Born 1880; died 1962. Architect responsible for design of several stations on the London Underground system including Maida Vale and Kilburn and on the Edgware extension as well as the train depots. Osterley receives great commendation from Ovenden. Heaps retired 1943. Lawrence (portrait). Taylor with another portrait
Hill, Oliver Falvey
Born in Kensington, London on 15 June 1887; died 23 April 1968.. Articled to William Flockhart between 1907 and 1910. Greatly influence by Edward Lutyens. Designer of country houses. Designed highly regarded Midland Hotel at Morecambe. Appointed consulting architect for the LNER lines in Essex being taken over by London Transport, but only development is the bus station at Newbury Park
Holden, Charles Henry duplicate
Born 12 May 1875 at Great Lever, Bolton, Lancashire; died in his home at 87 Harmer Green Lane, Welwyn on 1 May 1960. His childhood was unsettled by the bankruptcy of his father, and then by the death of his mother in 1883. He went to school in St Helens where his father, trained as a fitter and turner, had found work. In April 1892 Charles Holden was articled to Everard W. Leeson, a Manchester architect, and during his articles he attended Manchester School of Art (1893-4) and Manchester Technical School (1894-6), where he was an outstanding student. During these formative years he made lasting friendships, especially with the artist Muirhead Bone, and found inspiration in the writings of Walt Whitman. Holden's domestic life was always simple, even austere, and he approached his architectural work in an unaesthetic, increasingly impersonal way.
With his articles completed, Holden worked for Jonathan Simpson in Bolton from 1896 to 1897 and then moved to London, where he worked for about a year for the arts and crafts architect C.R. Ashbee. In about 1898 Holden began living with Margaret Steadman (1865-1954), wife of a Scottish schoolteacher whom she never divorced, but with Holden she enjoyed a long and loving relationship, although they had no children. They lived at first in Norbiton, moved to Codicote in Hertfordshire, in 1902 then to Harmer Green, where Holden designed their house. Their way of life combined spirituality, ruralism, and social responsibility. Holden attended the Quaker meeting-house in Hertford, and commuted daily to London.
In October 1899 he joined the practice of H. Percy Adams as chief assistant. Adams specialized in hospital design. Holden won the competition for the Central Reference Library, Bristol (19036), with drawings done in his spare time. Its happy relationship with the cathedral and the adjoining eleventh-century gateway, its dramatically simple rear elevation, and its long freedom from structural defects were remarkable achievements for one so young. In 1907 he entered into partnership with Adams, and works of this time include the British Medical Association at 429 Strand, London (19068; now Zimbabwe House), and the Bristol Royal Infirmary (190912). During the First World War, Holden served with the London ambulance column, and then with the directorate of graves registration and enquiries in France. In 1920 he was appointed one of the Imperial War Graves Commission's principal architects for France and Belgium, alongside Reginald Blomfield, Herbert Baker, and Edwin Lutyens. Over the next eight years he and his assistant architects, notably W.C. von Berg and W.H. Cowlishaw, were responsible for the layout and buildings of sixty-seven cemeteries. Holden's cemetery buildings demonstrate his love of Portland stone and the growing simplification of his work: they are on the whole more severe than those of his colleagues, and their reticence is moving. Between the wars Holden's practice was known as Adams, Holden, and PearsonLionel Pearson had become a partner in 1913. C.H., as Holden was known in the office, was a shy, meticulous, kindly employer, and he had the loyalty of his staff. But he stood rather apart from his partners because so much of his time went on two large but very different projects: for the London Underground and for the University of London. By this time his designing was no longer eclectic. For both clients he designed austerely detailed, geometrical masses, in a style which aimed not to be a style.
Gordon Biddle (Oxford Companion) aptly states that "it was an inspired choice to appomt Holden; for first the Underground Group, and then after 1933 to the London Passemger Transport Board" The work for the London Underground was done in the name of the coherent system of public transport which the chairman, Lord Ashfield, aimed to create out of a tangle of existing networksand in the name of modernity, the special concern of Ashfield's assistant Frank Pick. In the mid-1920s Holden designed façades for stations on the Northern Line extension from Clapham South to Morden: spare, Portland-stone frames that could be bent, like a screen, to suit different sites. In the 1930s, following a short study tour of transport architecture in northern Europe, he designed complete stations at either end of the Piccadilly Line: flat-roofed structures in brick and concrete, quiet, rational, and distinctly modern. Arnos Grove (1932) is the best-known. He also designed equipment and furniture, working towards a coherent visual identity for the underground. When he was elected a royal designer for industry in 1943, it was for transport equipment. Between these two phases came the headquarters of the London Underground, 55 Broadway (19269), also part of Ashfield's campaign for unification. A tall, steel-framed building with the upper storeys stepped back in the American manner, 55 Broadway rose with easier grace and to a greater height than any of its contemporaries, and earned Holden the London architecture medal in 1929.
