Backtrack Volume 36 (2022)

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School class 4-4-0 Maunsell V
class 4-4-0 No. 30901 Winchester
with Lemaâtre chimney and in
lined green livery at Battersea
acting as stand-by
locomotive for Derby Day Royal
Train at Stewarts Lane on 8 June
1962. Dave Cobbe Collection. front cover

January (Number 369)

Ship to shore. Michael Blakemoor. 3

Skyfall. Gavin Morrison. 4-6
Colour photo-feature of trains in snow: Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44727 on a freight leaving Hellified for Skipton on 26 January 1963; A3 Pacific No, 60073 St. Gatien on up Waverley near Dent on 26 January 1963; Class 47 No. 47 002 near Diggle with 10.05 Liverpool to Newcastle express on 9 February 1983; heritage Class 5 No. 4505 on Glenfinnan Viadut on outward excursioon on 29 March 1963; Fort William depot on 29 March 1987 with Class 37 No. 37 412 Loch Lomond and another two of class and three class 20 including Nos. 20 201 nd 20 206; Pacer forming 12.35 Wakefield We stgate to Huddersfield service on 8 January 2010 in light snow; HST on late running St. Pancras to Sheffield service at Clay Cross Juncton on 9 February 1991 with train picking up snow; Class 158 in red livery near Slaithwaite on 29 December 2000 looking toward Bolster Moor.

Tony Robinson. Forgotten branches of North East Wales. Part 5. The Mold to Brymbo line. 8-11.
Illustratins: Mold Tryddyn Junction signal box; map; coal tank 0-6-2T on short freight train which included two Cann el Oil tank wagons at Llanfynydd station during WW1?; Coed Talon station with crown waiting to join train c1910; coal tank 0-6-2T on short freight train which included wagon loaded with scrap metal for furnaces at Brybo; 4F 0-6-0 with single LNWR coach at Brymbo with train for Mold in May 1949 (E.S. Russell); Ffrith viaduct after track had been lifted with SLS party inspecting it on foot (J. Peden); 8F No. 48665 on train of empty mineral wagons [passing site of Brymbo station on 22 March 1966 (G. Kent).

David Joy. The Earl and the Honourable Lady: the nobility and the railways of Huddersfield, 12-20.
David Joy is the author of Piercing the Pennines (Great Northern, 2021) which covers both the railway and canal tunnels under Standedge in greater detail. Illustrations: grand facade of HuddersfieLd station with statue of Sir Robert Peel in front removed in 1949 and replaced fifty years later by one of Harold Wilson; facade viewed from west end with horse drawn cabs in attendance; former Crosti boilered 9F 2-10-0 approaching one of original standedge Tunnels with freight with Huddersfield Canal in foreground in June 1966 (Gavin Morrison: colour); Clss 50 No. 50020 Revenge on a special from Bristol to Skipton crossing Paddoick Viaduct (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 5 No. 45421 on a Holmfirth to Blackpool special in August 1953 (T.J. Edgington Collection); Jubilee 4-6-0 No. 45558 Manitoba on local train to Manchester in May 1959 (Gavin Morrison); Class 37/0 Nos. 37 252 and 37 221 crossing Lockwood Viaduct with a Bristol to Skipton excursion on 13 October 1979 (Gavin Morrison); begrimed class 5 4-6-0 No. 45437 on return excursion from Manchester and Class 110 Calder Valley diesel multiple unit leaving Huddersfield in 1965 with LNWR,LYR warehouse behind (colour); B1 No. 61230 on a Bradford to Bournemouth at Lockwood in July 1959 (Gavin Morrison); 2-6-4T No. 42650 on passenger train at Holmfirth Tudor-style terminus in September 1959 (Gavin Morrison); Kirkburton terminus; Prince of Wales 4-6-0 No. 5716 arriving at Huddersfield from Manchester; Huddersfield station after extensions with LYR 2-4-2T and LNWR coaches; Pacer spoiling style of Huddersfield station looking towards George Loch new town in 2003 (Gavin Morrison)

Jeffrey Wells. Aspects of the Manchester & Leeds Railway, Part two. 21-5.
Opening of line between Normanton and Hebden Bridge, leaving the difficult stretch which included the Summit and Charlestown Tunnels unopened. Illustrations: Todmorden Viaduct (drawing by A.F. Tait); 2-4-2T shunting coal wagon in Todmorden station c1905; Gauxholme skew bridge over Rochdale Canal; Eastwood station; east portal of Weasel Tunnel c1951; Hebden Bridge station frontage iin 1964 (Eric Blakey); Luddendenfoot station in LYR period; Sowerby Bridge station with slotted post signal and horse drawn passenger cabs awaiting trade; Aspinall 0-8-0 No. 12574 with Belpaire firebox leaving Luddendenfoot for Hebden Bridge on a stopping train. See also letter from Keith Crowther on page 254

Barry Taylor. A day at the races: LMS traffic arrangements for the Meeting at Towcester on Whit Monday 1939. 26-30.
Text based on Special Traffic Notice ERO 19102 for the period 27 May to 2 June 1939. Illustrations: Prince of Wales 4-6-0 No. 5630 W.M. Thackeray on a freight passes Towcester station on 9 August 1933; Webb 2-4-2T No. 46666 known a s "four sixex" crosses Grand Union Canal arriving Blisworth from Northampton with push & pull train from Northampton (R.K. Blencowe); Blisworth station (to show complexity of movements onto SMJ thereat); sandwich motor train with Webb 2-4-2T in middle and LNWR low-roofed brake thirds at either end on Leamington to Towcester race meeting dat (L. Hanson); Towcesteer station on 9 October 1958 M. Mitchell);

'Kingfisher in flight'. Alan Reeve. 31.
Colour photo-feature: A4 No. 60024 Kingfisher at three locations: leaving Forfar for Aberdeen on a three-hour express in August 1966; passing Glamis closed station, and at Forfar in July 1966. Caption notes that on 13 September hauled 17.15 from Aberdeen to Glasgow and returned following morning on 08.25 ex-Buchanan Street.

School ties. 32-5.
Colour photo-feature of Maunsell V class 4-4-0 with private school names (all in lined green livery and with single chimney and from Dave Cobbe Collection unless stated otherwise): No. 30902 Wellington on Brighton shed with driver oiling motion whilst surrounded by ash on 7 May 1960; No. 30926 Repton in lined black livery with train mainly in carmine & cream near Shortlands Junction with Kent Coast express in October 1958; No. 30926 Repton in lined green livery at Tattenham Corner station with Royal Train on Derby Day 8 June 1962; No. 30924 Haileybury with Lemaître chimney and in lined green livery on Ashford shed on 4 June 1961; No. 30930 Radley in workshop at Bricklayers Arms depot on 6 September 1961; No. 30910 Merchant Taylors in dirty black livery at Faversham in 1959 (Marcus Eavis); No. 30915 Brighton at Brighton station waiting for next duty in 1959 (Marcus Eavis); No. 30927 Clifton in lined black livery with train from Hastings formed of Hastings gauge stock in green, crimson and crimson & cream liveries in June 1957; and No. 30929 Malvern with Lemaître chimney on up express waiting right-away from guard at Paddock Wood station in June 1959

David Hirst. The 1848 engine drivers' dispute in the newspapers. 36-41.
Article reprinted from LNWR Society Journal, 2021, 10 (1) June, Illustrations: London & Birmingham passenger train of 1845 (painting by C. Hamilton Ellis: colour); Liverpool & Manchester Rilway goods train of 1830s (LNWR post card); Richard Creed, LNWR Company Secretary (portrait); Railway Tavern in Chalk Farm where drivers held their meetings (1939 photograph); Bury 2-2-0 No. 96 in 1847; Curzon Street station, Birmingham (LNWR colour post card); Southern Division Long Boiler 4-2-0 No. 189 at Curzon Street station; McConnell Large Bloomer No. 887 Knowsley; The Train Now Departing coloured cover of LMS publication illustrating typical London & Birmingham train.

In the East Midlands with JSG. John Spencer Gilks. 42-3.
Black & white photo-feature: BR Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75059 running into Ketton and Collyweston station with a Leicester and Nottingham holiday train to Gorleston-on-Sea holiday express on 31 May 1962; London, Tilbury & Southend Railway 79 class 4-4-2T No. 41975 at Uppingham LNWR Cbranch from Seaton with single coach in July 1959; Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41227 at Stamford Town with push & pull from Seaton on 16 September 1964; B1 4-6-0 No. 61141 on Leicester Belgrave Road to Skegness holiday service calling at normally closed to passengers on 18 July 1959; Stanier 2-6-4T No. 42446 calling at Kelmarsh (still with LMS bullseye running-in board with 13.44 Northampton to Market Harborough on 5 July 1958; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42137 drawing into Saxby with 08.40 Nottingham to King's Lynn on 8 November 1958.

Bruce Laws. Ipswich: a hub for Suffolk railways. Part Two. 44-50.
Part one see previous Volume page XXX. This part begins with an examination of some of the branch lines in Suffolk. The line to Aldeburgh did not long survive Beeching's brutal scrutiny in spite of its International significance as a music centre. The residual stump associated with Sizewell nuclear tr affick is mentioned. The battle to save the East Suffolk line to Beccles and Lowestoft receives attention and Gerard Fiennes I tried to run a railway involvement in saving some of it Illustrations: B1 4-6-0 No. 61253 filling tank at Ipswich before entering tunnel in July 1958 (Mike Boakes); Beccles station on 9 June 1963; Holden E22 class 0-6-0T No. 253 at Eye station (Sufffolk) with three antique passenger four-wheelers; London Liverpool Street in BR steam days; Felixstowe Town station in Great Eastern period; Felixstowe Town station c1960; L1 2-6-4T No. 67711 at Felixstowe Town with 16.40 to Liverpool Street on 1 April 1956 (T.J. Edgington); F5 2-4-2T No. 67218 at Lowestoft Central on push & pull set on service for Yarmouth South Town via Gorleston in June 1954 (T.J. Edgington); Laxfield station on Mid-Suffolk Light Railway in April 1949; Brockford station on Mid-Suffolk Light Railway; three class 90 electric locomotives (90 014 Over the Rainbow; 90 047 and 90 046 - first two in tangerine livery) on long container triain for Trafford Park, Manchester about to enter Ipswich Tunnel.(Roger Carvell)

Third rail on Merseyside. Tom Heavyside. 51
Colour photo-feature of Class 507 and 508 mulytiple units to be replaced in 2022 by 777 class units.

Philip Benham. Take the train for the boat: the rise and fall of the boat train. Part one. 52-61.
Part 2 see page 108. Illustrations: Bulleid light Pacific Battle of Britain class No. 34085 501 Squadron departing Dover Marine with up Golden Arrow (colour); No. 46150 The Life Guardsman on day Irish Mail leaving Chester for Holyhead in August 1950 (P.M. Alexander) see also letter from Chris Mogner on footplate conditions; E5012 Bo-Bo electric locomotive stands at Dover Marine with Golden Arrow having arrived from Victoria on 1 April 1963 (colour); passengers arriving to board Southern Railway Golden Arrow through special arch at Victoria station; Britanmia class Pacific No. 70004 William Shakespeare leaving Shakespeare Cliff Tunnel with down Golden Arrow in 1951; Night Ferry headed by 21C156 Croydon and L1 4-4-0 about to leave Victoria on 15 December 1947; M7 class No. 30068 arriving Lymington Pier with push & pull set with PS Freshwater alongside (colour); 1366 class 0-6-0PT No. 1368 departing Weymouth Quay with boat train for Paddington on 4 July 1959 (Trevor Owen: colour); SS St. Julien arriving Weymouth in 1929 with split boat train for Paddington waiting for arrivals, also three late 1920s luxury motor cars waiting to whisk some first class ship passengers off; unrebuilt (caption states rebuilt) West Country Pacific No. 34018 Axminster on all Pullman Statesman Ocean Liner Special connecting with SS United States passing Vauxhall in ear ly 1950s; No. 6029 King Edward VIII approaches Newton Abbott w ith a Plymouth Millbay to Paddington Ocean Liner special including four Super Saloons on 21 May 1958 (Dick Blenkinsop), Atbara class 4-4-0 No. 3381 Maine leaving Fishguard Harbour on 2 May 1908 with Irish boat express for Paddington; No. 7808 Cookham Manor and No. 6998 Burton Agnes Hall on 14 June 19975 at Norton Junction, Worcester with Great Western Society Vintage Train which included Super Saloons No. 9112 Queen Mary and No. 9118 Princess Elizabeh (colour); 3F 0-6-0T No. 47387 at Liverpool Riverside with a Liverpool University Public Transsport Society special on 13 June 1964; BR Standard Class 5 4-8-0 No.. 73121 at Greenock Prince's Pier station with boat train from Glasgow St. Enoch in September 1965 (S.W. Rankin: colour). See also letters from Stephen G. Abbott and from Graham Smith on page 253 ; Bill Beavis (on large locomotives on Tyne Commission Quay workings) and from Peter Steer on how Isle of Man Steam Packet provided free bus from Manxman arrival at Lime Street to boat berth on Mersey

Readers' forum. 61

Station location: 'Aberdare' 2-6-0. Editor. 61.
See page 630 of Volume 35: was it Porthmadog or was it Barmouth an was class permitted to cross Barmouth Bridge?

J.F. McIntosh. John Macnab. 61.
Error on page 595 of previous Volume concerning 92 class (condensing version} 0-4-4Ts which stated all withdrawn in LMS period: quotes Ian Allan ABC for 1949 and previous page of one extant in Stranraer in 1956!

J.F. McIntosh. James Hargrave
James Clark Bunten of Dunalistair

BR and beyond in Gwynnedd. Bob Saxby
If toredo worm had been evident fifteen years earlier then Bangor to Afonwen line might have survived to give Pwllheli and Portmadog faster access

BR and beyond in Gwynnedd. Chris Magner
Nigel Dawson, a Principal grade civil servant at the Department of Transport and Talyllyn Railway volunteer managed to get a grant for the Cambrian lines to open on Sundays.

Battling Beeching in the High Peak. Nigel Whitwell
Norbury is not only level crossing

A Great Western tenancy. Stewart Clark.
The Severn Valley Railway acquired bow-ended ex-camping coach No. 4786 of 1927 to provide accommodation for its volunteers and located it at Kidderminster station, but subsequently acquired a Hawksworth sleeper for the same function. After considerable soul searching No. 4786 is being restored to its original state as an "ordinary" corridor coach, but is more akin to a Hall to Saint re-creation.

Motorail trains. Gerald Goodhall.

Motorail trains. Arnold Tortorella. 62
The Times of 17 May 1939 contained a block advert announcing "Scotland - calling all sportsman" which promoted the carriage of motor cars at re duced rates for one first class or two third class ticket holders on the West Coast or East Coast routes. The advert slightly modified was repeated on 7 June. The LMS had purchased new carriage carrying vans from Metro Cammell to D2026 in 1938; the LNER used its pre-grouping stock. See also letter from John Macnab on page 189.

Book reviews. 62

Kendal Tommy: a history of the Arnside to Hincasster branch. Dave Richardson. Cumbrian Railways Associaton. 98pp. Reviewed by DWM *****
"This is an excellent book, it adds delightfully to our store of railway knowledge."

BR steam locomotives complete allocations history 1948-1968. Hugh Longworth. Oxford Publishing. 400pp. Reviewed by Michael Blakemore. *****
"Momumental compilation... highly recommended"

Horwich Locomotive Works re-visited. M.D. Smith. Author. 192pp. Reviewed by Michael Blakemore. ****
Update of a book first published in 1956 since when they have been demolished and replaced by modern housing: book notes retention of some of old str eet names featuring names like Arkwright and Fairburn.

Riley in Ireland: a photographic odyssey; compiled by Michael McMahon. Totem Publishhing. 80pp. Reviewed by DWM,****

Frost report.. A.J. Clarke rear cover
L1 2-6-4T No. 67800 leaving Bingham for Grantham with train from Nottingham Victoria on 29 December 1962: frost on ground and on trees in Great Freeze of 1962/3. ;

Issue Number 2 (February 2022)  Number 370

Network Rail New Measrement Train
coverteed from HST 125 and
painted yellow passes Nuneaton
on 10 October 2018 (Paul Chancellor)
See also page 79

February (Number 346)

Looking looking back. Andy Collett.
Guest Editorial on heritage railway preserved Bulleid rebuilt  Merchant Navy locomotive No. 35011 General Steam Naviigation

Through Sussex via Steyning. Gerald Daniels (photograher) and captions by Michael S. Welch. 68-9
Colour photo-feature:: 15.59 Brighton to Horsham train leaving Southwater behind Ivatt 2-6-2T No. 41314 in spring 1964; ex-LBSCR  K class 2-6-0 shunting at Beeding cement works in April 1962; Southwater station & signal box; West Grinstead station with a  Brighton to Horsham train hauled by Ivatt 2-6-2T No. 41326 in 1963; and Partridge Green station in summer 1963,

Andrew Johnston. 'What a lovely job this is'. 70-4.
Author worked at BBC Bristol as a film editor and was given task of making a programme about Ivo Peters, who captured the extraordinary character of the Somerset & Dorset Railway in photographs and on 8mm cinefilm which led to the film Return to Evercreech Junction made in 1986 Illustrations nearly all courtesy of Julian Peters (Ivo's son): 7F 2-8-0 No. 53807 probably on mineral train in snow near Midford on 15 January 1963; The Ballad of John Axon from artwork for Radio Times by Eric Fraser; West Country Pacific No. 34040 Crewkerne near Midsomer Norton in snow with train for Bournemouth on 30 January 1954; Driver Donald Beale and fireman Peter Smith on No. 34042 Dorchester give Ivo a wave from cab; 53810 leaves Devonshire Tunnel on 10 March 1956; filming on trackbed of Burnham branch with Clive North, cameraman standing on stool,  Andrew Johnson, sound recordist Steve Shearn and assistant cameraman Mark Jarrold (Rodney Scovill); Donald Beale and Peter Smith pose with Mike Arlett on front of preserved West Country No. 34105 Swanage on the Mid-Hants Railway during filming of  Return to Evercreech Junction (Mac Hawkins: colour). See also letter from James Rogers on page 253 on television programme about York shed.

Miles MacNair. Frustrations of fuel efficiency: feed-water heaters. Part four. The Franco-Crosti boiler and pre-heater. 75-8.;
Four extraordinary Mallet 2-6-0+0-6-2 compounds were built by Baldwin in 1911 for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé Railroad with flexible boilers. The accordion flexible joint separated the firebox and boiler tubes from a large storage area for the feed-water to be preheated by the exhaust steam and from the boiler gases. The accordion joint must have bee n difficult to maintain, yet the locomotive enjoyed ten years in service, Macnair considers that this may have been what led to Attilio Franco, a former automotive engineer to design his 0-6-2+2-4-2-4-2+2-6-0 eight-cylinder simple expansion locomotive at the Turbize works of the Belgian State Railways (for illustration see Locomotive Mag., Vol. 39, p. 230) (diagram herein). Piero Crosti was convinced of the merits of the Franco pre-heater and in 1937 rebuilt on of the Italian State Railways 670 class to this system and achieve a fuel saving of about 15%. A table lists the classes of Italian State Railways classes fitted with Crosti boilers; 81 of which had a single preheater located between their frames, the remainder having double preheaters. The DB in Germany and BR in Britain adopted the single preheater model. Bulleid on the CIE modified a Great Sothern Railway 2-6-0 built in 1903 with a two Franco preheater boiler which exhausted to the tender. Riddles on British Railways built ten 9F 2-10-0s with single preheater between the frames and the exhaust gases emerging in front of the cab which was very unpleasant for the footplate crew. The system was abandoned quickly, but the locomotives were less powerful and were downgraded to 8F. In Spain RENFE rebuilt one 2-8-0 with a Crosti boiler, but poor draughting made steaming unre liable. The exhaust steam injector was a more re liable and simpler method of extracting heat from the exhaust. Illustrations: Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé Railroad flexible boiler locomotive; Franco-Turbize diagram (Locomotives International, 1999, (47)); Italian State Railways Class743 2-8-0  (Locomotive Mag., 1953, 59, 80); Bulleid CIE modified GSR 2-6-0 with two Franco preheater boiler intended to burn peat if it could ignite;  Crosti 9F in Rugby Test Plant; RENFE 2-8-0 with Crosti boiler. See also letter from Bill Taylor on page 254.

"...and it was all yellow...". 79
Colour photo-feature:: preserved Jones goods No. 103 (in yellow livery) and preserved GNSR No. 49 Gordon Highllander climbing from Glenwhilly on 15 April 1963 (Derek Cross); No. HS 4000 Kestrel Hawker Siddeley in yellow ochre and chocolate livery at Criclewood depot open day on 12 July 1969 (D. Rollins); Network Rail New Measurement Train running through former Rotherham Marsborough en route friom Derby to Heaton on 6 December 2008 (Gavin Morrison) see also front cover

Ian Travers. The Great Western Railway Ruabon-Barmouth route. Part one. 80-5.
The line was constructed in the 1860s. From Ruabon to Corwen was built by the Vale of Llangollen and by the Llangollen & Corwen companies which were promoted by local landowners including Charles.Tottenham and Sir Watkin Wynn,   Considerable revisions were made at Bala with new stations at the eastern end of the High Street and at the Junction. Optimism about the Bala & Festiniog was not realised as the Festiniog Railway and LNWR were well established. The Wnion valley and the Mawddach estuary took the line down to the coast. Illustrations: No. 7800 Torquay Manor at Llangollen on up express in carmine & cream livery on 28 August 1953 (colour); Llangollen station from footbridge looking west with River Dee high (P.J. Garland); 8750 class 0-6-0PT No. 9793 on Wrexham to Bala all-stations in July 1960 (J.M. Wiltshire); map Ruabon to Barmouth; Dean 645 class 0-6-0ST No. 772 with two Dean clerestory carriages and a siphon bogie van for milk adjacent Corwen East signal box in 1932; Bala Town station in about 1910 with Arnstrong 517 class 0-4-2T No. 539 with gleaming brass dome and safety valve cover and horse bus and farmer's timber cart for milk cans; Berwyn station with 43XX 2-6-0 No. 4377 departing (E.S. Russell: colour); Aberdare 2-6-0 No. 2679 at Barmouth with slow train for Chester formed of Cambrian 46ft compartment coach and two Colllett 58ft side- corridors in summer 1934 (Roger Carpenter); Drws y Nant goods yard on 4 October 1962 (R.G. Nelson); Dolgelley station c1957. Part 2 see page 156.

Geoffrey Skelsey. The story of 'The Clickety-Clack' the Grinsby & Immingham Electric Railway 1912-1961. 86-90.
The Grimsby & Immingham Electric Railway was not a separate legal entity, but formed part of the vast Immingham dock development instigated by the Great Central Railway with its location dictated by a deep channel in the River Humber. Grimsby Corporation was eager for the transport link so that their residents would be in a favourable position for work. Author notes lack of covered accommodation for cars annd lack of modernisation of GC cars and failure to exploit multiple unit operation.  Illustrations: map & plan; ex-GC car No. 11 at Corporation Bridge (colour); ex-Gateshead car in Gilbey Road within one of passing loops; ex-GCR car No. 12 waiting ouside railawy office at Cleveland Bridge (colour); ex-Gateshead car at Pyewipe workshops; ex-Gateshead car rebuilt as well-equipped engineering car; ex-GCR car leaving Immingham Town for Grimsby passing concrete traction poles; ex-Gateshead car No. 18 being prepared for final procession and ex-GCR car No. 15 heads on to the light railway at Cleveland Bridge on 1 July 1961 (final day). 

Robin Sellers and Thomas Sellers. Milk train derailment at Chipping Sodbury. 91-3.
The 20.15 Kensington to Whitland milk empties hauled by Brush type 4 No, D1726 (later 47 134) derailed on the evening of 20 September 1966 inflicting severe damage to the permanent way and the vehicles involved. The cause was excessive speed. The author heard about the incident on the radio, borrowed his father's car and camera loaded with colour film and his own camera loaded with black & white film and drove to Chipping Norton and took the reproduced photographs, until challenged by the police for his press card which he did not possess. Illustrations show a Cowans Sheldon  75 ton steam breakdown crane of 1961 No. 141 which had been delivered to site by Hymek No. 7030; 35 ton Ransomes & Rapier steam breakdown crane of 1908 lifting a six-wheel tank wagon (all colour).  

On the Lambouurn Valley branch. John Spencer Gilks. 94-5
Black & white photo-feature:: 57XX 0-6-0PT No.9749 at Lambourn terminus with single coach train from Newbury on 18 August 1959; panorama of East Garston on same day as previous showing church, thatched cottages and train en route from Newbury; 2251 class 0-6-0 No. 2252 passing East Garston halt and manned level crossing light engine on 14 September 1957; All Saints Church East Garston with 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 4665 psssing with single coach train for Lambourn on same day as previous, and Welford Park loop after closure in October 1960

The ins and outs of Paddington. Dick Riley. 96-7.
Colour photo-feature:: King Edward II in Ranelagh Bridge servicing yard having arrived on Capitals United Express with headboard still in place on 10 September 1960; Castle class No. 5060 Earl of Berkeley in Ranelagh Bridge yard on 16 April 1957; No. 6023 King Edward II without headboard departing Paddington on 13.55 South Wales express on 10 September 1960; No. 6006 King George I on turntable and No. 1009 County of Carmarthen waiting its turn on 30 March 1957

Cross-country throgh the Tyne Valley. Gavin Morrison
Photo-feature: A1 class No. 60131 Osprey held at Haydon Bridge on RCTS Solway Ranger on 21 March 1965 due to sheep on the line; Class 47 No. 47 428 with steam heating) on Edinburgh to Newcastle train via Carlisle at Haltwhistle on 24 October 1981 (b&w); preserved Class 5 No. 5305 Alderman A.E. Draper with name and plaque in place near Haltwhistle crossing Tyne on Tyne Valley Express en route for Carlisle and thence G&WE  route on 14 March 1987; Class 56 diesel multiple unit Hexham station with No. 156 444 on  14.45 to Sunderland on 10 June 1966 (b&w); Hexham signal box mounted on gantry above tracks and painted red with Class 56 diesel multiple unit No. 156 491 on 10.00 Sunderland to Carlisle passing undrneath; No, 156 469 "adorned " with pictogram of Bishop Auckland branch on 11,52 Nrecastle to Carlisle about 2 miles from Hexham on 22 March 2006; preserved A4 No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley with autumn mist showing up redness of wheels, but darkening blue of locomotive and rolling stock as Carlisle to Newcastle train nears Brampton Junctin on 6 October 1973; Class 66 No. 66 548 passing Corbridge on 05.39 Hunterston to Drax merry-go-round coal train on 22 March 2006.