In 1931 Holden was commissioned to design the University of London's central building in Bloomsbury. The university wanted a tower, partly to give a sense of identity to the many departments scattered over Bloomsbury. Holden designed an immense building facing onto Malet Street between Montague Place and Torrington Place, with a long spine on the axis of the British Museum, towers at either end, and lower wings between the spine and the street. The university could not afford to build this scheme, and in 1932 Holden reduced it to its southern part, which forms the present Senate House, plus individual buildings placed around the edge of the site to the north. It was still ambitious, a tower 215 feet high with space for 950,000 books on an internal steel frame. The rest of the building was of traditional masonry because Holden could not trust steel to last the centuries he and his clients planned for the building.
Holden's buildings display the work of many notable sculptors, including Eric Gill and Henry Moore, but he is chiefly associated with the controversial figure of Jacob Epstein, whose unidealized, partly clothed figures on the British Medical Association building caused a public uproar. This only confirmed Holden in his view that Epstein was a raw, Whitmanic genius, and he employed him again at 55 Broadway, with more uproar. He wished that Epstein's work could have graced the sides of Senate House. During the last decade of his working life Holden was mainly concerned with town planning and reconstruction. Between 1944 and 1946 he reported on the reconstruction of Canterbury with H.M. Enderby, and of the City of London with William Holford. In 1947 he was commissioned by the London County Council to prepare a scheme for the layout of buildings on the South Bank between County Hall and Waterloo Bridge, to supersede the planning sketch of the area included in the wartime county of London plan. Mainly from ODNB entry by Charles Hutton, revised Alan Crawford. Lawrence. Jenkins is mean in his coverage only including Southgate (jaded comment) and Gants Hill Ovenden is vastly better (but the illustrations are small).
Hunt, Sir Henry Arthur
Born in Westminster in September 1810; died on 13 January 1899. Trained as surveyor before setting up his own civil engineering practice in 1828. Hunt worked for Sir Charles Barry on the design of the Houses of Parliament, a large number of railway companies including the lines of the London Brighton and South Coast Railway, Eastern Counties Railway and the Metropolitan Railway in London. He managed the estate of the Commissioners of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in South Kensington and the London property of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster and of St. Pauls. He was briefly a member of the Metropolitan Board of Works, elected as their representative by the Vestry of St George Hanover Square in December 1855. In March 1856 he was appointed consulting surveyor to the Office of Works, and resigned from the board. He held the Office of Works post until 1886. He was largely responsible for acquiring the site and overseeing the construction of the Royal Courts of Justice. He was made a Companion of the Bath in 1871 and knighted in 1876. He was an Associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers and a Fellow of the Surveyors Institution. Stoke-on-Trent station is awarded three stars by Jenkins. Biddle claims that Winton Square which fronts the station was the only piece of town planning undertaken by a railway company to set off its station. Fell Stoke station, Backtrack, 2020, 34, 625..
Born on 20 June 1884; died in Brighton on 28 September 1950. Educated at Tonbridge School and studied at Glasgow School of Art 1900-1903 whilst serving his articles with Alexander Nisbet Paterson. The double villa in Winton Drive, Glasgow was designed when he was only eighteen and barely halfway through his apprenticeship. On completion of his apprenticeship in 1904 or 1905 he moved to London where he joined the office of Leonard Stokes, subsequently spending a short time with Harold Ainsworth Peto before commencing independent practice in 1908. During WW1 he served in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, and received a commission but relinquished it as he did not like giving orders to more experienced men and returned later as an ordinary seaman. He was disabled in 1917 and continued to practise, initially mainly carrying out interior work. He became an important Art Deco designer: the interior of Houslow West for the Underground Group was his design. Intrernet and Ovenden.