Rob Langham. Snowbound at Rowley. 102-5,
William Bainbridge was a local photographer who lived in Castleside and this has led to an extensive photographic record and Rowley station was preserved at the Beamish Open Air Museum due to Frank Atkinson. Illustrations: Rowley station with signal box on platform between 1905 and 1914; snowbound train at Rowley station with trapped passengers being helped to get off; same train viewed from road bridge; two 398 class 0-6-0 locomotives which hauled train out, No. 913 nearer; 1940 accident when two Q6 0-8-0s became derailed in heavy snow on 19 February 1940, one of which was No. 2237 (as it subsequently repaired at Darlington Works; German prisoners-of-war clearing snow with shovels at Waskerley during World War 1, and 901 class No. 929 on passenger train at Rowley during summer prior to WW1. ,

David Ferguson. The St. Fillans sheep accident. 106-7.
On 5 October 1921 a Caledonian Railway sheep special travelling off the Oban line failed to stop in St. Fillans station on its way to Perth. There was considerable carnage to the sheep as many of the cattle trucks fell into pieces. Butchers were called from Crief and Comrie to kill the wounded sheep and breakdown cranes came from Perth and Motherwell to clear the line. The footplate crew  were uninjured. An annoying feature of this article is that the descent of Glen Ogle to Balquhidder must have been accomplished without accident as the train reversed there before moving onto the line to Lochearnhead, St. Fillans and Perth, but wheel to rail adhesion in icy conditions is questionable. The illustrations lack one of the actual incident and portray an Oban 4-6-0, (but might have been an 0-6-0 on the actuual train;  a cattle wagon and St. Fillans station in the 1930s with signalman Adam Farrar  and stationmaster George Maxwell.

Philip Benham. Take the train for the boat: the rise and fall of the boat train. Part two. 108-17.
Part one began on page 52. Irish services via the LNWR and Holyhead including the Irish Mail and the Great Western Railway and South Wales through New Milford (Neyland) and Fishguard. Scottish services via Stranraer or via Ardrossan including to the Isle of Man. Scottish ferrries to the Hebrides and within the Firth of Clyde and to Kintyre. East Coast sailings via Newcastle Tyne Commission Quay to Norway and Sweden and via Harwich, Immingham and Hull to Holland and Belgium.  Extensive bibliography.. Illustrations: last steam worked (Class 5 No. 45025) Belfast Boat Express on arrival at Manchester Victoria (colour); Class 5 No. 45126 on up Morthern Irishman at Stranraer Harbour alongside Caledonian Princess (Michael Covey-Ctump: colour); Britannia Pacific No, 70048 on up day Irish Mail pre-1958 at Holyhead; Coronation Pacific No. 46256 Sir Wiiliam Stanier, FRS on up Ulster Express from Heyasham and Royal Scot No. 46142 The York and Lancaster Regiment on The Shamrock from Liverpool Lime Street at Euston; B1 4-6-- No. 61342 at Ardrossan Montgomerie Pier on 10 April 1966 on a railtour; V3 class 2-6-2T No. 67691 on the Norseman at Tyne Commission Quay (C.R. Gordon-Stuart: colour); St. Pancras with Orient Line boat train in carmine & cream livery for Tilbury  Riverside; down Flushing Continental headed by B17 4-6-0 Alnwck Castle joining Harwich line at Manningtree in 1930s (caption notes two Pullman cars in formation: there were three) (George R. Grigs).; English Electric Type 3 diesel No. 6735 (blue livery) at Sheffield Midland on North Country Continental which included Gresley buffet car in formation; Patriot class No. 45543 Home Guard (black livery) with train of LMS corridor stock in carmine & cream livery at Windermere Lakeside in July 1956 (John Edgington); A3 No. 60036 Colombo on up Norseman passing Pilmoor station in 1950s (Chris Nettleton Collection); Britannia Pacific No. 70001  Lord Hurcomb arriving Liverpool Street with up Hook Continental (R.E. Vincent).; Britannia Pacific No. 70005 John Milton with down Day Continental climbing Brentwood Bank in mid-1950s; H15 No. 30485 in lined black livery but without indication of ownership arriving at Southampton flying boat terminal with all Pullman train for Isle de France on 13 August 1949; EWS red liveried Class 67 banks last Venice Simplon Orient Pullman train out of Folkestone Harbour on 10 April 2008 (Brian Stephenson).See also letter from Stephen G. Abbott on page 253 about Hook Continental and gradual transmogrification of Harwich to Manchester service. See also letter from Graham Smith on large locomotives seen on Tyne Commission Quay workings and on length of Orient Line boat trains from St. Pancras to Tilbury and Leonard Rogers on the grandiose titles given to residual North County link to Harwich and Europe and lengthy contribution from a nameless writer and another from Peter Neville on page 317

Jeremy Clarke. Falling short of ambition — a new line to Leatherhead. 118-23.
Chessington Zoo and Circus used to feature on the carriage panels of many Southern Railway multiple units and was a source of wishfulness for young Kevin. The Chessington branch opened to Tolworth on 29 May 1938 and to Chessington South a year later. It was opened as an electric railway and had been intended to duplicate the route to Leatherhead, but WW2 cancelled that. The architecture of the stations is Odeonesque and features Chisarc canopies. Illustrations: Motspur Park with new W roof installed after opening of new branch in 1938; Maldon Manor station platforms shortly after opening; Maldon Manor station in 1937 prior to opening showing facade; map; Maldon Manor station platforms with train departing and group of respectable schoolboys;going to Zoo?; London bound train leaves Tolworth station; Chessington North platforms looking towards London probably shortly after opening; crowd leaving Chessington South brick built entrance and Chessington South unfinished up platform.

Donegal delight, Captions by David Mosley. 124
Colour photo-feature:: 2-6-4T No. 6 Columbkille and railcar No. 16 at Letterkenny; railcar No. 10 built by Walker for the Clogher Valley Railway and purchased by the CDR in 1942,

Readers' forum. 125-6

Bob Essery. Editor
Death on 24 November 2021

For God's sake be done with railways and shares. John Bushby, 125
The Gloucester, Aberystwyth & Central Wales Railway proposal to link Gloucester with Ross with Hay, Builth, Ryader and Aberystwyth from which the Irish Sea would be crossed to Wexford and thence to Tralee and Valentia Island. This would produce the most direct route to America. The notion can be traced back to Charles Vignoles proposed trunk route to the Llyn Peninsular and ended with the  Great Western's Fishguard costly adventure.

Aspects of the Manchester & Leeds Railway. Robin Leleux. 125
Notes it was not unusual to divert rivers to costruct railways as at Northampton Castle station and at Stowmarket, but it was more unusual for watercourses above the railway and cites those near Mossley, Force Gill near the entrance to Blea Moor Tunnel and the Bishopton Aqueduct near Greenock.

Aspects of the Manchester & Leeds Railway. Colin Tighe, 125.
Adds another aqueduct near Corby on Corby to Manton line for a tributary stream for the River Welland just before Corby Tunnel

Battling Beeching in the High Peak. Frank Ball. 125
Photograph on page 580 of Volume 35 depicts route of Peak Forest Tramway to Bugsworth and writer  also observes how Ministry of Roads massaged statistics to show how wasteful rail services were and as a young trainee civil engineer many potential problems were reduced to imposing speed limits or repacing a few sleepers

A Cambrian 'Manor', Chris Magner. 125
Danny Rowlands (Danny Bull) was shed foreman at Aberystwyth and he took special care of the Manor class locomotive allotted to work the Cambrian Coast Express

BR and beyond in Gwynedd. Bob Saxby. 125-6.
Letter writer worked for Gwynedd County Council Council at time of Toredo worm infestation and the Council showed in an Ecomnomic Impact Study that the loss of the bridge to the district economy would be greater than the cost of repair. Fifteen years earlier it is probable that it would have recommended closure of the bridge and restoration of the line from Afonwen to Bangor. Trawslink Cymru is campaigning to reopen both the Afonwen to Bangor and Aberystwyth to Carmarthen railway links (Lampeter college suffers from lack of a train service). The Conwy Valley line suffers from the loss of its nuclear flask traffic and the cost of bridge maintenance and is currently bustituted

'Aberdares' and RODs. Martin Sutcliffe.
Barmouth Bridge had been upgraded sufficiently to opermit the Abberdare class to use it and it is probable that locomotive at Barmouth statin was about to cross it en route to Chester passing its home depot at Croes Newydd. C.C. Green's Cambrian Railways album Volume 2 has a photograph of Aberdare No. 2617 within it at same location, taken by Ifor Higgon.

Book reviews. 126.

Gresley's B17s. Peter Tuffrey. Great Northern. 144 pp. Reviewed by DWM **
"stylishly produced photographic album featring an interesting and disparate class of locomotives but as with a previously-considered volume by the same compiler on the V2s , your reviewer remains abmbivalent."

Built in Britain — the independent locomotive manufacturing industry in the nineteenth century. Michael R. Bailey. RCHS, 221pp. Reviewed by Phil Atkins. *****
Very extensive review "A comprehensive overview of Britain's once extennsive commercial or independemt locomotive building industry... this scholarly publicartion...Thoroughly recommended"

Locomotives of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Anthony Dawson. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. 291pp.  Reviewed by RL *****
" well  researched... masterly work"

Leaving [Paddington] through the streets of London. R.C. Riley. rear cover
No. 7008 Swansea Castle leaving on 2 August 1957 passing junction into Ranelagh Bridge servicing yard: see also page 96

SJ94 No. 68007 0-6-0ST shunting
yard outside Darlington Works in
July 1958. front cover

March (Number 371)

I've got a little list - I've got them on the list! Michael Blakemoor. 131

The J94 saddle tanks — which also serve. 132-3
Colour photo-feature: introductory caption notes that ordered in January 1943 by the War Department with many serving in France after D-Day. In total 377 were built and when they became redundant the LNER purchased 75 and the National Coal Board and the construction industry ordered others. The colour illustrations are all from Colour-Rail:  No. 68037 on Darlington area local freight on 6 January 1964; No. 68013 on Cromford & High Peak line at Cromford Wharf in September 1963 next high LNWR signal; No. 68047 with extended bunker on transfer freight passing Darlington on 10 February 1962; No. 68072 with a B17 class following it in Doncaster station in May 1960; No. 68079 with bunker extension removed to ease coaling at Middleton Top crossing level crossing at Longcliffe with a single wagon on Cromford & High Peak line in 1964: on page 317 Paul Blurton states that the crossing must have been across the A5012 between Fridon and Minninglow.

A.J. Mullay. Spying in Darlington: competition between Britain's railways and canal in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, 134-41.
In January 1826 the Directors of the Birmingham Canal Navigation sent one of their members to inspect the state of the Railroad in County Durham and how far the steam locomotives were a success. Mullay makes extensive use of the data in the Royal Commission on Canals which was chaired by Lord Shuttleworth and reported in 1911 for mileages, traffic, general state, etc. and employs this in conjunction with  the data on earnings and costs of the canals under their control both prior to the Grouping in 1923 and following it. Illustrations: Forth & Clyde Canal at Camelon; Ellesmere Port in 1905 with LNWR 8-ton mineral wagon; WD 2-8-0 crossing Market Weighton Canal near Wallingfen; Sankey or St. Helen's Canal at Sankey Bridges where the LNWR Widnes to Warrington line crossed the canal on a swing bridge with 100-ton barge serving the Earlstown sugar refinery; Priestman grab dredger at work on the Great Western owned Monmouthshire Canals in 1910s; Cravens DMU en route to Doncaster passing under Axholme Joint Railway at Crowle swing bridge over Sheffield & South Yorkshire Navigation in 1970: Agar Town goods depot adjacent Regent's Canal,

Nicholas Daunt. Birmingham's Grand Central station: memories of the old New Street, 1954-1962. 142-9.
"The old New Street was a slum", but one with character as observed by the young locomotive spotter. The largest LMS locomotives could not be accommodated and when its centenary was celebrated in June 1954 parts of No. 46235  City of Birmingham had to be removed and reassembled to exhibit it. Several classes not illustrated include tank engines, the 4F 0-6-0 and the British Railways Class 5 and Britannia. The article ends with noting that the new station was like a branch of John Lewis (now closed) with a railway in the basement. Illustrations: Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 45742 Connaught with double chimney at New Street on up Midlander in June 1956 (C. Banks Collection: colour); station from adjacent tall building with many Birmingham Corporation buses and trains, if any, in murk; 4P compound No, 40915 and Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 45663 Jervis at platform 9 with express for South West (colour); map of main railways in Central Birmingham; J.W. Livock's Italianate frontage to Queen's Hotel (Illustrated London News 1854); Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 45618 New Hebrides at platform 6 with a northbound express (G.D. King: colour); 4P compound No, 41193 on 13.45 to Yarmouth Beach on 8 October 1958 (T.J. Edgington); 2P 4-4-0 No. 40659 and Rebuilt Scot No. 46148 The Manchester Regiment on 11.05 to Glasgow on 21 October 1954 (T.J. Edgington); 4P compound No, 41157 about to leave platform 11 with12.57 to Ashchurch via Redditch, Alcester & Evesham loop on 9 April 1959 with Jubilee class No. 45662 Kempenfelt on express for south west at Platform 10 (T.J. Edgington); Jubilee No. 45669 Fisher leaving New Street with 11.30 Euston to Wolverhampton (High Level) on 10 August 1957 (T.J. Edgington); diesel-electric experimental locomotive No. 10800 on 15.55 to Cambridge via Rugby to Peterborough line on 18 April 1955 (T.J. Edgington); new platform canopies under construction on LNWR side (T.J. Edgington); Jubilee No. 45560 Prince Edward Island with arrival probably from Liverpool possibly in late 1950s (Ray Reed: colour); Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45186 on 13.45 to Yarmouth on 27 February 1959 (T.J. Edgington); B1 4-6-0 No. 61195 moving off platform 9 after arrival on 06.53 from Cleethorpes on 20 October 1956 (T.J. Edgington); ex-Midland Railway 2P 4-4-0 No. 40421 departs from Platform 6 on 06.10 special to Preston to connect with Creative Travel Agents Conference charter train to Gourock on 29 June 1957 (T.J. Edgington); Engineering works notice for Sunday 15 October 1958 (T.J. Edgington). See also letters from Bob Yate on pages 317-18, and Robert Darlaston and Gordon Biddle on page 318.

L.A. Summers. The 'Chinaman' and the British engineer who built it. 150-4.
Kenneth Cantlie was born in 1899

Jeffrey Wells. The inauguration of the Victory Arch at Waterloo Station. 155.
On 21 March 1922 Her Majesty Queen Mary opened the massive arch built of Portand stone to commemorate the employees of the London & South Western Railway who lost their lives during the Great War. King George V was prevented by illness from performing the ceremony. The Queen arrived from Buckingham Palace at 3 in the afternoon and was met by Brigadier-General H.W. Drummond, Chairman and Sir William Portal, Deputy Chairman of the Railway. From Railway Gazette 24 March 1922.

Ian Travers. The Great Western Railway Ruabon-Barmouth route. Part Two. 156-9.
Part 1 see page 80.  Text concentrates on improvements brought by Grouping and comparison with what was done in Cornwall. The influence of the major holiday camp at Penychain and thhe competion with the LMS for its traffic. An unusually extensive bibliography enhances this work. In an ídeal world Wales would enjoy a proper railway network rather than a series of disconnected bits and pieces. Illustrations: 8750 class No. 9669 with single coach at Bala Town with 08.20 to Bala Junction in July 1963 ((P.A. Fry: colour);  Llangollen station with Butlin's train from Penychain to Birmingham Snow Hill double headed by 8750 class No. 9669 and a Manor class 4-6-0 with train partly formed of LNER stock, some still in teak livery, on 4 September 1954 (P.B. Whitehouse); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46446 with two coaches with brief residual service between Bala and Barmouth following floods of 12 December 1964 approaching Garneddwen summit before descending into Wnion Valley (D,.J. Mitchell: colour); Penmaenpool station, crossing loop & wooden tressle toll bridge (K.G. Carr); Flag Station Halt; Collett 0-4-2T No. 4867 on auto train for Dolgelley in excursion platform at Barmouth; LLys Halt on 25 August 1962.

Succeeding like success. Simon Lathlane. 160-3
Colour photo-feature of Stanier Black Fives 4-6-0s: No.  45214 (built by Armstrong Whitworth) with red lining visible, perhaps relecting the red steelwork of the Glasgow Corporation Sighthill Estate flats being erected behind St. Rollox engine shed in April 1965; No. 45131 emerging from single bore Standedge Tunnel near Marsden with a mixed freight on 25 July 1966 viewed from above canal tunnel; No. 44930 running into Preston with a northbound express; No. 45087 passing Dalry station with a freight taking the line for Kilmarnock and Dumfries circa 1961; No. 44824 in Holbeck roundhouse with caption states utterly invisible Britannia Pacific No. 70001 Lord Hurcomb; No. 45401 in Liverpool Lime Street about to add to the murk on the soon to be electrified overhead structures in October 1965; No. 45228 descending from Shap with an express freight passing Scout Green crossing on 8 January 1967; No. 44709 climbs away from Windermere with two empty coal wagons on final steam worked freight on 2 August 1968; No. 45182 on climb to Shap Summit which caption states "without assistance" but maybe a diesel at rear (poor resolution); No. 44803 at Manchester Victoria on trans-Pennine service on 13 August 1965.

What about the workers?  164-5
Black & white photo-feature: new Control Room at Rail House, Birmingham with Leonard Sibley (Chief Traffic Controller), Bob Taylor (Divisional Operating Superintendent), Hugh Jones (Deputy Chief Controller), and Jack Cox (General Assistant to the Divisional Operating Superintendent); LNWR staff in range of uniforms stand on, or next to, Precursor No. 1104 Cedric; newspapers being loaded into vans at Euston probably for Liverpool in 1937 Sunday Post for Belfast; Tea Bar at Waterloo Station during WW2 (soldiers and sausage rolls); winter 1947 at Barras near Stainmore Summit with cutting blocked with snow being excavated.

Recalled to Cumbria. Gavin Morrison. 166-8
Colour photo-feature: two Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0s Nos. 42426 and 42528 at Bassenthwaite Lake station on RCTS excursion which included the liine from Pentrith to Cockermouth & Workington on 13 June 1964 (note two camping coaches); same train leaving Keswick for the west; Direct Rail Services Class 37 Nos. 37 218 and 37 604 with solitary nuclear flask passing Maryport on diverted Crewe to Sellafield working on 12 April 2011; Class 31 No. 31 119 in grey Railfreight livery leaving Grange-over-Sands with 11.17 Barrow to Manchester with coaches in Network South East and rail blue liveries on 23 June 1990; Class 66 No. 66 164 in EWS livery on Workington to Carlisle container train near Maryport on 12 April 2011; Class 142 Pacer in Greater Manchester PTE livery crossing Leven Viaduct heading for Ulverston on 23 June 1990; Class 47 No. 47 501 arriving at Workington North (temporary station) with 16.25 from Maryport on 21 April 2010 (temporary service due to flood damage in Workington)

Roger Griffiths and John Hooper. Yorkshire Coastal engine sheds and their locomotives. Part Three. Bridlington engine shed. 169-75
The first engine shed dated from 1846 and was built by the Hull & Selby Railway: it was a two-road shed and included a turntable. In 1875 these fascilities were replaced and in 1892 a much larger shed intended to house nine locomotives and a fifty foot Cowans Sheldon turntable and a large water tank and coaling stage were installed. The LNER shed code was BRID and this was replaced by 53D under British Railways. Prior to World War 1 the bulk of the passenger services were worked by 901 or 1265 2-4-0s. Sentinel locomotives, both Y1 and Y3, and steam railcars, which included Criterion,  were introduced by the LNER. The main duties are tabulated and the classes stationed there from the formation of the LNER until closure in 1963 are listed. Illustrations: Class J 4-2-2 No. 1525 at Platform 5 in Bridlington station; map (British Railways bounded Beverley, Malton and Scarborough); LNER plan of 1929 of Bridlington engine shed; K3 class 2-6-0 No. 2438 being turned manually on 20 June 1939 (probably on excursion from Manchester); D49 No. 62750 The Pytchley and K3 No. 61899 arrive with empty stock from the north on aa Saturday in July 1953 (Richard Postill); V2 No. 60938 on new 60 foot turntable in August 1956 (Richard Postill); D49 No, 62703 Hertforshire in turntable pit on 27 May 1958 being retrieved by Hull Dairycoates steam crane on or after 27 May 1956; Director class No. 62662 Prince of Wales on 60 foot turntable on 18 June 1959 (had arrived with excursion from Sheffield); smoke pollution from engine shed in 1956 with B16 No. 61434 amidst filth; K3 No. 61889 which had arrived with the Doncaster Pentecostal Sunday Schools excursion on 25 May 1962 alongside Class 5 No. 44777 from Derby (N. Skinner); B1 No. 61087 taking on water whilst driver move coal forward on 16 August 1963 (Richard Postill); Sentinel Y3 No. 68155 shunting during August 1952 (Richard Postill); and Jubilee class No. 45694 Bellerophon with return Richard Whitakers excursion from Halifax (locomotive in sparkling condition, exhaust glowing pink in evening sunlight (Richard Postill: colour).

Anne-Mary Paterson. Private stations and waiting rooms on the Highland Railway. 176-9.
Airlines still offer three classes of travel and provide waiting areas for the more expensive classes. In earlier times most of the railway companies provided similar luxury for priviledged iindividuals. The Highland Railway was partly funded by the local landowners, most of whom had gathered their wealth by clearing their tenants off the land, and  this  was used to build castle-like mansions, some of which enjoyed private stations. Stations described include Queen Victoria's waiting room at Ballater (also illustrated in colour by Author prior to its loss in a fire). Her waiting toom at Windsor is also mentioned.  The Brookwood Necropolis in Surrey was served from a separate area in Waterloo station, but in 1902 it was moved to its own station  off Westminster Bridge Road. Illustrations: Queen Victoria's waiting room at Ballater; Dunrobin station in 1871 when covered in snow; Dunrobin Castle statiion at pesent time (Author: colour); Blair Atholl station with Duke classs 4-4-0 No. 72 Bruce; Alness station before closure and subseqrent vandalism; Castle Grant platform (Simon Grosvenor: colour); Duncraig Platform with octaginal waiting room; Blair Atholl station with what looks like preserved Caledonian Railway carriages. See also letter from Robin Leleux.

Alistair F. Nisbet. A new observation train. 180-5.
The text contains a serious error which is not repeated in the captions: it is implied that the LNER beaver tail observation cars were built fot the Silver Jubilee streamlined train, but they were built for the Coromation. The article is in two parts: an overview of observation coaches in mainland Britain and British Rail, especially the Scottish Region, attempts to introduce observation cars on the major scenic routes. Illustrations: Wilkes and Ashmore mock up of dome car which would have failed to meet the limited loading gauge, North Eastern Railway petrol electric railcar with clerestory in crimson and cream livery? and three paraffin headlamps; Maid of Morven Pullman observation car in LMS period and without any evidence other than visual of former Pullman ownership; Coronation beaver tail observation car leaving Edinburgh with two paraffin rear lamps; interior of  Coronation beaver tail observation car; cleaning rear window of Coronation beaver tail observation car at King's Cross; modified (more angular) ex-Coronation observation car; Devon Belle observation car at rear of  Devon Belle at Exeter St David's; former  Devon Belle observation car on North Wales Land Cruise at Criccieth in August 1959; interior of former  Devon Belle observation car; turning former  Devon Belle observation car at Blair Atholl whilst No. 103 Jones Goods stands by on 21 November 1959 (W.A.C. Smith). See also letters from John Macnab and from Gerald Goodall.

Signal boxes in the new Willesden carriage sheds. Peter Butler. 186-7
John McCrickard provided information for text of this black & white photo-feature: the  LMS acquired land between Harlesden and Wembley stations to erect carriage sheds, but World War II interupted work and it did not resume until 1946 when work on signal boxes started. The new complex was opened by Lord Hurcomb on 9 March 1953. Willesden Carriage Shed North box; cut-down Willesden Middle box; all timber Willesden Carriage Shed South box;  Willesden Brent Sidings signal box; view from previous looking north above low level lines; interior Brent Sidings box. See also letter from Graham Floyd

Welshpool once more. 188
Colour photo-feature: see also Volume 34 No. 10: "new" additions to Colour-rail collection of final days of Welshpool & Llanfair Caereinion narrow gauge line i.e. 1956: on 9 June the Civil Service Clerical Association arrived by GWR railcar from Birmingham Snow Hill to travel on line in mineral wagons; train shown on return journey through roundabout in Raven Square disregarding road traffic signs and very final journey by Stephenson Locomotive Society on 3 November 1956 when No. 822 and its passengers were greeted at Raven Square by the Newtown Silver Band. See also rear cover.

Robin Barnes. Cartoon corner. 189
Rather corny cartoon of Webb locomotives Problem and Experiment being viewed at Crewe station by mother saying to daughter: "we should ask papa if the London & North Western is safe!"

Readers' forum. 189.

Memories of a West Country signalman. Jim Parley. 189
On page 655 of Volume 35 there is a photograph of a 14XX at Tavistock with a single ex-LMS brake composite with an SC (Scottish Region) number [KPJ presumably on that dreadful through coach to and from Glasgow to Plymouth]

Take the train for the boat. Stephen G. Abbott. 189
Typo: "London & Blackwell" should be "London & Blackwall".

Take the train for the boat. Chris Magner. 189
Comment on the picture on page 52 of a rebuilt Scot at Chester en route to Holyhead from whence it would work the up Irish Mail to Euston without stopping under mainly dim oil-lit signals. It was especially tiring for the fireman who had to shovel tons of coal into the firebox

Motorail trains, John Macnab. 189
See letter from Arnold Totorella. Nomenclature: MCV: LMS term for motor car vans (D2026 from 1938) replaced by CCT: covered carriage truck. In early open carriage trucks use to convey motor cars. Cites David Larkin. BR parcels and passenger rated stock. Volume 1. Kestrel Books. 2014 and Hugh Longworth. British Railways pre-nationalisation coching stock. Volumes 1 and 2. Crecy. 2018/2019.