James, Charles Holloway
Born in Gloucester on 22 January 1893; died 8 February 1953. Articled to W.B. Wood. Assistant in office of Sir Edwin Lutyens then with Barry Parker & Raymond Unwin. Lost a leg during WW1. After he went into practice with H.R. Thompson and later with C.M. Hennell. Housing in Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City where his influence was visible in former home of KPJ. Worked on Bounds Green and Enfield West (now Oakwood) Piccadilly Line stations. His most important buildings are Norwich City Hall and County Hall in Hertford. Lawrence plus online sources.
Born born in Hackney on 30 July 1922; educated at St Ignatius College, Stamford Hill. died 2 May 2014. During WW2 he spent a brief period as a firefighter in the London Blitz before joining the Royal Navy and serving on HMS Douglas. After the war, he studied architecture at the Northern Polytechnic Institute in London, and worked briefly for two county council departments before going into private practice. In 1959 he moved to the British Transport Commission. In 1968 he succeeded Frederick Francis Charles Curtis as chief architect to the British Railways Board and in 1977 their Director of Environment until he retired in 1982. Responsible for saving the roof at St. Pancras station and restoring Queen Anne style station building at Market Harborough (see Rly World, 1978, 39, 494). He was succeeded as Chief Architect to British Railways by Ray Moorcroft.
Livock, John William
Born on 30 July 1814 at Hampstead, and had ceased to practice by 1877 (Dawn Smith). According to Biddle (Victorian stations pp. 60-2) an important architect whose best work was on the Blisworth to Peterborough line with stations at Northampton Bridge Street, Thrapston, Oundle, Wellingborough London Road, Irthlingborough and Wansford. The line opened in 1845. He was also responsible for stations on the Trent Valley Line, notably at Tamworth, and on the southern section of the North Staffordshire Railway. Died in London on 15 March 1883. Hartley in Early main line railways . See Baker and Fell Rly Archive, 2013 (40) 2. and Mathams and Barrett, Backtrack, 2014, 28, 4. Peter Butler The stations at Wellingborough Backtrack, 2020, 34, 36.
According to Jenkins Exeter architect who with Francis Fox was responsible for enlarging Exeter St. Davids station which he unjustly awards 2 stars (station is difficult to use by train operators and by the public: only Exeter Services somewhere off M5 are worse)
Measures, Harry Bell
Born 1862; died 1940. Architect of Central London Railway stations, also high value housing and social housing and Redford Cavalry Barracks in Edinburgh. Many of his Central London Railway buidings have been demolished during modernisation. Ovenden
Born in 1860 at Auchtergaven, Perthshire. Miller trained with local architect Andrew Heiton, then in offices in Edinburgh. In 1888, he became staff architect for the Caledonian Railway Company, designing stations and hotels in the West of Scotland, e.g. Botanic Gardens Station, Glasgow (1894, demolished 1970) and Wemyss Bay Station (1903-4). In 1888, he joined the Caledonian Railway's Drawing Office in Glasgow, where he designed a number of railway stations under the supervision of the engineer-in-chief, George Graham, and his successor Donald Alexander Matheson. In 1892 he set up in full-time practice on his own, renting an office at 223 West George Street, Glasgow; where he continued to do work for the Caledonian Railway, as well as other Scottish railway companies. In 1894 he gained commissions for stations on the West Highland Railway. His work is also evident for the G&SWR at West Kilbride station and in the Turnberry Hotel. In 1896, he designed the exuberant St Enoch Square Underground Station. Winning the competition for the 1901 Kelvingrove Exhibition buildings (1898), he became associated with the sculptor Albert Hodge, employing him on the sculpture and plasterwork for the Industrial Hall. Both their reputations were made and further joint collaborations followed, including Caledonian Chambers, 75-95 Union Street (1901-3), Clydebank Municipal Buildings (1902) and the former North British Locomotive Company, 118 Flemington Street (1903-9). In 1907, Miller was awarded the commission for rebuilding Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Miller designed the palatial interiors for the RMS Lusitania. A remarkable late mansion was constructed for Euan Wallace, sometime Minister of Transport, at Kildonan near Barrhill in Ayrshire: this shows similarities to Castle Drogo in Devon, but is at risk for lack of continuous care. Latterly Miller lived in Stirling, at Randolphfield, and died there on 28 November 1947. See also feature on Wemyss Bay station in Rly Arch., 2009 (24) 19. A colour photgraph of Wemyss Bay forms the book jacket for Jenkins and is repeated inside with five stars. The Glasgow Art Nouveau style is evident in some of his work. Robert C. McWilliam in BDCE3.