The shadow franchise. Bruce Laws. 189
See Volume 35 for article by Richard Clarke

Ipswich. Stephen G. Abbott. 189.
Bacon Factory curve opened from Boss Hall Junction to the aptly named Europa Junction on the main line to Stowmarket in May 2014 which enables trains for Ely to avoid reversing in Ipswich station

Book reviews. 190

The Leader locomotive: Bulleid's great experiment. Kevin Robertson. Manchester: Crecy Publishing. 304pp.  Reviewed by Phil Atkins.
Very extensive and highly generous review

North Eastern electric stock 1904-2020: its design and development. Graeme Gleaves. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. Reviewed by RL **
Highly critical of lack of referencing especially as the topic has a rich literature, but reviewer notes author owns a Tyneside electric (but does note which type)

Edwardian steam: a locomotive kaleidoscope. Philip Atkins. Manchester: Crecy Publishing. 256pp. Reviewed by SDW *****
Glowing review

Close encounter of the Welshpool kind. rear cover
See also page 186

Former Caledonian Railway 439 class
0-4-4T No. 55218 at Aberfeldy
with branch train from Ballinluig
on 13 September 1958. front cover

April (Number 373)

The way of the world. Michael Blakemoor. 195.
Editorial: mission statement that failed to germinate, rather like the absurd lack of catenary over the majority of railway tracks in spite of the visible growth of electricity generation in the North Sea and the pathetic attempts to harness nuclear power on a vast scale (small is beautiful).

Northamptonshire ironstone. David Idle. 196-7.
Colour photo-feature with captions by John Scholes:
Ring Haw in No. 3 Quarry; Ring Haw and Jacks Green top and tail 16-ton tippler wagons underneath Ruston Bucyrus 43RB mechanical shovel; Ring Haw working hard banking train on incline out of quarry; Jacks Green backing off train; Jacks Green looking smart prior to leaving for Nene Valley (Ring Haw joined North Norfolk Railway later where Kevin thought it must be "King Haw"). All taken about 31 December 1970.

Stephen Roberts. Norfolk's railways. 198-206
The bulk of the railway in Norfolk has always been that built by the Great Eastern Railway with its main focus on linking Norwich with London. The British Railways Britannia class brought the best time down to two hours and the present best time is 90 minutes. The LNER introduced the East Anglian train, but this was slow, lacked the glamour of the streamliners on the ECML, but did have two B17 class named East Anglian and City of London dressed in pseudo Pacific style.  Great Yarmouth is served by an early railway from Norwich which managed to stage a terrible head-on crash in ZZZ at the time the stretch was being doubled. King's Lynn is the other key destination with trains going to King's Cross (and some going via Thameslink to destinations south of the Thames) and to Liverpool Street. Prior to closure in ZZZ Hunstanton was served by through coaches  to Liverpool Street and Wolferton served Sandringham from which Her Majesty the Queen used to enjoy travel to visit her loyal subjects.  Illustrations: D16/3 4-4-0 No, 62597 about to leave for King's Lynn with train for Liverpool Street; D16/3 4-4-0 No, 62597 leaving Melton Constable with train for Sheringham in August 1958 (Trevor Owen: colour); B17 No. 61638 at Yarmouth Vauxhall with arrival and passengers looking at indicator board; another B17? alongside an another arrival (E. Alger: colour); B1 4-6-0 No. 61059 at Norwich Thorpe with white discs indicating express on 25 January 1958 (Ben Brooksbank); Britannia No. 70030 William Wordsworth at Norwich Thorpe presumably backing out in 1960 (colour); F4 2-4-2T No. 67176 leaving Yarmouth Beach for Lowestoft via Gorleston-on-Sea with holiday express ex Derby (Ben Brooksbank); Tivetshall station (postcard posted November 1916); C12 4-4-2T No. 67386 on local train at King's Lynn on 7 September 1957 (T.J. Edgington); Wolferton station in 1921; Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 42108 at Melton Constable on last day of services 28 February 1959 (David Lawrence: colour); Potter Heigham station and post office on 22 January 1940 (postcard); Norwich Victoria frontage with horse drawn cab in 1900s; V1 2-6-2T No. 7664 on long train of corridor stock on 12.50 Cromer to Norwich and Liverpool Street at North Walsham on 17 May 1948 (note single white disc); St. Ollave's station (postcard posted October 1906); Sentinel steam railcar Tantivity at Caister Camp with passengers at windows and holidaymakers on track (postcard posted 28 July 1935); Trimingham station in 1900s

Paul Bowen. The early operating years of the Mid Wales Railway 1864-1888. 207-12.
Illustrations: Map; Poster for Grand Eisteddfod at Llanwrtyd Wells on 26 August 1878; Newbridge on Wye (postcard 1902); Mid Wales Railway Share Certificate; Powell family of Brochen, Llysdinam loading their farm at Newbridge on Wye for removal to Brecon in 1930s; Unloading coal at Newbridge on Wye in 1950s; Agricultural machinery on a flat railway wagon at Newbridge on Wye; Mid Wales Railway instructions to limit speed on specific curves and over facing points; St. Harmon station with station mistress Sarah Jones and porter Tom Lewis; passenger train crossing River Wye leaving Boughrood going south; Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46523 on Moat Lane Junction to Brecon train near Rhayader on 28 May 1958 (Trevor Owen: colour).

By the waters of Luddendenfoot. Gavin Morrison. 214-15.
Photo-feature: Patriot class No. 45517 on Liverpool Exchange to Newcastle on Luddendenfoot troughs on 20 April 1961 (colour); Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42701 and class 5 No. 45284 on Newcastle to Red Bank newspaper empties on 23 July 1956 (black & white); BR Standard type 4 4-6-0 No. 75018 on 16.37 Manchester Victoria to Leeds Central picking up water on 23 June 1961 (colour); ex-Midland Railway 4F 0-6-0 No. 43852 picking up water en route to Sowerby Bridge with a local freight on 23 July 1956 (black & white); ex-LMS Type 4 2-6-0 No. 43056 hauling single officers' inspection saloon over troughs on 20 April 1961 (colour).

Rob Langham. Strikes, overcrowding. fishwives and zeppelin: the first twenty years of the North Eastern Railway's electrics. Part One. 216-21.
Electric tramways opened in 1901 and this led to an over 60% reduction in passenger traffic: in 1904 the Board decided to electrify the North Tyneside suburban lines. This policy was greatly assisted by the advanced state of electr ical technology in Newcastle and the presence of Merz & McLellan electrical consultants and Joseph Swan in Sunderland who had developed the e lectr ical incandescent lamp and Sir William Armstrong who used hydro-electricity to power his mansion at Cragside. Services started with power from the Neptune Bank generating station, but a broken shaft disrupted progress until the larger Carrville station started to generate.
Stray electric current disrupted General Post Office telegraph lines and this led to their duplication and protection and the laying of extra conductor rails to draw away leaking currents. The North Eastern made much on passenger safety: there were no passenger deaths on the electric system. But the staff, children and horses which had strayed onto the line were less fortunate. Rubber gloves and rubber mats were supplied to protect staff. Severe arcing sometimes occurred and one train ran into a rail which had come to be in contact with the conductor rail and this caused fire to spread to the passenger compartment, but this was extinguished by sand. Bird strikes were a problem. Covering with mesh made signal sighting difficult and in the end small porthole windows were adopted. Sources were predominantly from Tyneside, but some are from Aberdeen which has still to see an electric train. Illustrations: Early coloured postcard despicting NER electric train (pink livery!); Colourised image of NER electric train in correct livery at New Bridge Street (NERA); Train formed of very mixed rolling stock and timber boards to protect live rails whitewashed (John F. Mallon/NERA); Interior of electric train (coloured image/NERA); Electric train at Tynemouth; Preserved electric parcels van (colour); Electric locomotive for Quayside branch with bow-mounted collector; Electric locomotive No. 1 with pantograph at South Trafalgar goods yard. Part 2 see page 306.

Alan Tyson on the East Coast Route. 222-3
Black & white photo-feature: A3 No. 60108 Gay Crusader leaving Peterborough with 12.05 semi-fast for King's Cross on 28 May 1962; V2 No. 60881 with double chimney leaving York wtth a northbound express on 5 August 1961; A4 No. 60031 Golden  Plover crossing Waterworks crossing York with Saturday equivalent of The Elizabethan on 5 August 1961; A4 No. 60006 Sir Ralph Wedgwood passing Retford station on 9 September 1961; A1 No. 60136 Alcazar leaving Peterborough passing under Crescent Bridge with an up express on 28 May 1962; A3 No. 60043 Brown Jack leaving Edinburgh Waverley with 11.05 for King's Cross on 13 May 1962.

Scottish expeditions. Gerald Daniels.
Colour photo-feature with captions by Michael S. Welch: No. 1649 at The Mound with the train to Dornoch on 10 September 1958; Ex-Caledonian 294 class 0-6-0 at Port of Mentieth level crossing with freight from Stirling; Ex-Caledonian 294 (Jumbo) class 0-6-0 No. 57340 leaving Wigtown with freight for Whithorn in early 1960s; B1 4-6-0 No. 61352 handing over single line token at Banavie on 12.30 from Mallaig to Glasgow Queen Street on 2 September 1961 (Eileen & Kevin's Wedding Day) Ex-Caledonian design 439 class 0-4-4T No. 55263 at Duror on Ballachulish branch on 5 May 1959; No. 1649 crossing bridge at head of Loch Fleet having left The Mound with the freight train to Dornoch on 10 September 1958; Crianlarich Upper station with 10.21 with Glasgow Queen Street to Mallaig at platform on 8 September 1958

Jeffrey Wells. The Trent Valley line in the years 1845-1900. 227-33.
The initial attempts to gain Parliamentary approval for the line known as the Manchester to Birmingham Extensión and its successor , the Stafford & Rugby Railway both failed in spite of Sir Robert Peel's desire for it, but a third attemt was successful on 16 July 1846. John William Livock was the architect. Illustrations: Platform 1 at Stafford station c1900; Western portico of Shugborough Tunnel; Eastern portico of Shugborough Tunnel; Colwich station designed by Livock; Rugeley station platforms in LNWR period; Webb Teutonic 2-2-2-2 No. 1904 Jeannie Deans passing through Lichfield Low Level station at high speed on 10.00 Scotch Express; Webb Class E compound 2-8-0 No. 1017 passing Tamworth Low Level with a train of loaded open wagons (lift to High Level & platform buildings thereon clearly visible; Cauliflower 0-6-0 No. 1235 leaving Tamworth passing water pumping station and signal box; Polesworth station entrance; Irish Mail passing Atherstone station and level crossing; Atherstone station with quadrupling in progress viewed from Watling Street Bridge; Lady of the Lake 2-2-2 hauled train being loaded or unloaded with milk chrnns at low platform at Nuneaton, Rugby station probably during WW1

Philip Atkins. 'ABC' absentees. 234-8.
Locomotives which were added to the stock of the Main Line companies after the Grouping which failed to survive to enter the stock of the nationalised British Railways. The majority had been ordered and designed by the pre-grouping companies. Two "handsome" 0-6-0s built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1923 for the Maryport & Carlisle Railway and numbered 12513 and 12514 by the LMS were withdrawn in December 1933 and March 1934. Other than having different chimneys and cabs they were identical to the Matthew Stirling 0-6-0s built in Sheffield and Leeds for the Hull & Barnsley Railway between 1911 and 1914. These became LNER Class J28 and were fitted with new domed boilers at Darlington Works, but all had been withdrawn by 1938. The Hughes Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway four-cylinder 4-6-0s and related 4-6-4Ts had been considered by Stanier for being fitted with taper boilers, but this was changed to a "new-build" policy. All the tank engines went without beinng converted to 4-6-0s, but in 1938 the worsening political situation led to the remaining locomotives being kept in service.

Gordon Biddle. Williams revisited. 239-42.
Our iron roads: their history, construction and administration (1852) and The Midland Railway: its rise and progress (1876) are both assessed and appreciated for their significance to railway history: the former is examined on a chapter by chapter basis — there are sixteen chapters. The first covers 42 topics which range from coaching days to the early tramroads and onto the Stockton & Darlington and Liverpool & Manchester Railways. Chapter 2 records the early hostility to railways (Wordsworth and Colonel Sibthorpe). Chaapter 3 covers railway promotion including the involvement of Parliament. Chapter four assesses the nature of the routes to be followed by railways to avoid steep inclines and concludes with the geometry of cuttings especially deep ones. Chapter 5 continues this theme with especially difficult earthworks over marshes and through cliffs. Chapter six covers notable tunnels. Chapter seven covers notable viaducts and bridges and includes the train ferries across the Forth which he termed "steam bridge" or "floating railway". Chapter eight describes the permament way and includes the question of gauge and what Biddle considers to be an out of place a description of a footplate journey from Bedford through to the Metropolitan Railway with a change to a condensing locomotive for the Kentish Town to Moorgate section. Chapter nine covers stations and signalling. With the exception of Chapter 15 which covers foreign railways rather thinly Chaper ten onwards is rather a melange, but includes the Newark brake trials which were indicative that British r aillways were beginning to take safety seriously. Illustrations: Shugborough Tunnel; Shakespeare's Cliff (both engravings from Our iron roads); Tring Cutting under construction (from J.C. Bourne); Conway Tubular Bridge with Castle to left; Britannia Tubular Bridge with Robert Stephenson insert (LNWR image); Junction signals (engraving from Our iron roads); Midland Railway 4-4-0 No. 1330 with 7ft driving wheels built by Dübs & Co. in 1877.

Tim Graves, A dangerous liaison: Stamp, Stanier, Gresley and the Nazis. 243.
This is an excelllent thought provoking article with well-chosen illustrations, but does not give access to key accounts in the Journal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers: see also 1938 Volume 28 page 565 and others Key members of the German party were Richard Wagner (whom Stanier regarded as a friend and was forced into retirement during WW2); and the German Minister of Transport Julius Dorpmüller. By a "fortunate coincidence" E. Leslie Burgin, Minister of Transport, was in Scotland at the time and was able to attend (Burgin was definitely an appeaser. Guests at the Institution's Annual Dinner included the Earl of Elgin (David Bruce), Sir James Lithgow, Col. A.H.L. Mount. the Lord Provost, Sir Cecil Weir, John Craig and Sir James Lithgow. Past-Presidents who were also there included W.A. Agnew, A.C. Carr, H. Kelway-Bamber, and Sir Nigel Gresley. The chair was occupied by Mr. W.A. Stanier, the President. Illustratins: Hitler looking out of a carriage window; Dawes Committee with Josiah Stamp amongst members (Committee sought to soften effects of Treaty of Versailles on German economy; Stamp shaking hand with Driver Bishop on Coronation Scot at Euston on 9 January 1939 before setting out for the World's Fair in the USA (David Neal); Stanier (portrait); Gresley on footplate of No. 4489 Dominion of Canada (Ronald Hillier); Richard Wagner (portrait); Julius Dorpmüller saluting Hitler in 1937; photograph taken by member of Institution of Locomotive Engineers on visit to Germany in 1936 of railway workers in canteen with brown shirts and Rudolf Hess present (David Neal); German Railways poster seeking British visitors (colour); Stanier with German guests on arrival at Glasgow with one guest shaking hands with driver of Coronation class Pacific Duchess of Gloucester and German party on Forth Bridge.

Taking the 'Orient Express'. Rodney Lissenden.248-9.
Class 73 No. 73 129 in Network South East livery descending from Polhill Tunnel towards Sevenoaks on 28 Narch 1999; English, Welsh & Scottish Class 59 No. 59 202 Vale of White Horse passing Kemsing station on 7 November 2002 printed in reverse see apology; EWS liveried Class 37 No. 37 694 climbing away from Tonbridge towards Tumbridge Wells en route to Hastings on 14 January 1998; EWS Class 66 No. 66 094 heading train from Battle to Victoria towards Polhill Tunnel on 12 August 2002; Royal Train engine No. 47 799 Prince Henry working VSOE from Victoria to Folkestone Harbour on 3 April 2003 (support van painted in scarlet and yellow)

In the west of Wales. John White.250-2.
Black & white photo-feature: Manor class 4-6-0 No. 7826 Longworth Manor at Llanpumpsaint on 10.35 Carmarthen to Aberystwyth on 30 July 1963; 4575 2-6-2T No. 5550 at Glogue with 17.45 from Cardigan to Whitland on 1 September 1962; 74XX 0-6-0PT No. 7442 enteriong Abergwili station with 12,30 Carmarthen to Llandilo train on 29 July 1963; No. 7814 Fringford Manor at Neyland shed having arrived on Capital United Express on 31 July 1963; Hymek diesel hydraulic No. D7030 running round its train (the 10.35 from Carmarthen) at Strata Florida on 20 February 1965; Cardigan station with 45XX 2-6-2T No. 4569 on 15.40 from Whitland on 1 September 1962 whilst No. 5550 is backing on to take 17.45 back to Whitland; Cross Country DMU at Pembroke station on 14.45 Pembroke Dock to Whitland service on 8 April 1967 (station building since demolished, but train service survives).

Readers' forum. 253-4.

What a lovely job this job is. James Rogers.
A4 class No. 60023 Golden Eagle featured in a BBC television documentary on York engine shed yard in which a member of the shed staff spoke to the presenter — in the case of the A4 "this engine has just brought in an express from King's Cross". The programme does not appear to have ever been issued as a DVD.

Take the train for the boat. Stephen G. Abbott.
An advantage of the Harwich to Hook of Holland route for overnight journeys was the full night sleep on the boat. Dinner and breakfast were served in style on the Hook Continental between Liverpool Street and Parkeston Quay. The former North Country Continental lapsed into ever more meager diesel multiple unit accommodation, every possible port of call in Manchester and ultimate Lancashire destination and an exotic name: Loreley. The Port Road to Stranraer closed in June 1965, not 1966 and trains from Euston were diverted via Mauchline and Ayr and then further via Kilmarnock and Barassie from May 1975.

Take the train for the boat. Graham Smith
The through service from King's Cross to Tyne Commission Quay ran on Saturdays until at least November 1968 as writer used it on 9 November for a day trip to visit a friend in Newcastle. The caption for the Orient Line boat train at St. Pancras over states its length as platforms thereat were short and some very short.

Take the train for the boat. Leonard Rogers
The former North Country Continental changed to diesel traction from the start of the 1961 summer timetable with electric traction between Sheffield and Guide Bridge and steam thence from there. From September 1963 the train terminated at Manchester Piccadilly. From January 1970 the train moved to the Hope Valley route with its expensive to maintain tunnels. The GN/GE Joint Line via Lincoln was abandoned in May 1973 in favour of the route via Peterborough, Grantham, Nottingham and Sheffield. From May 1982 it was diverted to Manchester Victoria and extended to Glasgow and Edinburgh and named The European.

Take the train for the boat. Bill Beavis. 253-4.
The Norseman through service from King's Cross to Tyne Commission Quay. Writer as a child observed A4 class and Deltic locomotives working to/from Tyne Commission Quay. A1 Pacific No. 60130 Kestrel was photographed at Monkseaton.

Take the train for the boat. Peter Steer. 254.
Take the bus provided by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. from Lime Street where the Manxman to the boat on the Mersey was berthed beneath the Liver Building. It is possible to rail and sail to the Isle of Man by using DMU from Preston to Heysham and thence on Ben-my-Chree.

Aspects of the Manchester & Leeds Railway. Keith Crowther. 254.
On page 23 of January Issue caption states "last of three tunnels": there were four.

Frustrations of fuel efficiency. Bill Taylor. 254.
Argues that the Franco-Crosti boiler was a waste of money and that Ron Jarvis was involved in the design work.

Across Folkestone Harbour. Rodney Lissenden. rear cover
Class 58 No. 58 020 Doncaster Works with Venice-Simplon-Orient working on 23 July 2001.

GWR County 4-6-0 No. 1028 County of
ready to leave St. Erth
with Penzance to Wolverhampton
Cornishman in September 1960
See also page 288

May (Number 373)

Nationalisation didn't stand a chance. A.J. Mullay. 259.
Guest Editorial. Following the collapse of Southeastern Trains the Serious Fraud Office stepped in to keep services running by nationalisation of the ccompany. Mullay is highly critical of the 1948 Nationalisation which produced a diminutive Commission and a vast Raiilway Executive. Lord Hurcombe, a senior civil servant brought in as Chairman of the Commission.

Working the Wensleydale stone. Keith Dungate. 260-1
Colour photo-feature: all locomotives featured type 37 in Railfreight grey livery working in pairs on British Steel Teesside's two-axle limestone wagons built  by  the Standard Wagon Co. at Heywood on Redmire to Redcar workings:  Nos. 37 514 and 37 517 at Redmire on the 14.24 to Tees Yard on 4 April 1989;  Nos. 37 515 and 37 516 on the 14.24 to Tees Yard on 14 June 1989 passing Preston-under-Scar on 14 June 1989 (Bolton Castle in background);  Nos. 37 517 and 37 514 assemble their train in former Redmire station platform on 4 April 1989;  Nos. 37 517 and 37 514 near Wensley on 09.25 Redcar Mineral Terminal to Redmire empty wagons on 4 April 1989; Nos. 37 515 and No. 37 516 near Harmby on the 14.24 to Tees Yard on 14 June 1989 (stone dust haze from above wagons).

Stephen G. Abbott. From Rugby to Peterborough: the heyday and demise of a cross-country route. Part one. 262-70.
Illustrations:  LMS development of LTSR 79 class 4-4-2T  No. 41975 with single coach for Uppingham at Seaton Junction in 1958 (train arriving in adjacent platform from Market Harborough (colour); map of route; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42062 departing Peterborough East with a corridor train for Rugby in April 1964 (Peterborough East signal box dominating scene; ex-Midland Railway 3F 0-6-0 on up freight at Thorpe-by-Water west of Seaton on 26 July 1955 (C.W. Harris); 4P Compound No. 41162 running into Seaton on a Peterborough to Rugby train (C.W. Harris); King's Cliffe station (John Alsop Collection); Stanier Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42487 on a Peterborough to Rugby train in May 1951 (ex-Midland Railway 0-4-4T in Uppingham bay) (John Alsop Collection); Thorpe-by-Water level crossing (C.W. Harris); Wansford station exterior on 8 June 1954 (T.J. Edgington); Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42601 entering Rockingham station with a Peterborough to Rugby train on 23 April 1956 (C.W. Harris); Austerity WD 2-8-0 No. 90156 assisting 4F 0-6-0 No. 44160 on a Whittlesea to Spring Vale (Bilston) coke train on 9 October 1954 (C.W. Harris); two Stanier 2-6-4T double-head special for Uppingham School on 4 October 1955; (C.W. Harris); Wansford station looking towards Peterborough and level crossing across A1 Great North Road (John Alsop Collection).

Mike Fenton. London Midland & Scottish — the camping coach remembered. Part one. 270-5.
Stamp and Byrom were highly skeptical of camping coaches, despite the intervention of Sir Pendrill Charles Varrier-Jones (born in Wales on 24 February 1883, died 30 January 1941) educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, who created the Papworth Village Settlement, for the treatment of tuberculosis and which became a model for other settlements was greatly in favour of the camping coach concept. Ashton Daviies was charged with implementing the caravan coach scheme once it became clear that the other members of the Big Four were entering this market. The coaches had accommodation for six people and unlike those on the other railways were subject to a considerable rearrangement with the day room being separate from the sleeping area where beds were arranged lengthways unlike those on the LNER where a crossway was retained. The LMS sought the relatvely poor working class market where only low cost return tickets and low cost accommodation could be afforded, hence the behomoth of over thirty coaches at Heysham, not very far from Morecambe.  Rather further away was the vehicle at Ingleton  which could only be reached by walking through the village. This reflected railway politics. The passenger station was that of the Midland Railway which had acquired the Little North Western in a bid to reach Scotland whilst the one used to stable the coach was on the LNWR and on a section of line used solely as a divertionary route when the Settle & Carlisle was closed for maintence or due to snow. The Burnley family from Liverpool were not worried about  the walk but were surprised when their holiday hamper from Cooper's Grocery in Liverpool arrived in the cab of a  locomotive. From 1935 sites in Scotland and Northern Ireland were added (the latter via the Northern Counties Committee and the coaches only accommodated four). Illustrations: LMS enamel sign advertising camping coaches; interior of coach hired by Clarke family at Dyserth in 1934 showing table set for final evening dinner with napkins folded for meal and flowers on table; fresh linen being delivered to caravaners at Bolton Abbey in 1935; Torver on the Coniston branch with caravan coach and ladies in short trousers (photograph taken by Kate Mallard in 1935); LMS list of caravan sites in 1936; caravan coaches at Pony-Pant in the Ledr Valley with coach No. 46040 in 1936 with Burnley family from Liverpool (David Norman); 34 caravan coaches were berthed at Heysham where some of the occupants were photographed sunbathing on rock strewn bank near sea; Drew family on roof of caravan coach photographing others in family waltzing to music from wind-up gramophone; inside Derby Works from carefully staged activity on caravan coaches (LMS Magazine).

David Andrews. A superseded idea: the four ages of the Stratford & Moreton Tramway. 276-81.
Malleable iron rails were used for the first time south of Darlington and were manufactured by John Bradley & Co. of Stourbridge and John Walker of Wolverhampton. Glazebrooks with works near Dudley made all the cast iron chairs.James Foster of Stourbridge produced all the points, switches and crossings. Alexander Clunes Sherriff of the Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway and his assistant Robert Hudson who in 1861 was manager of the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal published a booklet on the Tramway. Illustrations: original terminal buildings at Moreton-in-Marsh in 1966 before destruction for supermarket in 1966 (R.K. Cope); tramway siding at Stratford Wharf in 1910 (Jack Stretton-Ward of Leamington Spa); map; preserved tramway wagon at Stratford in 1930s (R.S. Carpenter Collection); looking west from Newbould Wharf with rails in situ (R.K. Cope); Newbould Wharf  on 3 March 1918 with rails in situ (R.K. Cope); bridge over Stratford-upon-Avon & Midland Junction Railway with Tramway rails still in place in 1910 (H.J. Stretton-Ward); map; approach to Stratford-upon-Avon south of bridge across the Avon in March 1918 (R.K. Cope); bridge over River Avon looking north c1910  (H.J. Stretton-Ward); map; preserved rail at Stratford in 1930s (R.S. Carpenter Collection).

Jeffrey Wells, The LNWR's Branch: a promise unfulfilled. 282-6.  
After a very long gestation which included starting from Galgate and proposals by the Midland Railway the LNWR branch opened from the north end of Lancaster Castle station to Glasson Dock on 4 July 1883. The contractors for the line were Holme & Green of Wigan. Tite was the architect for Lancaster station  which according to Wells was under the "direction" of "Mr Hembrow". There were halts at Conder Green and Ashton Hall; the latter for the exclusive use of its residents. The passenger service ended on 6 July 1930 and all traffic ended beyond Freemans Wood on 7 September 1964. Illustrations: LNWR locomotive at Glasson Dock station with smartly dressed passengers on platform; map of Lancaster and Glasson Dock with River Lune; Lancaster station northbound platform; Lancaster station facade (all John Alsop Collection); bridge over River Conder (now cycle path); Glasson Dock station probably in LMS period; Fairburn Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42136 at Glasson Dock with SLS/MLS Northern Fells Rail Tour on 29 May 1960 (T.J. Edgington). Inevitably Conder  takes flight as Condor.