Chief architect for British Rail post 1977: with Headley responsible for new Euston, Birmingham New Street, Wolverhampton and many other structures now being rebuilt yet again! See book reviewed in Rly Wld, 1985, 46, 575
Mulvany, John Skipton
Born: 1813 Died of cirrhosis in 1870. He was fourth son of the landscape and figure painter Thomas James Mulvany. He received his professional training with William Deane Butler. John, while still very young, was 'taken in hand by some of the first nobility and commercial men in Ireland'. He had established himself in private practice by 1836. In this year he received the commission to design an extension to the hotel at Salthill, Monkstown, for the Dublin & Kingstown Railway Company, and between 1837 and 1841 he designed stations at Salthill, Blackrock and Kingstown for the same company. He was later to be appointed architect to the Midland Great Western Railway Company at a salary of £450 per annum,and to the Dublin Trunk Connecting Line. He was also architect to the Dublin Board of Superintendence of City Prisons. Many of his important domestic commissions came from members of the Malcomson family of Portlaw. He was architect of Broadstone station in Dublin. Another transport enterprise with which Mulvany was involved was the Dublin & Kingstown Steam Packet Company, of which he was elected a director early in 1863. Mulvany was singled out for praise by Albert Edward Richardson in his Monumental classic architecture in Great Britain and Ireland during the 18th and 19th centuries (1914). 'If any building expresses the character of its purpose,' wrote of Broadstone station, 'it is this magnificent terminus, which so well illustrates the application of the monumental manner in a spirit of modernity.
Paley, Edward Graham
Born in Easingwold on 3 September 1823, son of the vicar;; died (from typhoid) in Lancaster on 23 January 1895. Best known fior Cuurch of St. Peter now Lancaster Cathedral. He was a director of the Lancaster Waggon Works and architect of the Lancaster Carriage & Wagon Works. Very extensdive Wikipedia entry (8 November 2018). Also Jenkins rapturous entrry for Ulverston station.
Born in Cheltenham on 13 September 1826; died in Bromley-by-Bow on 2 March 1912. Architect to Stockton & Darlington Railway and also did work for North Eastern Railway. Fawcett mentions him in his book and more throughly on website. Middlesbrough station is probably his most important work: see also Jenkins. Also designed Zetland Hotel in Saltburn and Mexborough station.
Penson, Thomas Mainwaring
Born in 1817, son of an architect; died 1864. Employed by Shrewsbury & Chester Railway for stations at Shrewsbury and Gobowen and at Berwin on the preserved Llangollen Railway. Biddle and Jenkins
Born in London in about 1817. His father, also Thomas, evidently worked for Benjamin Dean Wyatt and his brother Philip, members of a noted architectural dynasty. Philip was able but indolent, one of his few individual commissions being the rebuilding of Wynyard Park, in County Durham, as a grand neo-classical country residence for the third Marquess of Londonderry. The elder Prosser moved north to supervise this work, which got underway in 1822, and remained with the Marquess as estate surveyor and, in a minor way, architect. Prosser senior died at Seaham on 24 February 1842. His son, Thomas Prosser was the first architect permanently employed by the NER. being appointed on 1 December 1854, four months after the merger which brought the North Eastern Railway into being. Prior to this, the companies which made up the NER had employed architects in private practice, such as G.T. Andrews, John Dobson and the Greens, or else made use of their engineering staff. After the Hudson debacle of 1849, the need for economy made the latter course the norm. Thus during 1849-53 the York & North Midland Railway relied on their Engineer, Thomas Cabry, only turning to Andrews for works at York Station and a modest hotel at Cattal.