Hi-De-Hi Holidays: holiday camps served by train. 287.
Colour photo-feature: D16/3 4-4-0 No. 62613 leaves Gorleston-on-Sea with an express going towards Lowestoft with Gorleston Super Holiday Camp in background (Kevin used to take his grandson Kyle to school on site of camp); BR Standard Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76096 at Butlin's Heads of Ayr Holiday Camp on remnant of Maidens & Dunure Light Railway in August 1965; Butlin's Filey Holiday Camp in terminal decline on 9 July 1977 with three two-car DMUs on arriving train met by buggies from Camp to move guests and their luggage to the Camp (J.S. Gilks).

Out with the County set. 288-91.
Colour photo-feature: [all Hawksworth 1000 class]: No. 1021 County of Montgomery newly ex-Works outside Swindon shed on 1 November 1959 (R. Patterson); No. 1013 County of Dorset passing Tingley Junction en route for Trowbridge and Westbury with three coaches and three vans in 1961 (P.M. Alexander); No. 1016 County of Hants leaving Newton Abbott with Plymouth to Glasgow service on 21 September 1961; No. 1014 County of Glamorgan on Cheltenham to Paddington express formed of carmine &  cream stock on 31 May 1958; No. 1026 County of Salop with single chimney on 07..50 St. Austell to Wolverhampton Low Level leaving Teignmouth in August 1957 (C. Hogg); No. 1002 County of Berks with single chimney in lined black livery passing Twyford with a  Penzance express formed of carmine & cream stock (Trevor Owen); No. 1022 County of Stafford passing Johnson station en route for Carmarthen passing local train with insulated van at rear going in opposite direction (J.M. Cramp); No. 1011 County of Chester climbing Sapperton bank en route from Gloucester to Swindon with Stephenson Locomtive Society special on 20 September 1964.

Murray Tremeller. The career of James Robb Scott: reassessing architectural practice of the Southern Railway. 292-8.
James Robb Scott was the final architect on the LSWR and the first on the Southern Railway. On  the  Southern he acquired seeveral assistants of whom Rodney Harris, Guy Morgan and Edwin Maxwell Fry have been identified. Three styles were adopted: historical (Baroque; neo-Georgian and neoclassical); Modern and Streamline Moderne or Ar t Deco. Stephen Parissien on English railway stations is cited. Illustrations: Victory Arch at Waterloo Station in 1922 (LSWR War  Memorial) (John Alsop Collection); Margate station facade possibly work of Edwin Maxwell Fry opened in 1925 but photgraphed on 25 October 1969 (John Alsop Collection); Margate station booking hall (Author: colour); Ramsgate station facade on 21 March 1970  (John Alsop Collection); Ramsgate station booking hall with coat of arms for Ramsgate (Author: colour); Hastings station facade on 30 June 1964 demolished in 2004 (John Alsop Collection); Wimbledon Chase station facade with bold "SOUTHERN RAILWAY" (1929) lift tower since demolished (John Alsop Collection); Wimbledon station facade with British Rail and London Transport logos in April 2018 (Author: colour); Malden Manor station facade in Southern Railway ownership; Chessington South station platforms.

Barry Taylor. From Barry to Finedon. 299. 2 illustrations 
Alfred Grant Mason was born in the St. Andrew's District of Cardiff  on 12 December 1871. By 1890 he was employed by the Barry Docks & Railway  Co. as a parcel porter and then became a foreman porte. IIn 1891 he uncovered a ticket fraud at Penarth and from 1913 he was station master for Barry, Barry Island and Barry Docks. He was also  responsible  for  the  pleasure  steamers based there, He   retiired  in 1932. He died on 1 September 1940 in a motor vehicle accident at Finedon when  staying with his daughter. Illustrations: Alfred Grant Mason in Barry Raillway station master's attire and in group photograph at Barry station probably taken to mark his retirement in 1932.

BR standard gauge to Blaenau Ffestiniog. John Spencer Gilks (deceased). 300-1.
Black & white photo-feature: DMU approaching two mile long Festiniog tunnel on 28 May 1970; DMU in blue livery near Roman Bridge in the valley of Afon Lledr; 74XX No. 7417 at Trawsfynydd on local goods from Bala on 12 May 1958; view from guard's van of local freight from Bala near Trawsfynydd; No. 7414 encounters No. 7442 at Festiniog.

The bridge high above the Forth. Gavin Morrison. 302-5.
Colour photo-feature: Forth Bridge: preserved A4 No. 60009 Union of South Africa leaving the Forth Bridge at north end with the Festival Flyer fom Edinburgh to Aberdeen on 1 September 1979; Arriving at Dalmeny Class 101 DMU with Edinburgh bound service on 24 May 1975 (semaphore signals and facing points visible); view taken from top of north cantilever on 5 June 2014 (in red refurbished state); view taken from top of north cantilever with Class 66 far below on a freight on 11 July 2003; Class 158 coming off south end with Perth to Edinburgh service on 23 August 1991; looking down to the south from top of north cantilever (in red refurbished state) on 5 June 2014; 14.00 King's Cross to Aberdeen high speed train (HST) in GNR livery on 7 September 2017 leaving Bridge at north end whilst bridge partially shrouded during refurbishment; Deltic No. 55 017The Durham Light Infantry on 08.55 Edinburgh to Aberdeen six coach train on 20 April 1981; frigate HMS Rapid heading for Rosyth between cantilevers on 31 May 1973; Centenary being celebrated by lighting at night on 24 August 1991.

Rob Langham. Strikes, overcrowding. fishwives and a zeppelin: the first twenty years of the North Eastern Railway's Tyneside electrics. Part Two. 306-11.
Part 1 see page 216. Accidents affecting electric trains: Lt. Col.P.G. Von Donop was appreciative of the extra workload imposed by electric trains when two collided due mainly to signalman error at Manors East on 1 March 1913. mainly collisions and excessive speed on approach to termini. Passengers' bad behaviour, including some fuelled by alcohol. Riding on the steps seemed to as common place as in India. Trains were bombed during WW1 mainly during Zeppelin raids. In 1916 six horses got over the fences and were electrocuted. Fire at Walkergate depot on 11 August 1918 which led to bthe destruction of 34 cars and their eventual replacemt by 1920 stock which had elliptical instead of clerestory roofs. Design of snowploughs including one designed by Metz and McLellan based on one used on the New York  Interboroug Subway. A double ended snowplough was designed at York and based on a shunter's wagon. Steel wire brushes were used to scrape ice and snow off the conductor rail.  Strikes were either particular to the electric trains (there was a lack of provision for meal breaks) or over company or national issues, The Newcastle Daily Chronicle is a frequent source for information. Illustrations: two Tyneside electric trains in Newcastle Central station (North Eastern Railway Association: coloured image); interior of NER electric train (most passengers bowler hatted) (Beamish Museum); electric train passing through Backworth station; cartoon of electric train in Shields Daily Gazette on 3 October 1903; early coloured postcard of Tyneside electric train (colour); landslide on electric line in December 1915; train for New Bridge Street passing Benton station (North Eastern Railway Association); strangely coloured postcard of electric train at West Jesmond (almost Pullman livery)

Philadelphia story. David Sutcliffe. 312-13.
Black & white photo-feature: photographs taken on 8 June 1961: 0-6-0ST No. 63 built Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn in 1949 which went to Philadelphia from Sherburn Hill Colliery in 1959 and 0-6-2T No. 29 built by Kitson & Co. in 1904 and extant on the North Yorkshire Moors Railway outside engine works next to coal staithes; 0-6-2T No. 57 built by Hawthorn, Leslie in 1934

Peter Butler. The Wymington deviation. 314-16.
George Hudson through his effort to create the Midland Railway out of three separate companies, and the development of coal and ironstone industries within their territory led to its bid to extend to London initially via Bedford and Hitchin. In 1877 the piers on the viaduct at Sharnbrook began to sink and the viaduct had  to be replaced,  Charles Magniac was involved in the direction of the railway by easing its way through his estates. Charles Stanfield Wilson, civil engineer, was employed in the construction of the deviation. Acknowledges assistance of Geoffrey Webb of Bedford for assistance with working timetables. The lines were threatened by rationalisation  and the route through Sharnbrook tunnel was reduced to single track, but double has been restored and is being electrified. Illustrations: Wymington signal box on 30 April 1966; map of Wymington deviation, north portal of Sharnbrook tunnel on 16 November 1972; 8F No. 48225 passing Wymington on up coal train on 2 November 1965; viaducts at Sharnbrook; aqueduct at Wymington in 1872 before being rebuilt.

Readers' forum. 317-18.

Gremlin attack. Editor. 317.
Page 248 (bottom photograph): printed in reverse

The J94 saddle tanks.Paul Blurton. 317
Re J94 crossing road at Longcliffe stated  in caption, but not so: A5012 between Fridon and Minninglow. Reasons stated and also destruction of C&HPR station at Longcliffe by a dynosaur  HGV.

Take the train for the boat. Peter Neville.. 317
By 1963 the evening service which connected with the train from Stranraer Harbour to Glasgow St. Enoch had become an ordinary DMU and lost the glamour associated with boat trains (KPJ this is unfair on the InterCity units on which Kevin & Eileen travelled as far as Paisley (Kevin) and Kilwinning (Eileen)) when  the engagement ring was given and worn just before Christmas in 1960). On that holiday weekend the writer was only sixteen and the majority of the passengers were drinking and the guard hustled him into the driver's cab. (KPJ: were the  passengers Rangers supporters and did the buffets last that long?) 

Take the train for the boat. Anon. 317
Further to the article on British boat trains two other, albeit unlikely places, which saw 'boat trains' of ssorts were Cardiff and Poole.
In April 1929 the Great Western Railway's (GWR) docks at Cardiff saw the start of an occasional service for emigrant traffic to Canada despite the port having no history of scheduled passenger services or proper passenger facilities. The GWR provided terminal facilities such as they were, whilst Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) owned the ships. Use was made of the  Queen Alexandra Dock in the port complex with the CPR ships tying up alongside the 'A' sorting and transshipment shed on the port's northern side. Pre-embarkation formalities took place in the 'A' Shed presumably in a part kept clear of cargo.  The other side of the Queen Alexandra Dock was given over to the coal shipping traffic whilst there was also a large steelworks close by on its northem side, allo of which could hardly acted as incentives to attract passenger traffic. Perhaps CPR and the GWR calculated tacitly that emigrants excited about setting out on the first stage of a new life would not care about their surroundings at their place of departure? However, the facilities would never have matched up to the expectations of the high end, trans-North Atlantic traffic which was firmly tied to  Liverpool and Southampton also becoming increasingly important.
Although details are ssparse and at times confusing, reports in the Cardiff-based Western Mail suggest that on at least two occasions, the GWR ran 'special boat trains' from Cardiff General station on to the quayside alongside the 'A' Shed where some sort of temporary platform was in place. The 'A' Shed had a loading platform that ran the length of its south side used  for loading and discharging railway wagons. Was this perhaps utilised? Having arrived at Cardiff General from elsewhere the emigrants changed there to their 'boat train' for the short journey through the docks and brought them alongside their ship and close to 'A' Shed!. On one occasion at least. through carriages from elsewhere may have been worked over the docks lines but this is not entirely clear from the press report.  The Western Mail's coverage  went into hyper-enthusiastic overdrive predicting on what basis other than a reporter with an uninhibited imagination, that this was a new beginning for Cardiff which looked set to overtake Liverpool  in the trans-Atlantic passenger trade! This was at best, totally unfounded speculation, if not sheer fantasy. As is the case today, the opinions of unnamed 'experts' (a 'prominent Cardiff docks man' etc.) were enlisted to give weight to the story. The Wall Street Crash of October 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression seem to have soon ended the programme, which was only of occasional nature anyway, by the third quarter of 1930 at the latest. The Queen Alexandra Dock was to see plenty of  'boat trains' of a different sort a decade or so later as its railway tracks close to and parallel with the quayside made it very suitable for troops departing to or arriving from overseas during World War II.
The CPR/GWR initiative at Cardiff can be seen in retrospect as the final chapter in the story of attempts, or more accuratelly, suggestions and lobbying, periodically made by South Wales interests to bring CPR's UK terminal to somewhere on the South Wales coast. These began in the second half of the 1890s even before CPR entered the North Atlantic shipping trade in 1903. At various times Barry, Fishguard, Cardiff, Milford Haven and Swansea were all cited in this context. In September 1909, the GWR's General Agent in Canada, R.H. Lea, had predicted great things of a future CPR/GWR relationship at Fishguard when he had disembarked there from the Cunard liner Lusitania. Given that he was speaking to the local press pack at the time, was he giving them  the story they and doubtless his employer, wanted to hear? In the event Lea, and many others, would have been disappointed regarding Fishguard's  future, or lack of, as a recognised trans-Atlantic passenger terminal be it for the CPR, the GWR or anyone else. His unfulfilled predictions do not seem to have harmed his career as he went on tobe the GWR's principal North America agent with an office address on Fifth Avenue, New York City no less, In part, the pre-l9l4 excitement, or hubris surrounding CPR in some South Wales cities was stimulated by visions of that company, though its combined shipping and rail services, becoming an 'all British' route to the Far East as part of the greater 'imperial project'. CP, however, was to remain faithful to Liverpool other than its brief, belated and unsuccessful appearance at  Cardiff for the enmigrant traffic, irrespective of the South Wales-based press might think and print.
During  World War II, unadvertised  civilian-manned flying boat services operated based at Poole Harbour in Dorset. These flew to and from both North America and the Far East. They were routinely made available to the public, being used solely for government business. In connection with these services unadvertised trains were run to and from London. Occasional  references to these 'boat trains' in memoirs and other accounts. They suggesst that they were very lightweight and consisted of only a locomotive and a couple of coaching stock vehicles. Given the limited numbers that a flying boat could carry and the restricted remit of the service this is unsurprising. Passengers were given seats on the flights on a priority basis very much confined to VIPs and those having urgent matters to transact overseas that precluded a journey by sea.  It seems that Government mail was also carried again probably on a priority basis. References were made in some accounts to 'Pullman' carriages used in the connecting train service in some accounts (see J.N. Faulkner, Rly Wld, 1984, 45, 242-7). Perhaps someone can comment further on the accuracy of such statements [Editor's note: unfortunately the name on the correspondence has been lost, but hopes that the writer will contact him so that the name may be revealed]

Observation cars. John Macnab. 317
Re rolling stock matters in Scottish Region writer worked in office adjacent to Queen Street station and observed workings of LNER and Devon Belle observation cars and in particular the 10.05 to Fort William with several passengers already in the observation car viewinng with a mixture of puzzlement and apprehension the grimy features of the N15 0-6-2T banking engine with its muffled engine crew  and the somewhat Heath Robinson contraption that was attached to the coupling link that would, one hoped, be unhooked and disconnected as soon as Cowlairs incline was surmounted. The scenic pleaures did not begin until past Craigendoran.