The need for something different was seen by the NER Engineer in Chief, Thomas Elliot Harrison, who did much to shape the organisation of the new company. His initial proposal spoke of a 'clerk of works' to supervise repairs and alterations to existing buildings, but the concept was soon expanded into an architect, who could also handle a full range of new works. It was evidently Harrison who brought Prosser to the Board's attention, having encountered him serving as a clerk of works on the construction of John Dobson's Newcastle Central Station. Prosser went on to build up a substantial and effective office prior to his retirement, due to ill health, in 1874. He was immediately answerable to Harrison and the directors, and attended the meetings of their Locomotive & Works Committee, which scrutinised all building proposals, however trivial. Harrison and Prosser clearly enjoyed a good working relationship, the monument to which is York Station, even though this was not completed until 1877, three years after Prosser's departure. Prosser appears to have been the first architect appointed to a permanent post by any British railway, and the office he developed continued to serve the industry until the privatisation of British Rail in 1996. Fawcett
Scott, James Robb duplicate
Born on 11 February 1882 in Glasgow, illegitimate son of Andrew Robb Scott (architect); died 1965. He was articled to Leadbetter and Fairley in Edinburgh and afterwards moved to Belcher and Joass in London where he was promoted to chief architectural assistant. He joined the London and South Western Railway in 1907. He is noted as the chief architectural assistant in the period of the reconstruction of Waterloo Station between 1909 and 1923. The engineers J. W. Jacomb-Hood and Alfred Weeks Szlumper had designed the roof and platforms. Scott was responsible for the office range and the main entrance and War Memorial to the fallen employees of the Railway known as the Victory Arch at Waterloo (Jenkins);. Sometime early in the evolution of the Southern Railway he was appointed Chief Architect and was responsible for Ramsgate railway station 1925 (Jenkins); Bromley North railway station 1925; Byfleet and New Haw railway station 1927; Dumpton Park railway station 1928; Exmouth railway station 1929; Wimbledon railway station 1930; Wimbledon Chase railway station 1930; Hastings railway station 1931; Bishopstone railway station 1936; Surbiton railway station 1937; Richmond railway station 1938; Malden Manor railway station and other stations on the new Chessington branch 1938/9 (see also Archive Issue 103) and Horsham railway station 1938 (mainly Wikipedia) and responsible for a wide range of stations from a fairly traditional style at Ramsgate to Art Deco at Wimbledon and on the Chessington branch. . See Mel Holley: Fit for the purpose. Steam Wld, 2008 (249), 4-5. who asserted died in 1940.
Sherrin, George Campbell
Ovenden states that born in Essex (although online sources list him as a "Scottish architect") in 1843 and died in London in 1909. Worked on several Metropolitan Railway projects and Ovenden illustrates arcade at South Kensington Lawrence (portrait) states place of birth London.
Born at Woodbridge in Suffolk on 25 July 1808. Francis Thompson was the architect of stations on the North Midland and Chester & Holhead Railways, including the noteworthy Chester Station and the masonry for the Conway Tubular Bridge. He was also architect for several significant structures in Canada. He died on 23 April 1895 back at Woodbridge. Daunt Backtrack, 2012, 26, 317 states that was grandfather of Edward Thompson, CME, LNER. See O. Carter: Francis Thompson... Backtrack, 1995, 9, 213. See also biography by John Rapley in Chrimes pp. 775-7. Biddle Victorian stations.. Hartley in Early main line railways
Tite, [Sir] William duplicate
Born in City of London on 7 February 1798. Articled to architect David Laing and then set his own practice in 1824. Died in Torquay on 20 April 1873. The Royal Exchange in London was probably his most significant work. Many important railway stations, notably for London & Southampton Railway and Lancaster & Carlisle Railway. See Biddle, Gordon Sir William Tite and railways. Part 1. Backtrack, 2008, 22, 530-6. and Part 2 Backtrack, 2008, 22, 630-5. Biddle also contributed the Tite entry in Chrimes and Tite's own section in Victorial stations pp. 62-7. ODNB biography by S.P. Parissien.Hartley in Early main line railways> Tite stations included in Jenkins: Battle; Windsor & Eton Riverside; Huddersfield, Carlisle, Penrith and Perth
Trubshaw, Charles duplicate
Charles Trubshaw came from an architecural family. He was born in 1841, the son of an architect, who was also called Charles and was educated by him His father was the architect and surveyor to the County of Stafford. He became an ARIBA in 1865 and worked for the LNWR until in 1874 when he became the Architect of the Northern Division of the MR. Both Hellifield and Skipton stations were designed by him. The magnificent Midland Hotel in Manchester followed a visit to the USA with William Towle the Midland Railway Hotels' Manager. According to Biddle Britain's historical railway buildings Trubshaw was responsible for architecture on the whole of the MR between 1884 and 1910. The latter is contrary to Dixey who stated that he retired in 1906. The hotel and station at Bradford Forster Square were also his work. Leicester London Road Station is probably his best survivng work (see Jenkins). He died in Derby on 15 February 1917. Charles Trubshaw: a Victorian railway architect. S. John Dixey. Bedside Backtrack, 65-8.