Observation cars. Gerald Goodall. 317
Alistair Nisbet vdid nor mention use of  former GWR 'special saloon'  No 9004 as an observation car between Inverness and Kyle of Lochalsh for some years from 1982. This very interesting vehicle had windows at both ends, though the gangway connections  at both ends, rather than full-width picture windows did get in a bit of the way of the view. Nevertheless, the lack by then of a turntable at  Kyle was not a disaadvantage. There was just— only just— room at the buffer stops end of the run-round loop for the vehicle to be positioned from the Inverness end of the train to the Kyle end for the return journey.
In contrast the converted DMU trailer No. 54536 which Nisbet mentioned (and which appeared in a bewildering variety of liveries) was of course one ended and always placed at the Inverness end of the train. Passengers returning from Kyle thus had an excellent view of the nose of the class 37 which by then normally hauled them. these having been the  first replacements for the classes 26s and 24s. These were replaced by the 156s until the current 158s took over with many of the seats failing to provide a view and KPJ: the danger of boarding and alighting from curved platforms, Ends by noting good fortune of retaining train services to the Far North and to Mallaig and Oban. 

Signal boxes around the Willesden Carriage Sheds.  Graham Floyd. 317
Writer was former Local Operations Manager Wembley Mainline SSC. Re Willesden Sidings Signal Box the Low Level Goods Lines were not renamed until the closure of Willesden Power Signal Box in 2000; the area being taken over by Wembley Main Line Signalling Centre. The lines were renamed Up and Down Relief 1 & 2 because they had been upgraded to passenger train standards so that Connex South Central services could use them when travelling between Milton Keynes and Clapham without crossing the West Coast Main Line on the level.
He confirms that the Carriage Shed Signal Boxes are still open and points out that Middle box was not cut down but was built to the height seen in the photographs, the box though has been extensively altered at some stage in the late 1970s or early 1980s.
An aadecdote from Carriage Shed South Box is that over the years he often covered the on-call commitment for the area and the first call out was to a derailment outside Carriage Shed South on the North Circular Road Bridge, a number of years later his final call out was to a derailment at exactly the same place.

Birmingham's Grand Central Station. Bob Yate. 317-18
Memorres of the old New Street Firstly Daunt refers to the surviving Curzon Street building as being part of the L&BR station. In fact., whilst this building was intended to act as a façade for the station. It was actually the 'Queen Victoria Hotel', but most usually referred to as 'Victoria Hotel'. It faced on to New Canal Streewhich nearby made a 90 degree  turn to the right into Curzon Street. The entrance for departures was via an arched gateway to the right. The hotel was run as a separate enterprise and the dining rooms enjoyed considerable local patronage, Eventuallly, an extension was built to the left of the hotel to provide enhanced dining facilities so that the gateway was moved round the cormer into Curzon Street. The continuing reference to this as being part of the L&BR station is incorrect as thus detailed in his book: The Grand Junction Railway from Stafford to Birmingham (Book Law Publications, 2015) and is fully supported by detailed research including press reports at the time.
Secondly, Daunt mentions that Platform 11 was not normally used for passenger trains. He recalled the all-pervading fishy atmosphere at this platform as several trains, mostly for the Redditch line, waited here for departure. Reference to the departure notice at New Street for the period 12 September 1960 to 10 June 1961 reveals the following departures from the platform: Redditch & Evesham 1 SO 1 SX, Worcester Shrub Hill 1 SX. By this time most of the services to Redditch were composed of DMUs, with only the peak time services being steam hauled.  

Birmingham's Grand Central Station. Robert Darlaston. 318
Early references to Navigation Street were only used at the planning stage pricipally to indicate its proposed location. Later it briefly referred to the temporary wooden platform at the western extremity of the construction site, opened 1 July 1852. That was solely for trains from Wolverhampton via the Stour Valley line and contemporary use of the name merely reflected the fact that entrance was  then from the street of the same name.
The 'Grand Central' title has a more complex history (according to Richard Foster's  three volume history of the station whose identity is also daunting) having been used in Acts of Parliament in 1846 when the station was first envisaged. The wording 'The Grand Central Station' (occasionally 'Great Central'!) was repeated in other contemporary references (including the Illustrated London News) simply reflecting the fact that a new, large, centrally located station would replace other smaller stations lying well away from the town centre. It had intitially been envisaged would be the only one in the town (even accommodating Great Western trains) in which case it would be named 'Birmingham' without further qualification being necessary. But access by the GWR was opposed by the LNWR so Snow Hill opened on 1 October 1852. The completed station at New Street opened for LNWR trains on 1 June 1854 and the suffix New Street was added in the following November. The designation 'Grand Central' then vanished for 160 years (apart from being appropriated in 1913 by New York's famous terminal!) but in 2015 was appropriated by the new shopping centre over New Street station, but not to the station itself (though the adjacent Midland Metro tram stop is named thus. The John Lewis Department Store mentioned by Daunt, closed permanently during the Covid pandemic, leavinng a shopping void yet to be filled.
Before New Street station was built, t he site was occupied not by marshes but by notorious slum properties. The town authorities were especially pleased to see them removed and replaced by a building of which the traveller George Borrow (1803-81) wrote: "the station alone is enough to make one proud of being a modern Englishman". Would that one could say that of the confusing 21st century replacement!
On a separate, I might add that it's not entirely true to say that freight trains were not seen at New Street. I recall in the late 1950s occasionally seeing trains of vans pass through coming from Cadbury's at Bournville (three miles away on the West Suburban Line), but it was certtainly unusual.

Birmingham's Grand Central Station. Gordon Biddle . 318
Refers to his Great railway stations published in 1986. New Street as Daunt states had "character" and his recollections of it before World War II, like Daunt's afterwards, were "memorable". It was the first large station that Biddle could remember. In parrticular he remembered the large open signal platform on the footbrige and the horns blown by shunters to tell drivers in the tunnels that the points were set for them to emerge,

Private stations and waiting rooms on the HR. Robin Leleux. 318
From early days railway building promoters faced opposition from the landed interest, summed up by Sir Astley Cooper's remark to Robert Stephenson when he was surveying the route for the Londom & Birmingham Railway. "Gentlemen, if this sort of thing be permitted to go on you will in a very few years destroy the nobility." Sure enough the L&BR was kept away to the south west of his town of Hemel Hempstead. Other examples are legion, including the Earl of Essex at Casiobury Park, Watford, and most notoriously Lord Harborough at Saxby in east Leicestershire, 'his' sharp curve not being eased until 1892. Strathpeffer is a useful Scottish example where the Kyle line was forced away from the town by intransigent landowner opposition.
Support might be bought ot acknowledged by the design or placing of stations and their facilities. The main stations on the Bedford Railway from Bletchley (1846) imitated the estate buildings oln the nearby Duke of Bedford's estate, while the Brocklesby station (1848-1993) on the Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire's main line to Grimsby was built adjacent to the gates of the Earl of Yarborough's Hall with a waiting room for him. Perhaps the most ornate private waiting room was at Redmile station on the GN & LNW Joint line in NE Leicestershire, built to serve the Duke of Rutland at nearby Belvoir Castle. After it was demolished by BR the ornamental overmantel was saved for the National Collection. So Scotland followed where England led.
Anne-Mary Paterson mentions the fire at Ballater which destroyed much of the handsome wooden station. This was a devastating arson attack which came not long after terrible local flooding. So Aberdeenshire Council determined on thorough rebuilding as a symbol of community resurgence. Although much damaged enough remained of the Royal Porch and Waiting Room to allow either repair or expert replication and a superb job has been done. So the restored station was entered for the 2019 National Railway Heritage Awards and carried away the South Eastern Commercial Restoration Award. By happy chance the awards were presented that year by Her Royal Highness Princess Anne, the Princess Royal. Dunrobin Castle station was also an award winner albeit somewhat earlier, in 1998. Daniel Brittain-Catlin, with the enthusiastic support of the Sutherland Estate led by the Duchess restored the distinctive station building to its former glory and won that year's Premier Award.

Book reviews. 318

The Lough Swilly remembered. Jim McBride. Donegal Railway Heritage Centre. 64pp. Reviewed by DWM. ****, 318.
In the North West of Ireland, the Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway always seemed to exist in the shadow of its chrysanthenum-coloured neighbour, the County Donegal. But the Lough Swilly was a redoubtable railway in its own right. It's Burtonport Extension — a separate company with its own rolling stock served some of the wildest and remotest parts of County Donegal. In a couple of 4-8-4 tanks and two 4-8-0 tender locomotives it boasted locomotives which were unique in the British Isles, which were the biggest (by far) on the Irish narrow gauge and would have stood compaison by size, with many of the locomotives operating on the standard gauge in ireland. The railway which had opened in 1863, on the Irish standard gauge oof 5ft 3 in was converted to the 3ft gauge in 1885 and finally closed in 1953. But not quite, as its bus service, the Swilly buses, ran until 2014 — repressenting a railwaay company without trains!
This delightful publication is basically an old-fashioned pictorial album — and none the worse for that. It covers the last years of the railway's life, from the mid-thirties up until 1953. It begins with an invaluable map, there is a brieg general introduction accompanied by a reprint of an article, by the eminent railway author and historian E.M. Patterson, which was first published in Trains Illustrated in 1953 before setting into the photographs.
The are from the lenses of experts such as Casserley, Edgington, Powell Hendry and the indominitable 'Ernie', take the reader on a journey westwards from Londonderry to Tooban Junction, Buncrana, Letterkenny and Burtonport, calling at many of the intermediate stations. Each picture, most of which are new to the reviewer, is given a full page and is accompanied by a full and informative and enthusiastic caption. The whole combines to give a full evocation of the latter days of the Lough Swilly.
Several years ago your reviewer was delighted to be able the embryo Donegal Railway Heritage Centre on whode behalf this book is published. He was, at first, disapppointed to find the Centre closed but, having found a couple of enthusiastic volunteers hard at work, a warm welcome and guided tour soon followed an initial conversation. Bias may be showing but this is a book — and a cause — well worth supporting.

How a steam locomotive works. Dominic Wells. Crecy. 176pp. Reviewed by DWM. **** 318.
This bright and breezy volume is a new revised edition of a book first published in 2015. Lavishly illustrated in full colour, both by photographs and diagrams, it can be seen that this attractive volume works on two levels. It is an excellent 'primer' to those — presumably not readers of Backtrack?— who are coming new to the ever-fascinating subject of the steam locomotives and for those 'who think they know' well. they're bount to find that extra snippet of information.
The book progresses logically. There is an introduction the principles of raising steam with boilers fired by both coal and oil. Succeeding chapters examine using steam through components such as injector, ejectors, cylinders and valve gears. And, of course there's the small matter of stopping  — vacuum and air brakes both!
The  last sectionn of the book is concerned with contemporary operation of steam   locomotives and so provides  a useful insight into today's world of preserved steam.
Your reviewer has already complimented the splendidly illustrated nature  of this book  — but a couple of the pictures are worthy of comment. Figure 12:13 is captioned as Ursula of the Ravenglass & Eskdale  — in fact it's the Bassett-Lowke Atlantic  which is pictured. Figure 13:6 tacked on the side of 'Lord Nelson' hardly the way to disfigure an important component of the National Collection item, surely? Or ha s your reviewer missed something?
These are  minor quibbles; this is an engaging and highly informative book whick can be well recommended.

Seeking work at Sidmouth Junction. rear cover
Unrebuilt West Country Pacific No. 34015 Exmouth running light engine through Sidmouth Junction station to work holiday return service in August 1963. Station closed in 1967, but reopened as Feniton in 1971.