Uren, Reginald Harold
Borin in March 1888 in New Zealand and of Cornish descent. Went to London in 1930 where he became noted for his designs for public buildings and won the RIBA London Architecture Bronze Medal. Buildings include Hornsey Town Hall and Norfolk County Hall. He submitted a design for Finchley Central station, but it was not built, leaving only Rayners Lane station as his contribution to Underground architecture. Lawrence
Weightman, John Gray
Born at Bawtry on 29 March 1809; died Collingham 9 December 1872. Partnership with Hadfield. Natable buildings Collegiate School Sheffield, now University main building, St Mary Mulberry Street (Hidden Gem) in Manchester and many railway stations including at Glossop, Louth, Holton-le-Clay and Ludborough. Hartley in Early main line railways .
Wild, James William
Born 9 March 1814 in Lincoln; died on 7 November 1892. Architect who initially worked in the Gothic style, but later employed round-arched forms. He spent several years in Egypt. He acted as decorative architect to the Great Exhibition of 1851, and designed the Grimsby Dock Tower, completed in 1852 After a considerable break in his career he worked on designs for the South Kensington Museum, and designed the British embassy in Tehran. He was curator of the Sir John Soane's Museum from 1878 until his death in 1892. Hartley in Early main line railways notes the Hydraulic Tower and includes a photograph of it.
Wood, Sancton duplicate
Born April 1815 in Hackney. Educated at a small private school in Devon, and then moved to a school at Hazelwood, Birmingham, run by T.W. Hill whose son Rowland Hill (1795-1879) was author of the penny postal system. The school was run To leave as much as possible, all power in the hands of the boys themselves a philosophy that failed to stimulate young Sancton Wood into serious study. Nevertheless his interest in drawing and family influence gained him a pupillage in the office of his cousin Sir Robert Smirke RA (1780-1867), followed by employment with Sydney Smirke RA (1798-1877). His contemporaries recalled his quiet retiring nature, sometimes excitable, but always courteous. Wood's classical training in architecture and presentation, learned in Smirke's office, gained him early recognition. In 1837 he designed one of London's first railway termini, at Shoreditch for the Eastern Counties Railway. Budget restraint limited the scope of work, but success in competitions followed, beginning with a prize for Ipswich station. Then in 1845 he headed a field of sixty-five competitors for the design of Kingsbridge terminus and company offices, Dublin (now known as Heuston station). The magnificent two-storey office block, nine bays wide by five bays deep, is dominated by attached Corinthian columns between the first-floor pedimented windows. The enclosing single-storey wing walls to the platforms are linked to the office block by an intervening domed turret at each corner. In 1846 he won the £100 prize for Blackburn station. Links with Irish railways led to further work for the Great Southern and Western, between Dublin and Cork, and the Limerick Junction line. Other railway commissions included stations on the Rugby and Stamford line (1846), and Syston and Peterborough route (1847). Jenkins argues that Sancton Wood had a hand in the design of the station at Bury St Edmunds, and possibly in Cambridge station and certainly in Stamford. Wood was elected an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1841, an associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1848, and an associate of the Institution of Surveyors, also in 1848. Commercial buildings, schools, churches, and estate development, principally in the London area, were credited to him. In 1850 Wood, his wife, and their two sons moved to 11 Putney Hill, London, a detached house of his own design where Wood died on 18 April 1886. From ODNB entry Oliver F.J. Carter Oxford Companion entry by Gordon Biddle.
Wyatt, Sir Digby duplicate
Born on 20 July 1820 near Devizes. Involved both with the original Crystal Palace and its reconstruction at Sydenham. Responsible for the decorative ironwork in Paddington Station and the extension of Bristol Temple Meads. Appointed architect to the Council of India in 1855 and responsible for the ironwork on three major railway bridges there. Died on 21 May 1877 at Dimlands Castle, near Cowbridge in Glamorgan in 1877. Steven Brindle in Chrimes and Paul Waterhouse, revised John Martin Robinson in ODNB Also Jenkins